Stewardship of Urban Greenery in an Era of Global Urbanisation
Urban greenery remains the bastion of urban landscape and a key to sustainable development due to its integral connections to the general health and wellbeing of urban residents. However, in an era of rapid urbanisation, recent studies indicate that urban greenery, especially ecologically sensitive areas, in many African cities is becoming increasingly depleted. Given the scale and rate of natural and anthropogenic change, effective management of urban greenery as the ultimate goal of restoring depleting urban landscapes is urgent. This review advocates for an urban resilience model to managing urban greenery.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1096905Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 2546
 B. Bolitzer and N.R. Netusil, “The impact of open spaces on property values in Portland, Oregon”. Journal of Environmental Management, 2000, 59, 1-9.
 J. Geoghegan, L.Lynch and S. Bucholtz, “Capitalisation of open spaces into housing values and the residential property tax revenue impacts of agricultural easement programs”. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, 2003, 32(1), 33-45.
 V.K. Quagraine, “Urban landscape depletion in the Kumasi Metropolis”, in: K.K. Adarkwa (ed), Future of the Tree: Towards Growth and Development of Kumasi. KNUST Printing Press, Kumasi, Ghana, 2011, pp.212-233.
 R. Scheer, “Parks as lungs – urban forest and pollution control.” The Environmental Magazine, Nov-Dec 2001.
 P. Chaudhry, K. Bagra and B. Singh, “Urban greenery status of some Indian cities: A short communication”. International Journal of Environmental Science and Development, 2011, 2 (2), 1-4.
 A. Chiesura, “The role of urban parks for the sustainable city”. Landscape and Urban Planning, 2004, 68, 129–138.
 J. Geoghegan, “The value of open spaces in residential land use”. Land Use Policy, 2002, 19, 91–98. Poor.
 M. Teal, C.S. Huang and J. Rodiek, “Open space planning for Travis Country, Austin, Texas: A collaborative design.” Landscape Urban Planning, 1998, 42, 259–268.
 K. Akamani, “Management of green spaces in Kumasi, Ghana”. Maters Thesis, University of Oslo, Norway, 2006.
 A. O. Ozo, “Open space planning and development in developing countries: A case study of Benin City, Nigeria”. Geography,1982, 67 (4), 337-339.
 UNDESA/PD, World Urbanisation Prospects: The 2011 Revision. United Nations, New York, 2012.
 B. Cohen, “Urbanisation in developing countries: Current trends, future projections, and key challenges for sustainability”, Technology in Society, 2006, 28, 63-80.
 J. Songsore, “The urban transition in Ghana: Urbanisation, national development and poverty reduction”. A Study Prepared for the IIED as Part of Its Eight Country Case Studies on Urbanisation. University of Ghana, Accra, 2009.
 UNHABITAT, State of the World’s Cities 2010/2011: Bridging the Urban Divide. UK Earthscan, London, 2012.
 V. S. Singh, D. N. Pandey and P. Chaudhry, “Urban forests and open green space lessons for Jaipur, Rajasthan”, India. Rajasthan State Pollution Control Boar Occasional Paper No. 1/2010. RSPCB, Rajasthan, India, 2010.
 G. Kuchelmeister, “Urban Forestry: Present Situation and Prospects in the Asia and Pacific region”, FAO Asia-Pacific Forestry Sector Outlook Study, FAO Working Paper No: APFSOS/WP/44, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 1998.
 X. J. Wang, “Analysis of problems in urban green space system planning in China”. Journal of Forestry Research, 2009, 20(1), 79-82.
 A. Q. Do and G. Grudnitski, “Golf courses and residential house prices: An empirical examination”. Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, 1995, 10(3), 261-270.
 P. A. Analo, “Management of recreational open spaces in residential estates in the city of Nairobi: Case study of Umoja I estate”. University of Nairobi Digital Repository, Kenya, 2011. Available from: http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke:8080/handle/123456789/4489. (accessed 05.08.14).
