Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1971

Search results for: generalized differential quadrature

1971 Nonlinear Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Hollow Beams with Super-Elliptic Cross-Sections

Authors: G. Akgun, I. Algul, H. Kurtaran

Abstract:

In this paper geometrically nonlinear static behavior of laminated composite hollow super-elliptic beams is investigated using generalized differential quadrature method. Super-elliptic beam can have both oval and elliptic cross-sections by adjusting parameters in super-ellipse formulation (also known as Lamé curves). Equilibrium equations of super-elliptic beam are obtained using the virtual work principle. Geometric nonlinearity is taken into account using von-Kármán nonlinear strain-displacement relations. Spatial derivatives in strains are expressed with the generalized differential quadrature method. Transverse shear effect is considered through the first-order shear deformation theory. Static equilibrium equations are solved using Newton-Raphson method. Several composite super-elliptic beam problems are solved with the proposed method. Effects of layer orientations of composite material, boundary conditions, ovality and ellipticity on bending behavior are investigated.

Keywords: generalized differential quadrature, geometric nonlinearity, laminated composite, super-elliptic cross-section

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
1970 Transverse Vibration of Non-Homogeneous Rectangular Plates of Variable Thickness Using GDQ

Authors: R. Saini, R. Lal

Abstract:

The effect of non-homogeneity on the free transverse vibration of thin rectangular plates of bilinearly varying thickness has been analyzed using generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method. The non-homogeneity of the plate material is assumed to arise due to linear variations in Young’s modulus and density of the plate material with the in-plane coordinates x and y. Numerical results have been computed for fully clamped and fully simply supported boundary conditions. The solution procedure by means of GDQ method has been implemented in a MATLAB code. The effect of various plate parameters has been investigated for the first three modes of vibration. A comparison of results with those available in literature has been presented.

Keywords: rectangular, non-homogeneous, bilinear thickness, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ)

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1969 Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Buckling Analysis at Nanocomposite Beams

Authors: Babak Safaei, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

In the present study we have investigated axial buckling characteristics of nanocomposite beams reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Various types of beam theories including Euler-Bernoulli beam theory, Timoshenko beam theory and Reddy beam theory were used to analyze the buckling behavior of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite beams. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was utilized to discretize the governing differential equations along with four commonly used boundary conditions. The material properties of the nanocomposite beams were obtained using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long-(10,10) SWCNT composites which were embedded by amorphous polyethylene matrix. Then the results obtained directly from MD simulations were matched with those calculated by the mixture rule to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties. The selected numerical results were presented to indicate the influences of nanotube volume fractions and end supports on the critical axial buckling loads of nanocomposite beams relevant to long- and short-nanotube composites.

Keywords: nanocomposites, molecular dynamics simulation, axial buckling, generalized differential quadrature (GDQ)

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1968 Nonlocal Beam Models for Free Vibration Analysis of Double-Walled Carbon Nanotubes with Various End Supports

Authors: Babak Safaei, Ahmad Ghanbari, Arash Rahmani

Abstract:

In the present study, the free vibration characteristics of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) are investigated. The small-scale effects are taken into account using the Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory. The nonlocal elasticity equations are implemented into the different classical beam theories namely as Euler-Bernoulli beam theory (EBT), Timoshenko beam theory (TBT), Reddy beam theory (RBT), and Levinson beam theory (LBT) to analyze the free vibrations of DWCNTs in which each wall of the nanotubes is considered as individual beam with van der Waals interaction forces. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is utilized to discretize the governing differential equations of each nonlocal beam model along with four commonly used boundary conditions. Then molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is performed for a series of armchair and zigzag DWCNTs with different aspect ratios and boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those of nonlocal beam models to extract the appropriate values of the nonlocal parameter corresponding to each type of chirality, nonlocal beam model and boundary condition. It is found that the present nonlocal beam models with their proposed correct values of nonlocal parameter have good capability to predict the vibrational behavior of DWCNTs, especially for higher aspect ratios.

