Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 485

Search results for: two-stage assembly flow-shop

485 Two-Stage Flowshop Scheduling with Unsystematic Breakdowns

Authors: Fawaz Abdulmalek


The two-stage flowshop assembly scheduling problem is considered in this paper. There are more than one parallel machines at stage one and an assembly machine at stage two. The jobs will be processed into the flowshop based on Johnson rule and two extensions of Johnson rule. A simulation model of the two-stage flowshop is constructed where both machines at stage one are subject to random failures. Three simulation experiments will be conducted to test the effect of the three job ranking rules on the makespan. Johnson Largest heuristic outperformed both Johnson rule and Johnson Smallest heuristic for two performed experiments for all scenarios where each experiments having five scenarios.

Keywords: flowshop scheduling, random failures, johnson rule, simulation

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484 Two Stage Assembly Flowshop Scheduling Problem Minimizing Total Tardiness

Authors: Ali Allahverdi, Harun Aydilek, Asiye Aydilek


The two stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem has lots of application in real life. To the best of our knowledge, the two stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem with total tardiness performance measure and separate setup times has not been addressed so far, and hence, it is addressed in this paper. Different dominance relations are developed and several algorithms are proposed. Extensive computational experiments are conducted to evaluate the proposed algorithms. The computational experiments have shown that one of the algorithms performs much better than the others. Moreover, the experiments have shown that the best performing algorithm performs much better than the best existing algorithm for the case of zero setup times in the literature. Therefore, the proposed best performing algorithm not only can be used for problems with separate setup times but also for the case of zero setup times.

Keywords: scheduling, assembly flowshop, total tardiness, algorithm

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483 M-Machine Assembly Scheduling Problem to Minimize Total Tardiness with Non-Zero Setup Times

Authors: Harun Aydilek, Asiye Aydilek, Ali Allahverdi


Our objective is to minimize the total tardiness in an m-machine two-stage assembly flowshop scheduling problem. The objective is an important performance measure because of the fact that the fulfillment of due dates of customers has to be taken into account while making scheduling decisions. In the literature, the problem is considered with zero setup times which may not be realistic and appropriate for some scheduling environments. Considering separate setup times from processing times increases machine utilization by decreasing the idle time and reduces total tardiness. We propose two new algorithms and adapt four existing algorithms in the literature which are different versions of simulated annealing and genetic algorithms. Moreover, a dominance relation is developed based on the mathematical formulation of the problem. The developed dominance relation is incorporated in our proposed algorithms. Computational experiments are conducted to investigate the performance of the newly proposed algorithms. We find that one of the proposed algorithms performs significantly better than the others, i.e., the error of the best algorithm is less than those of the other algorithms by minimum 50%. The newly proposed algorithm is also efficient for the case of zero setup times and performs better than the best existing algorithm in the literature.

Keywords: algorithm, assembly flowshop, scheduling, simulation, total tardiness

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482 A Heuristic Approach for the General Flowshop Scheduling Problem to Minimize the Makespan

Authors: Mohsen Ziaee


Almost all existing researches on the flowshop scheduling problems focus on the permutation schedules and there is insufficient study dedicated to the general flowshop scheduling problems in the literature, since the modeling and solving of the general flowshop scheduling problems are more difficult than the permutation ones, especially for the large-size problem instances. This paper considers the general flowshop scheduling problem with the objective function of the makespan (F//Cmax). We first find the optimal solution of the problem by solving a mixed integer linear programming model. An efficient heuristic method is then presented to solve the problem. An ant colony optimization algorithm is also proposed for the problem. In order to evaluate the performance of the methods, computational experiments are designed and performed. Numerical results show that the heuristic algorithm can result in reasonable solutions with low computational effort and even achieve optimal solutions in some cases.

Keywords: scheduling, general flow shop scheduling problem, makespan, heuristic

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481 Solving Flowshop Scheduling Problems with Ant Colony Optimization Heuristic

Authors: Arshad Mehmood Ch, Riaz Ahmad, Imran Ali Ch, Waqas Durrani


This study deals with the application of Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) approach to solve no-wait flowshop scheduling problem (NW-FSSP). ACO algorithm so developed has been coded on Matlab computer application. The paper covers detailed steps to apply ACO and focuses on judging the strength of ACO in relation to other solution techniques previously applied to solve no-wait flowshop problem. The general purpose approach was able to find reasonably accurate solutions for almost all the problems under consideration and was able to handle a fairly large spectrum of problems with far reduced CPU effort. Careful scrutiny of the results reveals that the algorithm presented results better than other approaches like Genetic algorithm and Tabu Search heuristics etc; earlier applied to solve NW-FSSP data sets.

