Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Anupam Das

18 Structural Properties of RC Beam with Progression of Corrosion Induced Delamination Cracking

Authors: Anupam Saxena, Achin Agrawal, Rishabh Shukla, S. Mandal


It is quite important that the properties of structural elements do not change significantly before and after cracking, and if they do, it adversely affects the structure. Corrosion in rebars causes cracking in concrete which can lead to the change in properties of beam. In the present study, two RC beams with same flexural strength but with different reinforcement arrangements are considered and modelling of cracks of RC beams has been done at different degrees of corrosion in the case of delamination using boundary conditions of Three Point Bending Test. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been done at different degree of corrosion to observe the variation of different parameters like modal frequency, Elasticity and Flexural strength in case of delamination. Also, the comparison between two different RC arrangements is made to conclude which one of them is more suitable.

Keywords: delamination, elasticity, FEA, flexural strength, modal frequency, RC beam

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17 Analysis of Cracked Beams with Spalling Having Different Arrangements of the Reinforcement Bars Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

Authors: Rishabh Shukla, Achin Agrawal, Anupam Saxena, S. Mandal


The existence of a crack, affects the mechanical behaviour and various properties of a structure to a great degree. This paper focuses on recognizing the parameters that gets changed due to the formation of cracks and have a great impact on the performance of the structure. Spalling is a major concern as it leaves the reinforcement bars more susceptible to environmental attacks. Beams of cross section 300 mm × 500 mm are designed and for a calculated area of steel, two different arrangements of reinforced bars are analysed. Results are prepared for different stages of cracking for each arrangement of rebars. The parameters for both arrangements are then compared. The Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is carried out and changes in the properties like flexural strength, Elasticity and modal frequency are reported. The conclusions have been drawn by comparing the results.

Keywords: cracks, elasticity, spalling, FEA

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16 Effects of Financial Development on Economic Growth in South Asia

Authors: Anupam Das


Although financial liberalization has been one of the most important policy prescriptions of international organizations like the World Bank and the IMF, the effect of financial liberalization on economic growth in developing countries is far from unanimous. Since the '80s, South Asian countries made a significant development in liberalization the financial sector. However, due to unavailability of a sufficient number of time series observations, the relationship between economic growth and financial development has not been investigated adequately. We aim to fill this gap by examining time series data of five developing countries from the South Asian region: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. Applying the cointegration tests and Granger causality within the vector error correction model (VECM), we do not find unanimous evidence of financial development on positive economic growth. These results are helpful for developing countries which have been trying to liberalize the financial sector in recent decades.

Keywords: economic growth, financial development, Granger causality, South Asia

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15 Higher Education and Empowerment of Women: A Case Study

Authors: Anupam Deka


Gender discrimination has been considered as a major obstacle in granting equal opportunity for woman in Higher education as education plays a pivotal role in a country’s socio-economic development. To examine the empowerment of women in the higher education field of Assam, a case study has been carried out. In the first stage, an overview of enrolment of students in different courses has been made by considering the whole state. In the second stage a study has been conducted regarding the enrolment of students in various degree and P-G courses for the period 2000-2007 under Gauhati University (which is one of the four universities of Assam) and the relevant data has been collected. It has been found that though the enrolment of students in the degree levels has been constantly increasing, but the enrolment of girls are not proportionately increasing, specially in commerce and law. On the other hand, in the post-graduate level, these proportions are higher in almost all the subjects (except some subjects like M. COM., L.L.M, M. C. A., Mathematics, etc.), indicating that more number of girls than boys are taking admission in the P-G courses.

Keywords: field study, enrolment of girls in degree and P G levels, regression lines, Chi Square test, diagrams and statistical tables

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14 Higher Education and Empowerment of Women in Assam (India): An Empirical Analysis

Authors: Anupam Deka, Indira Bardoloi


Gender discrimination has been considered as a major obstacle in granting equal opportunity for women in higher education as education plays a pivotal role in a country’s socioeconomic development. To examine the empowerment of women in the higher education field of Assam, a case study has been carried out. In the first stage, an overview of enrollment of students in different courses has been made by considering the whole state. In the second stage, a study has been conducted regarding the enrollment of students in various degree and postgraduate courses for the period 2000-2007 at Gauhati University (one of the four universities of Assam), and the relevant data has been collected. It has been found that though the enrollment of students in the degree levels has been constantly increasing, but the enrollment of girls are not proportionately increasing, especially in commerce and law. On the other hand, in the postgraduate level, these proportions are higher in almost all subjects (except some subjects like M. COM., L.L.M, M. C. A., Mathematics, etc.), indicating that compared to boys, a higher number of girls are being admitted in postgraduate courses.

