Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1744

Search results for: laminated composite

1744 Thermal Elastic Stress Analysis of Steel Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Composites

Authors: Mustafa Reşit Haboğlu, Ali Kurşun , Şafak Aksoy, Halil Aykul, Numan Behlül Bektaş

Abstract:

A thermal elastic stress analysis of steel fiber reinforced aluminum laminated composite plate is investigated. Four sides of the composite plate are clamped and subjected to a uniform temperature load. The analysis is performed both analytically and numerically. Laminated composite is manufactured via hot pressing method. The investigation of the effects of the orientation angle is provided. Different orientation angles are used such as [0°/90°]s, [30°/-30°]s, [45°/-45°]s and [60/-60]s. The analytical solution is obtained via classical laminated composite theory and the numerical solution is obtained by applying finite element method via ANSYS.

Keywords: laminated composites, thermo elastic stress, finite element method.

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1743 Parametric Study on Dynamic Analysis of Composite Laminated Plate

Authors: Junaid Kameran Ahmed

Abstract:

A laminated plate composite of graphite/epoxy has been analyzed dynamically in the present work by using a quadratic element (8-node diso-parametric), and by depending on 1st order shear deformation theory, every node in this element has 6-degrees of freedom (displacement in x, y, and z axis and twist about x, y, and z axis). The dynamic analysis in the present work covered parametric studies on a composite laminated plate (square plate) to determine its effect on the natural frequency of the plate. The parametric study is represented by set of changes (plate thickness, number of layers, support conditions, layer orientation), and the plates have been simulated by using ANSYS package 12. The boundary conditions considered in this study, at all four edges of the plate, are simply supported and fixed boundary condition. The results obtained from ANSYS program show that the natural frequency for both fixed and simply supported increases with increasing the number of layers, but this increase in the natural frequency for the first five modes will be neglected after 10 layers. And it is observed that the natural frequency of a composite laminated plate will change with the change of ply orientation, the natural frequency increases and it will be at maximum with angle 45 of ply for simply supported laminated plate, and maximum natural frequency will be with cross-ply (0/90) for fixed laminated composite plate. It is also observed that the natural frequency increase is approximately doubled when the thickness is doubled.

Keywords: laminated plate, orthotropic plate, square plate, natural frequency (free vibration), composite (graphite / epoxy)

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1742 Behavior of Laminated Plates under Mechanical Loading

Authors: Mahmoudi Noureddine

Abstract:

In this study the use of two variable refined plate theories of laminated composite plates to static response of laminated plates. The plate theory accounts for parabolic distribution of the transverse shear strains, and satisfies the zero traction boundary conditions on the surfaces of the plate without using shear correction factor. The validity of the present theory is demonstrated by comparison with solutions available in the literature and finite element method. The result is presented for the static response of simply supported rectangular plates under uniform sinusoidal mechanical loadings.

Keywords: bending, composite, laminate, plates, fem

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1741 Parameters Optimization of the Laminated Composite Plate for Sound Transmission Problem

Authors: Yu T. Tsai, Jin H. Huang

Abstract:

In this paper, the specific sound transmission loss (TL) of the laminated composite plate (LCP) with different material properties in each layer is investigated. The numerical method to obtain the TL of the LCP is proposed by using elastic plate theory. The transfer matrix approach is novelty presented for computational efficiency in solving the numerous layers of dynamic stiffness matrix (D-matrix) of the LCP. Besides the numerical simulations for calculating the TL of the LCP, the material properties inverse method is presented for the design of a laminated composite plate analogous to a metallic plate with a specified TL. As a result, it demonstrates that the proposed computational algorithm exhibits high efficiency with a small number of iterations for achieving the goal. This method can be effectively employed to design and develop tailor-made materials for various applications.

Keywords: sound transmission loss, laminated composite plate, transfer matrix approach, inverse problem, elastic plate theory, material properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
1740 An Investigation of Aluminum Foil-Epoxy Laminated Composites for Rapid Tooling Applications

Authors: Kevlin Govender, Anthony Walker, Glen Bright

Abstract:

Mass customization is an area of increased importance and the development of rapid tooling applications is pivotal to the success of mass customization. This paper presents a laminated object manufacturing (LOM) process for rapid tooling. The process is termed 3D metal laminate printing and utilizes domestic-grade aluminum foil and epoxy for layered manufacturing. A detailed explanation of the process is presented to produce complex metal laminated composite parts. Aluminum-epoxy composite specimens were manufactured from 0.016mm aluminum and subjected to tensile tests to determine the mechanical properties of the manufactured composite in relation to solid metal specimens. The fracture zone of the specimens was analyzed under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to characterize the fracture mode and study the interfacial bonding of the manufactured laminate specimens.