Keywords: no-wait, flowshop, scheduling, ant colony optimization (ACO), makespan

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480 Computer Aided Assembly Attributes Retrieval Methods for Automated Assembly Sequence Generation

Authors: M. V. A. Raju Bahubalendruni, Bibhuti Bhusan Biswal, B. B. V. L. Deepak


Achieving an appropriate assembly sequence needs deep verification for its physical feasibility. For this purpose, industrial engineers use several assembly predicates; namely, liaison, geometric feasibility, stability and mechanical feasibility. However, testing an assembly sequence for these predicates requires huge assembly information. Extracting such assembly information from an assembled product is a time consuming and highly skillful task with complex reasoning methods. In this paper, computer aided methods are proposed to extract all the necessary assembly information from computer aided design (CAD) environment in order to perform the assembly sequence planning efficiently. These methods use preliminary capabilities of three-dimensional solid modelling and assembly modelling methods used in CAD software considering equilibrium laws of physical bodies.

Keywords: assembly automation, assembly attributes, assembly, CAD

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479 Analysis and Improvement of Efficiency for Food Processing Assembly Lines

Authors: Mehmet Savsar


Several factors affect productivity of Food Processing Assembly Lines (FPAL). Engineers and line managers usually do not recognize some of these factors and underutilize their production/assembly lines. In this paper, a special food processing assembly line is studied in detail, and procedures are presented to illustrate how productivity and efficiency of such lines can be increased. The assembly line considered produces ten different types of freshly prepared salads on the same line, which is called mixed model assembly line. Problems causing delays and inefficiencies on the line are identified. Line balancing and related tools are used to increase line efficiency and minimize balance delays. The procedure and the approach utilized in this paper can be useful for the operation managers and industrial engineers dealing with similar assembly lines in food processing industry.

Keywords: assembly lines, line balancing, production efficiency, bottleneck

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478 An Automated Optimal Robotic Assembly Sequence Planning Using Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm

Authors: Balamurali Gunji, B. B. V. L. Deepak, B. B. Biswal, Amrutha Rout, Golak Bihari Mohanta


Robots play an important role in the operations like pick and place, assembly, spot welding and much more in manufacturing industries. Out of those, assembly is a very important process in manufacturing, where 20% of manufacturing cost is wholly occupied by the assembly process. To do the assembly task effectively, Assembly Sequences Planning (ASP) is required. ASP is one of the multi-objective non-deterministic optimization problems, achieving the optimal assembly sequence involves huge search space and highly complex in nature. Many researchers have followed different algorithms to solve ASP problem, which they have several limitations like the local optimal solution, huge search space, and execution time is more, complexity in applying the algorithm, etc. By keeping the above limitations in mind, in this paper, a new automated optimal robotic assembly sequence planning using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm is proposed. In this algorithm, automatic extraction of assembly predicates is done using Computer Aided Design (CAD) interface instead of extracting the assembly predicates manually. Due to this, the time of extraction of assembly predicates to obtain the feasible assembly sequence is reduced. The fitness evaluation of the obtained feasible sequence is carried out using ABC algorithm to generate the optimal assembly sequence. The proposed methodology is applied to different industrial products and compared the results with past literature.

Keywords: assembly sequence planning, CAD, artificial Bee colony algorithm, assembly predicates

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477 An Assembly Line Designing Study for a Refrigeration Industry

Authors: Emin Gundogar, Burak Erkayman, Aysegul Yilmaz, Nusret Sazak


When considering current competition conditions on the world, satisfying customer demands on time has become an important factor that enables the firms take a step further. Therefore, production process must be completed faster to take the competitive advantage. A balanced assembly line is the one of most important factors affecting the speed of production lines. The aim of this study is to build an assembly line to balance the assembly line and to simulate it for different scenarios through a refrigerator factory. The times of the operations is analyzed and grouped by the priorities. First, a Kilbridge & Wester heuristics is put to the model then a simulation approach is implemented to the model and the differences are observed.

