Search results for: Urban Computing
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1504

Search results for: Urban Computing

1504 Design of Service-Oriented Pervasive System for Urban Computing in Cali Zoo (OpenZoo)

Authors: Claudia L. Zuñiga, Andres F. Millan, Jose L. Abadia, Monica Lora, Andres Navarro, Juan C. Burguillo, Pedro S. Rodriguez

Abstract:

The increasing popularity of wireless technologies and mobile computing devices has enabled new application areas and research. One of these new areas is pervasive systems in urban environments, because urban environments are characterized by high concentration of these technologies and devices. In this paper we will show the process of pervasive system design in urban environments, using as use case a local zoo in Cali, Colombia. Based on an ethnographic studio, we present the design of a pervasive system for urban computing based on service oriented architecture to controlled environment of Cali Zoo. In this paper, the reader will find a methodological approach for the design of similar systems, using data collection methods, conceptual frameworks for urban environments and considerations of analysis and design of service oriented systems.

Keywords: Service Oriented Architecture, Urban Computing, Design of pervasive systems for urban environments, PSP Design Framework (Public Social Private), Cali Zoo.

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1503 Open Cloud Computing with Fault Tolerance

Authors: K. Zuva, T. Zuva, K. O. M. Mapoka

Abstract:

Cloud Computing (CC) has become one of the most talked about emerging technologies that provides powerful computing and large storage environments through the use of the Internet. Cloud computing provides different dynamically scalable computing resources as a service. It brings economic benefits to individuals and businesses that adopt the technology. In theory adoption of cloud computing reduces capital and operational expenditure on information technology. For this to be a reality there is need to solve some challenges and at the same time addressing concerns that consumers have about cloud computing. This paper looks at Cloud Computing in general then highlights the challenges of Cloud Computing and finally suggests solutions to some of the challenges.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, SaaS, PaaS, IaaS, Internet.

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1502 Cloud Computing: Changing Cogitation about Computing

Authors: Mehrdad Mahdavi Boroujerdi, Soheil Nazem

Abstract:

Cloud Computing is a new technology that helps us to use the Cloud for compliance our computation needs. Cloud refers to a scalable network of computers that work together like Internet. An important element in Cloud Computing is that we shift processing, managing, storing and implementing our data from, locality into the Cloud; So it helps us to improve the efficiency. Because of it is new technology, it has both advantages and disadvantages that are scrutinized in this article. Then some vanguards of this technology are studied. Afterwards we find out that Cloud Computing will have important roles in our tomorrow life!

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Grid Computing, Internet as a Platform, On-demand Computing, Software as a Service.

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1501 Green Computing: From Current to Future Trends

Authors: Tariq Rahim Soomro, Muhammad Sarwar

Abstract:

During recent years, attention in 'Green Computing' has moved research into energy-saving techniques for home computers to enterprise systems' Client and Server machines. Saving energy or reduction of carbon footprints is one of the aspects of Green Computing. The research in the direction of Green Computing is more than just saving energy and reducing carbon foot prints. This study provides a brief account of Green Computing. The emphasis of this study is on current trends in Green Computing; challenges in the field of Green Computing and the future trends of Green Computing.

Keywords: Energy consumption, e-waste recycling, Green Computing, Green IT

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1500 Applying Autonomic Computing Concepts to Parallel Computing using Intelligent Agents

Authors: Blesson Varghese, Gerard T. McKee

Abstract:

The work reported in this paper is motivated by the fact that there is a need to apply autonomic computing concepts to parallel computing systems. Advancing on prior work based on intelligent cores [36], a swarm-array computing approach, this paper focuses on 'Intelligent agents' another swarm-array computing approach in which the task to be executed on a parallel computing core is considered as a swarm of autonomous agents. A task is carried to a computing core by carrier agents and is seamlessly transferred between cores in the event of a predicted failure, thereby achieving self-ware objectives of autonomic computing. The feasibility of the proposed swarm-array computing approach is validated on a multi-agent simulator.

