Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 438

Search results for: Query Point Movement

438 Relevance Feedback within CBIR Systems

Authors: Mawloud Mosbah, Bachir Boucheham

Abstract:

We present here the results for a comparative study of some techniques, available in the literature, related to the relevance feedback mechanism in the case of a short-term learning. Only one method among those considered here is belonging to the data mining field which is the K-nearest neighbors algorithm (KNN) while the rest of the methods is related purely to the information retrieval field and they fall under the purview of the following three major axes: Shifting query, Feature Weighting and the optimization of the parameters of similarity metric. As a contribution, and in addition to the comparative purpose, we propose a new version of the KNN algorithm referred to as an incremental KNN which is distinct from the original version in the sense that besides the influence of the seeds, the rate of the actual target image is influenced also by the images already rated. The results presented here have been obtained after experiments conducted on the Wang database for one iteration and utilizing color moments on the RGB space. This compact descriptor, Color Moments, is adequate for the efficiency purposes needed in the case of interactive systems. The results obtained allow us to claim that the proposed algorithm proves good results; it even outperforms a wide range of techniques available in the literature.

Keywords: CBIR, Category Search, Relevance Feedback (RFB), Query Point Movement, Standard Rocchio’s Formula, Adaptive Shifting Query, Feature Weighting, Optimization of the Parameters of Similarity Metric, Original KNN, Incremental KNN.

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437 Spatial Query Localization Method in Limited Reference Point Environment

Authors: Victor Krebss

Abstract:

Task of object localization is one of the major challenges in creating intelligent transportation. Unfortunately, in densely built-up urban areas, localization based on GPS only produces a large error, or simply becomes impossible. New opportunities arise for the localization due to the rapidly emerging concept of a wireless ad-hoc network. Such network, allows estimating potential distance between these objects measuring received signal level and construct a graph of distances in which nodes are the localization objects, and edges - estimates of the distances between pairs of nodes. Due to the known coordinates of individual nodes (anchors), it is possible to determine the location of all (or part) of the remaining nodes of the graph. Moreover, road map, available in digital format can provide localization routines with valuable additional information to narrow node location search. However, despite abundance of well-known algorithms for solving the problem of localization and significant research efforts, there are still many issues that currently are addressed only partially. In this paper, we propose localization approach based on the graph mapped distances on the digital road map data basis. In fact, problem is reduced to distance graph embedding into the graph representing area geo location data. It makes possible to localize objects, in some cases even if only one reference point is available. We propose simple embedding algorithm and sample implementation as spatial queries over sensor network data stored in spatial database, allowing employing effectively spatial indexing, optimized spatial search routines and geometry functions.

Keywords: Intelligent Transportation System, Sensor Network, Localization, Spatial Query, GIS, Graph Embedding.

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436 Weight-Based Query Optimization System Using Buffer

Authors: Kashif Irfan, Fahad Shahbaz Khan, Tehseen Zia, M. A. Anwar

Abstract:

Fast retrieval of data has been a need of user in any database application. This paper introduces a buffer based query optimization technique in which queries are assigned weights according to their number of execution in a query bank. These queries and their optimized executed plans are loaded into the buffer at the start of the database application. For every query the system searches for a match in the buffer and executes the plan without creating new plans.

Keywords: Query Bank, Query Matcher, Weight Manager.

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435 Materialized View Effect on Query Performance

Authors: Yusuf Ziya Ayık, Ferhat Kahveci

Abstract:

Currently, database management systems have various tools such as backup and maintenance, and also provide statistical information such as resource usage and security. In terms of query performance, this paper covers query optimization, views, indexed tables, pre-computation materialized view, query performance analysis in which query plan alternatives can be created and the least costly one selected to optimize a query. Indexes and views can be created for related table columns. The literature review of this study showed that, in the course of time, despite the growing capabilities of the database management system, only database administrators are aware of the need for dealing with archival and transactional data types differently. These data may be constantly changing data used in everyday life, and also may be from the completed questionnaire whose data input was completed. For both types of data, the database uses its capabilities; but as shown in the findings section, instead of repeating similar heavy calculations which are carrying out same results with the same query over a survey results, using materialized view results can be in a more simple way. In this study, this performance difference was observed quantitatively considering the cost of the query.

