Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2211

Search results for: private investment

2211 Does Inflation Affect Private Investment in Nigeria?

Authors: Amassoma Ditimi, Nwosa Philip Ifeakachukwu

Abstract:

This study examined the impact of inflation on private investment in Nigeria for the period 1980 to 2012. Private investment was measured by foreign direct investment and private domestic investment. The study employed the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique. The empirical regression estimate showed that inflation had a positive but insignificant effect on private investment in Nigeria; implying that although an increase in inflation rate leads to a corresponding increase in private investment but however the effect was found to be insignificant. Thus, the study recommended that government should prevent high inflation rate that can negatively affect private investment in Nigeria and government should also put in place appropriate facilities that are investment enhancing in order to increase the level of both domestic and foreign private investment in Nigeria.

Keywords: inflation rate, private investment, OLS, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
2210 Investment and Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis for Tanzania

Authors: Manamba Epaphra

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the causal effect between domestic private investment, public investment, foreign direct investment and economic growth in Tanzania during the 1970-2014 period. The modified neo-classical growth model that includes control variables such as trade liberalization, life expectancy and macroeconomic stability proxied by inflation is used to estimate the impact of investment on economic growth. Also, the economic growth models based on Phetsavong and Ichihashi (2012), and Le and Suruga (2005) are used to estimate the crowding out effect of public investment on private domestic investment on one hand and foreign direct investment on the other hand. A correlation test is applied to check the correlation among independent variables, and the results show that there is very low correlation suggesting that multicollinearity is not a serious problem. Moreover, the diagnostic tests including RESET regression errors specification test, Breusch-Godfrey serial correlation LM test, Jacque-Bera-normality test and white heteroskedasticity test reveal that the model has no signs of misspecification and that, the residuals are serially uncorrelated, normally distributed and homoskedastic. Generally, the empirical results show that the domestic private investment plays an important role in economic growth in Tanzania. FDI also tends to affect growth positively, while control variables such as high population growth and inflation appear to harm economic growth. Results also reveal that control variables such as trade openness and life expectancy improvement tend to increase real GDP growth. Moreover, a revealed negative, albeit weak, association between public and private investment suggests that the positive effect of domestic private investment on economic growth reduces when public investment-to-GDP ratio exceeds 8-10 percent. Thus, there is a great need for promoting domestic saving so as to encourage domestic investment for economic growth.

Keywords: FDI, public investment, domestic private investment, crowding out effect, economic growth

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2209 Investment Adjustments to Exchange Rate Fluctuations Evidence from Manufacturing Firms in Tunisia

Authors: Mourad Zmami Oussema BenSalha

Abstract:

The current research aims to assess empirically the reaction of private investment to exchange rate fluctuations in Tunisia using a sample of 548 firms operating in manufacturing industries between 1997 and 2002. The micro-econometric model we estimate is based on an accelerator-profit specification investment model increased by two variables that measure the variation and the volatility of exchange rates. Estimates using the system the GMM method reveal that the effects of the exchange rate depreciation on investment are negative since it increases the cost of imported capital goods. Turning to the exchange rate volatility, as measured by the GARCH (1,1) model, our findings assign a significant role to the exchange rate uncertainty in explaining the sluggishness of private investment in Tunisia in the full sample of firms. Other estimation attempts based on various sub samples indicate that the elasticities of investment relative to the exchange rate volatility depend upon many firms’ specific characteristics such as the size and the ownership structure.

Keywords: investment, exchange rate volatility, manufacturing firms, system GMM, Tunisia

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2208 Infrastructure Investment Law Formulation to Ensure Low Transaction Cost at Policy Level: Case Study of Public Private Partnership Project at the Ministry of Public Works and Housing of the Republic of Indonesia

Authors: Yolanda Indah Permatasari, Sudarsono Hardjosoekarto

Abstract:

Public private partnership (PPP) scheme was considered as an alternative source of funding for infrastructure provision. However, the performance of PPP scheme and interest of private sector to participate in the provision of infrastructure was still practically low. This phenomenon motivates the research to reconstruct the form of collaborative governance at the policy level from the perspective of transaction cost of the PPP scheme. Soft-system methodology (SSM)-based action research was used as this research methodology. The result of this study concludes that the emergence of transaction cost sources at the policy level is caused by the absence of a law that governs infrastructure investment, especially the implementation of PPP scheme. This absence is causing the imbalance in risk allocation and risk mitigation between the public and private sector. Thus, this research recommended the formulation of infrastructure investment law that aims to minimize asymmetry information, to anticipate the principal-principal problems, and to provide legal basis that ensures risk certainty and guarantee fair risk allocation between public and private sector.

