Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Tushar Lodha

18 Fungal Diversity and Bioprospecting of Termite-Associated Fungi from Nothern-Western Ghats of India

Authors: Gajanan V. Mane, Rashmi More, Mahesh S. Sonawane, Tushar Lodha, Rohit Sharma


The diversity of fungi isolated from two different termite species viz., Odontoterms assmuthi and O. abesus was investigated by dilution- plate method, combined with morphological characteristics and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region. In total, ninety-six fungi were isolated and purified, out of which 69 isolates were obtained from O. assmuthi belonging to 18 genera and 31 species, whereas 27 isolates were obtained from O. abesus belonging to 15 genera and 17 species. The fungal strains were screened for laccase, amylase, cellulase and pectinase enzymes production. Twenty-seven strains were positive for laccase, 59 strains were positive for amylase, 71 strains were positive for cellulase and 72 strains were positive for pectinase enzymes. The antimicrobial activities of the isolated fungi were tested by the dual plate culture method against standard pathogens. Bioactive secondary metabolites were identified by HPLC and LCMS. Four isolates viz., Penicillium goetzii MG 57, Epicoccum sp. MG 39, Penicillium tanzanicum MG 30, Aspergillus polyporicola MG 54, showed positive antimicrobial activity against standard pathogens, Streptococcus pneumonia MCC 2425, Staphylococcus aureus MCC 2408, Pseudomonas aeruginosa MCC 2080, Escherichia coli MCC 2412, Enterococcus faecalis MCC 2409, Klebsiella pneumonia MCC 2451, Micrococcus luteus MCC 2155 and Candida albicans MCC 1151. In conclusion, the study showed that the insect gut harbor fungal diversity, which is futuristic with biotechnological potential and could be a good source of enzymes and antibiotics.

Keywords: termites, fungi, its, enzyme, antimicrobial activity

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17 Internet of Things: Route Search Optimization Applying Ant Colony Algorithm and Theory of Computer Science

Authors: Tushar Bhardwaj


Internet of Things (IoT) possesses a dynamic network where the network nodes (mobile devices) are added and removed constantly and randomly, hence the traffic distribution in the network is quite variable and irregular. The basic but very important part in any network is route searching. We have many conventional route searching algorithms like link-state, and distance vector algorithms but they are restricted to the static point to point network topology. In this paper we propose a model that uses the Ant Colony Algorithm for route searching. It is dynamic in nature and has positive feedback mechanism that conforms to the route searching. We have also embedded the concept of Non-Deterministic Finite Automata [NDFA] minimization to reduce the network to increase the performance. Results show that Ant Colony Algorithm gives the shortest path from the source to destination node and NDFA minimization reduces the broadcasting storm effectively.

Keywords: routing, ant colony algorithm, NDFA, IoT

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16 Structural Reliability Analysis Using Extreme Learning Machine

Authors: Mehul Srivastava, Sharma Tushar Ravikant, Mridul Krishn Mishra


In structural design, the evaluation of safety and probability failure of structure is of significant importance, mainly when the variables are random. On real structures, structural reliability can be evaluated obtaining an implicit limit state function. The structural reliability limit state function is obtained depending upon the statistically independent variables. In the analysis of reliability, we considered the statistically independent random variables to be the load intensity applied and the depth or height of the beam member considered. There are many approaches for structural reliability problems. In this paper Extreme Learning Machine technique and First Order Second Moment Method is used to determine the reliability indices for the same set of variables. The reliability index obtained using ELM is compared with the reliability index obtained using FOSM. Higher the reliability index, more feasible is the method to determine the reliability.

Keywords: reliability, reliability index, statistically independent, extreme learning machine

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15 Defect Induced Enhanced Photoresponse in Graphene

Authors: Prarthana Gowda, Tushar Sakorikar, Siva K. Reddy, Darim B. Ferry, Abha Misra


Graphene, a two-dimensional carbon allotrope has demonstrated excellent electrical, mechanical and optical properties. A tunable band gap of grapheme demonstrated broad band absorption of light with a response time of picoseconds, however it suffers a fast recombination of the photo generated carriers. Many reports have explored to overcome this problem; in this presentation, we discuss defect induced enhanced photoresponse in a few layer graphene (FLG) due to exposure of infrared (IR) radiation. The two and four-fold enhancement in the photocurrent is achieved by addition of multiwalled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) to an FLG surface and also creating the wrinkles in the FLG (WG) respectively. In our study, it is also inferred that the photo current generation is highly dependent on the morphological defects on the graphene. It is observed that the FLG (without defects) generates the photo current instantaneously, and after a prolonged exposure to the IR radiation decays the generation rate. Importantly, the presence of MWCNT on FLG enhances the stability and WG presented both stable as well as enhanced photo response.

