Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5061

Search results for: annual and daily flow duration curve

5061 Flow Duration Curve Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo


Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of river ecosystem. Then, it is very serious to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude were determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 day. According the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. In order to maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m3.s-1.

Keywords: ardabil, environmental flow, flow duration curve, Gharasou river

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5060 Synthetic Daily Flow Duration Curves for the Çoruh River Basin, Turkey

Authors: Ibrahim Can, Fatih Tosunoğlu


The flow duration curve (FDC) is an informative method that represents the flow regime’s properties for a river basin. Therefore, the FDC is widely used for water resource projects such as hydropower, water supply, irrigation and water quality management. The primary purpose of this study is to obtain synthetic daily flow duration curves for Çoruh Basin, Turkey. For this aim, we firstly developed univariate auto-regressive moving average (ARMA) models for daily flows of 9 stations located in Çoruh basin and then these models were used to generate 100 synthetic flow series each having same size as historical series. Secondly, flow duration curves of each synthetic series were drawn and the flow values exceeded 10, 50 and 95 % of the time and 95% confidence limit of these flows were calculated. As a result, flood, mean and low flows potential of Çoruh basin will comprehensively be represented.

Keywords: ARMA models, Çoruh basin, flow duration curve, Turkey

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
5059 Design Components and Reliability Aspects of Municipal Waste Water and SEIG Based Micro Hydro Power Plant

Authors: R. K. Saket


This paper presents design aspects and probabilistic approach for generation reliability evaluation of an alternative resource: municipal waste water based micro hydro power generation system. Annual and daily flow duration curves have been obtained for design, installation, development, scientific analysis and reliability evaluation of the MHPP. The hydro potential of the waste water flowing through sewage system of the BHU campus has been determined to produce annual flow duration and daily flow duration curves by ordering the recorded water flows from maximum to minimum values. Design pressure, the roughness of the pipe’s interior surface, method of joining, weight, ease of installation, accessibility to the sewage system, design life, maintenance, weather conditions, availability of material, related cost and likelihood of structural damage have been considered for design of a particular penstock for reliable operation of the MHPP. A MHPGS based on MWW and SEIG is designed, developed, and practically implemented to provide reliable electric energy to suitable load in the campus of the Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, (UP), India. Generation reliability evaluation of the developed MHPP using Gaussian distribution approach, safety factor concept, peak load consideration and Simpson 1/3rd rule has presented in this paper.

Keywords: self excited induction generator, annual and daily flow duration curve, sewage system, municipal waste water, reliability evaluation, Gaussian distribution, Simpson 1/3rd rule

Procedia PDF Downloads 489
5058 Hydrological Method to Evaluate Environmental Flow: Case Study of Gharasou River, Ardabil

Authors: Mehdi Fuladipanah, Mehdi Jorabloo


Water flow management is one of the most important parts of river engineering. Non-uniformity distribution of rainfall and various flow demand with unreasonable flow management will be caused destroyed of the river ecosystem. Then, it is severe to determine ecosystem flow requirement. In this paper, Flow duration curve indices method which has hydrological based was used to evaluate environmental flow in Gharasou River, Ardabil, Iran. Using flow duration curve, Q90 and Q95 for different return periods were calculated. Their magnitude was determined as 1-day, 3-day, 7-day, and 30 days. According to the second method, hydraulic alteration indices often had low and medium range. To maintain river at an acceptable ecological condition, minimum daily discharge of index Q95 is 0.7 m^3.s^-1.

Keywords: Gharasou River, water flow management, non-uniformity distribution, ecosystem flow requirement, hydraulic alteration

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
5057 Study of Bifurcation Curve with Aspect Ratio at Low Reynolds Number

Authors: Amit K. Singh, Subhankar Sen


The bifurcation curve of separation in steady two-dimensional viscous flow past an elliptic cylinder is studied by varying the angle of incidence (α) with different aspect ratio (ratio of minor to major axis). The solutions are based on numerical investigation, using finite element analysis, of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow. Results are presented for Reynolds number up to 50 and angle of incidence varies from 0° to 90°. Range of aspect ratio (Ar) is from 0.1 to 1 (in steps of 0.1) and flow is considered as unbounded flow. Bifurcation curve represents the locus of Reynolds numbers (Res) at which flow detaches or separates from the surface of the body at a given α and Ar. In earlier studies, effect of Ar on laminar separation curve or bifurcation curve is limited for Ar = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8. Some results are also available at α = 90° and 45°. The present study attempts to provide a systematic data and clear understanding on the effect of Ar at bifurcation curve and its point of maxima. In addition, issues regarding location of separation angle and maximum ratio of coefficient of lift to drag are studied. We found that nature of curve, separation angle and maximum ratio of lift to drag changes considerably with respect to change in Ar.