Keywords: public governance, public private partnership, soft system methodology, transaction cost

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2207 Trends of Public-Private Partnership Infrastructure in Thailand

Authors: Wasaporn Techapeeraparnich

Abstract:

Bringing private investor involving in providing public infrastructure have been increasingly used worldwide, and there is no exception for developing countries like Thailand. Recently, there is a huge investment opportunity for public-private partnership (PPP) in Thailand, especially in the transportation sector. This paper analyses the development of the PPP since the early beginning of PPP in different service sectors. It also summarizes the development of PPP and its application in terms of usage, opportunities and trends particularly in the transport sector. The results are aimed to draw some lessons learned for future development.

Keywords: case study, public-private partnership, transportation, Thailand

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
2206 Partnerships between Public Administration and Private Social Investment for Territorial Development: Lessons after 15 Brazilian Cases

Authors: Graziela D. de Azevedo, Livia M. Pagotto, Mario P. Monzoni, Neto

Abstract:

This article aims to discuss partnerships between public administration and private social investment aimed at territorial development. There has been some approximation in Brazil from private social investors with initiatives aiming at territorial development policies in highly vulnerable territories or in places where the business sector operates. This represents this paper’s major justification: on the advance of academic debate about how businesses, institutes, and foundations have been working alongside local governments, taking the territory as the reference for joint action. The research was based on the literature on governance and territorial development and adopted a mixed iterative approach (inductive and deductive) through an interpretative lens so as to develop an analysis structure that complements and expands knowledge about the contribution of public policies and private social investments for territorial development in Brazil. The analysis of 15 cases based on three distinct blocks (territorial development plans, articulation for education, and thematic approaches) has made it possible to identify common elements regarding the motivations of partnerships, the specific needs of the actors involved, and the priority drivers for stimulating development. Findings include discussion on the leading role of territories in their development paths, on the institutionalization and strengthening of capacities, and on long-term perspectives in development strategies.

Keywords: private social investment, public administration, territorial governance, territorial development

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2205 Assessing the Role of Water Research and Development Investment towards Water Security in South Africa: During the Five Years Period (2009/10 - 2013/14)

Authors: Hlamulo Makelane

Abstract:

The study aims at providing new insights regarding research and development (R&D) public and private activities based on the national R&D survey of the past five years. The main question of the study is what role does water R&D plays on water security; to then analyze what lessons could be extracted to improve the security of water through R&D. In particular, this work concentrates on three main aspects of R&D investments: (i) the level of expenditures, (ii) the sources of funding related to water R&D, and (iii) the personnel working in the field, both for the public and private sectors. The nonlinear regression approached will be used for data analysis based on secondary data gathered from the South African nation R&D survey conducted annually by the Centre for science, technology and innovation indicators (CeSTII).

Keywords: water, R&D, investment, public sector, private sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
2204 Price Compensation Mechanism with Unmet Demand for Public-Private Partnership Projects

Authors: Zhuo Feng, Ying Gao

Abstract:

Public-private partnership (PPP), as an innovative way to provide infrastructures by the private sector, is being widely used throughout the world. Compared with the traditional mode, PPP emerges largely for merits of relieving public budget constraint and improving infrastructure supply efficiency by involving private funds. However, PPP projects are characterized by large scale, high investment, long payback period, and long concession period. These characteristics make PPP projects full of risks. One of the most important risks faced by the private sector is demand risk because many factors affect the real demand. If the real demand is far lower than the forecasting demand, the private sector will be got into big trouble because operating revenue is the main means for the private sector to recoup the investment and obtain profit. Therefore, it is important to study how the government compensates the private sector when the demand risk occurs in order to achieve Pareto-improvement. This research focuses on price compensation mechanism, an ex-post compensation mechanism, and analyzes, by mathematical modeling, the impact of price compensation mechanism on payoff of the private sector and consumer surplus for PPP toll road projects. This research first investigates whether or not price compensation mechanisms can obtain Pareto-improvement and, if so, then explores boundary conditions for this mechanism. The research results show that price compensation mechanism can realize Pareto-improvement under certain conditions. Especially, to make the price compensation mechanism accomplish Pareto-improvement, renegotiation costs of the government and the private sector should be lower than a certain threshold which is determined by marginal operating cost and distortionary cost of the tax. In addition, the compensation percentage should match with the price cut of the private investor when demand drops. This research aims to provide theoretical support for the government when determining compensation scope under the price compensation mechanism. Moreover, some policy implications can also be drawn from the analysis for better risk-sharing and sustainability of PPP projects.

