Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Tulay Basak

20 A Pilot Study on Integration of Simulation in the Nursing Educational Program: Hybrid Simulation

Authors: Vesile Unver, Tulay Basak, Hatice Ayhan, Ilknur Cinar, Emine Iyigun, Nuran Tosun

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of the hybrid simulation. In this simulation, types standardized patients and task trainers are employed simultaneously. For instance, in order to teach the IV activities standardized patients and IV arm models are used. The study was designed as a quasi-experimental research. Before the implementation an ethical permission was taken from the local ethical commission and administrative permission was granted from the nursing school. The universe of the study included second-grade nursing students (n=77). The participants were selected through simple random sample technique and total of 39 nursing students were included. The views of the participants were collected through a feedback form with 12 items. The form was developed by the authors and “Patient intervention self-confidence/competence scale”. Participants reported advantages of the hybrid simulation practice. Such advantages include the following: developing connections between the simulated scenario and real life situations in clinical conditions; recognition of the need for learning more about clinical practice. They all stated that the implementation was very useful for them. They also added three major gains; improvement of critical thinking skills (94.7%) and the skill of making decisions (97.3%); and feeling as if a nurse (92.1%). In regard to the mean scores of the participants in the patient intervention self-confidence/competence scale, it was found that the total mean score for the scale was 75.23±7.76. The findings obtained in the study suggest that the hybrid simulation has positive effects on the integration of theoretical and practical activities before clinical activities for the nursing students.

Keywords: hybrid simulation, clinical practice, nursing education, nursing students

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19 The Effect of Social Structural Change on the Traditional Turkish Houses Becoming Unusable

Authors: Gamze Fahriye Pehlivan, Tulay Canitez

Abstract:

The traditional Turkish houses becoming unusable are a result of the deterioration of the balanced interaction between users and house (human and house) continuing during the history. Especially depending upon the change in social structure, the houses becoming neglected do not meet the desires of the users and do not have the meaning but the shelter are becoming unusable and are being destroyed. A conservation policy should be developed and renovations should be made in order to pass the traditional houses carrying the quality of a cultural and historical document presenting the social structure, the lifestyle and the traditions of its own age to the next generations and to keep them alive.

Keywords: house, social structural change, social structural, traditional Turkish houses

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18 Reference Management Software: Comparative Analysis of RefWorks and Zotero

Authors: Sujit K. Basak

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparison of reference management software between RefWorks and Zotero. The results were drawn by comparing two software and the novelty of this paper is the comparative analysis of software and it has shown that ReftWorks can import more information from the Google Scholar for the researchers. This finding could help to know researchers to use the reference management software.

Keywords: analysis, comparative analysis, reference management software, researchers

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17 A Comparative Analysis of Zotero and Mendeley Reference Management Software

Authors: Sujit K. Basak

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This paper presents a comparison of the reference management software between Zotero and Mendeley and the results were drawn by comparing the two software’s. The novelty of this paper is the comparative analysis of the software and it has shown that Mendeley can import more information from the Google Scholar for the researchers. This finding can help to know researchers to use the reference management software.

Keywords: analysis, comparative analysis, zotero, researchers, Mendeley

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16 Review of Studies on Agility in Knowledge Management

Authors: Ferdi Sönmez, Başak Buluz

Abstract:

Agility in Knowledge Management (AKM) tries to capture agility requirements and their respective answers within the framework of knowledge and learning for organizations. Since it is rather a new construct, it is difficult to claim that it has been sufficiently discussed and analyzed in practical and theoretical realms. Like the term ‘agile learning’, it is also commonly addressed in the software development and information technology fields and across the related areas where those technologies can be applied. The organizational perspective towards AKM, seems to need some more time to become scholarly mature. Nevertheless, in the literature one can come across some implicit usages of this term occasionally. This research is aimed to explore the conceptual background of agility in KM, re-conceptualize it and extend it to business applications with a special focus on e-business.