 A. Ahmed and D. Dinye, “Impact of land use activities on Subin and Aboabo Rivers in Kumasi metropolis”. International Journal of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, 2012, 4(7), 241-251. DOI: 10.5897/IJWREE12.036
 M. P. Brockerhoff, “ An urbanising world”. Population Bulletin, 2000, 55 (3), 3-43.
 B. Cohen, “Urban growth in developing countries: A review of current trends and a caution regarding existing forecasts”. World Development, 2004, 32(1), 23-51.
 S. Fox, “Urbanisation as a global historical process: Theory and evidence from Sub- Saharan Africa”. Population and Development Review, 2012, 38(2), 285-310.
 M. Francis, “Control as a dimension of public-space quality”. In: I. Altman and E. H. Zube. (eds.), Public Places and Spaces. Plenum Press, New York and London, 1989, pp. 147-172.
 K. De Ridder, V. Adamec, A. Banuelus, M. Bruse, M. Burger, O. Damsgaard, J. Dufek, J. Hirsch., F. Lefebu, J. M. Perez-Lacorzana, A. Thierry and C, Weber, “An integrated methodology to assess the benefits of urban green space”. Science of the Total Environment, 2004, 334-335.
 C. Folke, S. Carpenter, T. Elmqvist, L. Gunderson, C. S. Holling, and B. Walker, “Resilience and sustainable development: Building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations”. A Journal of the Human Environment, 2002, 31(5), 437–440.
 C. S. Holling, “Understanding the complexity of economic, ecological, and social systems”. Ecosystems 2001, 4(5), 390–405
 N. Adger, “Building resilience to promote sustainability: An agenda for coping with globalisation and promoting justice”. IHDP Update,2003, 2, 1–3
 T. J. Campanella, “Urban resilience and the recovery of New Orleans.” Journal of the American Planning Association, 2006, 72(2), 141-146.
 L. Chelleri and M. Olazabal (eds.), “Multidisciplinary perspectives on urban resilience”. A Workshop Report. BC3, Basque Centre for Climate Change, 2012.
 C. Perrings, “Resilience and sustainable development”. Environment and Development Economics 2006, 11(4), 417–427.
 F. S. Brand and K. Jax, “Focusing the meaning(s) of resilience: Resilience as a descriptive concept and a boundary object”. Ecology and Society, 2007, 12(1).
 United Nations, Resilient people, resilient planet: A future worth choosing. United Nations, Secretary - General’s High-level Panel on Global Sustainability, New York, 2012.
 D. Wallace and R. Wallace, “Urban systems during disasters: Factors for resilience”. Ecology and Society, 2008, 13(1), 18.
 S. L. Cutter, L. Barnes, M. Berry, C. Burton, E. Evans, E. Tate and J. Webb, “A place-based model for understanding community resilience to natural disasters”. Global Environmental Change, 2008, 18(4), 598–606.
 N. Prasad, F. Ranghieri, F. Shah, Z. Trohanis, E. Kessler and R. Sinha, Climate Resilient Cities: A Primer on Reducing Vulnerabilities to Disasters. World Bank, Washington, DC., 2009.
 N. Chen and P. Graham, “Climate change as a survival strategy: Soft infrastructure for urban resilience and adaptive capacity in Australia’s Coastal Zones”: in K. Otto Zimmermann. (ed.), Resilient Cities: Cities and Adaptation to Climate Change - Proceedings of the Global Forum 2010, Vol. 1, pp. 379-388. 2011.
 J. P. Evans, “Resilience, ecology and adaptation in the experimental city”. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 2011, 36(2), 223–237.
 S. Carpenter, B. Walker, J. M. Anderies and N. Abel, “ From metaphor to measurement: Resilience of what to what?” Ecosystems, 2001, 4(8), 765–781.
 H. Ernstson, S. E. van der Leeuw, C. L. Redman, D. J. Meffert, G. Davis, C. Alfsen and T. Elmqvist, “Urban transitions: on urban resilience and human dominated ecosystems”. AMBIO, A Journal of the Human Environment, 2010, 39(8), 531–545.
 B. Walker, C. S. Holling, S. R. Carpenter and A. Kinzig, “Resilience, adaptability and transformability in social-ecological systems”. Ecology and Society, 2004, 9(2), 5.