Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 486

Search results for: Vandana Sharma

486 Interaction of Tungsten Tips with Laguerre-Gaussian Beams

Authors: Abhisek Sinha, Debobrata Rajak, Shilpa Rani, Ram Gopal, Vandana Sharma


The interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with metallic tips has been studied extensively, and they have proved to be a very good source of ultrashort electron pulses. A study of the interaction of femtosecond Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) laser modes with Tungsten tips is presented here. Laser pulses of 35 fs pulse durations were incident on Tungsten tips, and their electron emission rates were studied for LG (l=1, p=0) and Gaussian modes. A change in the order of the interaction for LG beams is reported, and the difference in the order of interaction is attributed to ponderomotive shifts in the energy levels corresponding to the enhanced near-field intensity supported by numerical simulations.

Keywords: femtosecond, Laguerre-Gaussian, OAM, tip

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485 Closed-Form Sharma-Mittal Entropy Rate for Gaussian Processes

Authors: Septimia Sarbu


The entropy rate of a stochastic process is a fundamental concept in information theory. It provides a limit to the amount of information that can be transmitted reliably over a communication channel, as stated by Shannon's coding theorems. Recently, researchers have focused on developing new measures of information that generalize Shannon's classical theory. The aim is to design more efficient information encoding and transmission schemes. This paper continues the study of generalized entropy rates, by deriving a closed-form solution to the Sharma-Mittal entropy rate for Gaussian processes. Using the squeeze theorem, we solve the limit in the definition of the entropy rate, for different values of alpha and beta, which are the parameters of the Sharma-Mittal entropy. In the end, we compare it with Shannon and Rényi's entropy rates for Gaussian processes.

Keywords: generalized entropies, Sharma-Mittal entropy rate, Gaussian processes, eigenvalues of the covariance matrix, squeeze theorem

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484 Analysis of a Generalized Sharma-Tasso-Olver Equation with Variable Coefficients

Authors: Fadi Awawdeh, O. Alsayyed, S. Al-Shará


Considering the inhomogeneities of media, the variable-coefficient Sharma-Tasso-Olver (STO) equation is hereby investigated with the aid of symbolic computation. A newly developed simplified bilinear method is described for the solution of considered equation. Without any constraints on the coefficient functions, multiple kink solutions are obtained. Parametric analysis is carried out in order to analyze the effects of the coefficient functions on the stabilities and propagation characteristics of the solitonic waves.

Keywords: Hirota bilinear method, multiple kink solution, Sharma-Tasso-Olver equation, inhomogeneity of media

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483 Fast Fashion Parallel to Sustainable Fashion in India

Authors: Saurav Sharma, Deepshikha Sharma, Pratibha Sharma


This paper includes fast fashion verses sustainable fashion or slow fashion Indian based consumers. The expression ‘Fast fashion’ is generally referred to low-cost clothing collections that considered first hand copy of luxury brands, sometime interchangeably used with ‘mass fashion’. Whereas slow fashion or limited fashion which are consider to be more organic or eco-friendly. "Sustainable fashion is ethical fashion and here the consumer is just not design conscious but also social-environment conscious". Paper will deal with desire of young Indian consumer towards such luxury brands present in India, and their understanding of sustainable fashion, how to maintain the equilibrium between never newer fashion, style, and fashion sustainability.

Keywords: fast fashion, sustainable fashion, sustainability, India

Procedia PDF Downloads 548
482 Comparative Analysis of Two Different Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Solving Travelling Salesman Problem

Authors: Sourabh Joshi, Tarun Sharma, Anurag Sharma


Ant Colony Optimization is heuristic Algorithm which has been proven a successful technique applied on number of combinatorial optimization problems. Two variants of Ant Colony Optimization algorithm named Ant System and Max-Min Ant System are implemented in MATLAB to solve travelling Salesman Problem and the results are compared. In, this paper both systems are analyzed by solving the some Travelling Salesman Problem and depict which system solve the problem better in term of cost and time.

Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization, Travelling Salesman Problem, Ant System, Max-Min Ant System

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481 On the Fractional Integration of Generalized Mittag-Leffler Type Functions

Authors: Christian Lavault


In this paper, the generalized fractional integral operators of two generalized Mittag-Leffler type functions are investigated. The special cases of interest involve the generalized M-series and K-function, both introduced by Sharma. The two pairs of theorems established herein generalize recent results about left- and right-sided generalized fractional integration operators applied here to the M-series and the K-function. The note also results in important applications in physics and mathematical engineering.