Keywords: graphene, multiwalled carbon nano tubes, wrinkled graphene, photo detector, photo current

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14 Stabilization of Fly Ash Slope Using Plastic Recycled Polymer and Finite Element Analysis Using Plaxis 3D

Authors: Tushar Vasant Salunkhe, Sariput M. Nawghare, Maheboobsab B. Nadaf, Sushovan Dutta, J. N. Mandal


The model tests were conducted in the laboratory without and with plastic recycled polymer in fly ash steep slopes overlaying soft foundation soils like fly ash and power soil in order to check the stability of steep slope. In this experiment, fly ash is used as a filling material, and Plastic Recycled Polymers of diameter = 3mm and length = 4mm were made from the waste plastic product (lower grade plastic product). The properties of fly ash and plastic recycled polymers are determined. From the experiments, load and settlement have measured. From these data, load–settlement curves have been reported. It has been observed from test results that the load carrying capacity of mixture fly ash with Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is more than that of fly ash slope. The deformation of Plastic Recycled Polymers slope is slightly more than that of fly ash slope. A Finite Element Method (F.E.M.) was also evaluated using PLAXIS 3D version. The failure pattern, deformations and factor of safety are reported based on analytical programme. The results from experimental data and analytical programme are compared and reported.

Keywords: factor of safety, finite element method (FEM), fly ash, plastic recycled polymer

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13 Evaluation of Efficiency of Naturally Available Disinfectants and Filter Media in Conventional Gravity Filters

Authors: Abhinav Mane, Kedar Karvande, Shubham Patel, Abhayraj Lodha


Gravity filters are one of the most commonly used, economically viable and moderately efficient water purification systems. Their efficiency is mainly based on the type of filter media installed and its location within the filter mass. Several researchers provide valuable input in decision of the type of filter media. However, the choice is mainly restricted to the chemical combinations of different substances. This makes it very much dependent on the factory made filter media, and no cheap alternatives could be found and used. This paper presents the use of disinfectants and filter medias either available naturally or could be prepared using natural resources in conventional mechanism of gravity filter. A small scale laboratory investigation was made with variation in filter media thickness and its location from the top surface of the filter. A rigid steel frame based custom fabricated test setup was used to facilitate placement of filter media at different height within the filter mass. Finely grinded sun dried Neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts and porous burnt clay pads were used as two distinct filter media and placed in isolation as well as in combination with each other. Ground water available in Marathwada region of Maharashtra, India which mainly consists of harmful materials like Arsenic, Chlorides, Iron, Magnesium and Manganese, etc. was treated in the filters fabricated in the present study. The evaluation was made mainly in terms of the input/output water quality assessment through laboratory tests. The present paper should give a cheap and eco-friendly solution to prepare gravity filter at the merit of household skills and availability.

Keywords: fliter media, gravity filters, natural disinfectants, porous clay pads

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12 Parametric Analysis of Syn-gas Fueled SOFC with Internal Reforming

Authors: Sanjay Tushar Choudhary


This paper focuses on the thermodynamic analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC). In the present work the SOFC has been modeled to work with internal reforming of fuel which takes place at high temperature and direct energy conversion from chemical energy to electrical energy takes place. The fuel-cell effluent is a high-temperature steam which can be used for co-generation purposes. Syn-gas has been used here as fuel which is essentially produced by steam reforming of methane in the internal reformer of the SOFC. A thermodynamic model of SOFC has been developed for planar cell configuration to evaluate various losses in the energy conversion process within the fuel cell. Cycle parameters like fuel utilization ratio and the air-recirculation ratio have been varied to evaluate the thermodynamic performance of the fuel cell. Output performance parameters like terminal voltage, cell-efficiency and power output have been evaluated for various values of current densities. It has been observed that a combination of a lower value of air-circulation ratio and higher values of fuel utilization efficiency gives a better overall thermodynamic performance.