Keywords: double-walled carbon nanotubes, nonlocal continuum elasticity, free vibrations, molecular dynamics simulation, generalized differential quadrature method

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1967 Molecular Dynamics Simulation for Vibration Analysis at Nanocomposite Plates

Authors: Babak Safaei, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

Polymer/carbon nanotube nanocomposites have a wide range of promising applications Due to their enhanced properties. In this work, free vibration analysis of single-walled carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates is conducted in which carbon nanotubes are embedded in an amorphous polyethylene. The rule of mixture based on various types of plate model namely classical plate theory (CLPT), first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT), and higher-order shear deformation theory (HSDT) was employed to obtain fundamental frequencies of the nanocomposite plates. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method was used to discretize the governing differential equations along with the simply supported and clamped boundary conditions. The material properties of the nanocomposite plates were evaluated using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation corresponding to both short-(10,10) SWCNT and long-(10,10) SWCNT composites. Then the results obtained directly from MD simulations were fitted with those calculated by the rule of mixture to extract appropriate values of carbon nanotube efficiency parameters accounting for the scale-dependent material properties. The selected numerical results are presented to address the influences of nanotube volume fraction and edge supports on the value of fundamental frequency of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite plates corresponding to both long- and short-nanotube composites.

Keywords: nanocomposites, molecular dynamics simulation, free vibration, generalized, differential quadrature (GDQ) method

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1966 Finding the Elastic Field in an Arbitrary Anisotropic Media by Implementing Accurate Generalized Gaussian Quadrature Solution

Authors: Hossein Kabir, Amir Hossein Hassanpour Mati-Kolaie

Abstract:

In the current study, the elastic field in an anisotropic elastic media is determined by implementing a general semi-analytical method. In this specific methodology, the displacement field is computed as a sum of finite functions with unknown coefficients. These aforementioned functions satisfy exactly both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous boundary conditions in the proposed media. It is worth mentioning that the unknown coefficients are determined by implementing the principle of minimum potential energy. The numerical integration is implemented by employing the Generalized Gaussian Quadrature solution. Furthermore, with the aid of the calculated unknown coefficients, the displacement field, as well as the other parameters of the elastic field, are obtainable as well. Finally, the comparison of the previous analytical method with the current semi-analytical method proposes the efficacy of the present methodology.

Keywords: anisotropic elastic media, semi-analytical method, elastic field, generalized gaussian quadrature solution

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1965 Dynamic Analysis of Composite Doubly Curved Panels with Variable Thickness

Authors: I. Algul, G. Akgun, H. Kurtaran

Abstract:

Dynamic analysis of composite doubly curved panels with variable thickness subjected to different pulse types using Generalized Differential Quadrature method (GDQ) is presented in this study. Panels with variable thickness are used in the construction of aerospace and marine industry. Giving variable thickness to panels can allow the designer to get optimum structural efficiency. For this reason, estimating the response of variable thickness panels is very important to design more reliable structures under dynamic loads. Dynamic equations for composite panels with variable thickness are obtained using virtual work principle. Partial derivatives in the equation of motion are expressed with GDQ and Newmark average acceleration scheme is used for temporal discretization. Several examples are used to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared with finite element method. Effects of taper ratios, boundary conditions and loading type on the response of composite panel are investigated.

Keywords: differential quadrature method, doubly curved panels, laminated composite materials, small displacement

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1964 An Application of Sinc Function to Approximate Quadrature Integrals in Generalized Linear Mixed Models

Authors: Altaf H. Khan, Frank Stenger, Mohammed A. Hussein, Reaz A. Chaudhuri, Sameera Asif

Abstract:

This paper discusses a novel approach to approximate quadrature integrals that arise in the estimation of likelihood parameters for the generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) as well as Bayesian methodology also requires computation of multidimensional integrals with respect to the posterior distributions in which computation are not only tedious and cumbersome rather in some situations impossible to find solutions because of singularities, irregular domains, etc. An attempt has been made in this work to apply Sinc function based quadrature rules to approximate intractable integrals, as there are several advantages of using Sinc based methods, for example: order of convergence is exponential, works very well in the neighborhood of singularities, in general quite stable and provide high accurate and double precisions estimates. The Sinc function based approach seems to be utilized first time in statistical domain to our knowledge, and it's viability and future scopes have been discussed to apply in the estimation of parameters for GLMM models as well as some other statistical areas.

