Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: materia medica

8 Vegetative Materia Medica for the Women Illness in mss2999 Kitab Tibb: A Modern Medical Interpretation of a Malay Medical Manuscript

Authors: Wan Aminah Hasbullah

Abstract:

The knowledge of medicine in Malay society stemmed out from the need to remedy disease process. Such knowledge came from observations by looking at the signs on the plants which signify it uses, the doctrine of signature, and also observing what kind of animal and its parts that can be used to treat the disease. Prayers (jampi and doa’) play a very important role in the therapeutic processes addressing the ethereal part of the body. In Malay medicine, prayers were said in the heart of the Malay bomoh (medicine man) when they are first approaching the diseased person, seeking the help of Allah in accurately directing his mind into making the right diagnosis and subsequently the right choice of treatment. In the making of medicine, similar rituals were religiously followed, starting from gathering the materia medica to the final concoction of the medicine. Thus, all the materia medica and the prayers in Malay medicine were gathered and documented in the medical manuscript known as MSS 2999 Kitab Tibb. For this study, a collection of vegetative materia medica which is specialized for the women illness from this manuscript will be gathered and analysed. A medical and cultural interpretation will be highlighted to see the relationship between efficacy in traditional Malay medicine as practiced in the past and the recent practice of the modern medicine.

Keywords: vegetative, materia medica, woman illness, Malay medical manuscript

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7 An Investigation of the Pharmacomechanisms of Shang-Han Lun Formulas as Elucidated in the Qing Dynasty Classic 'Ben-Jing Shu-Zheng'

Authors: William Ceurvels, Dong-Di Zhang

Abstract:

The true nature of the mechanism by which the pharmaceuticals of the Shang-Han Lun act has been a topic of debate since Wuji Cheng published the first commentary during the Northern Song. Subsequent commentaries employed a number of methodologies in their analysis of pharmaceutical mechanisms, but no commentator was able to garner universal acceptance. During the Qing Dynasty, the proliferation and development of Neo-Confucian scholarship produced a new generation of scholars possessed of rigorous and inventive research methods, one of whom was the famed materia medica scholar, Run-an Zou. Run-an Zou and his successor Zhou Yan advocated analyzing the mechanism of Treatise pharmaceuticals based upon the understanding of those pharmaceuticals during the time period in which the Treatise was written and thereby focused on the Han Dynasty materia medica tract Shen-nong Ben-cao Jing (The Divine Husbandman’s Herbal Foundation Canon). Zou Run-an’s commentary, Ben-jing Shu-zheng won nearly universal praise among materia medica scholars for its scholastic rigor and innovative research methods. However, because Ben-jing Shu-zheng only focuses on individual herbs, as opposed to formulas, its value in analyzing the Shang-Han Lun has limitations. The purpose of this study is to combine Zou Run-an’s single-pharmaceutical commentaries to generate theoretical full formula analyses to gain a fuller picture of Zou’s understanding of the healing mechanism of Shang-Han Lun formulas. Commentaries were gathered from Ben-jing Shu-zheng and Zhou Yan’s Ben-cao Si-bian Lun and combined to produce theoretical full formula model mechanisms of Treatise formulas. Through this study, a new picture of the mechanistic basis of Shang-han formulas emerges, which is based on qi-xue changes as opposed to organ or meridian theory. The author hopes that this modest research study will be of service to scholars of the Shang-han and clinical doctors alike in their pursuit of the true pharmacomechanisms of this great Han dynasty tome.

Keywords: Materia medica, Shang-han Lun, Shen-nong Ben-cao Jing, neo-Confucian scholarship

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6 The Comparison Study of Methanol and Water Extract of Chuanxiong Rhizoma: A Fingerprint Analysis

Authors: Li Chun Zhao, Zhi Chao Hu, Xi Qiang Liu, Man Lai Lee, Chak Shing Yeung, Man Fei Xu, Yuen Yee Kwan, Alan H. M. Ho, Nickie W. K. Chan, Bin Deng, Zhong Zhen Zhao, Min Xu

Abstract:

Background: Chuangxiong Rhizoma (Chuangxion, CX) is one of the most frequently used herbs in Chinese medicine because of its wide therapeutic effects such as vasorelaxation and anti-inflammation. Aim: The purposes of this study are (1) to perform non-targeted / targeted analyses of CX methanol extract and water extract, and compare the present data with previously LC-MS or GC-MS fingerprints; (2) to examine the difference between CX methanol extract and water extract for preliminarily evaluating whether current compound markers of methanol extract from crude CX materials could be suitable for quality control of CX water extract. Method: CX methanol extract was prepared according to the Hong Kong Chinese Materia Medica Standards. DG water extract was prepared by boiling with pure water for three times (one hour each). UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS fingerprint analysis was performed by C18 column (1.7 µm, 2.1 × 100 mm) with Agilent 1290 Infinity system. Experimental data were analyzed by Agilent MassHunter Software. A database was established based on 13 published LC-MS and GC-MS CX fingerprint analyses. Total 18 targeted compounds in database were selected as markers to compare present data with previous data, and these markers also used to compare CX methanol extract and water extract. Result: (1) Non-targeted analysis indicated that there were 133 compounds identified in CX methanol extract, while 325 compounds in CX water extract that was more than double of CX methanol extract. (2) Targeted analysis further indicated that 9 in 18 targeted compounds were identified in CX methanol extract, while 12 in 18 targeted compounds in CX water extract that showed a lower lose-rate of water extract when compared with methanol extract. (3) By comparing CX methanol extract and water extract, Senkyunolide A (+1578%), Ferulic acid (+529%) and Senkyunolide H (+169%) were significantly higher in water extract when compared with methanol extract. (4) Other bioactive compounds such as Tetramethylpyrazine were only found in CX water extract. Conclusion: Many new compounds in both CX methanol and water extracts were found by using UHPLC Q-TOF MS/MS analysis when compared with previous published reports. A new standard reference including non-targeted compound profiling and targeted markers functioned especially for quality control of CX water extract (herbal decoction) should be established in future. (This project was supported by Hong Kong Baptist University (FRG2/14-15/109) & Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2014A030313414)).

Keywords: Chuanxiong rhizoma, fingerprint analysis, targeted analysis, quality control

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5 Sustainable Harvesting, Conservation and Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Polygonatum Verticillatum Linn.

Authors: Anchal Rana

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Indian Himalayas with their diverse climatic conditions are home to many rare and endangered medicinal flora. One such species is Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., popularly known as King Solomon’s Seal or Solomon’s Seal. Its mention as an incredible medicinal herb comes from 5000 years ago in Indian Materia Medica as a component of Ashtavarga, a poly-herbal formulation comprising of eight herbs illustrated as world’s first ever revitalizing and rejuvenating nutraceutical food, which is now commercialised in the name ‘Chaywanprash’. It is an erect tall (60 to 120 cm) perennial herb with sessile, linear leaves and white pendulous flowers. The species grows well in an altitude range of 1600 to 3600 m amsl, and propagates mostly through rhizomes. The rhizomes are potential source for significant phytochemicals like flavonoids, phenolics, lectins, terpenoids, allantoin, diosgenin, β-Sitosterol and quinine. The presence of such phytochemicals makes the species an asset for antioxidant, cardiotonic, demulcent, diuretic, energizer, emollient, aphrodisiac, appetizer, glactagogue, etc. properties. Having profound concentrations of macro and micronutrients, species has fine prospects of being used as a diet supplement. However, due to unscientific and gregarious uprooting, it has been assigned a status of ‘vulnerable’ and ‘endangered’ in the Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (CAMP) process conducted by Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT) during 2010, according to IUCN Red-List Criteria. Further, destructive harvesting, land use disturbances, heavy livestock grazing, climatic changes and habitat fragmentation have substantially contributed towards anomaly of the species. It, therefore, became imperative to conserve the diversity of the species and make judicious use in future research and commercial programme and schemes. A Gene Bank was therefore established at High Altitude Herbal Garden of the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun, India situated at Chakarata (30042’52.99’’N, 77051’36.77’’E, 2205 m amsl) consisting 149 accessions collected from thirty-one geographical locations spread over three Himalayan States of Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Uttarakhand. The present investigations purport towards sampling and collection of divergent germplasm followed by planting and cultivation techniques. The ultimate aim is thereby focussed on analysing genetic diversity of the species and capturing promising genotypes for carrying out further genetic improvement programme so to contribute towards sustainable development and healthcare.

Keywords: Polygonatum verticillatum Linn., phytochemicals, genetic diversity, conservation, gene bank

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4 Health and Disease, Sickness and Well Being: Depictions in the Vinaya Pitaka and Jataka Narratives

Authors: Abhimanyu Kumar

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The relationship between religion and medicine is much evident in the context of Buddhism. This paper is an attempt to look at the processes of social and cultural evolution of scientific creativity in the field of medicine and institutionalization of medical practices. The objective of the paper is to understand the Buddhist responses towards health as understood from the Vinaya Piṭaka and the Jātaka. This work is a result of the analysis of two important Buddhist texts: the Vinaya Piṭaka and the Jātaka. Broadly the Vinaya Piṭaka is concerned with the growth of Buddhist monasticism. The Vinaya Piṭaka is considered one of the most important sacred texts of the Buddhists, and contains rules for monastic life. These rules deal with such aspects as formal meetings of the saṃgha (monastery), expiation, confession, training, and legal questions. The Jātaka stories, on the other hand, are in the form of folk narratives, and provide a major source of medical consultation for all classes. These texts help us to ascertain the ‘proficiency and perceptions’ of the prevailing medical traditions. The Jātakas are a collection of 547 stories about the past lives of the Buddha, who is represented in anthropomorphic and animal form. The Jātaka connects itself between existing cognitive environments related to ethics and Buddhist didacticism. These stories are a reflection of the connection between the past and contemporary times (in the sense of time of creation of the story) as well. This is visible through the narrative strategy of the text, where every story is sub-divided into the story of the past and story of the present, and there is a significant identification element or connection that established at the end of each story. The minimal presence of philosophical content and the adoption of a narrative strategy make it possible for more of everyday life. This study gives me an opportunity to raise questions about how far were the body and mind closely interrelated in the Buddhist perceptions, and also did the society act like a laboratory for the Buddhists to practice healing activities? How far did religious responses to afflictions, be they leprosy or plague or anger, influence medical care; what impact did medical practitioners, religious authorities and the regulation of medical activity and practice have on healing the body and the mind; and, how has the healing environment been viewed. This paper is working with the idea that medical science in early India was not only for the curative purpose of diseases, but it fulfilled a greater cause of promoting, maintaining and restoring human health. In this regard, studying these texts gives an insight regarding religious responses to epidemics, from leprosy to plague, as well as to behavioral disorder such as anger. In other words, it deals with the idea about healing the body and healing the soul from a religious perspective.