Keywords: field study, enrollment of girls in degree and postgratudate levels, regression lines, chi square test, diagrams, statistical tables

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13 A Deep Learning Based Method for Faster 3D Structural Topology Optimization

Authors: Arya Prakash Padhi, Anupam Chakrabarti, Rajib Chowdhury


Topology or layout optimization often gives better performing economic structures and is very helpful in the conceptual design phase. But traditionally it is being done in finite element-based optimization schemes which, although gives a good result, is very time-consuming especially in 3D structures. Among other alternatives machine learning, especially deep learning-based methods, have a very good potential in resolving this computational issue. Here convolutional neural network (3D-CNN) based variational auto encoder (VAE) is trained using a dataset generated from commercially available topology optimization code ABAQUS Tosca using solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) method for compliance minimization. The encoded data in latent space is then fed to a 3D generative adversarial network (3D-GAN) to generate the outcome in 64x64x64 size. Here the network consists of 3D volumetric CNN with rectified linear unit (ReLU) activation in between and sigmoid activation in the end. The proposed network is seen to provide almost optimal results with significantly reduced computational time, as there is no iteration involved.

Keywords: 3D generative adversarial network, deep learning, structural topology optimization, variational auto encoder

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12 Customer Experience Management in Food and Beverage Outlet at Indian School of Business: Methodology and Recommendations

Authors: Anupam Purwar


In conventional consumer product industry, stockouts are taken care by carrying buffer stock to check underserving caused by changes in customer demand, incorrect forecast or variability in lead times. But, for food outlets, the alternate of carrying buffer stock is unviable because of indispensable need to serve freshly cooked meals. Besides, the food outlet being the sole provider has no incentives to reduce stockouts, as they have no fear of losing revenue, gross profit, customers and market share. Hence, innovative, easy to implement and practical ways of addressing the twin problem of long queues and poor customer experience needs to be investigated. Current work analyses the demand pattern of 11 different food items across a routine day. Based on this optimum resource allocation for all food items has been carried out by solving a linear programming problem with cost minimization as the objective. Concurrently, recommendations have been devised to address this demand and supply side problem keeping in mind their practicability. Currently, the recommendations are being discussed and implemented at ISB (Indian School of Business) Hyderabad campus.

Keywords: F&B industry, resource allocation, demand management, linear programming, LP, queuing analysis

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11 Performance of Osmotic Microbial Fuel Cell in Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation: A Critical Review

Authors: Shubhangi R. Deshmukh, Anupam B. Soni


Clean water and electricity are vital services needed in all communities. Bio-degradation of wastewater contaminants and desalination technologies are the best possible alternatives for the global shortage of fresh water supply. Osmotic microbial fuel cell (OMFC) is a versatile technology that uses microorganism (used for biodegradation of organic waste) and membrane technology (used for water purification) for wastewater treatment and energy generation simultaneously. This technology is the combination of microbial fuel cell (MFC) and forward osmosis (FO) processes. OMFC can give more electricity and clean water than the MFC which has a regular proton exchange membrane. FO gives many improvements such as high contamination removal, lower operating energy, raising high proton flux than other pressure-driven membrane technology. Lower concentration polarization lowers the membrane fouling by giving osmotic water recovery without extra cost. In this review paper, we have discussed the principle, mechanism, limitation, and application of OMFC technology reported to date. Also, we have interpreted the experimental data from various literature on the water recovery and electricity generation assessed by a different component of OMFC. The area of producing electricity using OMFC has further scope for research and seems like a promising route to wastewater treatment.