Keywords: Fox–Wright Psi function, generalized hypergeometric function, generalized Riemann– Liouville and Erdélyi–Kober fractional integral operators, Saigo's generalized fractional calculus, Sharma's M-series and K-function

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480 Chebyshev Polynomials Relad with Fibonacci and Lucas Polynomials

Authors: Vandana N. Purav


Fibonacci and Lucas polynomials are special cases of Chebyshev polynomial. There are two types of Chebyshev polynomials, a Chebyshev polynomial of first kind and a Chebyshev polynomial of second kind. Chebyshev polynomial of second kind can be derived from the Chebyshev polynomial of first kind. Chebyshev polynomial is a polynomial of degree n and satisfies a second order homogenous differential equation. We consider the difference equations which are related with Chebyshev, Fibonacci and Lucas polynomias. Thus Chebyshev polynomial of second kind play an important role in finding the recurrence relations with Fibonacci and Lucas polynomials.


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479 The Queer Language: A Case Study of the Hyderabadi Queers

Authors: Sreerakuvandana Vandana


Although the term third gender is relatively new, the language that is in use has already made its way to the concept of identity. With the vast recognition and the transparency in expressing their identity without a tint of embarrassment, it is highly essential to take into account the idea of “identity” and “language”. The community however picks up language as a tool to assert their presence in the “mainstream”, albeit contradictory practices. The paper is an attempt to see how Koti claims and tries to be a language just like any other language. With that, it also identifies how the community wants to be identified as a unique group, but yet want to remain grounded to the ‘mainstream’. The work is an attempt to bring out the secret language of the LGBT community and understand their desire to be recognized as "main stream." The paper is also an attempt to bring into light this language and see if it qualifies to be a language at all.

Keywords: identity, language, queer, transgender

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478 A Review of Magnesium Air Battery Systems: From Design Aspects to Performance Characteristics

Authors: R. Sharma, J. K. Bhatnagar, Poonam, R. C. Sharma


Metal–air batteries have been designed and developed as an essential source of electric power to propel automobiles, make electronic equipment functional, and use them as the source of power in remote areas and space. High energy and power density, lightweight, easy recharge capabilities, and low cost are essential features of these batteries. Both primary and rechargeable magnesium air batteries are highly promising. Our focus will be on the basics of electrode reaction kinetics of Mg–air cell in this paper. Design and development of Mg or Mg alloys as anode materials, design and composition of air cathode, and promising electrolytes for Mg–air batteries have been reviewed. A brief note on the possible and proposed improvements in design and functionality is also incorporated. This article may serve as the primary and premier document in the critical research area of Mg-air battery systems.

Keywords: air cathode, battery design, magnesium air battery, magnesium anode, rechargeable magnesium air battery

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477 Dynamical Systems and Fibonacci Numbers

Authors: Vandana N. Purav


The Dynamical systems concept is a mathematical formalization for any fixed rule that describes the time dependence of a points position in its ambient space. e.g. pendulum of a clock, the number of fish each spring in a lake, the number of rabbits spring in an enclosure, etc. The Dynamical system theory used to describe the complex nature that is dynamical systems with differential equations called continuous dynamical system or dynamical system with difference equations called discrete dynamical system. The concept of dynamical system has its origin in Newtonian mechanics.

Keywords: dynamical systems, Fibonacci numbers, Newtonian mechanics, discrete dynamical system

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476 Electrochemical Studies of Si, Si-Ge- and Ge-Air Batteries

Authors: R. C. Sharma, Rishabh Bansal, Prajwal Menon, Manoj K. Sharma


Silicon-air battery is highly promising for electric vehicles due to its high theoretical energy density (8470 Whkg⁻¹) and its discharge products are non-toxic. For the first time, pure silicon and germanium powders are used as anode material. Nickel wire meshes embedded with charcoal and manganese dioxide powder as cathode and concentrated potassium hydroxide is used as electrolyte. Voltage-time curves have been presented in this study for pure silicon and germanium powder and 5% and 10% germanium with silicon powder. Silicon powder cell assembly gives a stable voltage of 0.88 V for ~20 minutes while Si-Ge provides cell voltage of 0.80-0.76 V for ~10-12 minutes, and pure germanium cell provides cell voltage 0.80-0.76 V for ~30 minutes. The cell voltage is higher for concentrated (10%) sodium hydroxide solution (1.08 V) and it is stable for ~40 minutes. A sharp decrease in cell voltage beyond 40 min may be due to rapid corrosion.