Keywords: aspect ratio, bifurcation curve, elliptic cylinder, GMRES, stabilized finite-element

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5056 Identifying and Quantifying Factors Affecting Traffic Crash Severity under Heterogeneous Traffic Flow

Authors: Praveen Vayalamkuzhi, Veeraragavan Amirthalingam


Studies on safety on highways are becoming the need of the hour as over 400 lives are lost every day in India due to road crashes. In order to evaluate the factors that lead to different levels of crash severity, it is necessary to investigate the level of safety of highways and their relation to crashes. In the present study, an attempt is made to identify the factors that contribute to road crashes and to quantify their effect on the severity of road crashes. The study was carried out on a four-lane divided rural highway in India. The variables considered in the analysis includes components of horizontal alignment of highway, viz., straight or curve section; time of day, driveway density, presence of median; median opening; gradient; operating speed; and annual average daily traffic. These variables were considered after a preliminary analysis. The major complexities in the study are the heterogeneous traffic and the speed variation between different classes of vehicles along the highway. To quantify the impact of each of these factors, statistical analyses were carried out using Logit model and also negative binomial regression. The output from the statistical models proved that the variables viz., horizontal components of the highway alignment; driveway density; time of day; operating speed as well as annual average daily traffic show significant relation with the severity of crashes viz., fatal as well as injury crashes. Further, the annual average daily traffic has significant effect on the severity compared to other variables. The contribution of highway horizontal components on crash severity is also significant. Logit models can predict crashes better than the negative binomial regression models. The results of the study will help the transport planners to look into these aspects at the planning stage itself in the case of highways operated under heterogeneous traffic flow condition.

Keywords: geometric design, heterogeneous traffic, road crash, statistical analysis, level of safety

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
5055 Oil Displacement by Water in Hauterivian Sandstone Reservoir of Kashkari Oil Field

Authors: A. J. Nazari, S. Honma


This paper evaluates oil displacement by water in Hauterivian sandstone reservoir of Kashkari oil field in North of Afghanistan. The core samples of this oil field were taken out from well No-21st, and the relative permeability and fractional flow are analyzed. Steady state flow laboratory experiments are performed to empirically obtain the fractional flow curves and relative permeability in different water saturation ratio. The relative permeability represents the simultaneous flow behavior in the reservoir. The fractional flow approach describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. The fractional flow curve interprets oil displacement by water, and from the tangent of fractional flow curve can find out the average saturation behind the water front flow saturation. Therefore, relative permeability and fractional flow curves are suitable for describing the displacement of oil by water in a petroleum reservoir. The effects of irreducible water saturation, residual oil saturation on the displaceable amount of oil are investigated through Buckley-Leveret analysis.

Keywords: fractional flow, oil displacement, relative permeability, simultaneously flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
5054 Evaluation of Expected Annual Loss Probabilities of RC Moment Resisting Frames

Authors: Saemee Jun, Dong-Hyeon Shin, Tae-Sang Ahn, Hyung-Joon Kim


Building loss estimation methodologies which have been advanced considerably in recent decades are usually used to estimate socio and economic impacts resulting from seismic structural damage. In accordance with these methods, this paper presents the evaluation of an annual loss probability of a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame designed according to Korean Building Code. The annual loss probability is defined by (1) a fragility curve obtained from a capacity spectrum method which is similar to a method adopted from HAZUS, and (2) a seismic hazard curve derived from annual frequencies of exceedance per peak ground acceleration. Seismic fragilities are computed to calculate the annual loss probability of a certain structure using functions depending on structural capacity, seismic demand, structural response and the probability of exceeding damage state thresholds. This study carried out a nonlinear static analysis to obtain the capacity of a RC moment resisting frame selected as a prototype building. The analysis results show that the probability of being extensive structural damage in the prototype building is expected to 0.004% in a year.

Keywords: expected annual loss, loss estimation, RC structure, fragility analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
5053 Numerical Study of Developing Laminar Forced Convection Flow of Water/CuO Nanofluid in a Circular Tube with a 180 Degrees Curve

Authors: Hamed K. Arzani, Hamid K. Arzani, S.N. Kazi, A. Badarudin


Numerical investigation into convective heat transfer of CuO-Water based nanofluid in a pipe with return bend under laminar flow conditions has been done. The impacts of Reynolds number and the volume concentration of nanoparticles on the flow and the convective heat transfer behaviour are investigated. The results indicate that the increase in Reynolds number leads to the enhancement of average Nusselt number, and the increase in specific heat in the presence of the nanofluid results in improvement in heat transfer. Also, the presence of the secondary flow in the curve plays a key role in increasing the average Nusselt number and it appears higher than the inlet and outlet tubes. However, the pressure drop curve increases significantly in the tubes with the increase in nanoparticles concentration.