Keywords: current density, SOFC, suel utilization factor, recirculation ratio

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11 Caregiver’s Perception Regarding Diagnosis Disclosure to Children Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus in Resource-Limited Settings: Observational Study from India

Authors: Ramesh Chand Chauhan, Sanjay Kumar Rai, Shashi kant, Rakesh Lodha, Nand Kumar


Background: With a better understanding of HIV pathogenesis and availability of antiretroviral therapy more children are growing and entering in teenage group; informing children of their own HIV status has become an important aspect of long-term disease management. There is little evidence of how and when this type of disclosure takes place in a resource-limited setting. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2010 to May 2011 among a dyads of 156 HIV-infected children and their caregivers, those were visiting pediatric clinic at a tertiary care hospital in Delhi, India. The study protocol was approved by the Institute Ethics Committee. After taking written informed consent; pretested structured questionnaire was administered to caregivers during routine clinic visits. Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, awareness of HIV infection status among children and their perception regarding disclosure was collected. Mean and frequencies were calculated and chi-square and logistic regression test were applied. Results: The mean age of children was 8.4 ±3.45 years. Among them 73.7% were male and 39.1% were orphans. Among 156 enrolled children, 74.4% (n=116) were of ≥ 6 years and were assessed for disclosure. Only 18.1% (n=21) children had been informed of their HIV status. Of those under 9 years, 6.4% knew their status, whereas 18.4% of 9-11 years and 35.5% of 12-14 years children knew they had HIV. Awareness among males (23.3%) was higher than females (3.3%). Both age and sex of child were significantly (p<0.01) associated with disclosure status. Other factors favoring disclosure were orphan-hood, non-perinatal mode of transmission (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.01-7.12), ART initiation (OR = 4.21; 95% CI 1.03-6.98), and caregiver educated beyond primary level (OR = 1.89; 95% CI 1.03-3.26). Repeated enquiry regarding the visit to clinic was the most common reason (66.6%) for disclosure. In 52.4% children disclosure was done with the involvement of other family members. 82.5% caregivers felt the age of > 10 years is appropriate for disclosing the HIV infection status to the child. Conclusion: Detailed guidelines on disclosure are required focusing on children of school-going age with perinatal infection who are not on ART and with caregivers of low educational status.

Keywords: HIV, children, India, disclosure

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10 Structural, Magnetic and Thermodynamic Investigation of Iridium Double Perovskites with Ir⁵⁺

Authors: Mihai I. Sturza, Laura T. Corredor, Kaustuv Manna, Gizem A. Cansever, Tushar Dey, Andrey Maljuk, Olga Kataeva, Sabine Wurmehl, Anja Wolter, Bernd Buchner


Recently, the iridate double perovskite Sr₂YIrO₆ has attracted considerable attention due to the report of unexpected magnetism in this Ir⁵⁺ material, in which according to the Jeff model, a non-magnetic ground state is expected. Structural, magnetic and thermodynamic investigations of Sr₂YIrO₆ and Ba2YIrO6 single crystals, with emphasis on the temperature and magnetic field dependence of the specific heat will be presented. The single crystals were grown by using SrCl₂ and BaCl₂ as flux. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements performed on several crystals from different preparation batches showed a high quality of the crystals, proven by the good internal consistency of the data collected using the full-sphere mode and an extremely low R factor. In agreement with the expected non-magnetic ground state of Ir⁵⁺ (5d4) in these iridates, no magnetic transition is observed down to 430 mK. Moreover, our results suggest that the low-temperature anomaly observed in the specific heat is not related to the onset of long-range magnetic order. Instead, it is identified as a Schottky anomaly caused by paramagnetic impurities present in the sample, of the order of

Keywords: double perovskites, iridates, self-flux grown synthesis, spin-orbit coupling

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9 Upgraded Cuckoo Search Algorithm to Solve Optimisation Problems Using Gaussian Selection Operator and Neighbour Strategy Approach

Authors: Mukesh Kumar Shah, Tushar Gupta


An Upgraded Cuckoo Search Algorithm is proposed here to solve optimization problems based on the improvements made in the earlier versions of Cuckoo Search Algorithm. Short comings of the earlier versions like slow convergence, trap in local optima improved in the proposed version by random initialization of solution by suggesting an Improved Lambda Iteration Relaxation method, Random Gaussian Distribution Walk to improve local search and further proposing Greedy Selection to accelerate to optimized solution quickly and by “Study Nearby Strategy” to improve global search performance by avoiding trapping to local optima. It is further proposed to generate better solution by Crossover Operation. The proposed strategy used in algorithm shows superiority in terms of high convergence speed over several classical algorithms. Three standard algorithms were tested on a 6-generator standard test system and the results are presented which clearly demonstrate its superiority over other established algorithms. The algorithm is also capable of handling higher unit systems.