Keywords: generalized linear mixed model, likelihood parameters, qudarature, Sinc function

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1963 An Equivalence between a Harmonic Form and a Closed Co-Closed Differential Form in L^Q and Non-L^Q Spaces

Authors: Lina Wu, Ye Li

Abstract:

An equivalent relation between a harmonic form and a closed co-closed form is established on a complete non-compact manifold. This equivalence has been generalized for a differential k-form ω from Lq spaces to non-Lq spaces when q=2 in the context of p-balanced growth where p=2. Especially for a simple differential k-form on a complete non-compact manifold, the equivalent relation has been verified with the extended scope of q for from finite q-energy in Lq spaces to infinite q-energy in non-Lq spaces when with 2-balanced growth. Generalized Hadamard Theorem, Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, and Calculus skills including Integration by Parts as well as Convergent Series have been applied as estimation techniques to evaluate growth rates for a differential form. In particular, energy growth rates as indicated by an appropriate power range in a selected test function lead to a balance between a harmonic differential form and a closed co-closed differential form. Research ideas and computational methods in this paper could provide an innovative way in the study of broadening Lq spaces to non-Lq spaces with a wide variety of infinite energy growth for a differential form.

Keywords: closed forms, co-closed forms, harmonic forms, L^q spaces, p-balanced growth, simple differential k-forms

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1962 Geometric Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Cylindrical Composite Sandwich Shells Subjected to Underwater Blast Load

Authors: Mustafa Taskin, Ozgur Demir, M. Mert Serveren

Abstract:

The precise study of the impact of underwater explosions on structures is of great importance in the design and engineering calculations of floating structures, especially those used for military purposes, as well as power generation facilities such as offshore platforms that can become a target in case of war. Considering that ship and submarine structures are mostly curved surfaces, it is extremely important and interesting to examine the destructive effects of underwater explosions on curvilinear surfaces. In this study, geometric nonlinear dynamic analysis of cylindrical composite sandwich shells subjected to instantaneous pressure load is performed. The instantaneous pressure load is defined as an underwater explosion and the effects of the liquid medium are taken into account. There are equations in the literature for pressure due to underwater explosions, but these equations have been obtained for flat plates. For this reason, the instantaneous pressure load equations are arranged to be suitable for curvilinear structures before proceeding with the analyses. Fluid-solid interaction is defined by using Taylor's Plate Theory. The lower and upper layers of the cylindrical composite sandwich shell are modeled as composite laminate and the middle layer consists of soft core. The geometric nonlinear dynamic equations of the shell are obtained by Hamilton's principle, taken into account the von Kàrmàn theory of large displacements. Then, time dependent geometric nonlinear equations of motion are solved with the help of generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM) and dynamic behavior of cylindrical composite sandwich shells exposed to underwater explosion is investigated. An algorithm that can work parametrically for the solution has been developed within the scope of the study.

Keywords: cylindrical composite sandwich shells, generalized differential quadrature method, geometric nonlinear dynamic analysis, underwater explosion

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1961 Using Derivative Free Method to Improve the Error Estimation of Numerical Quadrature

Authors: Chin-Yun Chen

Abstract:

Numerical integration is an essential tool for deriving different physical quantities in engineering and science. The effectiveness of a numerical integrator depends on different factors, where the crucial one is the error estimation. This work presents an error estimator that combines a derivative free method to improve the performance of verified numerical quadrature.

Keywords: numerical quadrature, error estimation, derivative free method, interval computation

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1960 Finite Element Method for Solving the Generalized RLW Equation

Authors: Abdel-Maksoud Abdel-Kader Soliman

Abstract:

The General Regularized Long Wave (GRLW) equation is solved numerically by giving a new algorithm based on collocation method using quartic B-splines at the mid-knot points as element shape. Also, we use the Fourth Runge-Kutta method for solving the system of first order ordinary differential equations instead of finite difference method. Our test problems, including the migration and interaction of solitary waves, are used to validate the algorithm which is found to be accurate and efficient. The three invariants of the motion are evaluated to determine the conservation properties of the algorithm.