Keywords: knowledge management, agility requirements, agility, knowledge

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15 Antimicrobial Activity of the Cyanobacteria spp. against Fish Pathogens in Aquaculture

Authors: I. Tulay Cagatay

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Blue-green microalgae cyanobacteria, which are important photosynthetic organisms of aquatic ecosystems, are the primary sources of many bioactive compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins and enzymes that can be used as antimicrobial and antiviral agents. Some of these organisms are nowadays used directly in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industry, or in aquaculture and biotechnological approaches like biofuel or drug therapy. Finding the effective, environmental friendly chemotropic and antimicrobial agents to control fish pathogens are crucial in a country like Turkey which has a production capacity of about 240 thousand tons of cultured fish and has 2377 production farms and which is the second biggest producer in Europe. In our study, we tested the antimicrobial activity of cyanobacterium spp. against some fish pathogens Aeromonas hydrophila and Yersinia ruckeri that are important pathogens for rainbow trout farms. Agar disk diffusion test method was used for studying antimicrobial activity on pathogens. Both tested microorganisms have shown antimicrobial activity positively as the inhibition zones were 0.45 mm and 0.40 mm respectively.

Keywords: fish pathogen, cyanobacteria, antimicrobial activity, trout

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14 A Framework on the Critical Success Factors of E-Learning Implementation in Higher Education: A Review of the Literature

Authors: Sujit K. Basak, Marguerite Wotto, Paul Bélanger

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This paper presents a conceptual framework on the critical success factors of e-learning implementation in higher education, derived from an in-depth survey of literature review. The aim of this study was achieved by identifying critical success factors that affect for the successful implementation of e-learning. The findings help to articulate issues that are related to e-learning implementation in both formal and non-formal higher education and in this way contribute to the development of programs designed to address the relevant issues.

Keywords: critical success factors, e-learning, higher education, life-long learning

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13 A Hazard Rate Function for the Time of Ruin

Authors: Sule Sahin, Basak Bulut Karageyik

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This paper introduces a hazard rate function for the time of ruin to calculate the conditional probability of ruin for very small intervals. We call this function the force of ruin (FoR). We obtain the expected time of ruin and conditional expected time of ruin from the exact finite time ruin probability with exponential claim amounts. Then we introduce the FoR which gives the conditional probability of ruin and the condition is that ruin has not occurred at time t. We analyse the behavior of the FoR function for different initial surpluses over a specific time interval. We also obtain FoR under the excess of loss reinsurance arrangement and examine the effect of reinsurance on the FoR.

Keywords: conditional time of ruin, finite time ruin probability, force of ruin, reinsurance

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12 Analyzing the Technology Affecting on the Social Integration of Students at University

Authors: Sujit K. Basak, Simon Collin

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The aim of this paper is to examine the technology access and use on the affecting social integration of local students at university. This aim is achieved by designing a structural equation modeling (SEM) in terms of integration with peers, integration with faculty, faculty support and on the other hand, examining the socio demographic impact on the technology access and use. The collected data were analyzed using the WarpPLS 5.0 software. This study was survey based and it was conducted at a public university in Canada. The results of the study indicated that technology has a strong impact on integration with faculty, faculty support, but technology does not have an impact on integration with peers. However, the social demographic has also an impact on the technology access and use.

Keywords: faculty, integration, peer, technology access and use

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11 Analysis of the Impact of NVivo and EndNote on Academic Research Productivity

Authors: Sujit K. Basak

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of literature review software on researchers. The aim of this study was achieved by analyzing models in terms of perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and acceptance level. Collected data was analyzed using WarpPLS 4.0 software. This study used two theoretical frameworks namely Technology Acceptance Model and the Training Needs Assessment Model. The study was experimental and was conducted at a public university in South Africa. The results of the study showed that acceptance level has a high impact on research workload and productivity followed by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use.

Keywords: technology acceptance model, training needs assessment model, literature review software, research productivity

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10 Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Heterocyclic Indole Derivatives