Keywords: economic dispatch, gaussian selection operator, prohibited operating zones, ramp rate limits

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8 Effect of Passive Pectoralis Minor Stretching on Scapular Kinematics in Scapular Dyskinesia

Authors: Seema Saini, Nidhi Chandra, Tushar Palekar


Objective: To determine the effect of Passive pectoralis minor muscle stretching on scapular kinematics in individuals with scapular dyskinesia. Design: A randomized controlled study was conducted in Pune. The sample size was 30 subjects, which were randomly allocated to either Group A, the experimental group in which passive pectoralis minor stretch was given, or Group B, the control group, in which conventional exercises were given for 3 days a week over 4 weeks. Pre and Post treatment readings of the outcome measures, pectoralis minor length, scapular upward rotation, and lateral scapular slide test were recorded. Results: The results obtained prove a significant difference between pre and post mean values of pectoralis minor length in group A (pre 21.91, post 22.87) and in group B (pre 23.55 post 23.99); scapular upward rotation in group A (pre 49.95, post 50.61) and group B (pre 52.64, post 53.51); lateral scapular slide test at 0° abduction in group A (pre 6.613, post 6.14) and group B (pre 6.84, post 6.22); lateral scapular slide test at 45° abduction in group A (pre 7.14 and post 7.12) and group B (pre 8.18, post 7.53). With an inter-group analysis, it was found that mean of pectoralis minor length, scapular upward rotation, and LSST at 0° abduction in group A was significant than group B (p<0.05). Conclusion: Passive pectoralis minor stretching along with conventional strengthening exercises was shown to be more effective in improving scapular kinematics among patients with scapular dyskinesia.

Keywords: scapulohumeral rhythm, scapular upward rotation, rounded shoulders, scapular strengthening

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7 Assessment of Transverse Abdominis Activation during Three Different Exercises in Low Back Pain Patients: Measurement with Real-Time Ultrasonography

Authors: Venus Pagare, Amit Kharat, Dhaval K. Thakkar, Tushar J. Palekar


Introduction: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major public health problem and is the leading musculoskeletal cause of disability. Altered neuromuscular control of core muscles, particulary transverses abdominis (TrA) is thought to be a contributing factor for the development of CLBP. Therefore, various exercises targeting the TrA are commonly incorporated into the rehabilitation. Objectives: To investigate the effects of 3 different core exercises on activation capacity of TrA muscle in individuals with CLBP as compared with healthy controls. Methodology: Thickness of TrA muscle was measured by ultrasound imaging in 30 patients with CLBP and 30 healthy controls. Measurements were taken during 3 different TrA activation exercises i.e Abdominal drawing in maneuver (ADIM), Abdominal drawing in with straight leg raise (ADSLR) and breathe hold at maximum expiration (ME). Thickness of the muscle at rest (at the end of normal tidal expiration) was taken as a baseline measure. Results: There was a significant difference between the healthy subjects and patients with low back pain with regard to the thickness of TrA at rest and thickness during contraction. ADIM produced a significant increase in the thickness of TrA compared to ADSLR and ME (p<0.001). Also, increase in thickness of TrA was more in the control group than patients with low back pain. Conclusion: CLBP patients exhibited atrophy of TrA muscle with delayed activation. Also, of the various core exercises, ADIM can be an effective method for activation of TrA.