Keywords: forward osmosis, microbial fuel cell, osmotic microbial fuel cell, wastewater treatment

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10 Apollo Clinical Excellence Scorecard ([email protected]): An Initiative to Drive Quality Improvement in Hospitals

Authors: Anupam Sibal


Whatever is measured tends to improve. With a view to objectively measuring and improving clinical quality across the Apollo Group Hospitals, the initiative of ACE @ 25 (Apollo Clinical [email protected]) was launched on Jan 09. ACE @ 25 is a clinically balanced scorecard incorporating 25 clinical quality parameters involving complication rates, mortality rates, one-year survival rates and average length of stay after major procedures like liver and renal transplant, CABG, TKR, THR, TURP, PTCA, endoscopy, large bowel resection and MRM covering all major specialties. Also included are hospital acquired infection rates, pain satisfaction and medication errors. Benchmarks have been chosen from the world’s best hospitals. There are weighted scores for outcomes color coded green, orange and red. The cumulative score is 100. Data is reported monthly by 43 Group Hospitals online on the Lighthouse platform. Action taken reports for parameters falling in red are submitted quarterly and reviewed by the board. An audit team audits the data at all locations every six months. Scores are linked to appraisal of the medical head and there is an “ACE @ 25” Champion Award for the highest scorer. Scores for different parameters were variable from green to red at the start of the initiative. Most hospitals showed an improvement in scores over the last four years for parameters where they had showed scores in red or orange at the start of the initiative. The overall scores for the group have shown an increase from 72 in 2010 to 81 in 2015.

Keywords: benchmarks, clinical quality, lighthouse, platform, scores

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9 Developing HRCT Criterion to Predict the Risk of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

Authors: Vandna Raghuvanshi, Vikrant Thakur, Anupam Jhobta


Objective: To design HRCT criterion to forecast the threat of pulmonary tuberculosis. Material and methods: This was a prospective study of 69 patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis. We studied their medical characteristics, numerous separate HRCT-results, and a combination of HRCT findings to foresee the danger for PTB by utilizing univariate and multivariate investigation. Temporary HRCT diagnostic criteria were planned in view of these outcomes to find out the risk of PTB and tested these criteria on our patients. Results: The results of HRCT chest were analyzed, and Rank was given from 1 to 4 according to the HRCT chest findings. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated. Rank 1: Highly suspected PTB. Rank 2: Probable PTB Rank 3: Nonspecific or difficult to differentiate from other diseases Rank 4: Other suspected diseases • Rank 1 (Highly suspected TB) was present in 22 (31.9%) patients, all of them finally diagnosed to have pulmonary tuberculosis. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative likelihood ratio for RANK 1 on HRCT chest was 53.6%, 100%, and 0.43, respectively. • Rank 2 (Probable TB) was present in 13 patients, out of which 12 were tubercular, and 1 was non-tubercular. • The sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio of the combination of Rank 1 and Rank 2 was 82.9%, 96.4%, 23.22, and 0.18, respectively. • Rank 3 (Non-specific TB) was present in 25 patients, and out of these, 7 were tubercular, and 18 were non-tubercular. • When all these 3 ranks were considered together, the sensitivity approached 100% however, the specificity reduced to 35.7%. The positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 1.56 and 0, respectively. • Rank 4 (Other specific findings) was given to 9 patients, and all of these were non-tubercular. Conclusion: HRCT is useful in selecting individuals with greater chances of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Keywords: pulmonary, tuberculosis, multivariate, HRCT

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8 Antifeedant Activity of Methanol and Hexane Extracts of Datura Innoxia (Mill.) (Solanaceae) in the Management of Spodoptera Litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae

Authors: Vagisha Rawal, Anupam V. Sharma, Tarun Kumar Vats, Ashok Kumar Singh


The antifeedant activity of methanol and hexane extract of leaves and seeds of Datura innoxia (Mill.) (Solanaceae) was evaluated against the 5th instar Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in choice and no-choice leaf disc bioassays under laboratory conditions. These larvae when given a choice between the ‘control’ and ‘treated’ leaf discs in choice bioassays, consumed significantly (p ˂ 0.05) greater area of the ‘control’ leaf discs compared to those treated with the crude extracts of leaves and seeds of D. innoxia. The Antifeedant Index (AFI) for 5% concentration of the hexane extract of Datura seeds (DSHE) was 43.3% and 38.5% for methanol extract of Datura seeds (DSME). On the other hand, these values were 34.1% for the hexane extract of Datura leaves (DLHE), and 31.0% for the methanol extract of Datura leaves (DLME), respectively. In no-choice bioassays also, there was a significant (p˂0.05) reduction in the larval consumption of ‘treated’ leaf discs compared to the ‘control’ leaf discs. Maximum AFI was recorded at 5% concentration of the extracts of both the leaves and seeds with 47.7% for DSHE against 40.0% (DSME) and 39.4% for DLHE compared with 38.4% (DLME). Moreover, DSHE was found to have the maximum antifeedant effect irrespective of its concentration in comparison to the other crude extracts of leaves or seeds of D. innoxia. It is evident from these results that the crude methanol and hexane extracts of leaves and seeds of D. innoxia exhibited potent antifeedant activity against the 5th instar S. litura larvae. Also, the use of the bioactive compound(s) present in these extracts can prove to be an effective, eco-friendly, viable and sustainable component that can be integrated in IPM programs for the management of this economically important polyphagous insect pest in the Indian subcontinent.