Keywords: Autonomic computing, intelligent agents, swarm-array computing.

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1499 Using Cloud Computing for E-Government: Challenges and Benefits

Authors: Sajjad Hashemi, Khalil Monfaredi, Mohammad Masdari

Abstract:

Cloud computing is a style of computing which is formed from the aggregation and development of technologies such as grid computing distributed computing, parallel computing and service-oriented architecture. And its aim is to provide computing, communication and storage resources in a safe environment based on service, as fast as possible, which is virtually provided via Internet platform. Considering that the provided Services in e-government are available via the Internet, thus cloud computing can be used in the implementation of e-government architecture and provide better service with the lowest economic cost using its benefits. In this paper, the Methods of using cloud computing in e-government has been studied and it's been attempted to identify the challenges and benefits of the cloud to get used in the e-government and proposals have been offered to overcome its shortcomings, encourage and partnership of governments and people to use this economical and new technology.

Keywords: Benefits, Cloud computing, Committee, Challenges, E-Government, Participation.

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1498 Accelerating the Uptake of Smart City Applications through Cloud Computing

Authors: Panagiotis Tsarchopoulos, Nicos Komninos, Christina Kakderi

Abstract:

Smart cities are high on the political agenda around the globe. However, planning smart cities and deploying applications dealing with the complex problems of the urban environment is a very challenging task that is difficult to be undertaken solely by the cities. We argue that the uptake of smart city strategies is facilitated, first, through the development of smart city application repositories allowing re-use of already developed and tested software, and, second, through cloud computing which disengages city authorities from any resource constraints, technical or financial, and has a higher impact and greater effect at the city level The combination of these two solutions allows city governments and municipalities to select and deploy a large number of applications dedicated to different city functions, which collectively could create a multiplier effect with a greater impact on the urban environment.

Keywords: Smart cities, applications, cloud computing, migration to the cloud, application repositories.

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1497 Towards Self-ware via Swarm-Array Computing

Authors: Blesson Varghese, Gerard McKee

Abstract:

The work reported in this paper proposes Swarm-Array computing, a novel technique inspired by swarm robotics, and built on the foundations of autonomic and parallel computing. The approach aims to apply autonomic computing constructs to parallel computing systems and in effect achieve the self-ware objectives that describe self-managing systems. The constitution of swarm-array computing comprising four constituents, namely the computing system, the problem/task, the swarm and the landscape is considered. Approaches that bind these constituents together are proposed. Space applications employing FPGAs are identified as a potential area for applying swarm-array computing for building reliable systems. The feasibility of a proposed approach is validated on the SeSAm multi-agent simulator and landscapes are generated using the MATLAB toolkit.

Keywords: Swarm-Array computing, Autonomic computing, landscapes.

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1496 Proposition of a Knowledge Management Approach Based on the Cloud Computing

Authors: Imane Chikhi, Hafida Abed

Abstract:

The significant growth in the use of technologies in all life domains created numerous hurdles that derailed many knowledge management projects. Cloud computing choices are commencement to untangle these obstacles. Linking Cloud computing with knowledge management (KM) is a challenging task. Small amount of researches have been done regarding cloud computing and KM. In this paper, we consider Cloud-based KM as a new KM approach, and study the contribution of Cloud Computing to organizational KM. In fact, KM and cloud computing have many things in common, this similarity allows deriving very interesting features. Our approach is based on these features and focuses on the advantages of Cloud computing in the context of organizational KM. Finally, we highlight some challenges that have to be addressed when adopting a Cloud Computing approach to KM.

Keywords: Knowledge management, cloud computing, knowledge management approaches, cloud-based knowledge management.

