@article{(Open Science Index):https://publications.waset.org/pdf/9997270,
	  title     = {Hyperspectral Mapping Methods for Differentiating Mangrove Species along Karachi Coast },
	  author    = {Sher Muhammad and  Mirza Muhammad Waqar},
	  country	= {},
	  institution	= {},
	  abstract     = {It is necessary to monitor and identify mangroves types and spatial extent near coastal areas because it plays an important role in coastal ecosystem and environmental protection. This research aims at identifying and mapping mangroves types along Karachi coast ranging from 24.790 to 24.850 in latitude and 66.910 to 66.970 in longitude using hyperspectral remote sensing data and techniques. Image acquired during February, 2012 through Hyperion sensor have been used for this research. Image pre processing includes geometric and radiometric correction followed by Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Pixel Purity Index (PPI). The output of MNF and PPI has been analyzed by visualizing it in n-dimensions for end member extraction. Well distributed clusters on the n-dimensional scatter plot have been selected with the region of interest (ROI) tool as end members. These end members have been used as an input for classification techniques applied to identify and map mangroves species including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF) and Spectral Information Diversion (SID). Only two types of mangroves namely Avicennia Marina (White Mangroves) and Avicennia germinans (Black Mangroves) have been observed throughout the study area.
},
	    journal   = {International Journal of Environmental and Ecological Engineering},
	  volume    = {7},
	  number    = {12},
	  year      = {2013},
	  pages     = {963 - 965},
	  ee        = {https://publications.waset.org/pdf/9997270},
	  url   	= {https://publications.waset.org/vol/84},
	  bibsource = {https://publications.waset.org/},
	  issn  	= {eISSN: 1307-6892},
	  publisher = {World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology},
	  index 	= {Open Science Index 84, 2013},
	}