Keywords: infrastructure, price compensation mechanism, public-private partnership, renegotiation

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2203 Universal Design Implementation in a Private University; Investment, Decision Making, Perceptions and the Value of Social Capital

Authors: Sridara Tipian, Henry Skates Jr., Antika Sawadsri

Abstract:

It is widely recognized that universal design should be implemented as broadly as possible to benefit as many groups and sub groups of people within a society. In Thailand, public buildings such as public universities are obvious places where the benefits of universal design principles are easily appreciated and applied, but there are other building types such as private universities where the benefits may not be just as obvious. In these buildings, the implementation of universal design is not always achieved. There are many reasons given for this among which is the perceived additional cost of implementation. This paper argues that social capital should be taken into consideration when such decisions are being made. The paper investigates the background, principles and theories pertaining to universal design and using a case study of a private university, investigates the implementation of universal design against the background of current legislation and the perceptions of the private university administrators. The study examines the physical facilities of the case study university in the context of current theories and principles of universal design alongside the legal requirements for same. A survey of building users evaluates knowledge of and attitudes to universal design. The research shows that although administrators perceive the initial cost of investment to be prohibitive in the short term, in the long term, changes in societal values in relation to social inclusiveness are changing and that the social capital of investing in universal design should not be underestimated. The results of this study should provide greater incentive for the enforcement of the legal requirements for universal design in Thailand.

Keywords: public buildings, physical facilities, social capital private university, investment, decision making, value, enforcement, legal requirements

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
2202 Private Technology Parks–The New Engine for Innovation Development in Russia

Authors: K. Volkonitskaya, S. Lyapina

Abstract:

According to the National Monitoring Centre of innovation infrastructure, scientific and technical activities and regional innovation systems by December 2014. 166 technology parks were established in Russia. Comparative analysis of technological parks performance in Russia, the USA, Israel and the European Union countries revealed significant reduction of key performance indicators in Russian innovation infrastructure institutes. The largest deviations were determined in the following indicators: new products and services launched, number of companies and jobs, amount of venture capital invested. Lower performance indicators of Russian technology parks can be partly explained by slack demand for national high-tech products and services, lack of qualified specialists in the sphere of innovation management and insufficient cooperation between different innovation infrastructure institutes. In spite of all constraints in innovation segment of Russian economy in 2010-2012 private investors for the first time proceeded to finance building of technological parks. The general purpose of the research is to answer two questions: why despite the significant investment risks private investors continue to implement such comprehensive infrastructure projects in Russia and is business model of private technological park more efficient than strategies of state innovation infrastructure institutes? The goal of the research was achieved by analyzing business models of private technological parks in Moscow, Kaliningrad, Astrakhan and Kazan. The research was conducted in two stages: the on-line survey of key performance indicators of private and state Russian technological parks and in-depth interviews with top managers and investors, who have already build private technological parks in by 2014 or are going to complete investment stage in 2014-2016. The results anticipated are intended to identify the reasons of efficient and inefficient technological parks performance. Furthermore, recommendations for improving the efficiency of state technological and industrial parks were formulated. Particularly, the recommendations affect the following issues: networking with other infrastructural institutes, services and infrastructure provided, mechanisms of public-private partnership and investment attraction. In general intensive study of private technological parks performance and development of effective mechanisms of state support can have a positive impact on the growth rates of the number of Russian technological, industrial and science parks.

Keywords: innovation development, innovation infrastructure, private technology park, public-private partnership

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2201 Coherencing a Diametrical Interests between the State, Adat Community and Private Interests in Utilising the Land for Investment in Indonesia

Authors: L. M. Hayyan ul Haq, Lalu Sabardi

Abstract:

This research is aimed at exploring an appropriate regulatory model in coherencing a diametrical interest between the state, Adat legal community, and private interests in utilising and optimizing land in Indonesia. This work is also highly relevant to coherencing the obligation of the state to respect, to fulfill and to protect the fundamental rights of people, especially to protect the communal or adat community rights to the land. In visualizing those ideas, this research will use the normative legal research to elaborate the normative problem in land use, as well as redesigning and creating an appropriate regulatory model in bridging and protecting all interest parties, especially, the state, Adat legal community, and private parties. In addition, it will also employ an empirical legal research for identifying some operational problems in protecting and optimising the land. In detail, this research will not only identify the problems at the normative level, such as conflicted norms, the absence of the norms, and the unclear norm in land law, but also the problems at operational level, such as institutional relationship in managing the land use. At the end, this work offers an appropriate regulatory model at the systems level, which covers value and norms in land use, as well as the appropriate mechanism in managing the utilization of the land for the state, Adat legal community, and private sector. By manifesting this objective, the government will not only fulfill its obligation to regulate the land for people and private, but also to protect the fundamental rights of people, as mandated by the Indonesian 1945 Constitution.