Keywords: 3D metal laminate printer, aluminum-epoxy composite, laminated object manufacturing, rapid tooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
1739 Non-Linear Free Vibration Analysis of Laminated Composite Beams Resting on Non-Linear Pasternak Elastic Foundation: A Homogenization Procedure

Authors: Merrimi El Bekkaye, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali

Abstract:

In the present paper, the problem of geometrically non-linear free vibration of symmetrically and asymmetrically laminated composite beams (LCB) resting on nonlinear Pasternak elastic Foundation with immovable ends is studied. A homogenization procedure has been performed to reduce the problem under consideration to that of the isotropic homogeneous beams with effective bending stiffness and axial stiffness parameters. This simple formulation is developed using the governing axial equation of the beam in which the axial inertia and damping are ignored. The theoretical model is based on Hamilton’s principle and spectral analysis. Iterative form solutions are presented to calculate the fundamental nonlinear frequency parameters which are found to be in a good agreement with the published results. On the other hand, the influence of the foundation parameters on the nonlinear frequency to the linear frequency ratio of the LCB has been studied. The non-dimensional curvatures associated to the fundamental mode are also given in the case of clamped-clamped symmetrically and asymmetrically laminated composite beams.

Keywords: large vibration amplitudes, laminated composite beam, Pasternak foundation, composite beams

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1738 Analytical and Numerical Results for Free Vibration of Laminated Composites Plates

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ben Henni, Taher Hassaine Daouadji, Boussad Abbes, Yu Ming Li, Fazilay Abbes

Abstract:

The reinforcement and repair of concrete structures by bonding composite materials have become relatively common operations. Different types of composite materials can be used: carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) as well as functionally graded material (FGM). The development of analytical and numerical models describing the mechanical behavior of structures in civil engineering reinforced by composite materials is necessary. These models will enable engineers to select, design, and size adequate reinforcements for the various types of damaged structures. This study focuses on the free vibration behavior of orthotropic laminated composite plates using a refined shear deformation theory. In these models, the distribution of transverse shear stresses is considered as parabolic satisfying the zero-shear stress condition on the top and bottom surfaces of the plates without using shear correction factors. In this analysis, the equation of motion for simply supported thick laminated rectangular plates is obtained by using the Hamilton’s principle. The accuracy of the developed model is demonstrated by comparing our results with solutions derived from other higher order models and with data found in the literature. Besides, a finite-element analysis is used to calculate the natural frequencies of laminated composite plates and is compared with those obtained by the analytical approach.

Keywords: composites materials, laminated composite plate, finite-element analysis, free vibration

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1737 Finite Element Analysis of Resonance Frequency Shift of Laminated Composite Beam

Authors: Cheng Yang Kwa, Yoke Rung Wong

Abstract:

Laminated composite materials are widely employed in automotive, aerospace, and other industries. These materials provide distinct benefits due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, and ability to be customized for a specific function. However, delamination of laminated composite materials is one of the main defects which can occur during manufacturing, regular operations, or maintenance. Delamination can bring about considerable internal damage, unobservable by visual check, that causes significant loss in strength and stability, leading to composite structure catastrophic failure. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is known to be the automated method for monitoring and evaluating the condition of a monitored object. There are several ways to conduct SHM in aerospace. One of the effective methods is to monitor the natural frequency shift of structure due to the presence of defect. This study investigated the mechanical resonance frequency shift of a multi-layer composite cantilever beam due to interlaminar delamination. ANSYS Workbench® was used to create a 4-plies laminated composite cantilever finite element model with [90/0]s fiber setting. Epoxy Carbon UD (230GPA) Prepreg was chosen, and the thickness was 2.5mm for each ply. The natural frequencies of the finite element model with various degree of delamination were simulated based on modal analysis and then validated by using literature. It was shown that the model without delamination had natural frequency of 40.412 Hz, which was 1.55% different from the calculated result (41.050 Hz). Thereafter, the various degree of delamination was mimicked by changing the frictional conditions at the middle ply-to-ply interface. The results suggested that delamination in the laminated composite cantilever induced a change in its stiffness which alters its mechanical resonance frequency.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, NDT, cantilever, laminate