Keywords: antifeedant activity, antifeedant index, datura innoxia, spodoptera litura

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7 Comparison of 18F-FDG and 11C-Methionine PET-CT for Assessment of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Breast Carcinoma

Authors: Sonia Mahajan Dinesh, Anant Dinesh, Madhavi Tripathi, Vinod Kumar Ramteke, Rajnish Sharma, Anupam Mondal


Background: Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy plays an important role in treatment of breast cancer by decreasing the tumour load and it offers an opportunity to evaluate response of primary tumour to chemotherapy. Standard anatomical imaging modalities are unable to accurately reflect the response to chemotherapy until several cycles of drug treatment have been completed. Metabolic imaging using tracers like 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) as a marker of glucose metabolism or amino acid tracers like L-methyl-11C methionine (MET) have potential role for the measurement of treatment response. In this study, our objective was to compare these two PET tracers for assessment of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, in locally advanced breast carcinoma. Methods: In our prospective study, 20 female patients with histology proven locally advanced breast carcinoma underwent PET-CT imaging using FDG and MET before and after three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (CAF regimen). Thereafter, all patients were taken for MRM and the resected specimen was sent for histo-pathological analysis. Tumour response to the neoadjuvant chemotherapy was evaluated by PET-CT imaging using PERCIST criteria and correlated with histological results. Responses calculated were compared for statistical significance using paired t- test. Results: Mean SUVmax for primary lesion in FDG PET and MET PET was 15.88±11.12 and 5.01±2.14 respectively (p<0.001) and for axillary lymph nodes was 7.61±7.31 and 2.75±2.27 respectively (p=0.001). Statistically significant response in primary tumour and axilla was noted on both FDG and MET PET after three cycles of NAC. Complete response in primary tumour was seen in only 1 patient in FDG and 7 patients in MET PET (p=0.001) whereas there was no histological complete resolution of tumor in any patient. Response to therapy in axillary nodes noted on both PET scans were similar (p=0.45) and correlated well with histological findings. Conclusions: For the primary breast tumour, FDG PET has a higher sensitivity and accuracy than MET PET and for axilla both have comparable sensitivity and specificity. FDG PET shows higher target to background ratios so response is better predicted for primary breast tumour and axilla. Also, FDG-PET is widely available and has the advantage of a whole body evaluation in one study.

Keywords: 11C-methionine, 18F-FDG, breast carcinoma, neoadjuvant chemotherapy

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6 Apollo Quality Program: The Essential Framework for Implementing Patient Safety

Authors: Anupam Sibal


Apollo Quality Program(AQP) was launched across the Apollo Group of Hospitals to address the four patient safety areas; Safety during Clinical Handovers, Medication Safety, Surgical Safety and the six International Patient Safety Goals(IPSGs) of JCI. A measurable, online, quality dashboard covering 20 process and outcome parameters was devised for monthly monitoring. The expected outcomes were also defined and categorized into green, yellow and red ranges. An audit methodology was also devised to check the processes for the measurable dashboard. Documented clinical handovers were introduced for the first time at many locations for in-house patient transfer, nursing-handover, and physician-handover. Prototype forms using the SBAR format were made. Patient-identifiers, read-back for verbal orders, safety of high-alert medications, site marking and time-outs and falls risk-assessment were introduced for all hospitals irrespective of accreditation status. Measurement of Surgical-Site-Infection (SSI) for 30 days postoperatively, was done. All hospitals now tracked the time of administration of antimicrobial prophylaxis before surgery. Situations with high risk of retention of foreign body were delineated and precautionary measures instituted. Audit of medications prescribed in the discharge summaries was made uniform. Formularies, prescription-audits and other means for reduction of medication errors were implemented. There is a marked increase in the compliance to processes and patient safety outcomes. Compliance to read-back for verbal orders rose from 86.83% in April’11 to 96.95% in June’15, to policy for high alert medications from 87.83% to 98.82%, to use of measures to prevent wrong-site, wrong-patient, wrong procedure surgery from 85.75% to 97.66%, to hand-washing from 69.18% to 92.54%, to antimicrobial prophylaxis within one hour before incision from 79.43% to 93.46%. Percentage of patients excluded from SSI calculation due to lack of follow-up for the requisite time frame decreased from 21.25% to 10.25%. The average AQP scores for all Apollo Hospitals improved from 62 in April’11 to 87.7 in Jun’15.