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6 Sustainable Agriculture of Tribal Farmers: An Analysis in Koraput and Malkangiri Districts of Odisha, India

Authors: Amrita Mishra, Tushar Kanti Das


Agriculture is the backbone of the economy of Odisha. Sustainability of agriculture holds the key for the development of Odisha. The Sustainable Development Goals are a framework of 17 goals and 169 targets across social, economical and environmental areas of sustainable development. Among all the seventeen goals the second goal is focusing on the promotion of Sustainable Agriculture. In this research our main aim is also to contribute an understanding of effectiveness of sustainable agriculture as a tool for rural development in the selected tribal district (i.e. Koraput and Malkangiri) of Odisha. These two districts are comes under KBK districts of Odisha which are identified as most backward districts of Odisha. The objectives of our study are to investigate the effect of sustainable agriculture on the lives of tribal farmers, to study whether the farmers are empowered by their participation in sustainable agriculture initiatives to move towards their own vision of development and to study the investment and profit ratio in sustainable agriculture. This research will help in filling the major gaps in sociological studies of sustainable agriculture. This information will helpful for farmers, development organisations, donors and policy makers in formulating the development of effective initiatives and policies to support the development of sustainable agriculture. In this study, we have taken 210 respondents and used various statistical techniques like chi-square test, one-way ANOVA and percentage analysis. This research shows that sustainable agriculture is an effective development strategy that benefits the tribal farmers to move towards their own vision of Good Fortune. The poor farmers who struggle to feed their families and maintain viable livelihoods on shrinking land for them sustainable agriculture are really benefited. The farmers are using homemade pesticides, manure and also getting the seeds from different development organisations and Government. So the investment in Sustainable Agriculture is very less. All farmers said their lives are now better than before. The creation of farmers groups for training and marketing for the produces was shown to be very important for empowerment.

Keywords: sustainable, agriculture, tribal farmers, development, empowerment

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5 Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of the Pathogens Isolated from Hospital Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in North India

Authors: M. S. Raza, A. Kapil, Sonu Tyagi, H. Gautam, S. Mohapatra, R. Chaudhry, S. Sood, V. Goyal, R. Lodha, V. Sreenivas, B. K. Das


Background: Acute bacterial meningitis remains the major cause of mortality and morbidity. More than half of the survivors develop the significant lifelong neurological abnormalities. Diagnosis of the hospital acquired acute bacterial meningitis (HAABM) is challenging as it appears either in the post operative patients or patients acquire the organisms from the hospital environment. In both the situations, pathogens are exposed to high dose of antibiotics. Chances of getting multidrug resistance organism are very high. We have performed this experiment to find out the etiological agents of HAABM and its antibiotics susceptibility pattern. Methodology: A perspective study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. From March 2015 to April 2018 total 400 Cerebro spinal fluid samples were collected aseptically. Samples were processed for cell count, Gram staining, and culture. Culture plates were incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours. Organism grown on blood and MacConkey agar were identified by MALDI-TOF Vitek MS (BioMerieux, France) and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method as per CLSI 2015 guideline. Results: Of the 400 CSF samples processed, 43 (10.75%) were culture positive for different bacteria. Out of 43 isolates, the most prevalent Gram-positive organisms were S. aureus 4 (9.30%) followed by E. faecium 3 (6.97%) & CONS 2 (4.65%). Similarly, E. coli 13 (30.23%) was the commonest Gram-negative isolates followed by A. baumannii 12 (27.90%), K. pneumonia 5 (11.62%) and P. aeruginosa 4(9.30%). Most of the antibiotics tested against the Gram-negative isolates were resistance to them. Colistin was most effective followed by Meropenem and Imepenim for all Gram-negative HAABM isolates. Similarly, most of antibiotics tested were susceptible to S. aureus and CONS. However, E. faecium (100%) were only susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusion: Hospital acquired acute bacterial meningitis (HAABM) is becoming the emerging challenge as most of isolates are showing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Gram-negative organisms are emerging as the major player of HAABM. Great care needs to be taken especially in tertiary care hospitals. Similarly, antibiotic stewardship should be followed and antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) should be performed regularly to update the antibiotic patter and to prevent from the emergence of resistance. Updated information of the AST will be helpful for the better management of the meningitis patient.