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1736 Buckling Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates with Central Holes

Authors: Pratyasha Patnaik, A. V. Asha

Abstract:

Laminated composite plates are made up of plates consisting of layers bonded together and made up of materials chemically different from each other but combined macroscopically. These have an application in aircrafts, railway coaches, bridges etc. because they are easy to handle, have got improved properties and the cost of their fabrication is low. But their failure can lead to catastrophic disasters. And generally, the failure of these structures is due to the combined effect of excessive stresses on it and buckling. Hence, the buckling behavior of these kinds of plates should be analyzed properly. Holes are provided either at the center or elsewhere in the laminar plates for the purpose of pipes for electric cables or other purposes. Due to the presence of holes in the plates, the stress concentration is near to the holes and the stiffness of the plates is reduced. In this study, the effect of a cut-out, its shape, different boundary conditions, length/thickness ratio, stacking sequence, and ply orientation has been studied. The analysis was carried out with laminated composite plates with circular, square and triangular cut-outs. Results show the effect of different cut-out shapes, boundary conditions, the orientation of layers and length/thickness ratio of the buckling load

Keywords: buckling, composite plates, cut-out, stress

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1735 Aseismic Stiffening of Architectural Buildings as Preventive Restoration Using Unconventional Materials

Authors: Jefto Terzovic, Ana Kontic, Isidora Ilic

Abstract:

In the proposed design concept, laminated glass and laminated plexiglass, as ”unconventional materials”, are considered as a filling in a steel frame on which they overlap by the intermediate rubber layer, thereby forming a composite assembly. In this way vertical elements of stiffening are formed, capable for reception of seismic force and integrated into the structural system of the building. The applicability of such a system was verified by experiments in laboratory conditions where the experimental models based on laminated glass and laminated plexiglass had been exposed to the cyclic loads that simulate the seismic force. In this way the load capacity of composite assemblies was tested for the effects of dynamic load that was parallel to assembly plane. Thus, the stress intensity to which composite systems might be exposed was determined as well as the range of the structure stiffening referring to the expressed deformation along with the advantages of a particular type of filling compared to the other one. Using specialized software whose operation is based on the finite element method, a computer model of the structure was created and processed in the case study; the same computer model was used for analyzing the problem in the first phase of the design process. The stiffening system based on composite assemblies tested in laboratories is implemented in the computer model. The results of the modal analysis and seismic calculation from the computer model with stiffeners applied showed an efficacy of such a solution, thus rounding the design procedures for aseismic stiffening by using unconventional materials.

Keywords: laminated glass, laminated plexiglass, aseismic stiffening, experiment, laboratory testing, computer model, finite element method

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1734 Nonlinear Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Hollow Beams with Super-Elliptic Cross-Sections

Authors: G. Akgun, I. Algul, H. Kurtaran

Abstract:

In this paper geometrically nonlinear static behavior of laminated composite hollow super-elliptic beams is investigated using generalized differential quadrature method. Super-elliptic beam can have both oval and elliptic cross-sections by adjusting parameters in super-ellipse formulation (also known as Lamé curves). Equilibrium equations of super-elliptic beam are obtained using the virtual work principle. Geometric nonlinearity is taken into account using von-Kármán nonlinear strain-displacement relations. Spatial derivatives in strains are expressed with the generalized differential quadrature method. Transverse shear effect is considered through the first-order shear deformation theory. Static equilibrium equations are solved using Newton-Raphson method. Several composite super-elliptic beam problems are solved with the proposed method. Effects of layer orientations of composite material, boundary conditions, ovality and ellipticity on bending behavior are investigated.

Keywords: generalized differential quadrature, geometric nonlinearity, laminated composite, super-elliptic cross-section

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1733 Dynamic Response of Magnetorheological Fluid Tapered Laminated Beams Reinforced with Nano-Particles

Authors: Saman Momeni, Abolghassem Zabihollah, Mehdi Behzad

Abstract:

Non-uniform laminated composite structures are being used in many engineering applications where the structures are subjected to unpredicted vibration. To mitigate the vibration response of these structures, recently, magnetorheological fluid (MR), is added to non-uniform (tapered) thickness laminated composite structures to achieve a new generation of the smart composite as MR tapered beam. However, due to the nature of MR fluid, especially the low stiffness, MR tapered beam exhibit lower stiffness and in turn, lower natural frequencies. To achieve the basic design requirements of the structure without MR fluid, one may need to apply a predefined magnetic energy to the structures, requiring a constant source of energy. In the present work, a passive initial stiffness control of MR tapered beam has been studied. The effects of adding nanoparticles on the dynamic response of MR tapered beam has been investigated. It is observed that adding nanoparticles up to 3% may significantly modify the natural frequencies of the structures and achieve dynamic behavior of the structures before addition of MR fluid. Two Models of tapered structures have been taken into consideration. It is observed that adding only 3% of nanoparticles backs the structures to its initial dynamic behavior.