Keywords: laminar forced convection, curve pipe, return bend, nanufluid, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
5052 Trends in Extreme Rainfall Events in Tasmania, Australia

Authors: Orpita U. Laz, Ataur Rahman


Climate change will affect various aspects of hydrological cycle such as rainfall. A change in rainfall will affect flood magnitude and frequency in future which will affect the design and operation of hydraulic structures. In this paper, trends in sub-hourly, sub-daily, and daily extreme rainfall events from 18 rainfall stations located in Tasmania, Australia are examined. Two non-parametric tests (Mann-Kendall and Spearman’s Rho) are applied to detect trends at 10%, 5%, and 1% significance levels. Sub-hourly (6, 12, 18, and 30 minutes) annual maximum rainfall events have been found to experience statistically significant upward trends at 10 % level of significance. However, sub-daily durations (1 hour, 3 and 12 hours) exhibit decreasing trends and no trends exists for longer duration rainfall events (e.g. 24 and 72 hours). Some of the durations (e.g. 6 minutes and 6 hours) show similar results (with upward trends) for both the tests. For 12, 18, 60 minutes and 3 hours durations both the tests show similar downward trends. This finding has important implication for Tasmania in the design of urban infrastructure where shorter duration rainfall events are more relevant for smaller urban catchments such as parking lots, roof catchments and smaller sub-divisions.

Keywords: climate change, design rainfall, Mann-Kendall test, trends, Spearman’s Rho, Tasmania

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5051 Interannual Variations in Snowfall and Continuous Snow Cover Duration in Pelso, Central Finland, Linked to Teleconnection Patterns, 1944-2010

Authors: M. Irannezhad, E. H. N. Gashti, S. Mohammadighavam, M. Zarrini, B. Kløve


Climate warming would increase rainfall by shifting precipitation falling form from snow to rain, and would accelerate snow cover disappearing by increasing snowpack. Using temperature and precipitation data in the temperature-index snowmelt model, we evaluated variability of snowfall and continuous snow cover duration(CSCD) during 1944-2010 over Pelso, central Finland. MannKendall non-parametric test determined that annual precipitation increased by 2.69 (mm/year, p<0.05) during the study period, but no clear trend in annual temperature. Both annual rainfall and snowfall increased by 1.67 and 0.78 (mm/year, p<0.05), respectively. CSCD was generally about 205 days from 14 October to 6 May. No clear trend was found in CSCD over Pelso. Spearman’s rank correlation showed most significant relationships of annual snowfall with the East Atlantic (EA) pattern, and CSCD with the East Atlantic/West Russia (EA/WR) pattern. Increased precipitation with no warming temperature caused the rainfall and snowfall to increase, while no effects on CSCD.

Keywords: variations, snowfall, snow cover duration, temperature-index snowmelt model, teleconnection patterns

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5050 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

Authors: Lívia B. Meirelles, Erika C. A. N. Chrisman, Flávia B. de Andrade, Lilian C. M. de Oliveira


True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).

Keywords: distillation curve, petroleum distillation, simulation, true boiling point curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
5049 Development of IDF Curves for Precipitation in Western Watershed of Guwahati, Assam

Authors: Rajarshi Sharma, Rashidul Alam, Visavino Seleyi, Yuvila Sangtam


The Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) relationship of rainfall amounts is one of the most commonly used tools in water resources engineering for planning, design and operation of water resources project, or for various engineering projects against design floods. The establishment of such relationships was reported as early as in 1932 (Bernard). Since then many sets of relationships have been constructed for several parts of the globe. The objective of this research is to derive IDF relationship of rainfall for western watershed of Guwahati, Assam. These relationships are useful in the design of urban drainage works, e.g. storm sewers, culverts and other hydraulic structures. In the study, rainfall depth for 10 years viz. 2001 to 2010 has been collected from the Regional Meteorological Centre Borjhar, Guwahati. Firstly, the data has been used to construct the mass curve for duration of more than 7 hours rainfall to calculate the maximum intensity and to form the intensity duration curves. Gumbel’s frequency analysis technique has been used to calculate the probable maximum rainfall intensities for a period of 2 yr, 5 yr, 10 yr, 50 yr, 100 yr from the maximum intensity. Finally, regression analysis has been used to develop the intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curve. Thus, from the analysis the values for the constants ‘a’,‘b’ &‘c’ have been found out. The values of ‘a’ for which the sum of the squared deviation is minimum has been found out to be 40 and when the corresponding value of ‘c’ and ‘b’ for the minimum squared deviation of ‘a’ are 0.744 and 1981.527 respectively. The results obtained showed that in all the cases the correlation coefficient is very high indicating the goodness of fit of the formulae to estimate IDF curves in the region of interest.