Authors: Tunca Gul Altuntas, Aziz Baydar, Cemre Acar, Sezen Yılmaz, Tulay Coban

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Free radicals, which are generated in many bioorganic redox processes, play a role in the pathogenesis of several diseases including cancer, arthritis, hemorrhagic shock, inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases and age-related degenerative brain diseases. Exposures of normal cell to free radical damages several structures, oxidizes nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, or DNA. Compounds interfere with the action of reactive oxygen species might be useful in prevention and treatment of these pathologies. A series of indole compounds containing piperazine ring were synthesized. Coupling of indole-2-carboxylic acid with monosubstituted piperazines was accomplished with 1,1’-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) in a good yield. The structures of prepared compounds were verified in good agreement with their 1H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance), MS (mass spectrophotometry), and IR (infrared spectrophotometry) characteristics. In this work, all synthetized indole derivatives were screened in vitro for their antioxidative potential against vitamin E (α-tocopherol) using different antioxidant assays such as superoxide anion formation, lipid peroxidation levels in rat liver, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) stable radical scavenging activity. The synthesized compounds showed various levels of inhibition compared to vitamin E. This may give promising results for the development of new antioxidant agents.

Keywords: antioxidant, indoles, piperazines, reactive oxygen species

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9 A Survey on How Faculty Perceive and Quest for Modes of Internationalization in a Private Higher Education Institution

Authors: Hanife Akar, Basak Calik, Gulcin Gulmez-Dag, Elanur Yilmaz

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Internationalization in higher education (IHE) has been a longstanding issue in the Western World but its impact has travelled beyond its borders. As a developing country, universities in Turkey also have put into their agendas strategic plans for IHE to compete with global trends and benchmarked universities. The purpose of this study was to explore how faculty in a private university in Mid Anatolia would like see modes of internationalization in their institution through a survey design and understand their quest for internationalization. Findings indicate that participants (N=49) are internationalized in different ways, from holding international Ph.D. degrees to postdoctoral degrees, or being international faculty themselves. Participants’ visions seem to be affected by the type of programs they are in, and many consider being a part of an international joint program or having international students and faculty are an essential component in IHE. In addition to holding joints degrees, and exchange or international human sources, participants quest for more collaboration for R&D, more comparative research opportunities, and examine or develop curricula from a global perspective.

Keywords: faculty, higher education, internationalization, visions

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8 The Effects of Organic or Inorganic Zinc and Microbial Phytase, Alone or in Combination, on the Performance, Biochemical Parameters and Nutrient Utilization of Broilers Fed a Diet Low in Available Phosphorus

Authors: Mustafa Midilli, Mustafa Salman, Omer Hakan Muglali, Tülay Ögretmen, Sena Cenesiz, Neslihan Ormanci

Abstract:

This study examined the effects of zinc (Zn) from different sources and microbial phytase on the broiler performance, biochemical parameters and digestibility of nutrients when they were added to broiler diets containing low available phosphorus. A total of 875, 1-day-old male broilers of the Ross 308 strain were randomly separated into two control groups (positive and negative) and five treatment groups each containing 125 birds; each group was divided into 5 replicates of 25 birds. The positive control (PC) group was fed a diet containing adequate concentration (0.45%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The negative control (NC) group was fed a basal diet including low concentration (0.30%) of available phosphorus due to mineral premix (except zinc) and feeds. The basal diet was supplemented with 0.30% phosphorus and 500 FTU phytase (PH); 0.30% phosphorus and organic zinc (OZ; 75mg/kg of Zn from Zn-proteinate); 0.30% phosphorus and inorganic zinc (IZ; 75 mg/kg of Zn from ZnSO4); 0.30% phosphorus, organic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (OZ + PH); and 0.30% phosphorus, inorganic zinc and 500 FTU phytase (IZ + PH) in the treatment groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The lowest value for mean body weight was in the negative control group on a diet containing low available phosphorus. The use of supplementation with organic and inorganic zinc alone or in combination with microbial phytase significantly (P<0.05) increased the digestibility of Zn in the male broilers. Supplementation of those diets with OZ + PH or IZ + PH was very effective for increasing the body weight, body weight gain and the feed conversion ratio. In conclusion, the effects on broilers of diets with low phosphorus levels may be overcome by the addition of inorganic or organic zinc compounds in combination with microbial phytase.