Keywords: assembly line design, assembly line balancing, simulation modelling, refrigeration industry

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476 Multi Objective Simultaneous Assembly Line Balancing and Buffer Sizing

Authors: Saif Ullah, Guan Zailin, Xu Xianhao, He Zongdong, Wang Baoxi


Assembly line balancing problem is aimed to divide the tasks among the stations in assembly lines and optimize some objectives. In assembly lines the workload on stations is different from each other due to different tasks times and the difference in workloads between stations can cause blockage or starvation in some stations in assembly lines. Buffers are used to store the semi-finished parts between the stations and can help to smooth the assembly production. The assembly line balancing and buffer sizing problem can affect the throughput of the assembly lines. Assembly line balancing and buffer sizing problems have been studied separately in literature and due to their collective contribution in throughput rate of assembly lines, balancing and buffer sizing problem are desired to study simultaneously and therefore they are considered concurrently in current research. Current research is aimed to maximize throughput, minimize total size of buffers in assembly line and minimize workload variations in assembly line simultaneously. A multi objective optimization objective is designed which can give better Pareto solutions from the Pareto front and a simple example problem is solved for assembly line balancing and buffer sizing simultaneously. Current research is significant for assembly line balancing research and it can be significant to introduce optimization approaches which can optimize current multi objective problem in future.

Keywords: assembly line balancing, buffer sizing, Pareto solutions

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475 Automated Buffer Box Assembly Cell Concept for the Canadian Used Fuel Packing Plant

Authors: Dimitrie Marinceu, Alan Murchison


The Canadian Used Fuel Container (UFC) is a mid-size hemispherical headed copper coated steel container measuring 2.5 meters in length and 0.5 meters in diameter containing 48 used fuel bundles. The contained used fuel produces significant gamma radiation requiring automated assembly processes to complete the assembly. The design throughput of 2,500 UFCs per year places constraints on equipment and hot cell design for repeatability, speed of processing, robustness and recovery from upset conditions. After UFC assembly, the UFC is inserted into a Buffer Box (BB). The BB is made from adequately pre-shaped blocks (lower and upper block) and Highly Compacted Bentonite (HCB) material. The blocks are practically ‘sandwiching’ the UFC between them after assembly. This paper identifies one possible approach for the BB automatic assembly cell and processes. Automation of the BB assembly will have a significant positive impact on nuclear safety, quality, productivity, and reliability.

Keywords: used fuel packing plant, automatic assembly cell, used fuel container, buffer box, deep geological repository

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474 Minimizing Total Completion Time in No-Wait Flowshops with Setup Times

Authors: Ali Allahverdi


The m-machine no-wait flowshop scheduling problem is addressed in this paper. The objective is to minimize total completion time subject to the constraint that the makespan value is not greater than a certain value. Setup times are treated as separate from processing times. Several recent algorithms are adapted and proposed for the problem. An extensive computational analysis has been conducted for the evaluation of the proposed algorithms. The computational analysis indicates that the best proposed algorithm performs significantly better than the earlier existing best algorithm.

Keywords: scheduling, no-wait flowshop, algorithm, setup times, total completion time, makespan

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473 WEMax: Virtual Manned Assembly Line Generation

Authors: Won Kyung Ham, Kang Hoon Cho, Sang C. Park


Presented in this paper is a framework of a software ‘WEMax’. The WEMax is invented for analysis and simulation for manned assembly lines to sustain and improve performance of manufacturing systems. In a manufacturing system, performance, such as productivity, is a key of competitiveness for output products. However, the manned assembly lines are difficult to forecast performance, because human labors are not expectable factors by computer simulation models or mathematical models. Existing approaches to performance forecasting of the manned assembly lines are limited to matters of the human itself, such as ergonomic and workload design, and non-human-factor-relevant simulation. Consequently, an approach for the forecasting and improvement of manned assembly line performance is needed to research. As a solution of the current problem, this study proposes a framework that is for generation and simulation of virtual manned assembly lines, and the framework has been implemented as a software.