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1495 Towards Cloud Computing Anatomy

Authors: Maria Salama, Mohamed Kouta

Abstract:

Cloud Computing has recently emerged as a compelling paradigm for managing and delivering services over the internet. The rise of Cloud Computing is rapidly changing the landscape of information technology, and ultimately turning the longheld promise of utility computing into a reality. As the development of Cloud Computing paradigm is speedily progressing, concepts, and terminologies are becoming imprecise and ambiguous, as well as different technologies are interfering. Thus, it becomes crucial to clarify the key concepts and definitions. In this paper, we present the anatomy of Cloud Computing, covering its essential concepts, prominent characteristics, its affects, architectural design and key technologies. We differentiate various service and deployment models. Also, significant challenges and risks need are tackled in order to guarantee the long-term success of Cloud Computing. The aim of this paper is to provide a better understanding of the anatomy of Cloud Computing and pave the way for further research in this area.

Keywords: Anatomy, Aspects, Cloud Computing, Challenges.

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1494 Stewardship of Urban Greenery in an Era of Global Urbanisation

Authors: Rhoda M. Darkwah, Patrick B. Cobbinah

Abstract:

Urban greenery remains the bastion of urban landscape and a key to sustainable development due to its integral connections to the general health and wellbeing of urban residents. However, in an era of rapid urbanisation, recent studies indicate that urban greenery, especially ecologically sensitive areas, in many African cities is becoming increasingly depleted. Given the scale and rate of natural and anthropogenic change, effective management of urban greenery as the ultimate goal of restoring depleting urban landscapes is urgent. This review advocates for an urban resilience model to managing urban greenery.

Keywords: Green spaces, resilience, urbanisation, urban greenery.

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1493 The Analysis of the Impact of Urbanization on Urban Meteorology from Urban Growth Management Perspective

Authors: Hansung Wan, Hyungkwan Cho, Kiho Sung, Hongkyu Kim

Abstract:

The amount of urban artificial heat which affects the urban temperature rise in urban meteorology was investigated in order to clarify the relationships between urbanization and urban meteorology in this study. The results of calculation to identify how urban temperate was increased through the establishment of a model for measuring the amount of urban artificial heat and theoretical testing revealed that the amount of urban artificial heat increased urban temperature by plus or minus 0.23 ˚ C in 2007 compared with 1996, statistical methods (correlation and regression analysis) to clarify the relationships between urbanization and urban weather were as follows. New design techniques and urban growth management are necessary from urban growth management point of view suggested from this research at city design phase to decrease urban temperature rise and urban torrential rain which can produce urban disaster in terms of urban meteorology by urbanization.

Keywords: The amount of urban artificial heat, Urban growth management, Urbanization, Urban meteorology

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1492 A Simulation Software for DNA Computing Algorithms Implementation

Authors: M. S. Muhammad, S. M. W. Masra, K. Kipli, N. Zamhari

Abstract:

The capturing of gel electrophoresis image represents the output of a DNA computing algorithm. Before this image is being captured, DNA computing involves parallel overlap assembly (POA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that is the main of this computing algorithm. However, the design of the DNA oligonucleotides to represent a problem is quite complicated and is prone to errors. In order to reduce these errors during the design stage before the actual in-vitro experiment is carried out; a simulation software capable of simulating the POA and PCR processes is developed. This simulation software capability is unlimited where problem of any size and complexity can be simulated, thus saving cost due to possible errors during the design process. Information regarding the DNA sequence during the computing process as well as the computing output can be extracted at the same time using the simulation software.

