Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1745

Search results for: Pearson correlation coefficient

1745 Approximations to the Distribution of the Sample Correlation Coefficient

Authors: John N. Haddad, Serge B. Provost

Abstract:

Given a bivariate normal sample of correlated variables, (Xi, Yi), i = 1, . . . , n, an alternative estimator of Pearson’s correlation coefficient is obtained in terms of the ranges, |Xi − Yi|. An approximate confidence interval for ρX,Y is then derived, and a simulation study reveals that the resulting coverage probabilities are in close agreement with the set confidence levels. As well, a new approximant is provided for the density function of R, the sample correlation coefficient. A mixture involving the proposed approximate density of R, denoted by hR(r), and a density function determined from a known approximation due to R. A. Fisher is shown to accurately approximate the distribution of R. Finally, nearly exact density approximants are obtained on adjusting hR(r) by a 7th degree polynomial.

Keywords: Sample correlation coefficient, density approximation, confidence intervals.

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1744 An Efficient Method of Shot Cut Detection

Authors: Lenka Krulikovská, Jaroslav Polec

Abstract:

In this paper we present a method of abrupt cut detection with a novel logic of frames- comparison. Actual frame is compared with its motion estimated prediction instead of comparison with successive frame. Four different similarity metrics were employed to estimate the resemblance of compared frames. Obtained results were evaluated by standard used measures of test accuracy and compared with existing approach. Based on the results, we claim the proposed method is more effective and Pearson correlation coefficient obtained the best results among chosen similarity metrics.

Keywords: Abrupt cut, mutual information, shot cut detection, Pearson correlation coefficient.

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1743 Choosing between the Regression Correlation, the Rank Correlation, and the Correlation Curve

Authors: Roger L Goodwin

Abstract:

This paper presents a rank correlation curve. The traditional correlation coefficient is valid for both continuous variables and for integer variables using rank statistics. Since the correlation coefficient has already been established in rank statistics by Spearman, such a calculation can be extended to the correlation curve. This paper presents two survey questions. The survey collected non-continuous variables. We will show weak to moderate correlation. Obviously, one question has a negative effect on the other. A review of the qualitative literature can answer which question and why. The rank correlation curve shows which collection of responses has a positive slope and which collection of responses has a negative slope. Such information is unavailable from the flat, ”first-glance” correlation statistics.

Keywords: Bayesian estimation, regression model, rank statistics, correlation, correlation curve.

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1742 Yield, Yield Components, Soil Minerals and Aroma of KDML 105 Rice in Tungkularonghai, Roi-Et,Thailand

Authors: Kanlaya Kong-ngern, Tossapol Buaphan, Duangsamorn Tulaphitak, Naug Phuvongpha, Sirirut Wongpakonkul, Piyada Threerakulpisut

Abstract:

Pearson-s correlation coefficient and sequential path analysis has been used for determining the interrelationship among yield, yield components, soil minerals and aroma of Khao Dawk Mali (KDML) 105 rice grown in the area of Tungkularonghai in Roi-Et province, located in the northeast of Thailand. Pearson-s correlation coefficient in this study showed that the number of panicles was the only factor that had positive significant (0.790**) effect on grain yield. Sequential path analysis revealed that the number of panicles followed by the number of fertile spikelets and 100-grain weight were the first-order factors which had positive direct effects on grain yield. Whereas, other factors analyzed had indirect effects influencing grain yield. This study also indicated that no significant relationship was found between the aroma level and any of the factors analyzed.

Keywords: 2-Acetyl-1-Pyrroline, rice aroma

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1741 Analysis of Attention to the Confucius Institute from Domestic and Foreign Mainstream Media

Authors: Wei Yang, Xiaohui Cui, Weiping Zhu, Liqun Liu

Abstract:

The rapid development of the Confucius Institute is attracting more and more attention from mainstream media around the world. Mainstream media plays a large role in public information dissemination and public opinion. This study presents efforts to analyze the correlation and functional relationship between domestic and foreign mainstream media by analyzing the amount of reports on the Confucius Institute. Three kinds of correlation calculation methods, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), the Spearman correlation coefficient (SCC), and the Kendall rank correlation coefficient (KCC), were applied to analyze the correlations among mainstream media from three regions: mainland of China; Hong Kong and Macao (the two special administration regions of China denoted as SARs); and overseas countries excluding China, such as the United States, England, and Canada. Further, the paper measures the functional relationships among the regions using a regression model. The experimental analyses found high correlations among mainstream media from the different regions. Additionally, we found that there is a linear relationship between the mainstream media of overseas countries and those of the SARs by analyzing the amount of reports on the Confucius Institute based on a data set obtained by crawling the websites of 106 mainstream media during the years 2004 to 2014.