Keywords: non uniform laminated structures, MR fluid, nanoparticles, vibration, stiffness

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1732 Geometrically Nonlinear Analysis of Initially Stressed Hybrid Laminated Composite Structures

Authors: Moumita Sit, Chaitali Ray

Abstract:

The present article deals with the free vibration analysis of hybrid laminated composite structures with initial stresses developed in the laminates. Generally initial stresses may be developed in the laminates by temperature and moisture effect. In this study, an eight noded isoparametric plate bending element has been used for the finite element analysis of composite plates. A numerical model has been developed to assess the geometric nonlinear response of composite plates based on higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT) considering the Green–Lagrange type nonlinearity. A computer code based on finite element method (FEM) has also been developed in MATLAB to perform the numerical calculations. To validate the accuracy of the proposed numerical model, the results obtained from the present study are compared with those available in published literature. Effects of the side to thickness ratio, different boundary conditions and initial stresses on the natural frequency of composite plates have been studied. The free vibration analysis of a hollow stiffened hybrid laminated panel has also been carried out considering initial stresses and presented as case study.

Keywords: geometric nonlinearity, higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT), hybrid composite laminate, the initial stress

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1731 Flexural Analysis of Symmetric Laminated Composite Timoshenko Beams under Harmonic Forces: An Analytical Solution

Authors: Mohammed Ali Hjaji, A.K. El-Senussi, Said H. Eshtewi

Abstract:

The flexural dynamic response of symmetric laminated composite beams subjected to general transverse harmonic forces is investigated. The dynamic equations of motion and associated boundary conditions based on the first order shear deformation are derived through the use of Hamilton’s principle. The influences of shear deformation, rotary inertia, Poisson’s ratio and fibre orientation are incorporated in the present formulation. The resulting governing flexural equations for symmetric composite Timoshenko beams are exactly solved and the closed form solutions for steady state flexural response are then obtained for cantilever and simply supported boundary conditions. The applicability of the analytical closed-form solution is demonstrated via several examples with various transverse harmonic loads and symmetric cross-ply and angle-ply laminates. Results based on the present solution are assessed and validated against other well established finite element solutions and exact solutions available in the literature.

Keywords: analytical solution, flexural response, harmonic forces, symmetric laminated beams, steady state response

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1730 Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Composite Structures Utilizing a Beam Finite Element Based on Global-Local Superposition

Authors: Andre S. de Lima, Alfredo R. de Faria, Jose J. R. Faria

Abstract:

Accurate prediction of thermal stresses is particularly important for laminated composite structures, as large temperature changes may occur during fabrication and field application. The normal transverse deformation plays an important role in the prediction of such stresses, especially for problems involving thick laminated plates subjected to uniform temperature loads. Bearing this in mind, the present study aims to investigate the thermo-mechanical behavior of laminated composite structures using a new beam element based on global-local superposition, accounting for through-the-thickness effects. The element formulation is based on a global-local superposition in the thickness direction, utilizing a cubic global displacement field in combination with a linear layerwise local displacement distribution, which assures zig-zag behavior of the stresses and displacements. By enforcing interlaminar stress (normal and shear) and displacement continuity, as well as free conditions at the upper and lower surfaces, the number of degrees of freedom in the model is maintained independently of the number of layers. Moreover, the proposed formulation allows for the determination of transverse shear and normal stresses directly from the constitutive equations, without the need of post-processing. Numerical results obtained with the beam element were compared to analytical solutions, as well as results obtained with commercial finite elements, rendering satisfactory results for a range of length-to-thickness ratios. The results confirm the need for an element with through-the-thickness capabilities and indicate that the present formulation is a promising alternative to such analysis.