Keywords: clinical handovers, international patient safety goals, medication safety, surgical safety

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5 Interactive Garments: Flexible Technologies for Textile Integration

Authors: Anupam Bhatia


Upon reviewing the literature and the pragmatic work done in the field of E- textiles, it is observed that the applications of wearable technologies have found a steady growth in the field of military, medical, industrial, sports; whereas fashion is at a loss to know how to treat this technology and bring it to market. The purpose of this paper is to understand the practical issues of integration of electronics in garments; cutting patterns for mass production, maintaining the basic properties of textiles and daily maintenance of garments that hinder the wide adoption of interactive fabric technology within Fashion and leisure wear. To understand the practical hindrances an experimental and laboratory approach is taken. “Techno Meets Fashion” has been an interactive fashion project where sensor technologies have been embedded with textiles that result in set of ensembles that are light emitting garments, sound sensing garments, proximity garments, shape memory garments etc. Smart textiles, especially in the form of textile interfaces, are drastically underused in fashion and other lifestyle product design. Clothing and some other textile products must be washable, which subjects to the interactive elements to water and chemical immersion, physical stress, and extreme temperature. The current state of the art tends to be too fragile for this treatment. The process for mass producing traditional textiles becomes difficult in interactive textiles. As cutting patterns from larger rolls of cloth and sewing them together to make garments breaks and reforms electronic connections in an uncontrolled manner. Because of this, interactive fabric elements are integrated by hand into textiles produced by standard methods. The Arduino has surely made embedding electronics into textiles much easier than before; even then electronics are not integral to the daily wear garments. Soft and flexible interfaces of MEMS (micro sensors and Micro actuators) can be an option to make this possible by blending electronics within E-textiles in a way that’s seamless and still retains functions of the circuits as well as the garment. Smart clothes, which offer simultaneously a challenging design and utility value, can be only mass produced if the demands of the body are taken care of i.e. protection, anthropometry, ergonomics of human movement, thermo- physiological regulation.

Keywords: ambient intelligence, proximity sensors, shape memory materials, sound sensing garments, wearable technology

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4 Kinematic Modelling and Task-Based Synthesis of a Passive Architecture for an Upper Limb Rehabilitation Exoskeleton

Authors: Sakshi Gupta, Anupam Agrawal, Ekta Singla


An exoskeleton design for rehabilitation purpose encounters many challenges, including ergonomically acceptable wearing technology, architectural design human-motion compatibility, actuation type, human-robot interaction, etc. In this paper, a passive architecture for upper limb exoskeleton is proposed for assisting in rehabilitation tasks. Kinematic modelling is detailed for task-based kinematic synthesis of the wearable exoskeleton for self-feeding tasks. The exoskeleton architecture possesses expansion and torsional springs which are able to store and redistribute energy over the human arm joints. The elastic characteristics of the springs have been optimized to minimize the mechanical work of the human arm joints. The concept of hybrid combination of a 4-bar parallelogram linkage and a serial linkage were chosen, where the 4-bar parallelogram linkage with expansion spring acts as a rigid structure which is used to provide the rotational degree-of-freedom (DOF) required for lowering and raising of the arm. The single linkage with torsional spring allows for the rotational DOF required for elbow movement. The focus of the paper is kinematic modelling, analysis and task-based synthesis framework for the proposed architecture, keeping in considerations the essential tasks of self-feeding and self-exercising during rehabilitation of partially healthy person. Rehabilitation of primary functional movements (activities of daily life, i.e., ADL) is routine activities that people tend to every day such as cleaning, dressing, feeding. We are focusing on the feeding process to make people independent in respect of the feeding tasks. The tasks are focused to post-surgery patients under rehabilitation with less than 40% weakness. The challenges addressed in work are ensuring to emulate the natural movement of the human arm. Human motion data is extracted through motion-sensors for targeted tasks of feeding and specific exercises. Task-based synthesis procedure framework will be discussed for the proposed architecture. The results include the simulation of the architectural concept for tracking the human-arm movements while displaying the kinematic and static study parameters for standard human weight. D-H parameters are used for kinematic modelling of the hybrid-mechanism, and the model is used while performing task-based optimal synthesis utilizing evolutionary algorithm.