Keywords: Confucius Institute, correlation analysis, mainstream media, regression model.

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1740 The Correlation between Peer Aggression and Peer Victimization: Are Aggressors Victims Too?

Authors: Glenn M. Calaguas

Abstract:

To investigate the possible correlation between peer aggression and peer victimization, 148 sixth-graders were asked to respond to the Reduced Aggression and Victimization Scales (RAVS). RAVS measures the frequency of reporting aggressive behaviors or of being victimized during the previous week prior to the survey. The scales are composed of six items each. Each point represents one instance of aggression or victimization. Specifically, the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient (PMCC) was used to determine the correlations between the scores of the sixthgraders in the two scales, both in individual items and total scores. Positive correlations were established and correlations were significant at the 0.01 levels.

Keywords: correlation, peer aggression, peer victimization, sixth-graders.

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1739 Differences in the Perception of Behavior Problems in Pre-school Children among the Teachers and Parents

Authors: Jana Kožárová

Abstract:

Even the behavior problems in pre-school children might be considered as a transitional problem which may disappear by their transition into elementary school; it is an issue that needs a lot of attention because of the fact that the behavioral patterns are adopted in the children especially in this age. Common issue in the process of elimination of the behavior problems in the group of pre-school children is a difference in the perception of the importance and gravity of the symptoms. The underestimation of the children's problems by parents often result into conflicts with kindergarten teachers. Thus, the child does not get the support that his/her problems require and this might result into a school failure and can negatively influence his/her future school performance and success. The research sample consisted of 4 children with behavior problems, their teachers and parents. To determine the most problematic area in the child's behavior, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) filled by parents and Caregiver/Teacher Form (CTF-R) filled by teachers were used. Scores from the CBCL and the CTR-F were compared with Pearson correlation coefficient in order to find the differences in the perception of behavior problems in pre-school children.

Keywords: Behavior problems, child behavior checklist, caregiver/teacher form, Pearson correlation coefficient, pre-school age.

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1738 Correlation of the Rate of Imperfect Competition and Profit in Banking Markets

Authors: Jan Cernohorsky

Abstract:

This article aims to assess the evolution of imperfect competition in selected banking markets, in particular in the banking markets of Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Slovenia and Croatia. Another objective is to assess the evolution of the relationship of imperfect competition and profit development in the banking markets. The article first provides an overview of literature on the topic. It then measures the degree of imperfect competition in individual markets using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index. The commonly used indicator of total assets was chosen as an indicator. Based on this measurement, the individual banking sectors are categorized into theoretical definitions of the various types of imperfect competition - namely all surveyed banking sectors falling within the theoretical definition of monopolistic competition. Subsequently, using correlation analysis, i.e., the Pearson correlation coefficient, or the Spearman correlation coefficient, the connection between the evolution of imperfect competition and the development of the gross profit on selected banking markets was surveyed. It was found that with the exception of the banking market in Slovenia, where there is a positive correlation; there is no correlation between the evolution of imperfect competition and profit development in the selected markets. This means a recommendation for the regulators that it is not appropriate to rationalize a higher degree of regulation in granting banking licenses on the size of the profits attained in the banking market, as the relationship between the degree of concentration in the banking market and the amount of profit according to our measurements does not exist.

Keywords: Banking system, imperfect competition, profitability.

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1737 The Content Based Objective Metrics for Video Quality Evaluation

Authors: Michal Mardiak, Jaroslav Polec

Abstract:

In this paper we proposed comparison of four content based objective metrics with results of subjective tests from 80 video sequences. We also include two objective metrics VQM and SSIM to our comparison to serve as “reference” objective metrics because their pros and cons have already been published. Each of the video sequence was preprocessed by the region recognition algorithm and then the particular objective video quality metric were calculated i.e. mutual information, angular distance, moment of angle and normalized cross-correlation measure. The Pearson coefficient was calculated to express metrics relationship to accuracy of the model and the Spearman rank order correlation coefficient to represent the metrics relationship to monotonicity. The results show that model with the mutual information as objective metric provides best result and it is suitable for evaluating quality of video sequences.