Keywords: broiler, performance, phytase, phosphorus, zinc

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7 Mimosa Tannin – Starch - Sugar Based Wood Adhesive

Authors: Salise Oktay, Nilgün Kizilcan, Başak Bengü

Abstract:

At present, formaldehyde based adhesives such as urea formaldehyde (UF), melamine formaldehyde (MF), melamine – urea formaldehyde (MUF), etc. are mostly used in wood based panel industry because of their high reactivity, chemical versatility, and economic competitiveness. However, formaldehyde based wood adhesives are produced from non- renewable resources. Hence, there has been a growing interest in the development of environment friendly, economically competitive, bio-based wood adhesives in order to meet wood based panel industry requirements. In this study, as formaldehyde free adhesive, Mimosa tannin, starch, sugar based wood adhesivewas synthesized. Citric acid and tartaric acid were used as hardener for the resin system. Solid content, viscosity, and gel time analyzes of the prepared adhesive were performed in order to evaluate the adhesive processability. FTIR characterization technique was used to elucidate the chemical structures of the cured adhesivesamples. In order to evaluate the performance of the prepared bio-based resin formulation, particleboards were produced in a laboratory scale, and mechanical, physical properties of the boards were investigated. Besides, the formaldehyde contents of the boards were determined by using the perforator method. The obtained results revealed that the developed bio-based wood adhesive formulation can be a good potential candidate to use wood based panel industry with some developments.

Keywords: bio-based wood adhesives, mimosa tannin, corn starch, sugar, polycarboxyclic acid

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6 The Effects of Scientific Studies on the Future Fashion Trends

Authors: Basak Ozkendirci

Abstract:

The discovery of chemical dyes, the development of regenerated fibers, and warp knitting technology have enormous effects on the fashion world. The trends created by the information obtained in the context of various studies today shape the fashion world. Trend analysts must follow scientific developments as well as sociological events, political developments and artwork to obtain healthy data on trends. Digital printing technologies have changed the dynamics of textile printing production and also the style of printed designs. Fashion designers already have started design 3D printed accessories and garments. The research fields like the internet of things, artificial intelligence, hologram technologies, mechatronics, energy storage systems, nanotechnology are seen as the technologies that will change the social life and economy of the future. It is clear that research carried out in these areas will affect the textiles of the future and whereat the trends of fashion. The article aims to create a future vision for trend researchers and designers by giving clues about the changes to be experienced in the fashion world. In the first part of the article, information about the scientific studies that are thought to shape the future is given, and the forecasting about how the inventions that can be obtained from these studies can be adapted at the textile are presented. In the second part of the article, examples of how the new generation of innovative textiles will affect the daily life experience of the user are given.

Keywords: biotextiles, fashion trends, nanotextiles, new materials, smart textiles, techno textiles

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5 Evaluating News in Press about Konya in Context of City Image

Authors: Nur Gorkemli, Basak Solmaz

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With globalization, competition between cities increased and therefore cities started to give more importance to be a more differentiated one among thousands of their competitors. In order to become a more livable place and appeal more tourists, more investors, more students and more people cities give importance to marketing and branding activities. City image is very important concept for building a city brand. Cinemas, books, news or information about cities create 'city image' in peoples’ minds. Every city has their own peculiarities and changing their neutral or negative image to a positive way will bring advantages to them in national and even in international arena. Konya, which is a city in central Anatolia, has been an important city since very early times in human kind. It has the ruins of one of the first settlements existed approximately 9.000 years ago. Moreover, it was the capital of Selcuk Empire before Ottoman period and also a very important city during Ottoman Empire. With this historical richness, the city has important structures and works of art from those periods. Moreover, the city is also very well-known in the world with one of the greatest philosopher, poet, theologian, and Sufi mystic Mevlana Jelaleddin Rumi, who lived most of his life in Konya. Every year nearly two million people from various cities and countries visit Mevlana Museum. With all these potentials, Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism chose Konya to be a branded city in its 2023 action plan. For branding activities, understanding city image has a crucial role. Moreover, news about cities has a great potential on building a 'city image' in minds. This study is aimed at interpreting Konya’s image by categorizing Konya’s news existed in three national newspapers, which has the highest circulation in Turkey. Content analysis method will be used in this study.