Keywords: Materialized view, pre-computation, query cost, query performance.

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434 UB-Tree Indexing for Semantic Query Optimization of Range Queries

Authors: S. Housseno, A. Simonet, M. Simonet

Abstract:

Semantic query optimization consists in restricting the search space in order to reduce the set of objects of interest for a query. This paper presents an indexing method based on UB-trees and a static analysis of the constraints associated to the views of the database and to any constraint expressed on attributes. The result of the static analysis is a partitioning of the object space into disjoint blocks. Through Space Filling Curve (SFC) techniques, each fragment (block) of the partition is assigned a unique identifier, enabling the efficient indexing of fragments by UB-trees. The search space corresponding to a range query is restricted to a subset of the blocks of the partition. This approach has been developed in the context of a KB-DBMS but it can be applied to any relational system.

Keywords: Index, Range query, UB-tree, Space Filling Curve, Query optimization, Views, Database, Integrity Constraint, Classification.

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433 Social Movements and the Diffusion of Tactics and Repertoires: Activists' Network in Anti-globalism Movement

Authors: Kyoko Tominaga

Abstract:

Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Non-Profit Organizations (NPOs), Social Enterprises and other actors play an important role in political decisions in governments at the international levels. Especially, such organizations’ and activists’ network in civil society is quite important to effect to the global politics. To solve the complex social problems in global era, diverse actors should corporate each other. Moreover, network of protesters is also contributes to diffuse tactics, information and other resources of social movements.

Based on the findings from the study of International Trade Fairs (ITFs), the author analyzes the network of activists in anti-globalism movement. This research focuses the transition of 54 activists’ whole network in the “protest event” against 2008 G8 summit in Japan. Their network is examined at the three periods: Before protest event phase, during protest event phase and after event phase. A mixed method is used in this study: the author shows the hypothesis from social network analysis and evaluates that with interview data analysis. This analysis gives the two results. Firstly, the more protesters participate to the various events during the protest event, the more they build the network. After that, active protesters keep their network as well. From interview data, we can understand that the active protesters can build their network and diffuse the information because they communicate with other participants and understand that diverse issues are related. This paper comes to same conclusion with previous researches: protest events activate the network among the political activists. However, some participants succeed to build their network, others do not. “Networked” activists are participated in the various events for short period of time and encourage the diffusion of information and tactics of social movements.

Keywords: Social Movement, Global Justice Movement, Tactics, Diffusion.

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432 A Two-Step Approach for Tree-structured XPath Query Reduction

Authors: Minsoo Lee, Yun-mi Kim, Yoon-kyung Lee

Abstract:

XML data consists of a very flexible tree-structure which makes it difficult to support the storing and retrieving of XML data. The node numbering scheme is one of the most popular approaches to store XML in relational databases. Together with the node numbering storage scheme, structural joins can be used to efficiently process the hierarchical relationships in XML. However, in order to process a tree-structured XPath query containing several hierarchical relationships and conditional sentences on XML data, many structural joins need to be carried out, which results in a high query execution cost. This paper introduces mechanisms to reduce the XPath queries including branch nodes into a much more efficient form with less numbers of structural joins. A two step approach is proposed. The first step merges duplicate nodes in the tree-structured query and the second step divides the query into sub-queries, shortens the paths and then merges the sub-queries back together. The proposed approach can highly contribute to the efficient execution of XML queries. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme can reduce the query execution cost by up to an order of magnitude of the original execution cost.

Keywords: XML, Xpath, tree-structured query, query reduction.