Keywords: performance forecasting, simulation, virtual manned assembly line, WEMax

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472 Product Feature Modelling for Integrating Product Design and Assembly Process Planning

Authors: Baha Hasan, Jan Wikander


This paper describes a part of the integrating work between assembly design and assembly process planning domains (APP). The work is based, in its first stage, on modelling assembly features to support APP. A multi-layer architecture, based on feature-based modelling, is proposed to establish a dynamic and adaptable link between product design using CAD tools and APP. The proposed approach is based on deriving “specific function” features from the “generic” assembly and form features extracted from the CAD tools. A hierarchal structure from “generic” to “specific” and from “high level geometrical entities” to “low level geometrical entities” is proposed in order to integrate geometrical and assembly data extracted from geometrical and assembly modelers to the required processes and resources in APP. The feature concept, feature-based modelling, and feature recognition techniques are reviewed.

Keywords: assembly feature, assembly process planning, feature, feature-based modelling, form feature, ontology

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471 Design for Error-Proofing Assembly: A Systematic Approach to Prevent Assembly Issues since Early Design Stages. An Industry Case Study

Authors: Gabriela Estrada, Joaquim Lloveras


Design for error-proofing assembly is a new DFX approach to prevent assembly issues since early design stages. Assembly issues that can happen during the life phases of a system such as: production, installation, operation and replacement phases. This prevention is possible by designing the product with poka-yoke or error-proofing characteristics. This approach guide designers to make decisions based on poka-yoke assembly design requirements. As a result of applying these requirements designers are able to create solutions to prevent assembly issues for the product in development stage. This paper integrates the needs to design products in an error proofing way into the systematic approach of design process by Pahl and Beitz. A case study is presented applying this approach.

Keywords: poka-yoke, error-proofing, assembly issues, design process, life phases of a system

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470 Design for Error-Proofing Assembly: A Systematic Approach to Prevent Assembly Issues since Early Design Stages, an Industrial Case Study

Authors: Gabriela Estrada, Joaquim Lloveras


Design for error-proofing assembly is a new DFX approach to prevent assembly issues since early design stages. Assembly issues that can happen during the life phases of a system such as: production, installation, operation, and replacement phases. This prevention is possible by designing the product with poka-yoke or error-proofing characteristics. This approach guide designers to make decisions based on poka-yoke assembly design requirements. As a result of applying these requirements designers are able to create solutions to prevent assembly issues for the product in development stage. This paper integrates the needs to design products in an error proofing way into the systematic approach of design process by Pahl and Beitz. A case study is presented applying this approach.

Keywords: poka-yoke, error-proofing, assembly issues, design process, life phases of a system

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469 An Overview of Evaluations Using Augmented Reality for Assembly Training Tasks

Authors: S. Werrlich, E. Eichstetter, K. Nitsche, G. Notni


Augmented Reality (AR) is a strong growing research topic in different training domains such as medicine, sports, military, education and industrial use cases like assembly and maintenance tasks. AR claims to improve the efficiency and skill-transfer of training tasks. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of evaluations using AR for assembly and maintenance training tasks published between 1992 and 2017. We search in a structured way in four different online databases and get 862 results. We select 17 relevant articles focusing on evaluating AR-based training applications for assembly and maintenance tasks. This paper also indicates design guidelines which are necessary for creating a successful application for an AR-based training. We also present five scientific limitations in the field of AR-based training for assembly tasks. Finally, we show our approach to solve current research problems using Design Science Research (DSR).

Keywords: assembly, augmented reality, survey, training

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468 Electrochemical Layer by Layer Assembly

Authors: Mao Li, Yuguang Ma, Katsuhiko Ariga


The performance of functional materials is governed by their ability to interact with surrounding environments in a well-defined and controlled manner. Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly is one of the most widely used technologies for coating both planar and particulate substrates in a diverse range of fields, including optics, energy, catalysis, separations, and biomedicine. Herein, we introduce electrochemical-coupling layer-by-layer assembly as a novel fabrication methodology for preparing layered thin films. This assembly method not only determines the process properties (such as the time, scalability, and manual intervention) but also directly control the physicochemical properties of the films (such as the thickness, homogeneity, and inter- and intra-layer film organization), with both sets of properties linked to application-specific performance.