Keywords: composite beam element, global-local superposition, laminated composite structures, thermal stresses

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1729 Damage Mesomodel Based Low-Velocity Impact Damage Analysis of Laminated Composite Structures

Authors: Semayat Fanta, P.M. Mohite, C.S. Upadhyay

Abstract:

Damage meso-model for laminates is one of the most widely applicable approaches for the analysis of damage induced in laminated fiber-reinforced polymeric composites. Damage meso-model for laminates has been developed over the last three decades by many researchers in experimental, theoretical, and analytical methods that have been carried out in micromechanics as well as meso-mechanics analysis approaches. It has been fundamentally developed based on the micromechanical description that aims to predict the damage initiation and evolution until the failure of structure in various loading conditions. The current damage meso-model for laminates aimed to act as a bridge between micromechanics and macro-mechanics of the laminated composite structure. This model considers two meso-constituents for the analysis of damage in ply and interface that imparted from low-velocity impact. The damages considered in this study include fiber breakage, matrix cracking, and diffused damage of the lamina, and delamination of the interface. The damage initiation and evolution in laminae can be modeled in terms of damaged strain energy density using damage parameters and the thermodynamic irreversible forces. Interface damage can be modeled with a new concept of spherical micro-void in the resin-rich zone of interface material. The damage evolution is controlled by the damage parameter (d) and the radius of micro-void (r) from the point of damage nucleation to its saturation. The constitutive martial model for meso-constituents is defined in a user material subroutine VUMAT and implemented in ABAQUS/Explicit finite element modeling tool. The model predicts the damages in the meso-constituents level very accurately and is considered the most effective technique of modeling low-velocity impact simulation for laminated composite structures.

Keywords: mesomodel, laminate, low-energy impact, micromechanics

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1728 Stress Analysis of Laminated Cylinders Subject to the Thermomechanical Loads

Authors: Şafak Aksoy, Ali Kurşun, Erhan Çetin, Mustafa Reşit Haboğlu

Abstract:

In this study, thermo elastic stress analysis is performed on a cylinder made of laminated isotropic materials under thermomechanical loads. Laminated cylinders have many applications such as aerospace, automotive and nuclear plant in the industry. These cylinders generally performed under thermomechanical loads. Stress and displacement distribution of the laminated cylinders are determined using by analytical method both thermal and mechanical loads. Based on the results, materials combination plays an important role on the stresses distribution along the radius. Variation of the stresses and displacements along the radius are presented as graphs. Calculations program are prepared using MATLAB® by authors.

Keywords: isotropic materials, laminated cylinders, thermoelastic stress, thermomechanical load

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1727 The Fire Performance of Exposed Timber Panels

Authors: Bernice V. Y. Wong, Kong Fah Tee

Abstract:

Cross-laminated timber is increasingly being used in the construction of high-rise buildings due to its simple manufacturing system. In term of fire resistance, cross-laminated timber panels are promoted as having excellent fire resistance, comparable to that of non-combustible materials and to heavy timber construction, due to the ability of thick wood assemblies to char slowly at a predictable rate while maintaining most of their strength during the fire exposure. This paper presents an overview of fire performance of cross-laminated timber and evaluation of its resistance to elevated temperature in comparison to homogeneous timber panels. Charring rates for cross-laminated timber panels of those obtained experimentally were compared with those provided by Eurocode simplified calculation methods.

Keywords: timber structure, cross-laminated timber, charring rate, timber fire resistance

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1726 Wrinkling Prediction of Membrane Composite of Varying Orientation under In-Plane Shear

Authors: F. Sabri, J. Jamali

Abstract:

In this article, the wrinkling failure of orthotropic composite membranes due to in-plane shear deformation is investigated using nonlinear finite element analyses. A nonlinear post-buckling analysis is performed to show the evolution of shear-induced wrinkles. The method of investigation is based on the post-buckling finite element analysis adopted from commercial FEM code; ANSYS. The resulting wrinkling patterns, their amplitude and their wavelengths under the prescribed loads and boundary conditions were confirmed by experimental results. Our study reveals that wrinkles develop when both the magnitudes and coverage of the minimum principal stresses in the laminated composite laminates are sufficiently large to trigger wrinkling.