Keywords: generalized RLW equation, solitons, quartic b-spline, nonlinear partial differential equations, difference equations

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1959 On Radially Symmetric Vibrations of Bi-Directional Functionally Graded Circular Plates on the Basis of Mindlin’s Theory and Neutral Axis

Authors: Rahul Saini, Roshan Lal

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the free axisymmetric vibrations of bi-directional functionally graded circular plates using Mindlin’s plate theory and physical neutral surface. The temperature-dependent, as well as temperature-independent mechanical properties of the plate material, varies in radial and transverse directions. Also, temperature profile for one- and two-dimensional temperature variations has been obtained from the heat conduction equation. A simple computational formulation for the governing differential equation of motion for such a plate model has been derived using Hamilton's principle for the clamped and simply supported plates at the periphery. Employing the generalized differential quadrature method, the corresponding frequency equations have been obtained and solved numerically to retain their lowest three roots as the natural frequencies for the first three modes. The effect of various other parameters such as temperature profile, functionally graded indices, and boundary conditions on the vibration characteristics has been presented. In order to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the method, the results have been compared with those available in the literature.

Keywords: bi-directionally FG, GDQM, Mindlin’s circular plate, neutral axis, vibrations

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1958 Free Vibration Characteristics of Nanoplates with Various Edge Supports Incorporating Surface Free Energy Effects

Authors: Saeid Sahmani

Abstract:

Due to size-dependent behavior of nanostrustures, the classical continuum models are not applicable for the analyses at this submicrion size. Surface stress effect is one of the most important matters which make the nanoscale structures to have different properties compared to the conventional structures due to high surface to volume ratio. In the present study, free vibration characteristics of nanoplates are investigated including surface stress effects. To this end, non-classical plate model based on Gurtin-Murdoch elasticity theory is proposed to evaluate the surface stress effects on the vibrational behavior of nanoplates subjected to different boundary conditions. Generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is employed to discretize the governing non-classical differential equations along with various edge supports. Selected numerical results are given to demonstrate the distinction between the behavior of nanoplates predicted by the classical and present non-classical plate models that leads to illustrate the great influence of surface stress effect. It is observed that this influence quite depends on the magnitude of the surface elastic constants which are relevant to the selected material.

Keywords: nanomechanics, surface stress, free vibration, GDQ method, small scale effect

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1957 On the Fractional Integration of Generalized Mittag-Leffler Type Functions

Authors: Christian Lavault

Abstract:

In this paper, the generalized fractional integral operators of two generalized Mittag-Leffler type functions are investigated. The special cases of interest involve the generalized M-series and K-function, both introduced by Sharma. The two pairs of theorems established herein generalize recent results about left- and right-sided generalized fractional integration operators applied here to the M-series and the K-function. The note also results in important applications in physics and mathematical engineering.

Keywords: Fox–Wright Psi function, generalized hypergeometric function, generalized Riemann– Liouville and Erdélyi–Kober fractional integral operators, Saigo's generalized fractional calculus, Sharma's M-series and K-function

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1956 Numerical Solutions of Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Generalized Slip Velocity

Authors: Roslinda Nazar, Ezad Hafidz Hafidzuddin, Norihan M. Arifin, Ioan Pop

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem of steady laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet with generalized slip velocity is considered. The similarity transformations are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically using the bvp4c function in MATLAB. Dual solutions are found for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. The effects of the suction parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, velocity slip parameter, critical shear rate, and Prandtl number on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed.

Keywords: boundary layer, exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet, generalized slip, heat transfer, numerical solutions

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1955 Stress Analysis of Tubular Bonded Joints under Torsion and Hygrothermal Effects Using DQM

Authors: Mansour Mohieddin Ghomshei, Reza Shahi

Abstract:

Laminated composite tubes with adhesively bonded joints are widely used in aerospace and automotive industries as well as oil and gas industries. In this research, adhesively tubular single lap joints subjected to torsional and hygrothermal loadings are studied using the differential quadrature method (DQM). The analysis is based on the classical shell theory. At first, an approximate closed form solution is developed by omitting the lateral deflections in the connecting tubes. Using the analytical model, the circumferential displacements in tubes and the shear stresses in the interfacing adhesive layer are determined. Then, a numerical formulation is presented using DQM in which the lateral deflections are taken into account. By using the DQM formulation, the circumferential and radial displacements in tubes as well as shear and peel stresses in the adhesive layer are calculated. Results obtained from the proposed DQM solutions are compared well with those of the approximate analytical model and those of some published references. Finally using the DQM model, parametric studies are carried out to investigate the influence of various parameters such as adhesive layer thickness, torsional loading, overlap length, tubes radii, relative humidity, and temperature.