Keywords: layer by layer assembly, electropolymerization, carbazole, optical thin film, electronics

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467 3D Linear and Cyclic Homo-Peptide Crystals Forged by Supramolecular Swelling Self-Assembly

Authors: Wenliang Song, Yu Zhang, Hua Jin, Il Kim


The self-assembly of the polypeptide (PP) into well-defined structures at different length scales is both biomimetic relevant and fundamentally interesting. Although there are various reports of nanostructures fabricated by the self-assembly of various PPs, directed self-assembly of PP into three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical structure has proven to be difficult, despite their importance for biological applications. Herein, an efficient method has been developed through living polymerization of phenylalanine N-Carboxy anhydride (NCA) towards the linear and cyclic polyphenylalanine, and the new invented swelling methodology can form diverse hierarchical polypeptide crystals. The solvent-dependent self-assembly behaviors of these homopolymers were characterized by high-resolution imaging tools such as atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscope. The linear and cyclic polypeptide formed 3D nano hierarchical shapes, such as a sphere, cubic, stratiform and hexagonal star in different solvents. Notably, a crystalline packing model was proposed to explain the formation of 3D nanostructures based on the various diffraction patterns, looking forward to give an insight for their dissimilar shape inflection during the self-assembly process.

Keywords: self-assembly, polypeptide, bio-polymer, crystalline polymer

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466 Modern Technologies and Equipment for Modular-Aggregate Installation of Shipborne Equipment

Authors: A. O. Mikhailov, N. I. Gerasimov, K. N. Morozov, I. V. Grachev


The most advanced method of onboard equipment installation on the world shipbuilding practice is modular method, or modularization. The main idea of this is assembly of equipment, pipelines and hull structures in so called assembly units yet at the shopfloor. Those assembly units are thereafter loaded and installed inside the ship's hull. This allows to reduce labour intensiveness and significantly improve assembly quality, due to the fact that a good part of installation work is performed in the shops, instead of restricted onboard premises. Also, this method allows performing equipment installation at very early stages of hull erection. This practice is widely spread in naval submarines building. However, in merchant shipbuilding, equipment is installed mostly individually. To implement modular principles of equipment installation in designing and construction of civil ships and marine rigs, some new technologies are being developed in the following areas. The paper contains main principles and already achieved results in the above mentioned areas.

Keywords: assembly and installation technology, onboard equipment installation, large-scale assembly units, modular method

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465 Trends in Solving Assembly Job Shop Scheduling Problem: A Review

Authors: Midhun Paul, T. Radha Ramanan


The objective of this work is to present a state-of-the-art literature review highlighting the challenges in the research of the scheduling of assembly job shop problem and providing an insight on how the future directions of the research would be. The number of work has been substantial that it requires a review to enable one to understand the origin of the research and how it is getting evolved. This review paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature dealing with various studies carried on assembly job shop scheduling. The review details the evolution of the AJS from the perspective of other scheduling problems and also presents a classification scheme. The work also identifies the potential directions for future research, which we believe to be worthwhile considering.

Keywords: assembly job shop, future directions, manufacturing, scheduling

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464 Optimization Model for Identification of Assembly Alternatives of Large-Scale, Make-to-Order Products

Authors: Henrik Prinzhorn, Peter Nyhuis, Johannes Wagner, Peter Burggräf, Torben Schmitz, Christina Reuter


Assembling large-scale products, such as airplanes, locomotives, or wind turbines, involves frequent process interruptions induced by e.g. delayed material deliveries or missing availability of resources. This leads to a negative impact on the logistical performance of a producer of xxl-products. In industrial practice, in case of interruptions, the identification, evaluation and eventually the selection of an alternative order of assembly activities (‘assembly alternative’) leads to an enormous challenge, especially if an optimized logistical decision should be reached. Therefore, in this paper, an innovative, optimization model for the identification of assembly alternatives that addresses the given problem is presented. It describes make-to-order, large-scale product assembly processes as a resource constrained project scheduling (RCPS) problem which follows given restrictions in practice. For the evaluation of the assembly alternative, a cost-based definition of the logistical objectives (delivery reliability, inventory, make-span and workload) is presented.