Keywords: composite, FEM, membrane, wrinkling

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1725 Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of Dissimilar Al/Cu Foil Single Lap Joints Made by Composite Metal Foil Manufacturing

Authors: Javaid Butt, Habtom Mebrahtu, Hassan Shirvani

Abstract:

The paper presents a new additive manufacturing process for the production of metal and composite parts. It is termed as composite metal foil manufacturing and is a combination of laminated object manufacturing and brazing techniques. The process has been described in detail and is being used to produce dissimilar aluminum to copper foil single lap joints. A three dimensional finite element model has been developed to study the thermo-mechanical characteristics of the dissimilar Al/Cu single lap joint. The effects of thermal stress and strain have been analyzed by carrying out transient thermal analysis on the heated plates used to join the two 0.1mm thin metal foils. Tensile test has been carried out on the foils before joining and after the single Al/Cu lap joints are made, they are subjected to tensile lap-shear test to analyze the effect of heat on the foils. The analyses are designed to assess the mechanical integrity of the foils after the brazing process and understand whether or not the heat treatment has an effect on the fracture modes of the produced specimens.

Keywords: brazing, laminated object manufacturing, tensile lap-shear test, thermo-mechanical analysis

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1724 Mechanical Behavior of Laminated Glass Cylindrical Shell with Hinged Free Boundary Conditions

Authors: Ebru Dural, M. Zulfu Asık

Abstract:

Laminated glass is a kind of safety glass, which is made by 'sandwiching' two glass sheets and a polyvinyl butyral (PVB) interlayer in between them. When the glass is broken, the interlayer in between the glass sheets can stick them together. Because of this property, the hazards of sharp projectiles during natural and man-made disasters reduces. They can be widely applied in building, architecture, automotive, transport industries. Laminated glass can easily undergo large displacements even under their own weight. In order to explain their true behavior, they should be analyzed by using large deflection theory to represent nonlinear behavior. In this study, a nonlinear mathematical model is developed for the analysis of laminated glass cylindrical shell which is free in radial directions and restrained in axial directions. The results will be verified by using the results of the experiment, carried out on laminated glass cylindrical shells. The behavior of laminated composite cylindrical shell can be represented by five partial differential equations. Four of the five equations are used to represent axial displacements and radial displacements and the fifth one for the transverse deflection of the unit. Governing partial differential equations are derived by employing variational principles and minimum potential energy concept. Finite difference method is employed to solve the coupled differential equations. First, they are converted into a system of matrix equations and then iterative procedure is employed. Iterative procedure is necessary since equations are coupled. Problems occurred in getting convergent sequence generated by the employed procedure are overcome by employing variable underrelaxation factor. The procedure developed to solve the differential equations provides not only less storage but also less calculation time, which is a substantial advantage in computational mechanics problems.

Keywords: laminated glass, mathematical model, nonlinear behavior, PVB

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1723 Analytical Solution of the Boundary Value Problem of Delaminated Doubly-Curved Composite Shells

Authors: András Szekrényes

Abstract:

Delamination is one of the major failure modes in laminated composite structures. Delamination tips are mostly captured by spatial numerical models in order to predict crack growth. This paper presents some mechanical models of delaminated composite shells based on shallow shell theories. The mechanical fields are based on a third-order displacement field in terms of the through-thickness coordinate of the laminated shell. The undelaminated and delaminated parts are captured by separate models and the continuity and boundary conditions are also formulated in a general way providing a large size boundary value problem. The system of differential equations is solved by the state space method for an elliptic delaminated shell having simply supported edges. The comparison of the proposed and a numerical model indicates that the primary indicator of the model is the deflection, the secondary is the widthwise distribution of the energy release rate. The model is promising and suitable to determine accurately the J-integral distribution along the delamination front. Based on the proposed model it is also possible to develop finite elements which are able to replace the computationally expensive spatial models of delaminated structures.

Keywords: J-integral, levy method, third-order shell theory, state space solution

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1722 Dynamic Analysis of Composite Doubly Curved Panels with Variable Thickness

Authors: I. Algul, G. Akgun, H. Kurtaran

Abstract:

Dynamic analysis of composite doubly curved panels with variable thickness subjected to different pulse types using Generalized Differential Quadrature method (GDQ) is presented in this study. Panels with variable thickness are used in the construction of aerospace and marine industry. Giving variable thickness to panels can allow the designer to get optimum structural efficiency. For this reason, estimating the response of variable thickness panels is very important to design more reliable structures under dynamic loads. Dynamic equations for composite panels with variable thickness are obtained using virtual work principle. Partial derivatives in the equation of motion are expressed with GDQ and Newmark average acceleration scheme is used for temporal discretization. Several examples are used to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results are compared with finite element method. Effects of taper ratios, boundary conditions and loading type on the response of composite panel are investigated.