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431 Contribution to the Query Optimization in the Object-Oriented Databases

Authors: Minyar Sassi, Amel Grissa-Touzi

Abstract:

Appeared toward 1986, the object-oriented databases management systems had not known successes knew five years after their birth. One of the major difficulties is the query optimization. We propose in this paper a new approach that permits to enrich techniques of query optimization existing in the object-oriented databases. Seen success that knew the query optimization in the relational model, our approach inspires itself of these optimization techniques and enriched it so that they can support the new concepts introduced by the object databases.

Keywords: Query, query optimization, relational databases, object-oriented databases.

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430 Query Optimization Techniques for XML Databases

Authors: Su Cheng Haw, G. S. V. Radha Krishna Rao

Abstract:

Over the past few years, XML (eXtensible Mark-up Language) has emerged as the standard for information representation and data exchange over the Internet. This paper provides a kick-start for new researches venturing in XML databases field. We survey the storage representation for XML document, review the XML query processing and optimization techniques with respect to the particular storage instance. Various optimization technologies have been developed to solve the query retrieval and updating problems. Towards the later year, most researchers proposed hybrid optimization techniques. Hybrid system opens the possibility of covering each technology-s weakness by its strengths. This paper reviews the advantages and limitations of optimization techniques.

Keywords: indexing, labeling scheme, query optimization, XML storage.

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429 Towards an Extended SQLf: Bipolar Query Language with Preferences

Authors: L. Ludovic, R. Daniel, S-E Tbahriti

Abstract:

Database management systems that integrate user preferences promise better solution for personalization, greater flexibility and higher quality of query responses. This paper presents a tentative work that studies and investigates approaches to express user preferences in queries. We sketch an extend capabilities of SQLf language that uses the fuzzy set theory in order to define the user preferences. For that, two essential points are considered: the first concerns the expression of user preferences in SQLf by so-called fuzzy commensurable predicates set. The second concerns the bipolar way in which these user preferences are expressed on mandatory and/or optional preferences.

Keywords: Flexible query language, relational database, userpreference.

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428 A Delay-Tolerant Distributed Query Processing Architecture for Mobile Environment

Authors: T.P. Andamuthu, Dr. P. Balasubramanie

Abstract:

The intermittent connectivity modifies the “always on" network assumption made by all the distributed query processing systems. In modern- day systems, the absence of network connectivity is considered as a fault. Since the last upload, it might not be feasible to transmit all the data accumulated right away over the available connection. It is possible that vital information may be delayed excessively when the less important information takes place of the vital information. Owing to the restricted and uneven bandwidth, it is vital that the mobile nodes make the most advantageous use of the connectivity when it arrives. Hence, in order to select the data that needs to be transmitted first, some sort of data prioritization is essential. A continuous query processing system for intermittently connected mobile networks that comprises of a delaytolerant continuous query processor distributed across the mobile hosts has been proposed in this paper. In addition, a mechanism for prioritizing query results has been designed that guarantees enhanced accuracy and reduced delay. It is illustrated that our architecture reduces the client power consumption, increases query efficiency by the extensive simulation results.

Keywords: Broadcast, Location, Mobile host, Mobility, Query.

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427 Movement Optimization of Robotic Arm Movement Using Soft Computing

Authors: V. K. Banga

Abstract:

Robots are now playing a very promising role in industries. Robots are commonly used in applications in repeated operations or where operation by human is either risky or not feasible. In most of the industrial applications, robotic arm manipulators are widely used. Robotic arm manipulator with two link or three link structures is commonly used due to their low degrees-of-freedom (DOF) movement. As the DOF of robotic arm increased, complexity increases. Instrumentation involved with robotics plays very important role in order to interact with outer environment. In this work, optimal control for movement of various DOFs of robotic arm using various soft computing techniques has been presented. We have discussed about different robotic structures having various DOF robotics arm movement. Further stress is on kinematics of the arm structures i.e. forward kinematics and inverse kinematics. Trajectory planning of robotic arms using soft computing techniques is demonstrating the flexibility of this technique. The performance is optimized for all possible input values and results in optimized movement as resultant output. In conclusion, soft computing has been playing very important role for achieving optimized movement of robotic arm. It also requires very limited knowledge of the system to implement soft computing techniques.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, kinematics, robotic arm, neural networks, fuzzy logic.