Keywords: food for health, folk narratives, human body, materia medica, social sickness

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3 The Use of Plant-Based Natural Fibers in Reinforced Cement Composites

Authors: N. AlShaya, R. Alhomidan, S. Alromizan, W. Labib

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Plant-based natural fibers are used more increasingly in construction materials. It is done to reduce the pressure on the built environment, which has been increased dramatically due to the increases world population and their needs. Plant-based natural fibers are abundant in many countries. Despite the low-cost of such environmental friendly renewable material, it has the ability to enhance the mechanical properties of construction materials. This paper presents an extensive discussion on the use of plant-based natural fibers as reinforcement for cement-based composites, with a particular emphasis upon fiber types; fiber characteristics, and fiber-cement composites performance. It also covers a thorough overview on the main factors, affecting the properties of plant-based natural fiber cement composite in it fresh and hardened state. The feasibility of using plant-based natural fibers in producing various construction materials; such as, mud bricks and blocks is investigated. In addition, other applications of using such fibers as internal curing agents as well as durability enhancer are also discussed. Finally, recommendation for possible future work in this area is presented.

Keywords: natural fibres, cement composites, construction materia, sustainability, stregth, durability

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2 Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Neodymium and Erbium Doped Bismuth Ferrite Multifunctional Materials for Spintronic Devices

Authors: Ravinder Dachepalli, Naveena Gadwala, K. Vani

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Nd and Er substituted bismuth nano crystalline multifunctional materials were prepared by citrate gel autocombution technique. The structural characterization was carried out by XRD and SEM. Electrical properties such are electrical conductivity and dielectric properties have been measured. Plots of electrical conductivity versus temperature increases with increasing temperature and shown a transition near Curie temperature. Dielectric properties such are dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent have been measured from 20Hz to 2 MHz at room temperature. Plots of dielectric constant versus frequency show a normal dielectric behaviour of multifunctional materials. Temperature dependence of magnetic properties of Bi-Nd and Bi-Er multi-functional materials were carried out by using Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The magnetization as a function of an applied field ±100 Oe was carried out at 3K and 360 K. Zero field Cooled (ZFC) and Field Cooled (FC) magnetization measurements under an applied field of 100Oe a in the temperature range of 5-375K. The observed results can be explained for spintronic devices.

Keywords: Bi-Nd and Bi-Er Multifunctional Materia, Citrate Gel Auto combustion Technique, FC-ZFC magnetization, Dielectric constant

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1 Formulation, Nutritive Value Assessment And Effect On Weight Gain Of Infant Formulae Prepared From Locally Available Materia

Authors: J. T. Johnson, R. A. Atule, E. Gbodo

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The widespread problem of infant malnutrition in developing countries has stirred efforts in research, development and extension by both local and international organizations. As a result, the formulation and development of nutritious weaning foods from local and readily available raw materials which are cost effective has become imperative in many developing countries. Thus, local and readily available raw materials where used to compound and develop nutritious new infant formulae. The materials used for this study include maize, millet, cowpea, pumpkin, fingerlings, and fish bone. The materials where dried and blended to powder. The powders were weighed in the ratio of 4:4:4:3:1:1 respectively and were then mixed properly. Analysis of nutritive value was conducted on the formulae and compared with NAN-2 standard and results reveals that the formulae had reasonable amount of moisture, lipids, carbohydrate, protein, and fibre. Although NAN-2 was superior in both carbohydrate and protein, the new infant formula was higher in mineral elements, vitamins, fibre, and lipids. All the essentials vitamins and both macro and micro minerals where found in appreciable quantity capable of meeting the biochemical and physiological demand of the body while the anti-nutrients composition were significantly below FAO and WHO safe limits. Finally, the compounded infant formulae was feed to a set of albino Wistar rats while some other set of rats was feed with NAN-2 for the period of twenty seven (27) days and body weight was measure at three days intervals. The results of body weight changes was spectacular as their body weight over shot or almost double that of those animals that were feed with NAN-2 at each point of measurement. The results suggest that the widespread problem of infant malnutrition in the developing world especially among the low income segment of the society can now be reduced if not totally eradicated since nutritive and cost effective weaning formulae can be prepared locally from common readily available materials.

Keywords: formulation, nutritive value, local, materials

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