Keywords: differential quadrature method, doubly curved panels, laminated composite materials, small displacement

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1721 Proportionally Damped Finite Element State-Space Model of Composite Laminated Plate with Localized Interface Degeneration

Authors: Shi Qi Koo, Ahmad Beng Hong Kueh

Abstract:

In the present work, the finite element formulation for the investigation of the effects of a localized interfacial degeneration on the dynamic behavior of the [90˚/0˚] laminated composite plate employing the state-space technique is performed. The stiffness of the laminate is determined by assembling the stiffnesses of sub-elements. This includes an introduction of an interface layer adopting the virtually zero-thickness formulation to model the interfacial degeneration. Also, the kinematically consistent mass matrix and proportional damping have been formulated to complete the free vibration governing expression. To simulate the interfacial degeneration of the laminate, the degenerated areas are defined from the center propagating outwards in a localized manner. It is found that the natural frequency, damped frequency and damping ratio of the plate decreases as the degenerated area of the interface increases. On the contrary, the loss factor increases correspondingly.

Keywords: dynamic finite element, localized interface degeneration, proportional damping, state-space modeling

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1720 Design and Analysis of a Laminated Composite Automotive Drive Shaft

Authors: Hossein Kh. Bisheh, Nan Wu

Abstract:

Advanced composite materials have a great importance in engineering structures due to their high specific modulus and strength and low weight. These materials can be used in design and fabrication of automotive drive shafts to reduce the weight of the structure. Hence, an optimum design of a composite drive shaft satisfying the design criteria, can be an appropriate substitution of metallic drive shafts. The aim of this study is to design and analyze a composite automotive drive shaft with high specific strength and low weight satisfying the design criteria. Tsai-Wu criterion is chosen as the failure criterion. Various designs with different lay-ups and materials are investigated based on the design requirements and finally, an optimum design satisfying the design criteria is chosen based on the weight and cost considerations. The results of this study indicate that if the weight is the main concern, a shaft made of Carbon/Epoxy can be a good option, and if the cost is a more important parameter, a hybrid shaft made of aluminum and Carbon/Epoxy can be considered.

Keywords: Bending natural frequency, Composite drive shaft, Peak torque, Torsional buckling

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1719 Failure Analysis of Laminated Veneer Bamboo Dowel Connections

Authors: Niloufar Khoshbakht, Peggi L. Clouston, Sanjay R. Arwade, Alexander C. Schreyer

Abstract:

Laminated veneer bamboo (LVB) is a structural engineered composite made from glued layers of bamboo. A relatively new building product, LVB is currently employed in similar sizes and applications as dimensional lumber. This study describes the results of a 3D elastic Finite Element model for halfhole specimens when loaded in compression parallel-to-grain per ASTM 5764. The model simulates LVB fracture initiation due to shear stresses in the dowel joint and predicts displacement at failure validated through comparison with experimental results. The material fails at 1mm displacement due to in-plane shear stresses. The paper clarifies the complex interactive state of in-plane shear, tension perpendicular-to-grain, and compression parallel-to-grain stresses that form different distributions in the critical zone beneath the bolt hole for half-hole specimens. These findings are instrumental in understanding key factors and fundamental failure mechanisms that occur in LVB dowel connections to help devise safe standards and further LVB product adoption and design.

Keywords: composite, dowel connection, embedment strength, failure behavior, finite element analysis, Moso bamboo

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1718 Stress Analysis of Tubular Bonded Joints under Torsion and Hygrothermal Effects Using DQM

Authors: Mansour Mohieddin Ghomshei, Reza Shahi

Abstract:

Laminated composite tubes with adhesively bonded joints are widely used in aerospace and automotive industries as well as oil and gas industries. In this research, adhesively tubular single lap joints subjected to torsional and hygrothermal loadings are studied using the differential quadrature method (DQM). The analysis is based on the classical shell theory. At first, an approximate closed form solution is developed by omitting the lateral deflections in the connecting tubes. Using the analytical model, the circumferential displacements in tubes and the shear stresses in the interfacing adhesive layer are determined. Then, a numerical formulation is presented using DQM in which the lateral deflections are taken into account. By using the DQM formulation, the circumferential and radial displacements in tubes as well as shear and peel stresses in the adhesive layer are calculated. Results obtained from the proposed DQM solutions are compared well with those of the approximate analytical model and those of some published references. Finally using the DQM model, parametric studies are carried out to investigate the influence of various parameters such as adhesive layer thickness, torsional loading, overlap length, tubes radii, relative humidity, and temperature.