Keywords: passive mechanism, task-based synthesis, emulating human-motion, exoskeleton

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3 Genetic Analysis of CYP11A1 Gene with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome from North India

Authors: Ratneev Kaur, Tajinder Kaur, Anupam Kaur


Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disorder of endocrine system among women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia. Several pathways are implicated in its etiology including the metabolic pathway of steroid hormone synthesis regulatory pathways. PCOS is an androgen excess disorder, genes operating in steroidogenesis may alter pathogenesis of PCOS. The cytochrome P450scc is a cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme coded by CYP11A1 gene and catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the initial and rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis. It is postulated that polymorphisms in this gene may play an important role in the regulation of CYP11A1 expression and leading to increased or decreased androgen production. The present study will be the first study from north India to best of our knowledge, to analyse the association of CYP11A1 (rs11632698) polymorphism in women suffering from PCOS. Methodology: The present study was approved by ethical committee of Guru Nanak Dev University in consistent with declaration of Helsinki. A total of 300 samples (150 PCOS cases and 150 controls) were recruited from Hartej hospital, for the present study. Venous blood sample (3ml) was withdrawn from women diagnosed with PCOS by doctor, according to Rotterdam 2003 criteria and from healthy age matched controls only after informed consent and detailed filled proforma. For molecular genetics analysis, blood was stored in EDTA vials. After DNA isolation by organic method, PCR-RFLP approach was used for genotyping and association analysis of rs11632698 polymorphism. Statistical analysis was done to check for significance of selected polymorphism with PCOS. Results: In 150 PCOS cases, the frequency of AA, AG and GG genotype was found to be 48%, 35%, and 13% compared to 62%, 27% and 8% in 150 controls. The major allele (A) and minor allele (G) frequency was 68% and 32% in cases and 78% and 22% in controls. Minor allele frequency was higher in cases as compared to controls, as well as the distribution of genotype was observed to be statistically significant (ᵡ²=6.525, p=0.038). Odds ratio in dominant, co-dominant and recessive models observed was 1.81 (p=0.013), 1.54 (p=0.012) and 1.77 (p=0.132) respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed statistically significant association of rs11632698 with PCOS (p=0.038) in North Indian women.

Keywords: polycystic ovary syndrome, CYP11A1, rs11632698, hyperandrogenism

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2 Imaging Spectrum of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis on Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Correlation with Clinical and Microbiological Results