Keywords: adat community rights, fundamental rights, investment, land law, private sector

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2200 The Superior Performance of Investment Bank-Affiliated Mutual Funds

Authors: Michelo Obrey

Abstract:

Traditionally, mutual funds have long been esteemed as stand-alone entities in the U.S. However, the prevalence of the fund families’ affiliation to financial conglomerates is eroding this striking feature. Mutual fund families' affiliation with financial conglomerates can potentially be an important source of superior performance or cost to the affiliated mutual fund investors. On the one hand, financial conglomerates affiliation offers the mutual funds access to abundant resources, better research quality, private material information, and business connections within the financial group. On the other hand, conflict of interest is bound to arise between the financial conglomerate relationship and fund management. Using a sample of U.S. domestic equity mutual funds from 1994 to 2017, this paper examines whether fund family affiliation to an investment bank help the affiliated mutual funds deliver superior performance through private material information advantage possessed by the investment banks or it costs affiliated mutual fund shareholders due to the conflict of interest. Robust to alternative risk adjustments and cross-section regression methodologies, this paper finds that the investment bank-affiliated mutual funds significantly outperform those of the mutual funds that are not affiliated with an investment bank. Interestingly the paper finds that the outperformance is confined to holding return, a return measure that captures the investment talent that is uninfluenced by transaction costs, fees, and other expenses. Further analysis shows that the investment bank-affiliated mutual funds specialize in hard-to-value stocks, which are not more likely to be held by unaffiliated funds. Consistent with the information advantage hypothesis, the paper finds that affiliated funds holding covered stocks outperform affiliated funds without covered stocks lending no support to the hypothesis that affiliated mutual funds attract superior stock-picking talent. Overall, the paper findings are consistent with the idea that investment banks maximize fee income by monopolistically exploiting their private information, thus strategically transferring performance to their affiliated mutual funds. This paper contributes to the extant literature on the agency problem in mutual fund families. It adds to this stream of research by showing that the agency problem is not only prevalent in fund families but also in financial organizations such as investment banks that have affiliated mutual fund families. The results show evidence of exploitation of synergies such as private material information sharing that benefit mutual fund investors due to affiliation with a financial conglomerate. However, this research has a normative dimension, allowing such incestuous behavior of insider trading and exploitation of superior information not only negatively affect the unaffiliated fund investors but also led to an unfair and unleveled playing field in the financial market.

Keywords: mutual fund performance, conflicts of interest, informational advantage, investment bank

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2199 Relationship between Financial Reporting Transparency and Investment Efficiency: Evidence from Iran

Authors: Bita Mashayekhi, Hamid Kalhornia

Abstract:

One of the most important roles of financial reporting is improving the firms’ investment decisions; however, there is not much supporting evidence for this claim in emerging markets like Iran. In this study, the effect of financial reporting transparency in investment efficiency of Iranian firms has been investigated. In order to do this, 336 listed companies on Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE) has been selected for time period 2012 to 2015 as research sample. For testing our main hypothesis, we classified sample firms into two groups based on their deviation from expected investment: under-investment and over-investment cases. The results indicate that there is positive significant relationship between financial transparency and investment efficiency. In the other words, transparency can mitigate both underinvestment and overinvestment situations.

Keywords: corporate governance, disclosure, investment decisions, investment efficiency, transparency

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2198 Risk Identification of Investment Feasibility in Indonesia’s Toll Road Infrastructure Investment

Authors: Christo Februanto Putra

Abstract:

This paper presents risk identification that affects investment feasibility on toll road infrastructure in Indonesia using qualitative methods survey based on the expert practitioner in investor, contractor, and state officials. The problems on infrastructure investment in Indonesia, especially on KPBU model contract, is many risk factors in the investment plan is not calculated in detail thoroughly. Risk factor is a value used to provide an overview of the risk level assessment of an event which is a function of the probability of the occurrence and the consequences of the risks that arise. As results of the survey which is to show which risk factors impacts directly to the investment feasibility and rank them by their impacts on the investment.