Keywords: DNA computing, PCR, POA, simulation software

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1491 Renewed Urban Waterfront: Spatial Conditions of a Contemporary Urban Space Typology

Authors: Beate Niemann, Fabian Pramel

Abstract:

The formerly industrially or militarily used Urban Waterfront is a potential area for urban development. Extensive interventions in the urban space come along with the development of these previously inaccessible areas in the city. The development of the Urban Waterfront in the European City is not subject to any recognizable urban paradigm. In this study, the development of the Urban Waterfront as a new urban space typology is analyzed by case studies of Urban Waterfront developments in European Cities. For humans, perceptible spatial conditions are categorized and it is identified whether the themed Urban Waterfront Developments are congruent or incongruent urban design interventions and which deviations the Urban Waterfront itself induce. As congruent urban design, a design is understood, which fits in the urban fabric regarding its similar spatial conditions to the surrounding. Incongruent urban design, however, shows significantly different conditions in its shape. Finally, the spatial relationship of the themed Urban Waterfront developments and their associated environment are compared in order to identify contrasts between new and old urban space. In this way, conclusions about urban design paradigms of the new urban space typology are tried to be drawn.

Keywords: Composition, congruence, identity, paradigm, spatial condition, urban design, urban development, urban waterfront.

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1490 Use of Cloud Computing and Smart Devices in Healthcare

Authors: Nikunj Agarwal, M. P. Sebastian

Abstract:

Cloud computing can reduce the start-up expenses of implementing EHR (Electronic Health Records). However, many of the healthcare institutions are yet to implement cloud computing due to the associated privacy and security issues. In this paper, we analyze the challenges and opportunities of implementing cloud computing in healthcare. We also analyze data of over 5000 US hospitals that use Telemedicine applications. This analysis helps to understand the importance of smart phones over the desktop systems in different departments of the healthcare institutions. The wide usage of smartphones and cloud computing allows ubiquitous and affordable access to the health data by authorized persons, including patients and doctors. Cloud computing will prove to be beneficial to a majority of the departments in healthcare. Through this analysis, we attempt to understand the different healthcare departments that may benefit significantly from the implementation of cloud computing.

Keywords: Cloud computing, smart devices, healthcare, telemedicine.

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1489 An E-Retailing System Architecture Based on Cloud Computing

Authors: Chanchai Supaartagorn

Abstract:

E-retailing is the sale of goods online that takes place over the Internet. The Internet has shrunk the entire World. World eretailing is growing at an exponential rate in the Americas, Europe and Asia. However, e-retailing costs require expensive investment, such as hardware, software, and security systems. Cloud computing technology is internet-based computing for the management and delivery of applications and services. Cloud-based e-retailing application models allow enterprises to lower their costs with their effective implementation of e-retailing activities. In this paper, we describe the concept of cloud computing and present the architecture of cloud computing, combining the features of e-retailing. In addition, we propose a strategy for implementing cloud computing with e-retailing. Finally, we explain the benefits from the architecture.

Keywords: Architecture, cloud computing, e-retailing, internet-based.

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1488 A Survey of Job Scheduling and Resource Management in Grid Computing

Authors: Raksha Sharma, Vishnu Kant Soni, Manoj Kumar Mishra, Prachet Bhuyan

Abstract:

Grid computing is a form of distributed computing that involves coordinating and sharing computational power, data storage and network resources across dynamic and geographically dispersed organizations. Scheduling onto the Grid is NP-complete, so there is no best scheduling algorithm for all grid computing systems. An alternative is to select an appropriate scheduling algorithm to use in a given grid environment because of the characteristics of the tasks, machines and network connectivity. Job and resource scheduling is one of the key research area in grid computing. The goal of scheduling is to achieve highest possible system throughput and to match the application need with the available computing resources. Motivation of the survey is to encourage the amateur researcher in the field of grid computing, so that they can understand easily the concept of scheduling and can contribute in developing more efficient scheduling algorithm. This will benefit interested researchers to carry out further work in this thrust area of research.

Keywords: Grid Computing, Job Scheduling, ResourceScheduling.

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1487 Good Urban Planning and Management: New Aspects and Methodologies

Authors: Fattaneh Daneshmand Malayeri

Abstract:

In this paper, in addition to introducing good urban planning and its effects on globalization, some new methodologies in urban management and another urban aspects has been presented. Some new concerns in increasing of urban population , metropolitans and its relations on big problems has been focused in this paper. It is very important matter that future urban planning with based on globalization will be with full of basically changes in its management and perspectives.