Keywords: city branding, city image, newspaper analysis, Konya

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4 Synthesis and Properties of Oxidized Corn Starch Based Wood Adhesive

Authors: Salise Oktay, Nilgun Kizilcan, Basak Bengu

Abstract:

At present, formaldehyde-based adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde (UF), melamine-formaldehyde (MF), melamine – urea-formaldehyde (MUF), etc. are mostly used in wood-based panel industry because of their high reactivity, chemical versatility, and economic competitiveness. However, formaldehyde-based wood adhesives are produced from non- renewable resources and also formaldehyde is classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group B1) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the development of environment-friendly, economically competitive, bio-based wood adhesives to meet wood-based panel industry requirements. In this study, like a formaldehyde-free adhesive, oxidized starch – urea wood adhesives was synthesized. In this scope, firstly, acid hydrolysis of corn starch was conducted and then acid thinned corn starch was oxidized by using hydrogen peroxide and CuSO₄ as an oxidizer and catalyst, respectively. Secondly, the polycondensation reaction between oxidized starch and urea conducted. Finally, nano – TiO₂ was added to the reaction system to strengthen the adhesive network. Solid content, viscosity, and gel time analyses of the prepared adhesive were performed to evaluate the adhesive processability. FTIR, DSC, TGA, SEM characterization techniques were used to investigate chemical structures, thermal, and morphological properties of the adhesive, respectively. Rheological analysis of the adhesive was also performed. In order to evaluate the quality of oxidized corn starch – urea adhesives, particleboards were produced in laboratory scale and mechanical and physical properties of the boards were investigated such as an internal bond, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, formaldehyde emission, etc. The obtained results revealed that oxidized starch – urea adhesives were synthesized successfully and it can be a good potential candidate to use the wood-based panel industry with some developments.

Keywords: nano-TiO₂, corn starch, formaldehyde emission, wood adhesives

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3 Antimicrobial Effect of Toothpastes Containing Fluoride, Xylitol or Xylitol-Probiotic on Salivary Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in Children

Authors: Eda Arat Maden, Ceyhan Altun, Bilal Ozmen, Feridun Basak

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing fluoride, xylitol or xylitol-probiotic in vivo, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus in 13-15 years old children. Method: The study consisted of 60 pediatric patients were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group 1 received fluoride toothpaste (Colgate Max Fresh), group 2 used xylitol toothpaste (Xyliwhite) and group 3 used xylitol-probiotic toothpaste (PerioBiotic). Subjects were asked to use the allocated dentifrice two times a day, for 6 weeks. We performed tests on the samples of saliva in the beginning of the study and after 6 weeks’ duration following the use of toothpaste. Result and Conclusion: All of the participants of the study stated that they brushed their teeth well twice a day by using the toothpastes given to them for 6 weeks. Majority of the subjects had high counts of salivary mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus at baseline. When the number of cariogenic bacteria (S. mutans and Lactobacillus) at the start of the PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste usage are compared with the results measured after 6 weeks, an important decrease is observed in the S. mutans and Lactobacillus bacteria according to the CRT Tests. After the 6-week use of Probiotic toothpaste, the S. mutans (≥105) decreased to 20% from 75% in the group with S. mutans and Lactobacillus (≥105) decreased to 30% from 60% in the group with Lactobacillus. In addition, an important decrease was recorded in the participants with the S. mutans percentage (80% - 45%) and Lactobacillus (70% - 55%) after using the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste for six weeks. On the other hand, it was determined with the Chi-square that there were not important changes between the Xyliwhite toothpaste group and the other groups with S. mutans (80% - 75%) and Lactobacillus (75% -65%). It was also determined after the comparison of the groups that the decrease in the S. mutans was higher than the group using PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste at a significant level, when compared with the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste and Xyliwhite toothpaste. S. mutans were more sensitive to the antimicrobial activity of the PerioBiotic Probiotic toothpaste and to the Colgate Max Fresh toothpaste when compared with the Lactobacillus. In the light of the data obtained in this in vivo study, the use of probiotics ensure the balance between the bacterial flora in the oral cavity.