Keywords: intensity-duration-frequency relationship, mass curve, regression analysis, correlation coefficient

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5048 Effect of Fractional Flow Curves on the Heavy Oil and Light Oil Recoveries in Petroleum Reservoirs

Authors: Abdul Jamil Nazari, Shigeo Honma


This paper evaluates and compares the effect of fractional flow curves on the heavy oil and light oil recoveries in a petroleum reservoir. Fingering of flowing water is one of the serious problems of the oil displacement by water and another problem is the estimation of the amount of recover oil from a petroleum reservoir. To address these problems, the fractional flow of heavy oil and light oil are investigated. The fractional flow approach treats the multi-phases flow rate as a total mixed fluid and then describes the individual phases as fractional of the total flow. Laboratory experiments are implemented for two different types of oils, heavy oil, and light oil, to experimentally obtain relative permeability and fractional flow curves. Application of the light oil fractional curve, which exhibits a regular S-shape, to the water flooding method showed that a large amount of mobile oil in the reservoir is displaced by water injection. In contrast, the fractional flow curve of heavy oil does not display an S-shape because of its high viscosity. Although the advance of the injected waterfront is faster than in light oil reservoirs, a significant amount of mobile oil remains behind the waterfront.

Keywords: fractional flow, relative permeability, oil recovery, water fingering

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
5047 Calibration and Validation of ArcSWAT Model for Estimation of Surface Runoff and Sediment Yield from Dhangaon Watershed

Authors: M. P. Tripathi, Priti Tiwari


Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a distributed parameter continuous time model and was tested on daily and fortnightly basis for a small agricultural watershed (Dhangaon) of Chhattisgarh state in India. The SWAT model recently interfaced with ArcGIS and called as ArcSWAT. The watershed and sub-watershed boundaries, drainage networks, slope and texture maps were generated in the environment of ArcGIS of ArcSWAT. Supervised classification method was used for land use/cover classification from satellite imageries of the years 2009 and 2012. Manning's roughness coefficient 'n' for overland flow and channel flow and Fraction of Field Capacity (FFC) were calibrated for monsoon season of the years 2009 and 2010. The model was validated on a daily basis for the years 2011 and 2012 by using the observed daily rainfall and temperature data. Calibration and validation results revealed that the model was predicting the daily surface runoff and sediment yield satisfactorily. Sensitivity analysis showed that the annual sediment yield was inversely proportional to the overland and channel 'n' values whereas; annual runoff and sediment yields were directly proportional to the FFC. The model was also tested (calibrated and validated) for the fortnightly runoff and sediment yield for the year 2009-10 and 2011-12, respectively. Simulated values of fortnightly runoff and sediment yield for the calibration and validation years compared well with their observed counterparts. The calibration and validation results revealed that the ArcSWAT model could be used for identification of critical sub-watershed and for developing management scenarios for the Dhangaon watershed. Further, the model should be tested for simulating the surface runoff and sediment yield using generated rainfall and temperature before applying it for developing the management scenario for the critical or priority sub-watersheds.

Keywords: watershed, hydrologic and water quality, ArcSWAT model, remote sensing, GIS, runoff and sediment yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5046 Trend Analysis for Extreme Rainfall Events in New South Wales, Australia

Authors: Evan Hajani, Ataur Rahman, Khaled Haddad


Climate change will affect the hydrological cycle in many different ways such as increase in evaporation and rainfalls. There have been growing interests among researchers to identify the nature of trends in historical rainfall data in many different parts of the world. This paper examines the trends in annual maximum rainfall data from 30 stations in New South Wales, Australia by using two non-parametric tests, Mann-Kendall (MK) and Spearman’s Rho (SR). Rainfall data were analyzed for fifteen different durations ranging from 6 min to 3 days. It is found that the sub-hourly durations (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 48 minutes) show statistically significant positive (upward) trends whereas longer duration (sub-daily and daily) events generally show a statistically significant negative (downward) trend. It is also found that the MK test and SR test provide notably different results for some rainfall event durations considered in this study. Since shorter duration sub-hourly rainfall events show positive trends at many stations, the design rainfall data based on stationary frequency analysis for these durations need to be adjusted to account for the impact of climate change. These shorter durations are more relevant to many urban development projects based on smaller catchments having a much shorter response time.