Keywords: Urban planning, urban management, good governance, globalization, metropolitan, strategic planning

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1486 Detection of New Attacks on Ubiquitous Services in Cloud Computing and Countermeasures

Authors: L. Sellami, D. Idoughi, P. F. Tiako

Abstract:

Cloud computing provides infrastructure to the enterprise through the Internet allowing access to cloud services at anytime and anywhere. This pervasive aspect of the services, the distributed nature of data and the wide use of information make cloud computing vulnerable to intrusions that violate the security of the cloud. This requires the use of security mechanisms to detect malicious behavior in network communications and hosts such as intrusion detection systems (IDS). In this article, we focus on the detection of intrusion into the cloud sing IDSs. We base ourselves on client authentication in the computing cloud. This technique allows to detect the abnormal use of ubiquitous service and prevents the intrusion of cloud computing. This is an approach based on client authentication data. Our IDS provides intrusion detection inside and outside cloud computing network. It is a double protection approach: The security user node and the global security cloud computing.

Keywords: Cloud computing, intrusion detection system, privacy, trust.

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1485 The "Project" Approach in Urban: A Response to Uncertainty

Authors: Nedjima Mouhoubi, Souad Sassi Boudemagh

Abstract:

In this paper, we will try to demonstrate the importance of the project approach in the urban to deal with uncertainty, the importance of the involvement of all stakeholders in the urban project process and that the absence of an actor can lead to project failure but also the importance of the urban project management. These points are handled through the following questions: Does the urban adhere to the theory of complexity? Does the project approach bring hope and solution to make urban planning "sustainable"? How converging visions of actors for the same project? Is the management of urban project the solution to support the urban project approach?

Keywords: Strategic planning, project, urban project stakeholders, management.

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1484 Adopting Artificial Intelligence and Deep Learning Techniques in Cloud Computing for Operational Efficiency

Authors: Sandesh Achar

Abstract:

Artificial intelligence (AI) is being increasingly incorporated into many applications across various sectors such as health, education, security, and agriculture. Recently, there has been rapid development in cloud computing technology, resulting in AI’s implementation into cloud computing to enhance and optimize the technology service rendered. The deployment of AI in cloud-based applications has brought about autonomous computing, whereby systems achieve stated results without human intervention. Despite the amount of research into autonomous computing, work incorporating AI/ML into cloud computing to enhance its performance and resource allocation remains a fundamental challenge. This paper highlights different manifestations, roles, trends, and challenges related to AI-based cloud computing models. This work reviews and highlights investigations and progress in the domain. Future directions are suggested for leveraging AI/ML in next-generation computing for emerging computing paradigms such as cloud environments. Adopting AI-based algorithms and techniques to increase operational efficiency, cost savings, automation, reducing energy consumption and solving complex cloud computing issues are the major findings outlined in this paper.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, AI, cloud computing, deep learning, machine learning, ML, internet of things, IoT.

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1483 Managing Handheld Devices in Ad-Hoc Collaborative Computing Environments

Authors: Alaa Alwani, Hassan Artail, Haidar Safa, Ayman Abi Abdallah, Bashir Basha, Tarek Abdel Khalek

Abstract:

The noticeable advance in the area of computer technology has paved the way for the invention of powerful mobile devices. However, limited storage, short battery life, and relatively low computational power define the major problems of such devices. Due to the ever increasing computational requirements, such devices may fail to process needed tasks under certain constraints. One of the proposed solutions to this drawback is the introduction of Collaborative Computing, a new concept dealing with the distribution of computational tasks amongst several handhelds. This paper introduces the basics of Collaborative Computing, and proposes a new protocol that aims at managing and optimizing computing tasks in Ad-Hoc Collaborative Computing Environments.

Keywords: Handheld devices, Collaborative Computing, mainprocess, Collaboration Table.