Keywords: adhesively bonded joint, differential quadrature method (DQM), hygrothermal, laminated composite tube

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1954 Numerical Solution of Integral Equations by Using Discrete GHM Multiwavelet

Authors: Archit Yajnik, Rustam Ali

Abstract:

In this paper, numerical method based on discrete GHM multiwavelets is presented for solving the Fredholm integral equations of second kind. There is hardly any article available in the literature in which the integral equations are numerically solved using discrete GHM multiwavelet. A number of examples are demonstrated to justify the applicability of the method. In GHM multiwavelets, the values of scaling and wavelet functions are calculated only at t = 0, 0.5 and 1. The numerical solution obtained by the present approach is compared with the traditional Quadrature method. It is observed that the present approach is more accurate and computationally efficient as compared to quadrature method.

Keywords: GHM multiwavelet, fredholm integral equations, quadrature method, function approximation

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1953 Differential Approach to Technology Aided English Language Teaching: A Case Study in a Multilingual Setting

Authors: Sweta Sinha

Abstract:

Rapid evolution of technology has changed language pedagogy as well as perspectives on language use, leading to strategic changes in discourse studies. We are now firmly embedded in a time when digital technologies have become an integral part of our daily lives. This has led to generalized approaches to English Language Teaching (ELT) which has raised two-pronged concerns in linguistically diverse settings: a) the diverse linguistic background of the learner might interfere/ intervene with the learning process and b) the differential level of already acquired knowledge of target language might make the classroom practices too easy or too difficult for the target group of learners. ELT needs a more systematic and differential pedagogical approach for greater efficiency and accuracy. The present research analyses the need of identifying learner groups based on different levels of target language proficiency based on a longitudinal study done on 150 undergraduate students. The learners were divided into five groups based on their performance on a twenty point scale in Listening Speaking Reading and Writing (LSRW). The groups were then subjected to varying durations of technology aided language learning sessions and their performance was recorded again on the same scale. Identifying groups and introducing differential teaching and learning strategies led to better results compared to generalized teaching strategies. Language teaching includes different aspects: the organizational, the technological, the sociological, the psychological, the pedagogical and the linguistic. And a facilitator must account for all these aspects in a carefully devised differential approach meeting the challenge of learner diversity. Apart from the justification of the formation of differential groups the paper attempts to devise framework to account for all these aspects in order to make ELT in multilingual setting much more effective.

Keywords: differential groups, English language teaching, language pedagogy, multilingualism, technology aided language learning

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1952 Biaxial Buckling of Single Layer Graphene Sheet Based on Nonlocal Plate Model and Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: R. Pilafkan, M. Kaffash Irzarahimi, S. F. Asbaghian Namin

Abstract:

The biaxial buckling behavior of single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs) is studied in the present work. To consider the size-effects in the analysis, Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity equations are incorporated into classical plate theory (CLPT). A Generalized Differential Quadrature Method (GDQM) approach is utilized and numerical solutions for the critical buckling loads are obtained. Then, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for a series of zigzag SLGSs with different side-lengths and with various boundary conditions, the results of which are matched with those obtained by the nonlocal plate model to numerical the appropriate values of nonlocal parameter relevant to each type of boundary conditions.

Keywords: biaxial buckling, single-layered graphene sheets, nonlocal elasticity, molecular dynamics simulation, classical plate theory

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1951 Noncommutative Differential Structure on Finite Groups

Authors: Ibtisam Masmali, Edwin Beggs

Abstract:

In this paper, we take example of differential calculi, on the finite group A4. Then, we apply methods of non-commutative of non-commutative differential geometry to this example, and see how similar the results are to those of classical differential geometry.