Keywords: CSF, MALDI-TOF, hospital acquired acute bacterial meningitis, AST

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4 Role of Cognitive Flexibility and Employee Engagement in Determining Turnover Intentions of Employees

Authors: Prashant Das, Tushar Singh, Virendra Byadwal


The present study attempted to understand the role of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement in predicting employees’ turnover intentions. Employee turnover is a significant problem that many organizations are facing these days. Employee turnover is not only extremely expensive for the employer but also results in poor production levels. In developing countries like India, organizations once believed to have most stable employees, are facing major turnover problems. One such organization is banking organizations. Due to globalization, banks are now changing their work scenarios under which the employees have many different roles to perform. Cognitive flexibility which refers to an individual’s ability to shift cognitive sets and to adapt to one’s changing environment, thus seems to be an important factor that are responsible for the employee turnover in organizations. It is hypothesized that those with higher cognitive flexibility would be more able to adapt to the changing work demands of the organizations and thus would show less turnover intentions. Another factor that seems to be important in predicting turnover is employee engagement. Kahn referred to engagement in terms of the harnessing of organization members’ selves to their work roles [by which they] employ and express themselves physically, cognitively, and emotionally during role performances. Studies have shown a strong relationship between employee engagement and turnover intentions. Those with higher engagement with their jobs have found to show low turnover intentions. This study thus hypothesizes that employees with higher engagement will show lower levels of turnover intentions. A total of 150 bank employees (75 from private and 75 from public) participated in this study. They were administered Cognitive Flexibility Scale, Gallup Questionnaire and Intention to Stay Questionnaire along with another questionnaire asking for their demographic details. Results of the study revealed that employees with higher levels of cognitive flexibility and employee engagement show lover levels of turnover intentions. However, the effect is more prominent in case of employees of private banks. Demographic characteristics such as level of the employee and years of engagement in the current job have also been found to be influencing the relationship between cognitive flexibility, employee engagement and turnover intentions. Results of the study are interpreted in accordance to the prevalent literature and theoretical positions.

Keywords: cognitive flexibility, employee engagement, organization, turnover intentions

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3 Potential Serological Biomarker for Early Detection of Pregnancy in Cows

Authors: Shveta Bathla, Preeti Rawat, Sudarshan Kumar, Rubina Baithalu, Jogender Singh Rana, Tushar Kumar Mohanty, Ashok Kumar Mohanty


Pregnancy is a complex process which includes series of events such as fertilization, formation of blastocyst, implantation of embryo, placental formation and development of fetus. The success of these events depends on various interactions which are synchronized by endocrine interaction between a receptive dam and competent embryo. These interactions lead to change in expression of hormones and proteins. But till date no protein biomarker is available which can be used to detect successful completion of these events. We employed quantitative proteomics approach to develop putative serological biomarker which has diagnostic applicability for early detection of pregnancy in cows. For this study, sera were collected from control (non-pregnant, n=6) and pregnant animals on successive days of pregnancy (7, 19, 45, n=6). The sera were subjected to depletion for removal of albumin using Norgen depletion kit. The tryptic peptides were labeled with iTRAQ. The peptides were pooled and fractionated using bRPLC over 80 min gradient. Then 12 fractions were injected to nLC for identification and quantitation in DDA mode using ESI. Identification using Mascot search revealed 2056 proteins out of which 352 proteins were differentially expressed. Twenty proteins were upregulated and twelve proteins were down-regulated with fold change > 1.5 and < 0.6 respectively (p < 0.05). The gene ontology studies of DEPs using Panther software revealed that majority of proteins are actively involved in catalytic activities, binding and enzyme regulatory activities. The DEP'S such as NF2, MAPK, GRIPI, UGT1A1, PARP, CD68 were further subjected to pathway analysis using KEGG and Cytoscape plugin Cluego that showed involvement of proteins in successful implantation, maintenance of pluripotency, regulation of luteal function, differentiation of endometrial macrophages, protection from oxidative stress and developmental pathways such as Hippo. Further efforts are continuing for targeted proteomics, western blot to validate potential biomarkers and development of diagnostic kit for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows.