Keywords: climate change, Mann-Kendall test, Spearman’s Rho test, trends, design rainfall

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
5045 Daily Probability Model of Storm Events in Peninsular Malaysia

Authors: Mohd Aftar Abu Bakar, Noratiqah Mohd Ariff, Abdul Aziz Jemain


Storm Event Analysis (SEA) provides a method to define rainfalls events as storms where each storm has its own amount and duration. By modelling daily probability of different types of storms, the onset, offset and cycle of rainfall seasons can be determined and investigated. Furthermore, researchers from the field of meteorology will be able to study the dynamical characteristics of rainfalls and make predictions for future reference. In this study, four categories of storms; short, intermediate, long and very long storms; are introduced based on the length of storm duration. Daily probability models of storms are built for these four categories of storms in Peninsular Malaysia. The models are constructed by using Bernoulli distribution and by applying linear regression on the first Fourier harmonic equation. From the models obtained, it is found that daily probability of storms at the Eastern part of Peninsular Malaysia shows a unimodal pattern with high probability of rain beginning at the end of the year and lasting until early the next year. This is very likely due to the Northeast monsoon season which occurs from November to March every year. Meanwhile, short and intermediate storms at other regions of Peninsular Malaysia experience a bimodal cycle due to the two inter-monsoon seasons. Overall, these models indicate that Peninsular Malaysia can be divided into four distinct regions based on the daily pattern for the probability of various storm events.

Keywords: daily probability model, monsoon seasons, regions, storm events

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
5044 Finding the Free Stream Velocity Using Flow Generated Sound

Authors: Saeed Hosseini, Ali Reza Tahavvor


Sound processing is one the subjects that newly attracts a lot of researchers. It is efficient and usually less expensive than other methods. In this paper the flow generated sound is used to estimate the flow speed of free flows. Many sound samples are gathered. After analyzing the data, a parameter named wave power is chosen. For all samples, the wave power is calculated and averaged for each flow speed. A curve is fitted to the averaged data and a correlation between the wave power and flow speed is founded. Test data are used to validate the method and errors for all test data were under 10 percent. The speed of the flow can be estimated by calculating the wave power of the flow generated sound and using the proposed correlation.

Keywords: the flow generated sound, free stream, sound processing, speed, wave power

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5043 Hydrological Modelling to Identify Critical Erosion Areas in Gheshlagh Dam Basin

Authors: Golaleh Ghaffari


A basin sediment yield refers to the amount of sediment exported by a basin over a period of time, which will enter a reservoir located at the downstream limit of the basin. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT, 2008) was used to hydrology and sediment transport modeling at daily and monthly time steps within the Gheshlagh dam basin in north-west of Iran. The SWAT model and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to evaluate basin hydrology and sediment yield using historical flow and sediment data and to identify and prioritize critical sub-basins based on sediment transport. The results of this study indicated that simulated daily discharge and sediment values matched the observed values satisfactorily. The model predicted that mean annual basin precipitation for the total study period (413 mm) was partitioned in to evapotranspiration (36%), percolation/groundwater recharge (21%) and stream water (25%), yielding 18% surface runoff. Potential source areas of erosion were also identified with the model. The range of the annual contributing erosive zones varied spatially from 0.1 to 103 t/ha according to the slope and land use at the basin scale. Also the fifteen sub basins create the 60% of the total sediment yield between the all (102) sub basins. The results of the study indicated that SWAT can be a useful tool for assessing hydrology and sediment yield response of the watersheds in the region.

Keywords: erosion, Gheshlagh dam, sediment yield, SWAT

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5042 Validation of Nutritional Assessment Scores in Prediction of Mortality and Duration of Admission in Elderly, Hospitalized Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Christos Lampropoulos, Maria Konsta, Vicky Dradaki, Irini Dri, Konstantina Panouria, Tamta Sirbilatze, Ifigenia Apostolou, Vaggelis Lambas, Christina Kordali, Georgios Mavras