Keywords: differential calculi, finite group A4, Christoffel symbols, covariant derivative, torsion compatible

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1950 Numerical Solutions of Generalized Burger-Fisher Equation by Modified Variational Iteration Method

Authors: M. O. Olayiwola

Abstract:

Numerical solutions of the generalized Burger-Fisher are obtained using a Modified Variational Iteration Method (MVIM) with minimal computational efforts. The computed results with this technique have been compared with other results. The present method is seen to be a very reliable alternative method to some existing techniques for such nonlinear problems.

Keywords: burger-fisher, modified variational iteration method, lagrange multiplier, Taylor’s series, partial differential equation

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1949 Balancing a Rotary Inverted Pendulum System Using Robust Generalized Dynamic Inverse: Design and Experiment

Authors: Ibrahim M. Mehedi, Uzair Ansari, Ubaid M. Al-Saggaf, Abdulrahman H. Bajodah

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology for balancing a rotary inverted pendulum system using Robust Generalized Dynamic Inversion (RGDI) under influence of parametric variations and external disturbances. In GDI control, dynamic constraints are formulated in the form of asymptotically stable differential equation which encapsulates the control objectives. The constraint differential equations are based on the deviation function of the angular position and its rates from their reference values. The constraint dynamics are inverted using Moore-Penrose Generalized Inverse (MPGI) to realize the control expression. The GDI singularity problem is addressed by augmenting a dynamic scale factor in the interpretation of MPGI which guarantee asymptotically stable position tracking. An additional term based on Sliding Mode Control is appended within GDI control to make it robust against parametric variations, disturbances and tracking performance deterioration due to generalized inversion scaling. The stability of the closed loop system is ensured by using positive definite Lyapunov energy function that guarantees semi-global practically stable position tracking. Numerical simulations are conducted on the dynamic model of rotary inverted pendulum system to analyze the efficiency of proposed RGDI control law. The comparative study is also presented, in which the performance of RGDI control is compared with Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) and is verified through experiments. Numerical simulations and real-time experiments demonstrate better tracking performance abilities and robustness features of RGDI control in the presence of parametric uncertainties and disturbances.

Keywords: generalized dynamic inversion, lyapunov stability, rotary inverted pendulum system, sliding mode control

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1948 Caputo-Type Fuzzy Fractional Riccati Differential Equations with Fuzzy Initial Conditions

Authors: Trilok Mathur, Shivi Agarwal

Abstract:

This paper deals with the solutions of fuzzy-fractional-order Riccati equations under Caputo-type fuzzy fractional derivatives. The Caputo-type fuzzy fractional derivatives are defined based on Hukuhura difference and strongly generalized fuzzy differentiability. The Laplace-Adomian-Pade method is used for solving fractional Riccati-type initial value differential equations of fractional order. Moreover, we also displayed some examples to illustrate our methods.

Keywords: Caputo-type fuzzy fractional derivative, Fractional Riccati differential equations, Laplace-Adomian-Pade method, Mittag Leffler function

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1947 The Impact of Socialization Preferences on Perceptions of Generalized Social Trust in China

Authors: Menghzheng Yao

Abstract:

Generalized social trust among Chinese has been declining in the past few decades, making the search for its causes necessary. Drawing on the symbolic interaction theory and the 2012 Chinese General Social Survey data, this research investigated the impact of people’s socialization preferences and frequencies on their perceptions of generalized social trust in China. This research also took a preliminary step towards understanding the spatial differences of the generalized social trust using the ArcGIS software. The results show that respondents who interacted with their neighbors more frequently were more likely to have higher levels of perceptions of generalized social trust. Several demographics were also significantly related to perception of generalized social trust. Elderly and better educated Chinese and people with higher self-perceived social status were associated with greater levels of generalized social trust perception, while urban dwellers and religious respondents expressed lower levels of such perception. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.