Keywords: assembly scheduling, large-scale products, make-to-order, optimization, rescheduling

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463 Flexible Mixed Model Assembly Line Design: A Strategy to Respond for Demand Uncertainty at Automotive Part Manufacturer in Indonesia

Authors: T. Yuri, M. Zagloel, Inaki M. Hakim, Tegu Bintang Nugraha


In an era of customer centricity, automotive parts manufacturer in Indonesia must be able to keep up with the uncertainty and fluctuation of consumer demand. Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) is a strategy to react to predicted and unpredicted changes of demand in automotive industry. This research is about flexible mixed model assembly line design through Value Stream Mapping (VSM) and Line Balancing in mixed model assembly line prior to simulation. It uses value stream mapping to identify and reduce waste while finding the best position to add or reduce manpower. Line balancing is conducted to minimize or maximize production rate while increasing assembly line productivity and efficiency. Results of this research is a recommendation of standard work combination for specifics demand scenario which can enhance assembly line efficiency and productivity.

Keywords: automotive industry, demand uncertainty, flexible assembly system, line balancing, value stream mapping

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462 Determination of the Economic Planning Depth for Assembly Process Planning

Authors: A. Kampker, P. Burggräf, Y. Bäumers


In order to be competitive, companies have to reduce their production costs while meeting increasing quality requirements. Therefore, companies try to plan their assembly processes as detailed as possible. However, increasing product individualization leading to a higher number of variants, smaller batch sizes and shorter product life cycles raise the question to what extent the effort of detailed planning is still justified. An important approach in this field of research is the concept of determining the economic planning depth for assembly process planning based on production specific influencing factors. In this paper, first solution hypotheses as well as a first draft of the resulting method will be presented.

Keywords: assembly process planning, economic planning depth, planning benefit, planning effort

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461 Framework Study on Single Assembly Line to Improve Productivity with Six Sigma and Line Balancing Approach

Authors: Inaki Maulida Hakim, T. Yuri M. Zagloel, Astari Wulandari


Six sigma is a framework that is used to identify inefficiency so that the cause of inefficiency will be known and right improvement to overcome cause of inefficiency can be conducted. This paper presents result of implementing six sigma to improve piston assembly line in Manufacturing Laboratory, Universitas Indonesia. Six sigma framework will be used to analyze the significant factor of inefficiency that needs to be improved which causes bottleneck in assembly line. After analysis based on six sigma framework conducted, line balancing method was chosen for improvement to overcome causative factor of inefficiency which is differences time between workstation that causes bottleneck in assembly line. Then after line balancing conducted in piston assembly line, the result is increase in efficiency. Efficiency is shown in the decreasing of Defects per Million Opportunities (DPMO) from 900,000 to 700,000, the increasing of level of labor productivity from 0.0041 to 0.00742, the decreasing of idle time from 121.3 seconds to 12.1 seconds, and the increasing of output, which is from 1 piston in 5 minutes become 3 pistons in 5 minutes.

Keywords: assembly line, line balancing, productivity, six sigma

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460 Information Technologies in Automotive Assembly Industry in Thailand

Authors: Jirarat Teeravaraprug, Usawadee Inklay


This paper gave an attempt in prioritizing information technologies that organizations should give concentration. The case study was organizations in the automotive assembly industry in Thailand. Data were first collected to gather all information technologies known and used in the automotive assembly industry in Thailand. Five experts from the industries were surveyed based on the concept of fuzzy DEMATEL. The information technologies were categorized into six groups, which were communication, transaction, planning, organization management, warehouse management, and transportation. The cause groups of information technologies for each group were analysed and presented. Moreover, the relationship between the used and the significant information technologies was given. Discussions based on the used information technologies and the research results are given.