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426 A Hybrid Nature Inspired Algorithm for Generating Optimal Query Plan

Authors: R. Gomathi, D. Sharmila

Abstract:

The emergence of the Semantic Web technology increases day by day due to the rapid growth of multiple web pages. Many standard formats are available to store the semantic web data. The most popular format is the Resource Description Framework (RDF). Querying large RDF graphs becomes a tedious procedure with a vast increase in the amount of data. The problem of query optimization becomes an issue in querying large RDF graphs. Choosing the best query plan reduces the amount of query execution time. To address this problem, nature inspired algorithms can be used as an alternative to the traditional query optimization techniques. In this research, the optimal query plan is generated by the proposed SAPSO algorithm which is a hybrid of Simulated Annealing (SA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithms. The proposed SAPSO algorithm has the ability to find the local optimistic result and it avoids the problem of local minimum. Experiments were performed on different datasets by changing the number of predicates and the amount of data. The proposed algorithm gives improved results compared to existing algorithms in terms of query execution time.

Keywords: Semantic web, RDF, Query optimization, Nature inspired algorithms, PSO, SA.

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425 Free-Form Query for Cell Phones

Authors: R. Ahmad, S. Abdul-Kareem

Abstract:

It is a challenge to provide a wide range of queries to database query systems for small mobile devices, such as the PDAs and cell phones. Currently, due to the physical and resource limitations of these devices, most reported database querying systems developed for them are only offering a small set of pre-determined queries for users to possibly pose. The above can be resolved by allowing free-form queries to be entered on the devices. Hence, a query language that does not restrict the combination of query terms entered by users is proposed. This paper presents the free-form query language and the method used in translating free-form queries to their equivalent SQL statements.

Keywords: Cell phone, database query language, free-formqueries, unplanned queries.

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424 The Effect of Land Cover on Movement of Vehicles in the Terrain

Authors: Dana Kristalova, Jan Mazal

Abstract:

This article deals with geographical conditions in terrain and their effect on the movement of vehicles, their effect on speed and safety of movement of people and vehicles. Finding of the optimal routes outside the communication is studied in the Army environment, but it occur in civilian as well, primarily in crisis situation, or by the provision of assistance when natural disasters such as floods, fires, storms etc., have happened. These movements require the optimization of routes when effects of geographical factors should be included. The most important factor is the surface of a terrain. It is based on several geographical factors as are slopes, soil conditions, micro-relief, a type of surface and meteorological conditions. Their mutual impact has been given by coefficient of deceleration. This coefficient can be used for the commander`s decision. New approaches and methods of terrain testing, mathematical computing, mathematical statistics or cartometric investigation are necessary parts of this evaluation.

Keywords: Movement in a terrain, geographical factors, surface of a field, mathematical evaluation, optimization and searching paths.

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423 Movement Analysis in Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Zoltán Szabó, Blanka Štorková

Abstract:

We analyze hand dexterity in Parkinson-s disease patients (PD) and control subjects using a natural manual transport task (moving an object from one place to another). Eight PD patients and ten control subjects performed the task repeatedly at maximum speed both in OFF and ON medicated status. The movement parameters and the grip and load forces were recorded by a single optoelectronic camera and force transducers built in the especially designed object. Using the force and velocity signals, ten subsequent phases of the transport movement were defined and their durations were measured. The outline of 3D optical measurement is presented to obtain more precise movement trajectory.

Keywords: Manual transport, movement phases, Parkinson's disease.