Keywords: China, generalized social trust, symbolic interaction, ArcGIS

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1946 Nano Generalized Topology

Authors: M. Y. Bakeir

Abstract:

Rough set theory is a recent approach for reasoning about data. It has achieved a large amount of applications in various real-life fields. The main idea of rough sets corresponds to the lower and upper set approximations. These two approximations are exactly the interior and the closure of the set with respect to a certain topology on a collection U of imprecise data acquired from any real-life field. The base of the topology is formed by equivalence classes of an equivalence relation E defined on U using the available information about data. The theory of generalized topology was studied by Cs´asz´ar. It is well known that generalized topology in the sense of Cs´asz´ar is a generalization of the topology on a set. On the other hand, many important collections of sets related with the topology on a set form a generalized topology. The notion of Nano topology was introduced by Lellis Thivagar, which was defined in terms of approximations and boundary region of a subset of an universe using an equivalence relation on it. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new generalized topology in terms of rough set called nano generalized topology

Keywords: rough sets, topological space, generalized topology, nano topology

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1945 Generalized Central Paths for Convex Programming

Authors: Li-Zhi Liao

Abstract:

The central path has played the key role in the interior point method. However, the convergence of the central path may not be true even in some convex programming problems with linear constraints. In this paper, the generalized central paths are introduced for convex programming. One advantage of the generalized central paths is that the paths will always converge to some optimal solutions of the convex programming problem for any initial interior point. Some additional theoretical properties for the generalized central paths will be also reported.

Keywords: central path, convex programming, generalized central path, interior point method

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1944 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Free Vibration of Graphene Sheets

Authors: Seyyed Feisal Asbaghian Namin, Reza Pilafkan, Mahmood Kaffash Irzarahimi

Abstract:

TThis paper considers vibration of single-layered graphene sheets using molecular dynamics (MD) and nonlocal elasticity theory. Based on the MD simulations, Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), an open source software, is used to obtain fundamental frequencies. On the other hand, governing equations are derived using nonlocal elasticity and first order shear deformation theory (FSDT) and solved using generalized differential quadrature method (GDQ). The small-scale effect is applied in governing equations of motion by nonlocal parameter. The effect of different side lengths, boundary conditions and nonlocal parameter are inspected for aforementioned methods. Results are obtained from MD simulations is compared with those of the nonlocal elasticity theory to calculate appropriate values for the nonlocal parameter. The nonlocal parameter value is suggested for graphene sheets with various boundary conditions. Furthermore, it is shown that the nonlocal elasticity approach using classical plate theory (CLPT) assumptions overestimates the natural frequencies.

Keywords: graphene sheets, molecular dynamics simulations, fundamental frequencies, nonlocal elasticity theory, nonlocal parameter

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1943 Upper Bound of the Generalized P-Value for the Difference between Two Future Population Means

Authors: Rada Somkhuean, Sa-aat Niwitpong, Suparat Niwitpong

Abstract:

This paper presents the generalized p-values for testing the difference between two future population means when the variances are unknown, in both cases for when the variances are equal and unequal. We also derive a closed form expression of the upper bound of the proposed generalized p-value.

Keywords: generalized p-value, two future population means, upper bound, variances

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1942 Analysis of Thermal Effect on Functionally Graded Micro-Beam via Mixed Finite Element Method

Authors: Cagri Mollamahmutoglu, Ali Mercan, Aykut Levent

Abstract:

Studies concerning the microstructures are becoming more important as the utilization of various micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) are increasing. Thus in recent years, thermal buckling and vibration analysis of microstructures have been subject to many investigations that are utilizing different numerical methods. In this study, thermal effects on mechanical response of a functionally graded (FG) Timoshenko micro-beam are presented in the framework of a mixed finite element formulation. Size effects are taken into consideration via modified couple stress theory. The mixed formulation is based on a function which in turn is derived via Gateaux Differential scientifically. After the resolution of all field equations of the beam, a potential operator is carefully constructed. Then this operator is used for the manufacturing of the functional. Usual procedures of finite element approximation are utilized for the derivation of the mixed finite element equations once the potential is obtained. Resulting finite element formulation allows usage of C₀ type simple linear shape functions and avoids shear-locking phenomena, which is a common shortcoming of the displacement-based formulations of moderately thick beams. The developed numerical scheme is used to obtain the effects of thermal loads on the static bending, free vibration and buckling of FG Timoshenko micro-beams for different power-law parameters, aspect ratios and boundary conditions. The versatility of the mixed formulation is presented over other numerical methods such as generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM). Another attractive property of the formulation is that it allows direct calculation of the contribution of micro effects on the overall mechanical response.

Keywords: micro-beam, functionally graded materials, thermal effect, mixed finite element method

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