Keywords: Objective quality metrics, mutual information, region recognition, content based metrics

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1736 Subjective Versus Objective Assessment for Magnetic Resonance Images

Authors: Heshalini Rajagopal, Li Sze Chow, Raveendran Paramesran

Abstract:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is one of the most important medical imaging modality. Subjective assessment of the image quality is regarded as the gold standard to evaluate MR images. In this study, a database of 210 MR images which contains ten reference images and 200 distorted images is presented. The reference images were distorted with four types of distortions: Rician Noise, Gaussian White Noise, Gaussian Blur and DCT compression. The 210 images were assessed by ten subjects. The subjective scores were presented in Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). The DMOS values were compared with four FR-IQA metrics. We have used Pearson Linear Coefficient (PLCC) and Spearman Rank Order Correlation Coefficient (SROCC) to validate the DMOS values. The high correlation values of PLCC and SROCC shows that the DMOS values are close to the objective FR-IQA metrics.

Keywords: Medical Resonance (MR) images, Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS), Full Reference Image Quality Assessment (FR-IQA).

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1735 Correlational Analysis between Brain Dominances and Multiple Intelligences

Authors: Lakshmi Dhandabani, Rajeev Sukumaran

Abstract:

Aim of this research study is to investigate and establish the characteristics of brain dominances (BD) and multiple intelligences (MI). This experimentation has been conducted for the sample size of 552 undergraduate computer-engineering students. In addition, mathematical formulation has been established to exhibit the relation between thinking and intelligence, and its correlation has been analyzed. Correlation analysis has been statistically measured using Pearson’s coefficient. Analysis of the results proves that there is a strong relational existence between thinking and intelligence. This research is carried to improve the didactic methods in engineering learning and also to improve e-learning strategies.

Keywords: Thinking style assessment, correlational analysis, mathematical model, data analysis, dynamic equilibrium.

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1734 An Efficient Fall Detection Method for Elderly Care System

Authors: S. Sowmyayani, P. Arockia Jansi Rani

Abstract:

Fall detection is one of the challenging problems in elderly care system. The objective of this paper is to identify falls in elderly care system. In this paper, an efficient fall detection method is proposed to identify falls using correlation factor and Motion History Image (MHI). The proposed method is tested on URF (University of Rzeszow Fall detection) dataset and evaluated with some efficient measures like sensitivity, specificity, precision and classification accuracy. It is compared with other recent methods. The experimental results substantially proved that the proposed method achieves 1.5% higher sensitivity when compared to other methods.

Keywords: Pearson correlation coefficient, motion history image, human shape identification.

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1733 Factors Affecting the Work Efficiency of Employees of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University

Authors: Unnop Panpuang

Abstract:

The objectives of this project are to study on the work efficiency of the employees, sorted by their profiles, and to study on the relation between job attributes and work efficiency of employees of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. The samples used for this study are 292 employees. The statistics used in this study are frequencies, standard deviations, One-way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Majority of respondent were male with an undergraduate degree, married and lives together. The average age of respondents was between 31-41 years old, married and the educational background are higher than bachelor’s degree. The job attribute is correlated to the work efficiency with the statistical significance level of.o1. This concurs with the predetermined hypothesis. The correlation between the two main factors is in the moderate level. All the categories of job attributes such as the variety of skills, job clarity, job importance, freedom to do work are considered separately.

Keywords: Employees, Job Attributes, Work Efficiency.

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1732 Fast Algorithm of Shot Cut Detection

Authors: Lenka Krulikovská, Jaroslav Polec, Tomáš Hirner

Abstract:

In this paper we present a novel method, which reduces the computational complexity of abrupt cut detection. We have proposed fast algorithm, where the similarity of frames within defined step is evaluated instead of comparing successive frames. Based on the results of simulation on large video collection, the proposed fast algorithm is able to achieve 80% reduction of needed frames comparisons compared to actually used methods without the shot cut detection accuracy degradation.

Keywords: Abrupt cut, fast algorithm, shot cut detection, Pearson correlation coefficient.