Keywords: risk identification, indonesia toll road, investment feasibility

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2197 Changes in Foreign Direct Investment Policy of India and Its Impact on Economic Development

Authors: Kishor P. Kadam

Abstract:

Foreign direct investment policy (FDI) is defined as an investment involving a long term relationship and reflecting a long duration interest and control of a resident entity in the home country (foreign direct investor or parent firm) in the host country. India has been one of the most translucent and open-minded FDI regimes among the emerging and developing economies. There is clear cut mentioned about the sectoral caps for foreign investment. The policy problems that have been identified by time to time surveys as acting as additional hurdles for FDI are laws, regulatory systems and government monopolies that do not have contemporary relevance. Foreign investment policies in the post-reforms period have emphasized greater encouragement and mobilization of non-debt creating private inflows for plunging reliance on debt flows. This paper will focus on how foreign direct investment policy changed from 1990-91 up to now. A time series data of 25 years is used for analysing the policy changes. It is observed that India has more liberal policy. The growth in number of Greenfield investments in India has been more impressive than the number of M&A deals whereas equity capital for incorporated bodies FDI inflows has been increased continuously 2014-15. India has made major changes in FDI Policy, and it has positive impact on economic development.

Keywords: FDI, India, economic development, government

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2196 Dynamics of Investor's Behaviour: An Analytical Survey Study in Indian Securities Market

Authors: Saurabh Agarwal

Abstract:

This paper attempts to formalise the effect of demographic variables like marital status, gender, occupation and age on the source of investment advice which, in turn, affect the herd behaviour of investors and probability of investment in near future. Further, postulations have been made for most preferred investment option and purpose of saving and source of investment. Impact of theoretical analysis on choice among investment alternatives has also been investigated. The analysis contributes to understanding the different investment choices made by households in India. The insights offered in the paper indirectly contribute in uncovering the various unexplained asset pricing puzzles.

Keywords: portfolio choice, investment decisions, investor’s behaviour, Indian securities market

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2195 The Study of the Perspectives on Economic Development in Bilateral Investment Treaties

Authors: Anuj Kumar Vaksha

Abstract:

In the post cold war era the foreign direct investments have come to be considered as one of the most critical factors for economic development of a country particularly for the capital scarce countries like the developing and the under developed countries. The rush for foreign direct investments have led to intense competition between the countries treaties to attract foreign investments by entering into alluring Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs). The Bilateral Investment Treaties are the intergovernmental legal framework for the promotion of private investments from one country to other. With more than 3000 BITs, the web of such BITs are the most dominant development of International Law in the post cold war era. The essence of all these BITs are bilateral cooperation for economic development and thus it is actually the theme of economic development around which the International Law had developed most dominantly in the post cold war era. Within the framework of two generally accepted premises that foreign direct investments are critical for economic development and the bilateral investment treaties are critical for promotion of foreign direct investments, the research paper seeks to explore the perspectives and paradigms on economic development as embodied in various Bilateral Investment Treaties. It seeks to address how and in what manners the perspectives on economic development as embodied in bilateral investment varies between the developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. It goes without saying that economic development is a very broad, complex and operationally intricate concept. In the paradigm of International Law it becomes much more complex and intricate. Understanding the concept of economic development from the perspectives of Bilateral Investment Treaties is a novel idea with far reaching significance. Such a perspective on economic development would help in enriching the contemporary International Law perspectives and paradigms on economic development.

Keywords: bilateral investment treaties, economic development, international Law, perspectives

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2194 The Effect of the Construction Contract System by Simulating the Comparative Costs of Capital to the Financial Feasibility of the Construction of Toll Bali Mandara

Authors: Mas Pertiwi I. G. AG Istri, Sri Kristinayanti Wayan, Oka Aryawan I. Gede Made

Abstract:

Ability of government to meet the needs of infrastructure investment constrained by the size of the budget commitments for other sectors. Another barrier is the complexity of the process of land acquisition. Public Private Partnership can help bridge the investment gap by including the amount of funding from the private sector, shifted the responsibility of financing, construction of the asset, and the operation and post-project design and care to them. In principle, a construction project implementation always requires the investor as a party to provide resources in the form of funding which it must be contained in a successor agreement in the form of a contract. In general, construction contracts consist of contracts which passed in Indonesia and contract International. One source of funding used in the implementation of construction projects comes from funding that comes from the collaboration between the government and the private sector, for example with the system: BLT (Build Lease Transfer), BOT (Build Operate Transfer), BTO (Build Transfer Operate) and BOO (Build Operate Own). And form of payment under a construction contract can be distinguished several ways: monthly payment, payments based on progress and payment after completed projects (Turn Key). One of the tools used to analyze the feasibility of the investment is to use financial models. The financial model describes the relationship between different variables and assumptions used. From a financial model will be known how the cash flow structure of the project, which includes revenues, expenses, liabilities to creditors and the payment of taxes to the government. Net cash flow generated from the project will be used as a basis for analyzing the feasibility of investment source of project financing Public Private Partnership could come from equity or debt. The proportion of funding according to its source is a comparison of a number of investment funds originating from each source of financing for a total investment cost during the construction period by selected the contract system and several alternative financing percentage ratio determined according to sources will generate cash flow structure that is different. Of the various possibilities for the structure of the cash flow generated will be analyzed by software is to test T Paired to compared the contract system used by various alternatives comparison of financing to determine the effect of the contract system and the comparison of such financing for the feasibility of investment toll road construction project for the economic life of 20 (twenty) years. In this use case studies of toll road contruction project Bali Mandara. And in this analysis only covered two systems contracts, namely Build Operate Transfer and Turn Key. Based on the results obtained by analysis of the variable investment feasibility of the NPV, BCR and IRR between the contract system Build Operate Transfer and contract system Turn Key on the interest rate of 9%, 12% and 15%.

Keywords: contract system, financing, internal rate of return, net present value

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2193 An Analysis of Public Environmental Investment on the Sustainable Development in China

Authors: K. Y. Chen, Y. N. Jia, H. Chua, C. W. Kan

Abstract:

As the largest developing country in the world, China is now facing the problem arising from the environment. Thus, China government increases the environmental investment yearly. In this study, we will analyse the effect of the public environmental investment on the sustainable development in China. Firstly, we will review the current situation of China's environmental issue. Secondly, we will collect the yearly environmental data as well as the information of public environmental investment. Finally, we will use the collected data to analyse and project the SWOT of public environmental investment in China. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to provide the relationship between public environmental investment and sustainable development in China. Based on the data collected, it was revealed that the public environmental investment had a positive impact on the sustainable development in China as well as the GDP growth. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: China, public environmental investment, sustainable development, analysis

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2192 Built-Own-Lease-Transfer (BOLT): “An Alternative Model to Subsidy Schemes in Public Private Partnership Projects”

Authors: Nirali Shukla, Neel Shah

Abstract:

The World Bank Institute (WBI) is undertaking a review of government interventions aimed at facilitating sustainable investment in public private partnerships (PPPs) in various under developed countries. The study presents best practice for applying financial model to make PPPs financially viable. The lessons presented here, if properly implemented, can help countries use limited funds to attract more private investment, get more infrastructure built and, as a result, achieve greater economic growth. The four countries Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and India in total develop an average of nearly US$50 billion in PPPs per year. There are a range of policies and institutional arrangements governments use to provide subsidies to PPPs. For example, some countries have created dedicated agencies, or ‘funds’, capitalized with money from the national budget to manage and allocate subsidies. Other countries have established well-defined policies for appropriating subsidies on an ad hoc basis through an annual budget process. In this context, subsidies are direct fiscal contributions or grants paid by the government to a project when revenues from user fees are insufficient to cover all capital and operating costs while still providing private investors with a reasonable rate of return. Without subsidies, some infrastructure projects that would provide economic or social gains, but are not financially viable, would go undeveloped. But the Financial model of BOLT (PPP) model described in this study suggests that it is most feasible option rather than going for subsidy schemes for making infrastructure projects financially viable. The major advantage for implementing this model is the government money is saved and can be used for other projects as well as the private investors are getting better rate of return than subsidized schemes.

Keywords: PPP, BOLT, subsidy schemes, financial model

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2191 Religion, Education, and Nation: Anticlerical Principle of France and Private School Law of South Korea

Authors: Minjeoung Kim

Abstract:

The education plays an important role of political socialization in politics. In Korean and in France, religion in education is situated in an important place, but religious education in school is dealt differently in two countries. In this article, the author tries to reveal the reason why in France private Catholic schools can keep their religious discipline, but in Korea, private Christian schools cannot insist Christianism to their students. This is because of the different situation of their budget. In Korea, even though private schools are named ‘private’, they cannot be managed without government subsidy but in France, private Catholic schools are owned by private foundation and their budget is based on their own resource. That’s why French private schools do not need to follow governmental guidance but not in Korean case.