Objectives: Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is related to increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study was to compare various nutritional scores in order to detect the most suitable one for assessing the nutritional status of elderly, hospitalized patients and correlate them with mortality and extension of admission duration, due to patients’ critical condition. Methods: Sample population included 150 patients (78 men, 72 women, mean age 80±8.2). Nutritional status was assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA full, short-form), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and short Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (sNAQ). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and ROC curves were assessed after adjustment for the cause of current admission, a known prognostic factor according to previously applied multivariate models. Primary endpoints were mortality (from admission until 6 months afterwards) and duration of hospitalization, compared to national guidelines for closed consolidated medical expenses. Results: Concerning mortality, MNA (short-form and full) and SNAQ had similar, low sensitivity (25.8%, 25.8% and 35.5% respectively) while MUST had higher sensitivity (48.4%). In contrast, all the questionnaires had high specificity (94%-97.5%). Short-form MNA and sNAQ had the best positive predictive value (72.7% and 78.6% respectively) whereas all the questionnaires had similar negative predictive value (83.2%-87.5%). MUST had the highest ROC curve (0.83) in contrast to the rest questionnaires (0.73-0.77). With regard to extension of admission duration, all four scores had relatively low sensitivity (48.7%-56.7%), specificity (68.4%-77.6%), positive predictive value (63.1%-69.6%), negative predictive value (61%-63%) and ROC curve (0.67-0.69). Conclusion: MUST questionnaire is more advantageous in predicting mortality due to its higher sensitivity and ROC curve. None of the nutritional scores is suitable for prediction of extended hospitalization.

Keywords: duration of admission, malnutrition, nutritional assessment scores, prognostic factors for mortality

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5041 A Study on Method for Identifying Capacity Factor Declination of Wind Turbines

Authors: Dongheon Shin, Kyungnam Ko, Jongchul Huh


The investigation on wind turbine degradation was carried out using the nacelle wind data. The three Vestas V80-2MW wind turbines of Sungsan wind farm in Jeju Island, South Korea were selected for this work. The SCADA data of the wind farm for five years were analyzed to draw power curve of the turbines. It is assumed that the wind distribution is the Rayleigh distribution to calculate the normalized capacity factor based on the drawn power curve of the three wind turbines for each year. The result showed that the reduction of power output from the three wind turbines occurred every year and the normalized capacity factor decreased to 0.12%/year on average.

Keywords: wind energy, power curve, capacity factor, annual energy production

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5040 Numerical Investigation into the Effect of Axial Fan Blade Angle on the Fan Performance

Authors: Shayan Arefi, Qadir Esmaili, Seyed Ali Jazayeri


The performance of cooling system affects on efficiency of turbo generators and temperature of winding. Fan blade is one of the most important components of cooling system which plays a significant role in ventilation of generators. Fan performance curve depends on the blade geometry and boundary condition. This paper calculates numerically the performance curve of axial flow fan mounted on turbo generator with 160 MW output power. The numerical calculation was implemented by Ansys-workbench software. The geometrical model of blade was created by bladegen, grid generation and configuration was made by turbogrid and finally, the simulation was implemented by CFX. For the first step, the performance curves consist of pressure rise and efficiency flow rate were calculated in the original angle of blade. Then, by changing the attack angle of blade, the related performance curves were calculated. CFD results for performance curve of each angle show a good agreement with experimental results. Additionally, the field velocity and pressure gradient of flow near the blade were investigated and simulated numerically with varying of angle.

Keywords: turbo generator, axial fan, Ansys, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
5039 Approximating Maximum Speed on Road from Curvature Information of Bezier Curve

Authors: M. Yushalify Misro, Ahmad Ramli, Jamaludin M. Ali


Bezier curves have useful properties for path generation problem, for instance, it can generate the reference trajectory for vehicles to satisfy the path constraints. Both algorithms join cubic Bezier curve segment smoothly to generate the path. Some of the useful properties of Bezier are curvature. In mathematics, the curvature is the amount by which a geometric object deviates from being flat, or straight in the case of a line. Another extrinsic example of curvature is a circle, where the curvature is equal to the reciprocal of its radius at any point on the circle. The smaller the radius, the higher the curvature thus the vehicle needs to bend sharply. In this study, we use Bezier curve to fit highway-like curve. We use the different approach to finding the best approximation for the curve so that it will resemble highway-like curve. We compute curvature value by analytical differentiation of the Bezier Curve. We will then compute the maximum speed for driving using the curvature information obtained. Our research works on some assumptions; first the Bezier curve estimates the real shape of the curve which can be verified visually. Even, though, the fitting process of Bezier curve does not interpolate exactly on the curve of interest, we believe that the estimation of speed is acceptable. We verified our result with the manual calculation of the curvature from the map.

