Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: trachyspermum

4 Optimization, Characterization and Stability of Trachyspermum copticum Essential Oil Loaded in Niosome Nanocarriers

Authors: Mohadese Hashemi, Elham Akhoundi Kharanaghi, Fatemeh Haghiralsadat, Mojgan Yazdani, Omid Javani, Mahboobe Sharafodini, Davood Rajabi


Niosomes are non-ionic surfactant vesicles in aqueous media resulting in closed bilayer structures that can be used as carriers of hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. The use of niosomes for encapsulation of essential oils (EOs) is an attractive new approach to overcome their physicochemical stability concerns include sensibility to oxygen, light, temperature, and volatility, and their reduced bioavailability which is due to low solubility in water. EOs are unstable and fragile volatile compounds which have strong interest in pharmaceutical due to their medicinal properties such as antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, and antioxidant activities without side effects. Trachyspermum copticum (ajwain) is an annual aromatic plant with important medicinal properties that grows widely around Mediterranean region and south-west Asian countries. The major components of the ajwain oil were reported as thymol, γ-terpinene, p-cymene, and carvacrol which provide antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to formulate ajwain essential oil-loaded niosomes to improve water solubility of natural product and evaluate its physico-chemical features and stability. Ajwain oil was obtained through steam distillation using a clevenger-type apparatus and GC/MS was applied to identify the main components of the essential oil. Niosomes were prepared by using thin film hydration method and nanoparticles were characterized for particle size, dispersity index, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, in vitro release, and morphology.

Keywords: trachyspermum copticum, ajwain, niosome, essential oil, encapsulation

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3 In vitro Susceptibility of Isolated Shigella flexneri and Shigella dysenteriae to the Ethanolic Extracts of Trachyspermum ammi and Peganum harmala

Authors: Ibrahim Siddig Hamid, Ikram Mohamed Eltayeb


Trachyspermum ammi belongs to the family Apiaceae, is used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal ailments, lack of appetite and bronchial problems as well used as antiseptic, antimicrobial, antipyretic, febrifugal and in the treatment of typhoid fever. Peganum harmala belongs to the family Zygophyllaceae it has been reported to have an antibacterial activity and used to treat depression and recurring fevers. It also used to kill algae, bacteria, intestinal parasites and molds. In Sudan, the combination of two plants are traditionally used for the treatment of bacillary dysentery. Bacillary dysentery is caused by one or more types of Shigella species bacteria mainly Shigella dysenteri and shigella flexneri. Bacillary dysentery is mainly found in hot countries like Sudan with poor hygiene and sanitation. Bacillary dysentery causes sudden onset of high fever and chills, abdominal pain, cramps and bloating, urgency to pass stool, weight loss, and dehydration and if left untreated it can lead to serious complications including delirium, convulsions and coma. A serious infection like this can be fatal within 24 hours. The objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of Sh. flexneri and Sh. dysenteriae to the T. ammi and P. harmala. T. ammi and P. harmala were extracted by 96% ethanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated according to the disc diffusion method. The discs were prepared by soaking sterilized filter paper discs in 20 microliter of serially diluted solutions of each plant extract with the concentrations (100, 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25mg/dl) then placing them on Muller Hinton Agar plates that were inoculated with bacterial suspension separately, the plates were incubated for 24 hours at 37c and the minimum inhibitory concentration of the extract which was the least concentration of the extract to inhibit fungal growth was determined. The results showed the high antimicrobial activity of T. ammi extract with an average diameter zone ranging from 18-20 mm and its minimum inhibitory concentration was found to be 25 mg/ml against the two shigella species. P. harmala extract was found to have slight antibacterial effect against the two bacteria. This result justified the Sudanese traditional use of Trachyspermum ammi plant for the treatment of bacillary dysentery.

Keywords: harmala, peganum, shigella, trachyspermum

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
2 Inhibition of Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm Development of Dental Caries In Vitro and In Vivo by Trachyspermum ammi Seeds: An Approach of Alternative Medicine

Authors: Mohd Adil, Rosina Khan, Danishuddin, Asad U. Khan


The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the crude and active solvent fraction of Trachyspermum ammi on S. mutans cariogenicity, effect on expression of genes involved in biofilm formation and caries development in rats. GC–MS was carried out to identify the major components present in the crude and the active fraction of T. ammi. The crude extract and the solvent fraction exhibiting least MIC were selected for further experiments. Scanning electron microscopy was carried out to observe the effect of the extracts on S. mutans biofilm. Comparative gene expression analysis was carried out for nine selected genes. 2-Isopropyl-5-methyl-phenol was found as major compound in crude and the active fraction. Binding site of this compound within the proteins involved in biofilm formation was mapped with the help of docking studies. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in biofilm formation. All the test groups showed reduction in caries (smooth surface as well as sulcal surface caries) in rats. Moreover, it also provides new insight to understand the mechanism influencing biofilm formation in S. mutans. Furthermore, the data suggest the putative cariostatic properties of T. Ammi and hence can be used as an alternative medicine to prevent caries infection.

Keywords: bio-film, Streptococcus mutans, dental caries, bio-informatic

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1 Rapid Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Trachyspermum Ammi

Authors: Rajesh Kumar Meena, Suman Jhajharia, Goutam Chakraborty


Plasmonic silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was synthesized by chemical reduction method using Trachyspermum Ammi (TA, Ajwain) seeds extract in aqueous medium and AgNO3 solution at different time interval. Reaction time, and concentration of AgNO3 and TA could accelerate the reduction rate of Ag+ and affect AgNPs size and concentration of NPs. Surface plasmon resonance band centered at 420-430 nm (88.78nm) was recognised as first exitonic peak of UV-Vis absorption spectra of AgNPs that used to calculate the particle size (10-30 nm). FTIR results TA supported AgNPs showed decrease in intensity of peaks at 3394, 1716 and 1618 cm-1 with respect to the plain TA indicating the involvement of O-H, carbonyl group and C=C stretching in formation of TA-AgNPs aggregates. The C-O-C and C-N stretching suggested the presence of many phytochemicals on the surface of the NPs. Impedance study reveals that at low concentration of TA the rate of charge transfer is in TA-AgNPs aggregates, found higher than the higher TA concentration condition that confirms the stability of AgNPs in water. Extract reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles (NPs) of size 6-50nm. Pronounce effect of the time on Ag NPs concentration and particle size, was exhibited by the system These biogenic Ag NPs are characterized using UV- Vis spectrophotometry (UV-Visible), Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) and XRD. These studies give us inside view of the most probable mechanism of biosynthesis and optoelectronic properties of the as synthesised Ag NPs.

Keywords: antimicrobial activity, bioreduction, capping agent, silver nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 242