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422 Exploiting Query Feedback for Efficient Query Routing in Unstructured Peer-to-peer Networks

Authors: Iskandar Ishak, Naomie Salim

Abstract:

Unstructured peer-to-peer networks are popular due to its robustness and scalability. Query schemes that are being used in unstructured peer-to-peer such as the flooding and interest-based shortcuts suffer various problems such as using large communication overhead long delay response. The use of routing indices has been a popular approach for peer-to-peer query routing. It helps the query routing processes to learn the routing based on the feedbacks collected. In an unstructured network where there is no global information available, efficient and low cost routing approach is needed for routing efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for query-feedback oriented routing indices to achieve routing efficiency in unstructured network at a minimal cost. The approach also applied information retrieval technique to make sure the content of the query is understandable and will make the routing process not just based to the query hits but also related to the query content. Experiments have shown that the proposed mechanism performs more efficient than flood-based routing.

Keywords: Unstructured peer-to-peer, Searching, Retrieval, Internet.

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421 Ontology-based Query System for UNITEN Postgraduate Students

Authors: Zaihisma C. Cob, Alicia Y.C. Tang, Sharifah J. Syed Aziz

Abstract:

This paper proposes a new model to support user queries on postgraduate research information at Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The ontology to be developed will contribute towards shareable and reusable domain knowledge that makes knowledge assets intelligently accessible to both people and software. This work adapts a methodology for ontology development based on the framework proposed by Uschold and King. The concepts and relations in this domain are represented in a class diagram using the Protégé software. The ontology will be used to support a menudriven query system for assisting students in searching for information related to postgraduate research at the university.

Keywords: Ontology, Protégé, postgraduate program, query system.

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420 A Review on Important Aspects of Information Retrieval

Authors: Yogesh Gupta, Ashish Saini, A.K. Saxena

Abstract:

Information retrieval has become an important field of study and research under computer science due to explosive growth of information available in the form of full text, hypertext, administrative text, directory, numeric or bibliographic text. The research work is going on various aspects of information retrieval systems so as to improve its efficiency and reliability. This paper presents a comprehensive study, which discusses not only emergence and evolution of information retrieval but also includes different information retrieval models and some important aspects such as document representation, similarity measure and query expansion.

Keywords: Information Retrieval, query expansion, similarity measure, query expansion, vector space model.

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419 Accountability Issues and Challenges: The Scenario for Malaysian Cooperative Movement

Authors: Maslinawati Mohamad, Intan Waheedah Othman, Arun Mohamed

Abstract:

This paper discusses the issues and challenges concerning the issues of accountability and regulation systems of cooperative movement in Malaysia.

Keywords: Cooperative movement, compliance, transparency, issues.

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418 PmSPARQL: Extended SPARQL for Multi-paradigm Path Extraction

Authors: Thabet Slimani, Boutheina Ben Yaghlane, Khaled Mellouli

Abstract:

In the last few years, the Semantic Web gained scientific acceptance as a means of relationships identification in knowledge base, widely known by semantic association. Query about complex relationships between entities is a strong requirement for many applications in analytical domains. In bioinformatics for example, it is critical to extract exchanges between proteins. Currently, the widely known result of such queries is to provide paths between connected entities from data graph. However, they do not always give good results while facing the user need by the best association or a set of limited best association, because they only consider all existing paths but ignore the path evaluation. In this paper, we present an approach for supporting association discovery queries. Our proposal includes (i) a query language PmSPRQL which provides a multiparadigm query expressions for association extraction and (ii) some quantification measures making easy the process of association ranking. The originality of our proposal is demonstrated by a performance evaluation of our approach on real world datasets.

Keywords: Association extraction, query Language, relationships, knowledge base, multi-paradigm query.