Keywords: speed estimation, path constraints, reference trajectory, Bezier curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
5038 The Underestimate of the Annual Maximum Rainfall Depths Due to Coarse Time Resolution Data

Authors: Renato Morbidelli, Carla Saltalippi, Alessia Flammini, Tommaso Picciafuoco, Corrado Corradini


A considerable part of rainfall data to be used in the hydrological practice is available in aggregated form within constant time intervals. This can produce undesirable effects, like the underestimate of the annual maximum rainfall depth, Hd, associated with a given duration, d, that is the basic quantity in the development of rainfall depth-duration-frequency relationships and in determining if climate change is producing effects on extreme event intensities and frequencies. The errors in the evaluation of Hd from data characterized by a coarse temporal aggregation, ta, and a procedure to reduce the non-homogeneity of the Hd series are here investigated. Our results indicate that: 1) in the worst conditions, for d=ta, the estimation of a single Hd value can be affected by an underestimation error up to 50%, while the average underestimation error for a series with at least 15-20 Hd values, is less than or equal to 16.7%; 2) the underestimation error values follow an exponential probability density function; 3) each very long time series of Hd contains many underestimated values; 4) relationships between the non-dimensional ratio ta/d and the average underestimate of Hd, derived from continuous rainfall data observed in many stations of Central Italy, may overcome this issue; 5) these equations should allow to improve the Hd estimates and the associated depth-duration-frequency curves at least in areas with similar climatic conditions.

Keywords: central Italy, extreme events, rainfall data, underestimation errors

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5037 Toward a Characteristic Optimal Power Flow Model for Temporal Constraints

Authors: Zongjie Wang, Zhizhong Guo


While the regular optimal power flow model focuses on a single time scan, the optimization of power systems is typically intended for a time duration with respect to a desired objective function. In this paper, a temporal optimal power flow model for a time period is proposed. To reduce the computation burden needed for calculating temporal optimal power flow, a characteristic optimal power flow model is proposed, which employs different characteristic load patterns to represent the objective function and security constraints. A numerical method based on the interior point method is also proposed for solving the characteristic optimal power flow model. Both the temporal optimal power flow model and characteristic optimal power flow model can improve the systems’ desired objective function for the entire time period. Numerical studies are conducted on the IEEE 14 and 118-bus test systems to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed characteristic optimal power flow model.

Keywords: optimal power flow, time period, security, economy

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5036 Estimation of Snow and Ice Melt Contributions to Discharge from the Glacierized Hunza River Basin, Karakoram, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Hammad Ali, Rijan Bhakta Kayastha, Danial Hashmi, Richard Armstrong, Ahuti Shrestha, Iram Bano, Javed Hassan


This paper presents the results of a semi-distributed modified positive degree-day model (MPDDM) for estimating snow and ice melt contributions to discharge from the glacierized Hunza River basin, Pakistan. The model uses daily temperature data, daily precipitation data, and positive degree day factors for snow and ice melt. The model is calibrated for the period 1995-2001 and validated for 2002-2013, and demonstrates close agreements between observed and simulated discharge with Nash–Sutcliffe Efficiencies of 0.90 and 0.88, respectively. Furthermore, the Weather Research and Forecasting model projected temperature, and precipitation data from 2016-2050 are used for representative concentration pathways RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, and bias correction was done using a statistical approach for future discharge estimation. No drastic changes in future discharge are predicted for the emissions scenarios. The aggregate snow-ice melt contribution is 39% of total discharge in the period 1993-2013. Snow-ice melt contribution ranges from 35% to 63% during the high flow period (May to October), which constitutes 89% of annual discharge; in the low flow period (November to April) it ranges from 0.02% to 17%, which constitutes 11 % of the annual discharge. The snow-ice melt contribution to total discharge will increase gradually in the future and reach up to 45% in 2041-2050. From a sensitivity analysis, it is found that the combination of a 2°C temperature rise and 20% increase in precipitation shows a 10% increase in discharge. The study allows us to evaluate the impact of climate change in such basins and is also useful for the future prediction of discharge to define hydropower potential, inform other water resource management in the area, to understand future changes in snow-ice melt contribution to discharge, and offer a possible evaluation of future water quantity and availability.

Keywords: climate variability, future discharge projection, positive degree day, regional climate model, water resource management

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5035 Projection of Climate Change over the Upper Ping River Basin Using Regional Climate Model