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1731 Intrusion Detection based on Distance Combination

Authors: Joffroy Beauquier, Yongjie Hu

Abstract:

The intrusion detection problem has been frequently studied, but intrusion detection methods are often based on a single point of view, which always limits the results. In this paper, we introduce a new intrusion detection model based on the combination of different current methods. First we use a notion of distance to unify the different methods. Second we combine these methods using the Pearson correlation coefficients, which measure the relationship between two methods, and we obtain a combined distance. If the combined distance is greater than a predetermined threshold, an intrusion is detected. We have implemented and tested the combination model with two different public data sets: the data set of masquerade detection collected by Schonlau & al., and the data set of program behaviors from the University of New Mexico. The results of the experiments prove that the combination model has better performances.

Keywords: Intrusion detection, combination, distance, Pearson correlation coefficients.

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1730 The Relationship between Conceptual Organizational Culture and the Level of Tolerance in Employees

Authors: M. Sadoughi, R. Ehsani

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is examining the relationship between conceptual organizational culture and the level of tolerance in employees of Islamic Azad University of Shahre Ghods. This research is a correlational and analytic-descriptive one. The samples included 144 individuals. A 24-item standard questionnaire of organizational culture by Cameron and Queen was used in this study. This questionnaire has six criteria and each criterion includes four items that each item indicates one cultural dimension. Reliability coefficient of this questionnaire was normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.91. Also, the 25-item questionnaire of tolerance by Conor and Davidson was used. This questionnaire is in a five-degree Likert scale form. It has seven criteria and is designed to measure the power of coping with pressure and threat. It has the needed content reliability and its reliability coefficient is normed using Cronbach's alpha of 0.87. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariable regression. The results showed among various dimensions of organizational culture, there is a positive significant relationship between three dimensions (family, adhocracy, bureaucracy) and tolerance, there is a negative significant relationship between dimension of market and tolerance and components of organizational culture have the power of prediction and explaining the tolerance. In this explanation, the component of family is the most effective and the best predictor of tolerance.

Keywords: Adhocracy, bureaucracy, organizational culture, tolerance.

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1729 Leisure and Perceived Wellness of Nursing Students: A Canonical Correlation Analysis

Authors: Ming-Tsang Wu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to explore the correlation between leisure participation and perceived wellness, with the students of a nursing college in southern Taiwan as the subjects. One thousand six hundred and ninety-six (1,696) surveys were sent, and 1,408 surveys were received for an 83.02% valid response rate. Using canonical correlation analysis to analyze the data, the results showed that the linear combination of the two sets of variable produces five significant canonical variates. Out of the five canonical variates, only the first has sufficient explanatory power. The canonical correlation coefficient of first canonical variate is 0.660. This indicated that leisure participation and perceived wellness are significantly correlated.

Keywords: Leisure, perceived wellness.

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1728 Computational Model for Predicting Effective siRNA Sequences Using Whole Stacking Energy (% G) for Gene Silencing

Authors: Reena Murali, David Peter S.

Abstract:

The small interfering RNA (siRNA) alters the regulatory role of mRNA during gene expression by translational inhibition. Recent studies show that upregulation of mRNA because serious diseases like cancer. So designing effective siRNA with good knockdown effects plays an important role in gene silencing. Various siRNA design tools had been developed earlier. In this work, we are trying to analyze the existing good scoring second generation siRNA predicting tools and to optimize the efficiency of siRNA prediction by designing a computational model using Artificial Neural Network and whole stacking energy (%G), which may help in gene silencing and drug design in cancer therapy. Our model is trained and tested against a large data set of siRNA sequences. Validation of our results is done by finding correlation coefficient of experimental versus observed inhibition efficacy of siRNA. We achieved a correlation coefficient of 0.727 in our previous computational model and we could improve the correlation coefficient up to 0.753 when the threshold of whole tacking energy is greater than or equal to -32.5 kcal/mol.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, Double Stranded RNA, RNA Interference, Short Interfering RNA.

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1727 Influence of Strength Abilities on Quality of the Handstand

Authors: P. Hedbávný, G. Bago, M. Kalichová

Abstract:

The contribution deals with influence of strength abilities on quality of performance of static balance movement structure – handstand. To test the strength abilities we selected following tests: number of push-ups per minute and persistence in trunk backward bend in sitting position. We tested the dependent variable by three tests – persistence in handstand position on a stabilometric platform, persistence in handstand position and evaluation of quality of handstand performance. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to formulate the relationship between variables. The results showed a statistically significant dependence using which we deduced conclusions for training practice.

Keywords: Strength abilities, handstand, balance.