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417 Modeling and Simulating Human Arm Movement Using a 2 Dimensional 3 Segments Coupled Pendulum System

Authors: Loay A. Al-Zu'be, Asma A. Al-Tamimi, Thakir D. Al-Momani, Ayat J. Alkarala, Maryam A. Alzawahreh

Abstract:

A two dimensional three segments coupled pendulum system that mathematically models human arm configuration was developed along with constructing and solving the equations of motions for this model using the energy (work) based approach of Lagrange. The equations of motion of the model were solved iteratively both as an initial value problem and as a two point boundary value problem. In the initial value problem solutions, both the initial system configuration (segment angles) and initial system velocity (segment angular velocities) were used as inputs, whereas, in the two point boundary value problem solutions initial and final configurations and time were used as inputs to solve for the trajectory of motion. The results suggest that the model solutions are sensitive to small changes in the dynamic forces applied to the system as well as to the initial and boundary conditions used. To overcome the system sensitivity a new approach is suggested.

Keywords: Body Configurations, Equations of Motion, Mathematical Modeling, Movement Trajectories.

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416 An Efficient Graph Query Algorithm Based on Important Vertices and Decision Features

Authors: Xiantong Li, Jianzhong Li

Abstract:

Graph has become increasingly important in modeling complicated structures and schemaless data such as proteins, chemical compounds, and XML documents. Given a graph query, it is desirable to retrieve graphs quickly from a large database via graph-based indices. Different from the existing methods, our approach, called VFM (Vertex to Frequent Feature Mapping), makes use of vertices and decision features as the basic indexing feature. VFM constructs two mappings between vertices and frequent features to answer graph queries. The VFM approach not only provides an elegant solution to the graph indexing problem, but also demonstrates how database indexing and query processing can benefit from data mining, especially frequent pattern mining. The results show that the proposed method not only avoids the enumeration method of getting subgraphs of query graph, but also effectively reduces the subgraph isomorphism tests between the query graph and graphs in candidate answer set in verification stage.

Keywords: Decision Feature, Frequent Feature, Graph Dataset, Graph Query

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415 Query Reformulation Guided by External Resource for Information Retrieval

Authors: Mohammed El Amine Abderrahim

Abstract:

Reformulating the user query is a technique that aims to improve the performance of an Information Retrieval System (IRS) in terms of precision and recall. This paper tries to evaluate the technique of query reformulation guided by an external resource for Arabic texts. To do this, various precision and recall measures were conducted and two corpora with different external resources like Arabic WordNet (AWN) and the Arabic Dictionary (thesaurus) of Meaning (ADM) were used. Examination of the obtained results will allow us to measure the real contribution of this reformulation technique in improving the IRS performance.

Keywords: Arabic NLP, Arabic Information Retrieval, Arabic WordNet, Query Expansion.

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414 Query Algebra for Semistuctured Data

Authors: Ei Ei Myat, Ni Lar Thein

Abstract:

With the tremendous growth of World Wide Web (WWW) data, there is an emerging need for effective information retrieval at the document level. Several query languages such as XML-QL, XPath, XQL, Quilt and XQuery are proposed in recent years to provide faster way of querying XML data, but they still lack of generality and efficiency. Our approach towards evolving a framework for querying semistructured documents is based on formal query algebra. Two elements are introduced in the proposed framework: first, a generic and flexible data model for logical representation of semistructured data and second, a set of operators for the manipulation of objects defined in the data model. In additional to accommodating several peculiarities of semistructured data, our model offers novel features such as bidirectional paths for navigational querying and partitions for data transformation that are not available in other proposals.

Keywords: Algebra, Semistructured data, Query Algebra.

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413 Laban Movement Analysis Using Kinect

Authors: Ran Bernstein, Tal Shafir, Rachelle Tsachor, Karen Studd, Assaf Schuster

Abstract:

Laban Movement Analysis (LMA), developed in the dance community over the past seventy years, is an effective method for observing, describing, notating, and interpreting human movement to enhance communication and expression in everyday and professional life. Many applications that use motion capture data might be significantly leveraged if the Laban qualities will be recognized automatically. This paper presents an automated recognition method of Laban qualities from motion capture skeletal recordings and it is demonstrated on the output of Microsoft’s Kinect V2 sensor.