Keywords: bRPLC, Cluego, ESI, iTRAQ, KEGG, Panther

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2 Effectiveness of the Lacey Assessment of Preterm Infants to Predict Neuromotor Outcomes of Premature Babies at 12 Months Corrected Age

Authors: Thanooja Naushad, Meena Natarajan, Tushar Vasant Kulkarni


Background: The Lacey Assessment of Preterm Infants (LAPI) is used in clinical practice to identify premature babies at risk of neuromotor impairments, especially cerebral palsy. This study attempted to find the validity of the Lacey assessment of preterm infants to predict neuromotor outcomes of premature babies at 12 months corrected age and to compare its predictive ability with the brain ultrasound. Methods: This prospective cohort study included 89 preterm infants (45 females and 44 males) born below 35 weeks gestation who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of a government hospital in Dubai. Initial assessment was done using the Lacey assessment after the babies reached 33 weeks postmenstrual age. Follow up assessment on neuromotor outcomes was done at 12 months (± 1 week) corrected age using two standardized outcome measures, i.e., infant neurological international battery and Alberta infant motor scale. Brain ultrasound data were collected retrospectively. Data were statistically analyzed, and the diagnostic accuracy of the Lacey assessment of preterm infants (LAPI) was calculated -when used alone and in combination with the brain ultrasound. Results: On comparison with brain ultrasound, the Lacey assessment showed superior specificity (96% vs. 77%), higher positive predictive value (57% vs. 22%), and higher positive likelihood ratio (18 vs. 3) to predict neuromotor outcomes at one year of age. The sensitivity of Lacey assessment was lower than brain ultrasound (66% vs. 83%), whereas specificity was similar (97% vs. 98%). A combination of Lacey assessment and brain ultrasound results showed higher sensitivity (80%), positive (66%), and negative (98%) predictive values, positive likelihood ratio (24), and test accuracy (95%) than Lacey assessment alone in predicting neurological outcomes. The negative predictive value of the Lacey assessment was similar to that of its combination with brain ultrasound (96%). Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that the Lacey assessment of preterm infants can be used as a supplementary assessment tool for premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit. Due to its high specificity, Lacey assessment can be used to identify those babies at low risk of abnormal neuromotor outcomes at a later age. When used along with the findings of the brain ultrasound, Lacey assessment has better sensitivity to identify preterm babies at particular risk. These findings have applications in identifying premature babies who may benefit from early intervention services.

Keywords: brain ultrasound, lacey assessment of preterm infants, neuromotor outcomes, preterm

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1 Influence of Strain on the Corrosion Behavior of Dual Phase 590 Steel

Authors: Amit Sarkar, Jayanta K. Mahato, Tushar Bhattacharya, Amrita Kundu, P. C. Chakraborti


With increasing the demand for safety and fuel efficiency of automobiles, automotive manufacturers are looking for light weight, high strength steel with excellent formability and corrosion resistance. Dual-phase steel is finding applications in automotive sectors, because of its high strength, good formability, and high corrosion resistance. During service automotive components suffer from environmental attack and thereby gradual degradation of the components occurs reducing the service life of the components. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the effect of deformation on corrosion behaviour of DP590 grade dual phase steel which is used in automotive industries. The material was received from TATA Steel Jamshedpur, India in the form of 1 mm thick sheet. Tensile properties of the steel at strain rate of 10-3 sec-1: 0.2 % Yield Stress is 382 MPa, Ultimate Tensile Strength is 629 MPa, Uniform Strain is 16.30% and Ductility is 29%. Rectangular strips of 100x10x1 mm were machined keeping the long axis of the strips parallel to rolling direction of the sheet. These strips were longitudinally deformed at a strain rate at 10-3 sec-1 to a different percentage of strain, e.g. 2.5, 5, 7.5,10 and 12.5%, and then slowly unloaded. Small specimens were extracted from the mid region of the unclamped portion of these deformed strips. These small specimens were metallographic polished, and corrosion behaviour has been studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectra, and cyclic polarization and potentiostatic tests. Present results show that among three different environments, the 3.5 pct NaCl solution is most aggressive in case of DP 590 dual-phase steel. It is observed that with the increase in the amount of deformation, corrosion rate increases. With deformation, the stored energy increases and leads to enhanced corrosion rate. Cyclic polarization results revealed highly deformed specimen are more prone to pitting corrosion as compared to the condition when amount of deformation is less. It is also observed that stability of the passive layer decreases with the amount of deformation. With the increase of deformation, current density increases in a passive zone and passive zone is also decreased. From Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study it is found that with increasing amount of deformation polarization resistance (Rp) decreases. EBSD results showed that average geometrically necessary dislocation density increases with increasing strain which in term increased galvanic corrosion as dislocation areas act as the less noble metal.

Keywords: dual phase 590 steel, prestrain, potentiodynamic polarization, cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectra

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