Keywords: information technology, automotive assembly industry, fuzzy DEMATEL

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459 Multi Objective Optimization for Two-Sided Assembly Line Balancing

Authors: Srushti Bhatt, M. B. Kiran


Two-sided assembly line balancing problem is yet to be addressed simply to compete for the global market for manufacturers. The task assigned in an ordered sequence to get optimum performance of the system is known as assembly line balancing problem mainly classified as single and two sided. It is very challenging in manufacturing industries to balance two-sided assembly line, wherein the set of sequential workstations the task operations are performed in two sides of the line. The conflicting major objective in two-sided assembly line balancing problem is either to maximize /minimize the performance parameters. The present study emphases on combining different evolutionary algorithm; ant colony, Tabu search and petri net method; and compares their results of an algorithm for solving two-sided assembly line balancing problem. The concept of multi objective optimization of performance parameters is now a day adopted to make a decision involving more than one objective function to be simultaneously optimized. The optimum result can be expected among the selected methods using multi-objective optimization. The performance parameters considered in the present study are a number of workstation, slickness and smoothness index. The simulation of the assembly line balancing problem provides optimal results of classical and practical problems.

Keywords: Ant colony, petri net, tabu search, two sided ALBP

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458 An Architecture Framework for Design of Assembly Expert System

Authors: Chee Fai Tan, L. S. Wahidin, S. N. Khalil


Nowadays, manufacturing cost is one of the important factors that will affect the product cost as well as company profit. There are many methods that have been used to reduce the manufacturing cost in order for a company to stay competitive. One of the factors that effect manufacturing cost is the time. Expert system can be used as a method to reduce the manufacturing time. The purpose of the expert system is to diagnose and solve the problem of design of assembly. The paper describes an architecture framework for design of assembly expert system that focuses on commercial vehicle seat manufacturing industry.

Keywords: design of assembly, expert system, vehicle seat, mechanical engineering

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457 Effect of Microstructure of Graphene Oxide Fabricated through Different Self-Assembly Techniques on Alcohol Dehydration

Authors: Wei-Song Hung


We utilized pressure, vacuum, and evaporation-assisted self-assembly techniques through which graphene oxide (GO) was deposited on modified polyacrylonitrile (mPAN). The fabricated composite GO/mPAN membranes were applied to dehydrate 1-butanol mixtures by pervaporation. Varying driving forces in the self-assembly techniques induced different GO assembly layer microstructures. XRD results indicated that the GO layer d-spacing varied from 8.3 Å to 11.5 Å. The self-assembly technique with evaporation resulted in a heterogeneous GO layer with loop structures; this layer was shown to be hydrophobic, in contrast to the hydrophilic layer formed from the other two techniques. From the pressure-assisted technique, the composite membrane exhibited exceptional pervaporation performance at 30 C: concentration of water at the permeate side = 99.6 wt% and permeation flux = 2.54 kg m-2 h-1. Moreover, the membrane sustained its operating stability at a high temperature of 70 C: a high water concentration of 99.5 wt% was maintained, and a permeation flux as high as 4.34 kg m-2 h-1 was attained. This excellent separation performance stemmed from the dense, highly ordered laminate structure of GO.

Keywords: graphene oxide, self-assembly, alcohol dehydration, polyacrylonitrile (mPAN)

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456 Designing Electronic Kanban in Assembly Line Tailboom at XYZ Corp to Reducing Lead Time

Authors: Nadhifah A. Nugraha, Dida D. Damayanti, Widia Juliani


Airplanes manufacturing is growing along with the increasing demand from consumers. The helicopter's tail called Tailboom is a product of the helicopter division at XYZ Corp, where the Tailboom assembly line is a pull system. Based on observations of existing conditions that occur at XYZ Corp, production is still unable to meet the demands of consumers; lead time occurs greater than the plan agreed upon by the consumers. In the assembly process, each work station experiences a lack of parts and components needed to assemble components. This happens because of the delay in getting the required part information, and there is no warning about the availability of parts needed, it makes some parts unavailable in assembly warehouse. The lack of parts and components from the previous work station causes the assembly process to stop, and the assembly line also stops at the next station. In its completion, the production time was late and not on the schedule. In resolving these problems, the controlling process is needed, which is controlling the assembly line to get all components and subassembly in the right amount and at the right time. This study applies one of Just In Time tools, namely Kanban and automation, should be added as efficiently and effectively communication line becomes electronic Kanban. The problem can be solved by reducing non-value added time, such as waiting time and idle time. The proposed results of controlling the assembly line of Tailboom result in a smooth assembly line without waiting, reduced lead time, and achieving production time according to the schedule agreed with the consumers.

Keywords: kanban, e-Kanban, lead time, pull system

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