Keywords: adhesively bonded joint, differential quadrature method (DQM), hygrothermal, laminated composite tube

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1717 Numerical Modelling of Laminated Shells Made of Functionally Graded Elastic and Piezoelectric Materials

Authors: Gennady M. Kulikov, Svetlana V. Plotnikova

Abstract:

This paper focuses on implementation of the sampling surfaces (SaS) method for the three-dimensional (3D) stress analysis of functionally graded (FG) laminated elastic and piezoelectric shells. The SaS formulation is based on choosing inside the nth layer In not equally spaced SaS parallel to the middle surface of the shell in order to introduce the electric potentials and displacements of these surfaces as basic shell variables. Such choice of unknowns permits the presentation of the proposed FG piezoelectric shell formulation in a very compact form. The SaS are located inside each layer at Chebyshev polynomial nodes that improves the convergence of the SaS method significantly. As a result, the SaS formulation can be applied efficiently to 3D solutions for FG piezoelectric laminated shells, which asymptotically approach the exact solutions of piezoelectricity as the number of SaS In goes to infinity.

Keywords: electroelasticity, functionally graded material, laminated piezoelectric shell, sampling surfaces method

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1716 Time/Temperature-Dependent Finite Element Model of Laminated Glass Beams

Authors: Alena Zemanová, Jan Zeman, Michal Šejnoha

Abstract:

The polymer foil used for manufacturing of laminated glass members behaves in a viscoelastic manner with temperature dependence. This contribution aims at incorporating the time/temperature-dependent behavior of interlayer to our earlier elastic finite element model for laminated glass beams. The model is based on a refined beam theory: each layer behaves according to the finite-strain shear deformable formulation by Reissner and the adjacent layers are connected via the Lagrange multipliers ensuring the inter-layer compatibility of a laminated unit. The time/temperature-dependent behavior of the interlayer is accounted for by the generalized Maxwell model and by the time-temperature superposition principle due to the Williams, Landel, and Ferry. The resulting system is solved by the Newton method with consistent linearization and the viscoelastic response is determined incrementally by the exponential algorithm. By comparing the model predictions against available experimental data, we demonstrate that the proposed formulation is reliable and accurately reproduces the behavior of the laminated glass units.

Keywords: finite element method, finite-strain Reissner model, Lagrange multipliers, generalized Maxwell model, laminated glass, Newton method, Williams-Landel-Ferry equation

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1715 Investigation of the Material Behaviour of Polymeric Interlayers in Broken Laminated Glass

Authors: Martin Botz, Michael Kraus, Geralt Siebert

Abstract:

The use of laminated glass gains increasing importance in structural engineering. For safety reasons, at least two glass panes are laminated together with a polymeric interlayer. In case of breakage of one or all of the glass panes, the glass fragments are still connected to the interlayer due to adhesion forces and a certain residual load-bearing capacity is left in the system. Polymer interlayers used in the laminated glass show a viscoelastic material behavior, e.g. stresses and strains in the interlayer are dependent on load duration and temperature. In the intact stage only small strains appear in the interlayer, thus the material can be described in a linear way. In the broken stage, large strains can appear and a non-linear viscoelasticity material theory is necessary. Relaxation tests on two different types of polymeric interlayers are performed at different temperatures and strain amplitudes to determine the border to the non-linear material regime. Based on the small-scale specimen results further tests on broken laminated glass panes are conducted. So-called ‘through-crack-bending’ (TCB) tests are performed, in which the laminated glass has a defined crack pattern. The test set-up is realized in a way that one glass layer is still able to transfer compressive stresses but tensile stresses have to be transferred by the interlayer solely. The TCB-tests are also conducted under different temperatures but constant force (creep test). Aims of these experiments are to elaborate if the results of small-scale tests on the interlayer are transferable to a laminated glass system in the broken stage. In this study, limits of the applicability of linear-viscoelasticity are established in the context of two commercially available polymer-interlayers. Furthermore, it is shown that the results of small-scale tests agree to a certain degree to the results of the TCB large-scale experiments. In a future step, the results can be used to develop material models for the post breakage performance of laminated glass.

Keywords: glass breakage, laminated glass, relaxation test, viscoelasticity

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