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1482 Grid Computing in Physics and Life Sciences

Authors: Heinz Stockinger

Abstract:

Certain sciences such as physics, chemistry or biology, have a strong computational aspect and use computing infrastructures to advance their scientific goals. Often, high performance and/or high throughput computing infrastructures such as clusters and computational Grids are applied to satisfy computational needs. In addition, these sciences are sometimes characterised by scientific collaborations requiring resource sharing which is typically provided by Grid approaches. In this article, I discuss Grid computing approaches in High Energy Physics as well as in bioinformatics and highlight some of my experience in both scientific domains.

Keywords: Grid computing, Web services, physics, bioinformatics

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1481 Urban Intensification and the Character of Urban Landscape: A Morphological Perspective

Authors: Xindong An, Kai Gu

Abstract:

Urban intensification is regarded as the prevalent strategy in many cities of the world to ease the pressures of urban sprawl and deliver sustainable development through increasing the density of built form and activities. However, within the context of intensive development, planning and design control measures that help to maintain and promote the character of existing residential environments have been slow to develop. This causes the possible loss of the character of an area that makes a place unique and distinctive. The purpose of this paper is to explore the way of identifying the character of an urban area for the planning of urban landscape in the implementation of intensification. By employing the theory of urban morphology, the concept of morphological region is used for the analysis and characterisation of the spatial structure of the urban landscape in terms of ground plans, building types, and building and land utilisation. The morphological mapping of the character of urban landscape is suggested, which lays a foundation for more sensitive planning of urban landscape changes.

Keywords: Character areas, urban intensification, urban morphology, urban landscape.

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1480 Enabling Automated Deployment for Cluster Computing in Distributed PC Classrooms

Authors: Shuen-Tai Wang, Ying-Chuan Chen, Hsi-Ya Chang

Abstract:

The rapid improvement of the microprocessor and network has made it possible for the PC cluster to compete with conventional supercomputers. Lots of high throughput type of applications can be satisfied by using the current desktop PCs, especially for those in PC classrooms, and leave the supercomputers for the demands from large scale high performance parallel computations. This paper presents our development on enabling an automated deployment mechanism for cluster computing to utilize the computing power of PCs such as reside in PC classroom. After well deployment, these PCs can be transformed into a pre-configured cluster computing resource immediately without touching the existing education/training environment installed on these PCs. Thus, the training activities will not be affected by this additional activity to harvest idle computing cycles. The time and manpower required to build and manage a computing platform in geographically distributed PC classrooms also can be reduced by this development.

Keywords: PC cluster, automated deployment, cluster computing, PC classroom.

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1479 An Ontology for Spatial Relevant Objects in a Location-aware System: Case Study: A Tourist Guide System

Authors: N. Neysani Samany, M.R. Delavar, N. Chrisman, M.R. Malek

Abstract:

Location-aware computing is a type of pervasive computing that utilizes user-s location as a dominant factor for providing urban services and application-related usages. One of the important urban services is navigation instruction for wayfinders in a city especially when the user is a tourist. The services which are presented to the tourists should provide adapted location aware instructions. In order to achieve this goal, the main challenge is to find spatial relevant objects and location-dependent information. The aim of this paper is the development of a reusable location-aware model to handle spatial relevancy parameters in urban location-aware systems. In this way we utilized ontology as an approach which could manage spatial relevancy by defining a generic model. Our contribution is the introduction of an ontological model based on the directed interval algebra principles. Indeed, it is assumed that the basic elements of our ontology are the spatial intervals for the user and his/her related contexts. The relationships between them would model the spatial relevancy parameters. The implementation language for the model is OWLs, a web ontology language. The achieved results show that our proposed location-aware model and the application adaptation strategies provide appropriate services for the user.