Keywords: Laban Movement Analysis, Kinect, Machine Learning.

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412 The Analysis of Knee Joint Movement During Golf Swing in Professional and Amateur Golfers

Authors: M.Somjarod, V. Tanawat, l. Weerawat

Abstract:

The understanding of knee movement during swing importance for golf swing improving and preventing injury. Thirty male professional and amateur golfers were assigned to swing time by time for 3 times. Data from a vedio-based motion capture were used to compute knee joint movement variables. The results showed that professional and amateur golfers were significantly in left knee flexion angle at the impact point and mid follow through phase. Nevertheless, left knee external rotation in both groups was also significant. The right knee were no significant different in all variable. However, pattern of knee joint movement are also likely between professional and amateur golfers.

Keywords: Golfer, Knee joint, Movement, Swing

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411 Reputation and Transparency of Cooperative Movement in Malaysia

Authors: Maslinawati Mohamad, Intan Waheedah Othman

Abstract:

This paper studies the reputation and transparency of cooperative movement in Malaysia.

Keywords: Cooperative movement, reputation, transparency, web presence.

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410 Probability-Based Damage Detection of Structures Using Model Updating with Enhanced Ideal Gas Molecular Movement Algorithm

Authors: M. R. Ghasemi, R. Ghiasi, H. Varaee

Abstract:

Model updating method has received increasing attention in damage detection structures based on measured modal parameters. Therefore, a probability-based damage detection (PBDD) procedure based on a model updating procedure is presented in this paper, in which a one-stage model-based damage identification technique based on the dynamic features of a structure is investigated. The presented framework uses a finite element updating method with a Monte Carlo simulation that considers the uncertainty caused by measurement noise. Enhanced ideal gas molecular movement (EIGMM) is used as the main algorithm for model updating. Ideal gas molecular movement (IGMM) is a multiagent algorithm based on the ideal gas molecular movement. Ideal gas molecules disperse rapidly in different directions and cover all the space inside. This is embedded in the high speed of molecules, collisions between them and with the surrounding barriers. In IGMM algorithm to accomplish the optimal solutions, the initial population of gas molecules is randomly generated and the governing equations related to the velocity of gas molecules and collisions between those are utilized. In this paper, an enhanced version of IGMM, which removes unchanged variables after specified iterations, is developed. The proposed method is implemented on two numerical examples in the field of structural damage detection. The results show that the proposed method can perform well and competitive in PBDD of structures.

Keywords: Enhanced ideal gas molecular movement, ideal gas molecular movement, model updating method, probability-based damage detection, uncertainty quantification.

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409 Analysis of Aiming Performance for Games Using Mapping Method of Corneal Reflections Based on Two Different Light Sources

Authors: Yoshikazu Onuki, Itsuo Kumazawa

Abstract:

Fundamental motivation of this paper is how gaze estimation can be utilized effectively regarding an application to games. In games, precise estimation is not always important in aiming targets but an ability to move a cursor to an aiming target accurately is also significant. Incidentally, from a game producing point of view, a separate expression of a head movement and gaze movement sometimes becomes advantageous to expressing sense of presence. A case that panning a background image associated with a head movement and moving a cursor according to gaze movement can be a representative example. On the other hand, widely used technique of POG estimation is based on a relative position between a center of corneal reflection of infrared light sources and a center of pupil. However, a calculation of a center of pupil requires relatively complicated image processing, and therefore, a calculation delay is a concern, since to minimize a delay of inputting data is one of the most significant requirements in games. In this paper, a method to estimate a head movement by only using corneal reflections of two infrared light sources in different locations is proposed. Furthermore, a method to control a cursor using gaze movement as well as a head movement is proposed. By using game-like-applications, proposed methods are evaluated and, as a result, a similar performance to conventional methods is confirmed and an aiming control with lower computation power and stressless intuitive operation is obtained.

Keywords: Point-of-gaze, gaze estimation, head movement, corneal reflections, two infrared light sources, game.

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