Keywords: lactobacillus, probiotic, Streptococcus mutans, toothpaste

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2 Comparing Productivity of the Foreign versus Local Construction Workers Based on Their Level of Technical Training and Cultural Characteristics: Case Study of Kish Island, Iran

Authors: Mansour Rezvani, Mohammad Mahdi Mortaheb

Abstract:

This study considers the employment of foreign workforce in Kish Free Trade and Industrial Zone and aims to investigate the productivity of foreign construction labours as compared to their local counterpart. Moreover, this study compares work skills and experience of foreign and local Iranian construction workers to optimize construction working conditions. The results and findings have been effectively applied to develop a training program to optimize and promote Iranian workforce productivity and effectiveness in construction industry in comparison with foreign workforce. It is hoped that the accumulated findings contribute to decrease demand for foreign workers and skills shortages in construction sectors. Therefore, job vacancies for local residents in Kish and other looking for job people in main lands will be increased. The method of collecting data has been conducted by distributing a questionnaire and interviewing most foreign construction workers, local Iranian construction works and the project managers of five mega projects in Kish Island including Mica mall, Basak, Persian, Damoon and Sarina mall. All data have been analyzed by SPSS and Excel software. A topic-related survey was conducted through a structured questionnaire including 54 employers, 20 contractors and 13 consultants. About 56 factors were identified. After implementing the context validity test, 52 factors were stated in 52 questions based on five major groups consist of: (1) economical, (2) social and cultural, (3) individual, (4) technical, (5) organizational, environmental and legal. Based on the quantified Relative Importance Index, the ten most important factors, ten less important factors, and three most important categories were identified. To date, there is not any comprehensive study that explores the important critical factors in mega construction projects on Kish Island to identify the major problems to decrease demand for foreign workers.

Keywords: cultural characteristics, foreign worker, local construction workers, productivity, technical training

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1 Empowering Women Entrepreneurs in Rural India through Developing Online Communities of Purpose Using Social Technologies

Authors: Jayanta Basak, Somprakash Bandyopadhyay, Parama Bhaumik, Siuli Roy

Abstract:

To solve the life and livelihood related problems of socially and economically backward rural women in India, several Women Self-Help Groups (WSHG) are formed in Indian villages. WSHGs are micro-communities (with 10-to 15 members) within a village community. WSHGs have been conceived not just to promote savings and provide credit, but also to act as a vehicle of change through the creation of women micro-entrepreneurs at the village level. However, in spite of huge investment and volume of people involved in the whole process, the success is still limited. Most of these entrepreneurial activities happen in small household workspaces where sales are limited to the inconsistent and unpredictable local markets. As a result, these entrepreneurs are perennially trapped in the vicious cycle of low risk taking ability, low investment capacity, low productivity, weak market linkages and low revenue. Market separation including customer-producer separation is one of the key problems in this domain. Researchers suggest that there are four types of market separation: (i) spatial, (ii) financial, (iii) temporal, and (iv) informational, which in turn impacts the nature of markets and marketing. In this context, a large group of intermediaries (the 'middleman') plays important role in effectively reducing the factors that separate markets by utilizing the resource of rural entrepreneurs, their products and thus, accelerate market development. The rural entrepreneurs are heavily dependent on these middlemen for marketing of their products and these middlemen exploit rural entrepreneurs by creating a huge informational separation between the rural producers and end-consumers in the market and thus hiding the profit margins. The objective of this study is to develop a transparent, online communities of purpose among rural and urban entrepreneurs using internet and web 2.0 technologies in order to decrease market separation and improve mutual awareness of available and potential products and market demands. Communities of purpose are groups of people who have an ability to influence, can share knowledge and learn from others, and be committed to achieving a common purpose. In this study, a cluster of SHG women located in a village 'Kandi' of West Bengal, India has been studied closely for six months. These women are primarily engaged in producing garments, soft toys, fabric painting on clothes, etc. These women were equipped with internet-enabled smart-phones where they can use chat applications in local language and common social networking websites like Facebook, Instagram, etc. A few handicraft experts and micro-entrepreneurs from the city (the 'seed') were included in their mobile messaging app group that enables the creation of a 'community of purpose' in order to share thoughts and ideas on product designs, market trends, and practices, and thus decrease the rural-urban market separation. After six months of regular group interaction in mobile messaging app among these rural-urban community members, it is observed that SHG women are empowered now to share their product images, design ideas, showcase, and promote their products in global marketplace using some common social networking websites through which they can also enhance and augment their community of purpose.

Keywords: communities of purpose, market separation, self-help group, social technologies

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