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1726 The Job Satisfaction of the Employees with the Organization Retention of Metropolitan Waterworks Authority at Bangkhen

Authors: Siriwan Saithong, Unnop Panpuang

Abstract:

This research aimed to study correlation between work satisfaction and organization core value of officers in Waterworks Authority, Bangkean Branch. Sample group of the study was 112 officers who worked in the Waterworks Authority, Bangkean Branch. Questionnaires were employed as a research tools, while, Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation, T-test, One-way ANOVA, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation were claimed as statistics used in this study. Researcher found that overall and individual aspects of work satisfaction namely, work characteristic, work progress, and colleagues significantly correlated with organization core value in aspect of perception in choice of work at 0.5, 0.01, and 0.01 respectively. Also, such aspects were compatible with income at .05 which indicated the low level of correlation, mid low correlation respectively at the same direction, same direction, opposite direction, and same direction, correspondingly.

Keywords: Employee of Bangkhen branch, Job Satisfaction, the organization Retention.

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1725 Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Inclined Cylinders: A Unified Correlation

Authors: Neetu Rani, Hema Setia, Marut Dutt. R.K. Wanchoo

Abstract:

An empirical correlation for predicting the heat transfer coefficient for a cylinder under free convection, inclined at any arbitrary angle with the horizontal has been developed in terms of Nusselt number, Prandtl number and Grashof number. Available experimental data was used to determine the parameters for the proposed correlation. The proposed correlation predicts the available data well within ±10%, for Prandtl number in the range 0.68-0.72 and Grashof number in the range 1.4×104–1.2×1010.

Keywords: Heat transfer, inclined cylinders, natural convection, Nusselt number, Prandtl number, Grashof number.

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1724 Factors Influencing B2c eCommerce Diffusion

Authors: R. Mangiaracina, A. Perego, F. Campari

Abstract:

Despite the fact that B2c eCommerce has become important in numerous economies, its adoption varies from country to country. This paper aims to identify the factors affecting (enabling or inhibiting) B2c eCommerce and to determine their quantitative impact on the diffusion of online sales across countries. A dynamic panel model analyzing the relationship between 13 factors (Macroeconomic, Demographic, Socio-Cultural, Infrastructural and Offer related) stemming from a complete literature analysis and the B2c eCommerce value in 45 countries over 9 years has been developed. Having a positive correlation coefficient, GDP, mobile penetration, Internet user penetration and credit card penetration resulted as enabling drivers of the B2c eCommerce value across countries, whereas, having a negative correlation coefficient,equal distribution of income and the development of traditional retailing network act as inhibiting factors.

Keywords: B2c eCommerce diffusion, influencing factors, dynamic panel model

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1723 Evaluation of Best-Fit Probability Distribution for Prediction of Extreme Hydrologic Phenomena

Authors: Karim Hamidi Machekposhti, Hossein Sedghi

Abstract:

The probability distributions are the best method for forecasting of extreme hydrologic phenomena such as rainfall and flood flows. In this research, in order to determine suitable probability distribution for estimating of annual extreme rainfall and flood flows (discharge) series with different return periods, precipitation with 40 and discharge with 58 years time period had been collected from Karkheh River at Iran. After homogeneity and adequacy tests, data have been analyzed by Stormwater Management and Design Aid (SMADA) software and residual sum of squares (R.S.S). The best probability distribution was Log Pearson Type III with R.S.S value (145.91) and value (13.67) for peak discharge and Log Pearson Type III with R.S.S values (141.08) and (8.95) for maximum discharge in Jelogir Majin and Pole Zal stations, respectively. The best distribution for maximum precipitation in Jelogir Majin and Pole Zal stations was Log Pearson Type III distribution with R.S.S values (1.74&1.90) and then Pearson Type III distribution with R.S.S values (1.53&1.69). Overall, the Log Pearson Type III distributions are acceptable distribution types for representing statistics of extreme hydrologic phenomena in Karkheh River at Iran with the Pearson Type III distribution as a potential alternative.

Keywords: Karkheh river, log pearson type III, probability distribution, residual sum of squares.