Keywords: Spatial relevancy, Context-aware, Ontology, Modeling

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1478 Comparison of Security Challenges and Issues of Mobile Computing and Internet of Things

Authors: Aabiah Nayeem, Fariha Shafiq, Mustabshra Aftab, Rabia Saman Pirzada, Samia Ghazala

Abstract:

In this modern era of technology, the concept of Internet of Things is very popular in every domain. It is a widely distributed system of things in which the data collected from sensory devices is transmitted, analyzed locally/collectively then broadcasted to network where action can be taken remotely via mobile/web apps. Today’s mobile computing is also gaining importance as the services are provided during mobility. Through mobile computing, data are transmitted via computer without physically connected to a fixed point. The challenge is to provide services with high speed and security. Also, the data gathered from the mobiles must be processed in a secured way. Mobile computing is strongly influenced by internet of things. In this paper, we have discussed security issues and challenges of internet of things and mobile computing and we have compared both of them on the basis of similarities and dissimilarities.

Keywords: Embedded computing, internet of things, mobile computing, and wireless technologies.

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1477 Flexible Cities: A Multisided Spatial Application of Tracking Livability of Urban Environment

Authors: Maria Christofi, George Plastiras, Rafaella Elia, Vaggelis Tsiourtis, Theocharis Theocharides, Miltiadis Katsaros

Abstract:

The rapidly expanding urban areas of the world constitute a challenge of how we need to make the transition to "the next urbanization", which will be defined by new analytical tools and new sources of data. This paper is about the production of a spatial application, the ‘FUMapp’, where space and its initiative will be available literally, in meters, but also abstractly, at a sensed level. While existing spatial applications typically focus on illustrations of the urban infrastructure, the suggested application goes beyond the existing: It investigates how our environment's perception adapts to the alterations of the built environment through a dataset construction of biophysical measurements (eye-tracking, heart beating), and physical metrics (spatial characteristics, size of stimuli, rhythm of mobility). It explores the intersections between architecture, cognition, and computing where future design can be improved and identifies the flexibility and livability of the ‘available space’ of specific examined urban paths.

Keywords: Biophysical data, flexibility of urban, livability, next urbanization, spatial application.

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1476 Urban Growth Prediction in Athens, Greece, Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: D. Triantakonstantis, D. Stathakis

Abstract:

Urban areas have been expanded throughout the globe. Monitoring and modelling urban growth have become a necessity for a sustainable urban planning and decision making. Urban prediction models are important tools for analyzing the causes and consequences of urban land use dynamics. The objective of this research paper is to analyze and model the urban change, which has been occurred from 1990 to 2000 using CORINE land cover maps. The model was developed using drivers of urban changes (such as road distance, slope, etc.) under an Artificial Neural Network modelling approach. Validation was achieved using a prediction map for 2006 which was compared with a real map of Urban Atlas of 2006. The accuracy produced a Kappa index of agreement of 0,639 and a value of Cramer's V of 0,648. These encouraging results indicate the importance of the developed urban growth prediction model which using a set of available common biophysical drivers could serve as a management tool for the assessment of urban change.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Networks, CORINE, Urban Atlas, Urban Growth Prediction.

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1475 Grouping-Based Job Scheduling Model In Grid Computing

Authors: Vishnu Kant Soni, Raksha Sharma, Manoj Kumar Mishra

Abstract:

Grid computing is a high performance computing environment to solve larger scale computational applications. Grid computing contains resource management, job scheduling, security problems, information management and so on. Job scheduling is a fundamental and important issue in achieving high performance in grid computing systems. However, it is a big challenge to design an efficient scheduler and its implementation. In Grid Computing, there is a need of further improvement in Job Scheduling algorithm to schedule the light-weight or small jobs into a coarse-grained or group of jobs, which will reduce the communication time, processing time and enhance resource utilization. This Grouping strategy considers the processing power, memory-size and bandwidth requirements of each job to realize the real grid system. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheduling algorithm efficiently reduces the processing time of jobs in comparison to others.

Keywords: Grid computing, Job grouping and Jobscheduling.

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