Keywords: religion, politics, South Korea, France

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2190 A Critical Analysis of Environmental Investment in India

Authors: K. Y. Chen, H. Chua, C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Environmental investment is an important issue in many countries. In this study, we will first review the environmental issues related to India and their effect on the economical development. Secondly, economic data would be collected from government yearly statistics. The statistics would also include the environmental investment information of India. Finally, we would co-relate the data in order to find out the relationship between environmental investment and sustainable development in India. Therefore, in the paper, we aim to analyse the effect of an environmental investment on the sustainable development in India. Based on the economic data collected, India is in development status with fast population and GDP growth speed. India is facing the environment problems due to its high-speed development. However, the environment investment could give a positive impact on the sustainable development in India. The environmental investment is keeping in the same growth rate with GDP. Acknowledgment: Authors would like to thank the financial support from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University for this work.

Keywords: India, environmental investment, sustainable development, analysis

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2189 Testing the Moderating Effect of Sub Ethnic on Household Investment Behaviour

Authors: Widayat Widayat

Abstract:

Nowday, in the modern investment era, household behavior on investment is a topic that is quite warm. The development of the modern investment, indicated by the emergence of a variety of investment instruments, such as stocks, bonds and various forms of derivatives, affected on the complexity of choosing an investment, especially for traditional societies. Various studies show that there is more than one factor acting as a behavioral antesenden decide to choose an investment instrument. One of the factors, which contribute in determining the investment option is ethnic. Society with a particular sub-culture tend to prefer investing their particular instrument. This is because they have the values, norms and different social environmental. This article is designed to test the impact of sub-cultures between Osing-Java as moderator, in investing. The study was conducted in Banyuwangi, East Java Province of Indonesia. Data were collected using questionnaires, which is given to the head of the household respondents were selected as samples. Sample of households selected by multistage sampling method. The data have been collected processed using SmartPLS software and testing moderating effects using grouped sample test. The result showed that sub-ethnic and has a significant role in determining the investment.

Keywords: investment behaviour, household, moderating, sub ethnic

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2188 Price Prediction Line, Investment Signals and Limit Conditions Applied for the German Financial Market

Authors: Cristian Păuna

Abstract:

In the first decades of the 21st century, in the electronic trading environment, algorithmic capital investments became the primary tool to make a profit by speculations in financial markets. A significant number of traders, private or institutional investors are participating in the capital markets every day using automated algorithms. The autonomous trading software is today a considerable part in the business intelligence system of any modern financial activity. The trading decisions and orders are made automatically by computers using different mathematical models. This paper will present one of these models called Price Prediction Line. A mathematical algorithm will be revealed to build a reliable trend line, which is the base for limit conditions and automated investment signals, the core for a computerized investment system. The paper will guide how to apply these tools to generate entry and exit investment signals, limit conditions to build a mathematical filter for the investment opportunities, and the methodology to integrate all of these in automated investment software. The paper will also present trading results obtained for the leading German financial market index with the presented methods to analyze and to compare different automated investment algorithms. It was found that a specific mathematical algorithm can be optimized and integrated into an automated trading system with good and sustained results for the leading German Market. Investment results will be compared in order to qualify the presented model. In conclusion, a 1:6.12 risk was obtained to reward ratio applying the trigonometric method to the DAX Deutscher Aktienindex on 24 months investment. These results are superior to those obtained with other similar models as this paper reveal. The general idea sustained by this paper is that the Price Prediction Line model presented is a reliable capital investment methodology that can be successfully applied to build an automated investment system with excellent results.

Keywords: algorithmic trading, automated trading systems, high-frequency trading, DAX Deutscher Aktienindex

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2187 Clients’ Priorities in Design and Delivery of Green Projects: South African Perspective

Authors: Charles Mothobiso

Abstract:

This study attempts to identify the client’s main priority when delivering green projects. The aim is to compare whether clients’ interests are similar when delivering conventional buildings as compared to green buildings. Private clients invest more in green buildings as compared to government and parastatal entities. Private clients prioritize on maximizing a return on investment and they mainly invest in energy-saving buildings that have low life cycle costs. Private clients are perceived to be more knowledgeable about the benefits of green building projects as compared to government and parastatal clients. A shortage of expertise and managerial skill leads to the low adaptation of green buildings in government and parastatal projects. Other factors that seem to prevent the adoption of green buildings are the preparedness of the supply chain within the industry and inappropriate procurement strategies adopted by clients.