Authors: Chakrit Chotamonsak, Eric P. Salathé Jr, Jiemjai Kreasuwan


Dynamical downscaling of the ECHAM5 global climate model is applied at 20-km horizontal resolution using the WRF regional climate model (WRF-ECHAM5), to project changes from 1990–2009 to 2045–2064 of temperature and precipitation over the Upper Ping River Basin. The analysis found that monthly changes in daily temperature and precipitation over the basin for the 2045-2064 compared to the 1990-2009 are revealed over the basin all months, with the largest warmer in December and the smallest warmer in February. The future simulated precipitation is smaller than that of the baseline value in May, July and August, while increasing of precipitation is revealed during pre-monsoon (April) and late monsoon (September and October). This means that the rainy season likely becomes longer and less intensified during the rainy season. During the cool-dry season and hot-dry season, precipitation is substantial increasing over the basin. For the annual cycle of changes in daily temperature and precipitation over the upper Ping River basin, the largest warmer in the mean temperature over the basin is 1.93 °C in December and the smallest is 0.77 °C in February. Increase in nighttime temperature (minimum temperature) is larger than that of daytime temperature (maximum temperature) during the dry season, especially in wintertime (November to February), resulted in decreasing the diurnal temperature range. The annual and seasonal changes in daily temperature and precipitation averaged over the basin. The annual mean rising are 1.43, 1.54 and 1.30 °C for mean temperature, maximum temperature and minimum temperature, respectively. The increasing of maximum temperature is larger than that of minimum temperature in all months during the dry season (November to April).

Keywords: climate change, regional climate model, upper Ping River basin, WRF

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5034 Extraction of Dyes Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System in Stratified and Slug Flow Regimes of a Microchannel

Authors: Garima, S. Pushpavanam


In this work, analysis of an Aqueous two-phase (polymer-salt) system for extraction of sunset yellow dye is carried out. A polymer-salt ATPS i.e.; Polyethylene glycol-600 and anhydrous sodium sulfate is used for the extraction. Conditions are chosen to ensure that the extraction results in a concentration of the dye in one of the phases. The dye has a propensity to come to the Polyethylene glycol-600 phase. This extracted sunset yellow dye is degraded photo catalytically into less harmful components. The cloud point method was used to obtain the binodal curve of ATPS. From the binodal curve, the composition of salt and Polyethylene glycol -600 was chosen such that the volume of Polyethylene glycol-600 rich phase is low. This was selected to concentrate the dye from a dilute solution in a large volume of contaminated solution into a small volume. This pre-concentration step provides a high reaction rate for photo catalytic degradation reaction. Experimentally the dye is extracted from the salt phase to Polyethylene glycol -600 phase in batch extraction. This was found to be very fast and all dye was extracted. The concentration of sunset yellow dye in salt and polymer phase is measured at 482nm by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The extraction experiment in micro channels under stratified flow is analyzed to determine factors which affect the dye extraction. Focus will be on obtaining slug flow by adding nanoparticles in micro channel. The primary aim is to exploit the fact that slug flow will help improve mass transfer rate from one phase to another through internal circulation in dispersed phase induced by shear.

Keywords: aqueous two phase system, binodal curve, extraction, sunset yellow dye

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5033 Verification and Application of Finite Element Model Developed for Flood Routing in Rivers

Authors: A. L. Qureshi, A. A. Mahessar, A. Baloch


Flood wave propagation in river channel flow can be enunciated by nonlinear equations of motion for unsteady flow. However, it is difficult to find analytical solution of these complex non-linear equations. Hence, verification of the numerical model should be carried out against field data and numerical predictions. This paper presents the verification of developed finite element model applying for unsteady flow in the open channels. The results of a proposed model indicate a good matching with both Preissmann scheme and HEC-RAS model for a river reach of 29 km at both sites (15 km from upstream and at downstream end) for discharge hydrographs. It also has an agreeable comparison with the Preissemann scheme for the flow depth (stage) hydrographs. The proposed model has also been applying to forecast daily discharges at 400 km downstream from Sukkur barrage, which demonstrates accurate model predictions with observed daily discharges. Hence, this model may be utilized for predicting and issuing flood warnings about flood hazardous in advance.

Keywords: finite element method, Preissmann scheme, HEC-RAS, flood forecasting, Indus river

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5032 Detecting Trends in Annual Discharge and Precipitation in the Chott Melghir Basin in Southeastern Algeria

Authors: M. T. Bouziane, A. Benkhaled, B. Achour


In this study, data from 30 catchments in the Chott Melghir basin in the semiarid region of southern East Algeria were analyzed to investigate changes in annual discharge, annual precipitation over the 1965-2005 period. These data were analyzed with the aid of Kendall test trend and regression analysis. The results indicate that the major variations in all catchments discharge in Chott Melghir correspond well to the precipitation. Changes in total annual discharge of Chott Melghir were lower than changes in annual precipitation. Annual precipitation decreased by 66 percent and annual discharge decreased by 4 percent. No significant trend is detected for annual discharge and precipitation at major catchments up to 95% confidence level. The decreasing trend in Chott Melghir discharge is mainly attributed to the decrease of precipitation.

Keywords: trends, climate change, precipitation, discharge, Kendall test, regression analysis, Chott Melghir catchments

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