Authors: Vasundhara Arora, Anupam Jhobta, Suresh Thakur, Sanjiv Sharma


Aims and Objectives: Intracranial tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most devastating manifestations of TB and a challenging public health issue of considerable importance and magnitude world over. This study elaborates on the imaging spectrum of neurotuberculosis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 29 clinically suspected cases from a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: The prospective hospital based evaluation of MR imaging features of neuro-tuberculosis in 29 clinically suspected cases was carried out in Department of Radio-diagnosis, Indira Gandhi Medical Hospital from July 2017 to August 2018. MR Images were obtained on a 1.5 T Magnetom Avanto machine and were analyzed to identify any abnormal meningeal enhancement or parenchymal lesions. Microbiological and Biochemical CSF analysis was performed in radio-logically suspected cases and the results were compared with the imaging data. Clinical follow up of the patients started on anti-tuberculous treatment was done to evaluate the response to treatment and clinical outcome. Results: Age range of patients in the study was between 1 year to 73 years. The mean age of presentation was 11.5 years. No significant difference in the distribution of cerebral tuberculosis was noted among the two genders. Imaging findings of neuro-tuberculosis obtained were varied and non specific ranging from lepto-meningeal enhancement, cerebritis to space occupying lesions such as tuberculomas and tubercular abscesses. Complications presenting as hydrocephalus (n= 7) and infarcts (n=9) was noted in few of these patients. 29 patients showed radiological suspicion of CNS tuberculosis with meningitis alone observed in 11 cases, tuberculomas alone were observed in 4 cases, meningitis with parenchymal tuberculomas in 11 cases. Tubercular abscess and cerebritis were observed in one case each. Tuberculous arachnoiditis was noted in one patient. Gene expert positivity was obtained in 11 out of 29 radiologically suspected patients; none of the patients showed culture positivity. Meningeal form of the disease alone showed higher positivity rate of gene Xpert (n=5) followed by combination of meningeal and parenchymal forms of disease (n=4). The parenchymal manifestation of disease alone showed least positivity rates (n= 3) with gene xpert testing. All 29 patients were started on anti tubercular treatment based on radiological suspicion of the disease with clinical improvement observed in 27 treated patients. Conclusions: In our study, higher incidence of neuro- tuberculosis was noted in paediatric population with predominance of the meningeal form of the disease. Gene Xpert positivity obtained was low due to paucibacillary nature of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with even lower positivity of CSF samples in parenchymal form of the manifestation. MRI showed high accuracy in detecting CNS lesions in neuro-tuberculosis. Hence, it can be concluded that MRI plays a crucial role in the diagnosis because of its inherent sensitivity and specificity and is an indispensible imaging modality. It caters to the need of early diagnosis owing to poor sensitivity of microbiological tests more so in the parenchymal manifestation of the disease.

Keywords: neurotuberculosis, tubercular abscess, tuberculoma, tuberculous meningitis

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1 Texture Characteristics and Depositional Environment of the Lower Mahi River Sediment, Mainland Gujarat, India

Authors: Shazi Farooqui, Anupam Sharma


The Mahi River (~600km long) is an important west flowing the river of Central India. It originates in Madhya Pradesh and starts flowing in NW direction and enters into the state of Rajasthan. It flows across southern Rajasthan and then enters into Gujarat and finally debouches in the Gulf of Cambay. In Gujarat state, it flows through all four geomorphic zones i.e. eastern upland zone, shallow buried piedmont zone, alluvial zone and coastal zone. In lower reaches and particularly when it is flowing under the coastal regime, it provides an opportunity to study – 1. Land–Sea interaction and role of relative sea level changes, 2. Coastal/estuarine geological process, 3. Landscape evolution in marginal areas and so on. The Late Quaternary deposits of Mainland Gujarat is appreciably studied by Chamyal and his group of MS University of Baroda, and they have established that the 30-35m thick sediment package of the Mainland Gujarat is comprised of marine, fluvial and aeolian sediments. It is also established that in the estuarine zone, the upper few meter thick sediments package is of marine nature. However, its thickness, characters and the depositional environment including the role of climate and tectonics is still not clearly defined. To understand few aspects of the above mentioned, in the present study, a 17m subsurface sediment core has been retrieved from the estuarine zone of Mahi river basin. The Multiproxy studies which include the textural analysis (grain size), Loss on ignition (LOI), Bulk and clay mineralogy and geochemical studies have been carried out. In the entire sedimentary sequence, the grain size largely varies from coarse sand to clay; however, a solitary gravel bed is also noticed. The lower part (depth 9-17m), is mainly comprised of sub equal proportion of sand and silt. The sediments mainly have bimodal and leptokurtic distribution and deposited in alternate sand-silt package, probably indicating flood deposits. Relatively low moisture (1.8%) and organic carbon (2.4%) with increased carbonate values (12%) indicate that conditions must have to remain oxidizing. The middle part (depth 9–6m) has a 1m thick gravel bed at the bottom and overlain by coarse sand to very fine sand showing fining upward sequence. The presence of gravel bed suggests some kind of tectonic activity resulting into change in base level or enhanced precipitation in the catchment region. The upper part (depth 6–0m; top part of sequence) mainly comprised of fine sand to silt size grains (with appreciable clay content). The sediment of this part is Unimodal and very leptokurtic in nature suggesting wave and winnowing process and deposited in low energy suspension environment. This part has relatively high moisture (2.1%) and organic carbon (2.7%) with decreased carbonate content (4.2%) indicating change in the depositional environment probably under estuarine conditions. The presence of chlorite along with smectite clay mineral further supports the significant marine contribution in the formation of upper part of the sequence.

Keywords: grain size, statistical analysis, clay minerals, late quaternary, LOI

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