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1722 The Impact of the Interest Rates on Investments in the Context of Financial Crisis

Authors: Joanna Stawska

Abstract:

The main objective of this article is to examine the impact of interest rates on investments in Poland in the context of financial crisis. The paper also investigates the dependence of bank loans to enterprises on interbank market rates. The article studies the impact of interbank market rate on the level of investments in Poland. Besides, this article focuses on the research of the correlation between the level of corporate loans and the amount of investments in Poland in order to determine the indirect impact of central bank interest rates through the transmission mechanism of monetary policy on the real economy. To achieve the objective we have used econometric and statistical research methods like: econometric model and Pearson correlation coefficient. This analysis suggests that the central bank reference rate inversely proportionally affects the level of investments in Poland and this dependence is moderate. This is also important issue because it is related to preparing of Poland to accession to euro area. The research is important from both theoretical and empirical points of view. The formulated conclusions and recommendations determine the practical significance of the paper which may be used in the decision making process of monetary and economic authorities of the country.

Keywords: Central bank, financial crisis, interest rate, investments.

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1721 Impact of Dynamic Capabilities on Knowledge Management Processes

Authors: Farzad Yavari, Fereydoun Ohadi

Abstract:

Today, with the development and growth of technology and extreme environmental changes, organizations need to identify opportunities and create creativity and innovation in order to be able to maintain or improve their position in competition with others. In this regard, it is necessary that the resources and assets of the organization are coordinated and reviewed in accordance with the orientation of the strategy. One of the competitive advantages of the present age is knowledge management, which is to equip the organization with the knowledge of the day and disseminate among employees and use it in the development of products and services. Therefore, in the forthcoming research, the impact of dynamic capabilities components (sense, seize, and reconfiguration) has been investigated on knowledge management processes (acquisition, integration and knowledge utilization) in the MAPNA Engineering and Construction Company using a field survey and applied research method. For this purpose, a questionnaire was filled out in the form of 15 questions for dynamic components and 15 questions for measuring knowledge management components and distributed among 46 employees of the knowledge management organization. Validity of the questionnaire was evaluated through content validity and its reliability with Cronbach's coefficient. Pearson correlation test and structural equation technique were used to analyze the data. The results of the research indicate a positive significant correlation between the components of dynamic capabilities and knowledge management.

Keywords: Dynamic capabilities, knowledge management, sense capability, seize capability, reconfigurable capability, knowledge acquisition, knowledge integrity, knowledge utilization.

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1720 Determine of Constant Coefficients to RelateTotal Dissolved Solids to Electrical Conductivity

Authors: M. Siosemarde, F. Kave, E. Pazira, H. Sedghi, S. J. Ghaderi

Abstract:

Salinity is a measure of the amount of salts in the water. Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) as salinity parameter are often determined using laborious and time consuming laboratory tests, but it may be more appropriate and economical to develop a method which uses a more simple soil salinity index. Because dissolved ions increase salinity as well as conductivity, the two measures are related. The aim of this research was determine of constant coefficients for predicting of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) based on Electrical Conductivity (EC) with Statistics of Correlation coefficient, Root mean square error, Maximum error, Mean Bias error, Mean absolute error, Relative error and Coefficient of residual mass. For this purpose, two experimental areas (S1, S2) of Khuzestan province-IRAN were selected and four treatments with three replications by series of double rings were applied. The treatments were included 25cm, 50cm, 75cm and 100cm water application. The results showed the values 16.3 & 12.4 were the best constant coefficients for predicting of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) based on EC in Pilot S1 and S2 with correlation coefficient 0.977 & 0.997 and 191.1 & 106.1 Root mean square errors (RMSE) respectively.

Keywords: constant coefficients, electrical conductivity, Khuzestan plain and total dissolved solids.

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1719 The Effects of North Sea Caspian Pattern Index on the Temperature and Precipitation Regime in the Aegean Region of Turkey

Authors: Cenk Sezen, Turgay Partal

Abstract:

North Sea Caspian Pattern Index (NCP) refers to an atmospheric teleconnection between the North Sea and North Caspian at the 500 hPa geopotential height level. The aim of this study is to search for effects of NCP on annual and seasonal mean temperature and also annual and seasonal precipitation totals in the Aegean region of Turkey. The study contains the data that consist of 46 years obtained from nine meteorological stations. To determine the relationship between NCP and the climatic parameters, firstly the Pearson correlation coefficient method was utilized. According to the results of the analysis, most of the stations in the region have a high negative correlation NCPI in all seasons, especially in the winter season in terms of annual and seasonal mean temperature (statistically at significant at the 90% level). Besides, high negative correlation values between NCPI and precipitation totals are observed during the winter season at the most of stations. Furthermore, the NCPI values were divided into two group as NCPI(-) and NCPI(+), and then mean temperature and precipitation total values, which are grouped according to the NCP(-) and NCP(+) phases, were determined as annual and seasonal. During the NCPI(-), higher mean temperature values are observed in all of seasons, particularly in the winter season compared to the mean temperature values under effect of NCP(+). Similarly, during the NCPI(-) in winter season precipitation total values have higher than the precipitation total values under the effect of NCP(+); however, in other seasons there no substantial changes were observed between the precipitation total values. As a result of this study, significant proof is obtained with regards to the influences of NCP on the temperature and precipitation regime in the Aegean region of Turkey.