Keywords: construction clients, design team, green buildings, procurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
2186 Impacts of Exchange Rate and Inflation Rate on Foreign Direct Investment in Pakistan

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir

Abstract:

The study identifies the impact of inflation and foreign exchange rate on foreign direct investment in Pakistan. Inflation and exchange rates are used as independent variables and foreign direct investment is taken as dependent variable. Discreet time series data has been used from the period of 1999 to 2009. The results of regression analysis reveal that high inflation has negative impact on foreign direct investment and higher exchange rates has positive impact on foreign direct investment in Pakistan. The inflation and foreign exchange rates both are insignificant in the analysis.

Keywords: inflation rate, foreign exchange rate, foreign direct investment, foreign assets

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
2185 Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria

Authors: E. O. Fakoya, B. G. Abiona, J. O. Soetan

Abstract:

The study determined Perception of Agricultural Extension Agents of Private Sector Participation in Extension Services in Ogun State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 80 respondents with a well-structured questionnaire. The result of the findings showed that there is need for private sector participation in extension services (=4.313), private extension services has facilities than public extension services (=4.97). Private sector participated in extension services by: giving of loans and credits to farmers (=4.50). Major constraints identified by the respondents were: Transportation problem (=2.88) and lack of fund (=2.77) A significant relationship (P<0.05) exists between factors affecting public extension services(r = 0.641, p = 0.00) and private sector participation in extension services. It was concluded from the study that there is need for private sector to participate in extension service in order to improve productivity of the farmers.

Keywords: agricultural extension, extension agent, private sector, perception

Procedia PDF Downloads 407
2184 Investing in Shares of Innovative Companies: The Risk and the Return, Evidence from Polish Capital Market

Authors: Tomasz L. Nawrocki

Abstract:

Due to the growing global interest of investment society in innovative enterprises, as the objective of this research was adopted to examine the investment efficiency in shares of companies with innovative characteristics in the risk-return layout. The research was carried out for companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange taking into various consideration time ranges of investment. Obtained results show that in shorter periods of time, investors buy expectations connected with innovative companies and therefore the efficiency of investment in their shares is relatively high, but in the longer term expectations are revised by companies financial results, which in turn negatively affects the efficiency of investment in their shares.

Keywords: capital market, innovative company, investment strategies, risk and return analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
2183 Business and Psychological Principles Integrated into Automated Capital Investment Systems through Mathematical Algorithms

Authors: Cristian Pauna

Abstract:

With few steps away from the 2020, investments in financial markets is a common activity nowadays. In the electronic trading environment, the automated investment software has become a major part in the business intelligence system of any modern financial company. The investment decisions are assisted and/or made automatically by computers using mathematical algorithms today. The complexity of these algorithms requires computer assistance in the investment process. This paper will present several investment strategies that can be automated with algorithmic trading for Deutscher Aktienindex DAX30. It was found that, based on several price action mathematical models used for high-frequency trading some investment strategies can be optimized and improved for automated investments with good results. This paper will present the way to automate these investment decisions. Automated signals will be built using all of these strategies. Three major types of investment strategies were found in this study. The types are separated by the target length and by the exit strategy used. The exit decisions will be also automated and the paper will present the specificity for each investment type. A comparative study will be also included in this paper in order to reveal the differences between strategies. Based on these results, the profit and the capital exposure will be compared and analyzed in order to qualify the investment methodologies presented and to compare them with any other investment system. As conclusion, some major investment strategies will be revealed and compared in order to be considered for inclusion in any automated investment system.

Keywords: Algorithmic trading, automated investment systems, limit conditions, trading principles, trading strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2182 Assessment of Investment Programs in Agriculture in Georgia

Authors: M. Chavleishvili

Abstract:

The paper presents the analysis of the current situation of agricultural development in Georgia. The investment environment that supports development of the agricultural sector is evaluated and the key priorities are identified. The analysis of the projects already implemented with state and EU support, as well as those that are being currently implemented is presented. The policy and the programs supporting development of agricultural sector are analyzed. Based on an analysis of the evaluations of experts and the primary accounting documents, the outcomes of investment programs, their advantages and disadvantages, are studied. Through identifying investment programs in the agricultural sector of Georgia, corresponding conclusions are made, based on which some recommendations are developed.

Keywords: agriculture, investments, investment programs, projects

Procedia PDF Downloads 241