Keywords: Aegean Region, North Sea Caspian Pattern, precipitation, temperature.

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1718 Determination of the Best Fit Probability Distribution for Annual Rainfall in Karkheh River at Iran

Authors: Karim Hamidi Machekposhti, Hossein Sedghi

Abstract:

This study was designed to find the best-fit probability distribution of annual rainfall based on 50 years sample (1966-2015) in the Karkheh river basin at Iran using six probability distributions: Normal, 2-Parameter Log Normal, 3-Parameter Log Normal, Pearson Type 3, Log Pearson Type 3 and Gumbel distribution. The best fit probability distribution was selected using Stormwater Management and Design Aid (SMADA) software and based on the Residual Sum of Squares (R.S.S) between observed and estimated values Based on the R.S.S values of fit tests, the Log Pearson Type 3 and then Pearson Type 3 distributions were found to be the best-fit probability distribution at the Jelogir Majin and Pole Zal rainfall gauging station. The annual values of expected rainfall were calculated using the best fit probability distributions and can be used by hydrologists and design engineers in future research at studied region and other region in the world.

Keywords: Log Pearson Type 3, SMADA, rainfall, Karkheh River.

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1717 EML-Estimation of Multivariate t Copulas with Heuristic Optimization

Authors: Jin Zhang, Wing Lon Ng

Abstract:

In recent years, copulas have become very popular in financial research and actuarial science as they are more flexible in modelling the co-movements and relationships of risk factors as compared to the conventional linear correlation coefficient by Pearson. However, a precise estimation of the copula parameters is vital in order to correctly capture the (possibly nonlinear) dependence structure and joint tail events. In this study, we employ two optimization heuristics, namely Differential Evolution and Threshold Accepting to tackle the parameter estimation of multivariate t distribution models in the EML approach. Since the evolutionary optimizer does not rely on gradient search, the EML approach can be applied to estimation of more complicated copula models such as high-dimensional copulas. Our experimental study shows that the proposed method provides more robust and more accurate estimates as compared to the IFM approach.

Keywords: Copula Models, Student t Copula, Parameter Inference, Differential Evolution, Threshold Accepting.

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1716 Comparative Correlation Investigation of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Soils of Different Land Use: Sources Evaluation Perspective

Authors: O. Onoriode Emoyan, E. Eyitemi Akporhonor, Charles Otobrise

Abstract:

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed mainly because of incomplete combustion of organic materials during industrial, domestic activities or natural occurrence. Their toxicity and contamination of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem have been established. However, with limited validity index, previous research has focused on PAHs isomer pair ratios of variable physicochemical properties in source identification. The objective of this investigation was to determine the empirical validity of Pearson Correlation Coefficient (PCC) and Cluster Analysis (CA) in PAHs source identification along soil samples of different land uses. Therefore, 16 PAHs grouped, as Endocrine Disruption Substances (EDSs) were determined in 10 sample stations in top and sub soils seasonally. PAHs was determined the use of Varian 300 gas chromatograph interfaced with flame ionization detector. Instruments and reagents used are of standard and chromatographic grades respectively. PCC and CA results showed that the classification of PAHs along pyrolitic and petrogenic organics used in source signature is about the predominance PAHs in environmental matrix. Therefore, the distribution of PAHs in the studied stations revealed the presence of trace quantities of the vast majority of the sixteen PAHs, which may ultimately inhabit the actual source signature authentication. Therefore, factors to be considered when evaluating possible sources of PAHs could be; type and extent of bacterial metabolism, transformation products/substrates, and environmental factors such as salinity, pH, oxygen concentration, nutrients, light intensity, temperature, co-substrates, and environmental medium are hereby recommended as factors to be considered when evaluating possible sources of PAHs.

Keywords: Comparative correlation, kinetically, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, thermodynamically- favored PAHs, sources evaluation.

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