Keywords: Silicon-air battery, Germanium-air battery, voltage-time curve, open circuit voltage, Anodic corrosion

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475 Modeling Reflection and Transmission of Elastodiffussive Wave Sata Semiconductor Interface

Authors: Amit Sharma, J. N. Sharma


This paper deals with the study of reflection and transmission characteristics of acoustic waves at the interface of a semiconductor halfspace and elastic solid. The amplitude ratios (reflection and transmission coefficients) of reflected and transmitted waves to that of incident wave varying with the incident angles have been examined for the case of quasi-longitudinal wave. The special cases of normal and grazing incidence have also been derived with the help of Gauss elimination method. The mathematical model consisting of governing partial differential equations of motion and charge carriers diffusion of n-type semiconductors and elastic solid has been solved both analytically and numerically in the study. The numerical computations of reflection and transmission coefficients has been carried out by using MATLAB programming software for silicon (Si) semiconductor and copper elastic solid. The computer simulated results have been plotted graphically for Si semiconductors. The study may be useful in semiconductors, geology, and seismology in addition to surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices.

Keywords: quasilongitudinal, reflection and transmission, semiconductors, acoustics

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474 How to Improve Tourism through Spas: A Comparative Study of USA and India

Authors: Vandana Deswal


Spas have been bringing people from far and near. They have long been recognized as the place for healing, relaxation, rejuvenation, and pampering. As the economies look forward to the newer ways of earning revenues; spas offer a bright option to the tourism of a place. They have become a strong pillar of hospitality and tourism industry in developed nations and developing nations can learn from their example. This paper is an attempt to study the impact of the spa industry on the tourism industry and to offer suggestions to strengthen this impact by understanding the situation in a developed economy (USA) and a developing one (India). A survey has been conducted on a sample size of 200 and the percentage analysis of the data reveals that spas can significantly add to the tourism of a place if they work on the accreditation system and put in more money and thought on their marketing plans.

Keywords: impact, India, marketing, spa, tourism, USA

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473 Anticancer Activity of Gnidia glauca Extracts in Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Vandana Gawande, Chandani Satija


Gnidia glauca is a semi-woody herb of thymelaeaceae family traditionally used as fish poison in India. It is also found in Sri lanka and Africa. In the present study, potential anticancer effect of n-hexane and ethanolic extracts of Gnidia glauca in human breast cancer cells was investigated. Human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were cultured as monolayers in RPMI 1640 medium. The cells were cultured for 48 hours to allow growth and achieve about 80% confluence in 96-well culture plates. The cells were treated with various concentrations of Gnidia glauca (0.1-100 mg/mL) for 72 hours. Percentage of viable cells after treatment was assessed using a sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay. Both n-hexane and ethanolic extract showed significant cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 cancer cells. This study supports the notion of using Gnidia glauca as a novel anticancer agent for breast cancer.

Keywords: 96 well plate, anticancer activity, Gnidia glauca, MCF-7

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472 Effect of Personality on Consumer Switching: Moderating Role of Involvement and Value of Services

Authors: Anjali Sharma, R. R. K. Sharma


The purpose of this study is to examine relationships between personality factors and customer switching for services. Earlier research was directed towards establishing relationship between individual personality traits and customer switching variables considering five-factors model comprised of five personality dimensions (OCEAN), in which personality was not the only influencing factor. Moreover, these works were found to be focused on products and not services. In contrast, the current study is aimed at investigating role of personality using Myer Briggs Type indicator (MBTI) as well as Five-Big Factors, on customer switching and building the conceptual framework on services rather than products. MBTI also known as four opposite pairs or dichotomies of personality dimensions are studied using different levels Involvement (High, Low) of consumer and Value of service-offering (Value for money and Premium) as moderators associated with Consumer Switching. The study is unique in sense that consequences of these indicators of personality on switching behavior has never been studied using considering moderating effect of involvement and value of services. According to our prepositions for a more Extrovert, Intuitive Personality the switching is going to be high whereas the switching is going to be less for an Introvert, Judgmental kind of personality. Similarly, for a consumer with high Neuroticism and Agreeableness the switching would be less as compared to an Open and Conscious Personality type. These level differs with level of a consumer’s involvement and type of a service being offered based on its value.

Keywords: consumer switching, involvement, Myer Briggs personality type indicators, personality, value of service

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471 Solar Wind Turbulence and the Role of Circularly Polarized Dispersive Alfvén Wave

Authors: Swati Sharma, R. P. Sharma


We intend to study the nonlinear evolution of the parallel propagating finite frequency Alfvén wave (also called Dispersive Alfvén wave/Hall MHD wave) propagating in the solar wind regime of the solar region when a perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave is present in the background. The finite frequency Alfvén wave behaves differently from the usual non-dispersive behavior of the Alfvén wave. To study the nonlinear processes (such as filamentation) taking place in the solar regions such as solar wind, the dynamical equation of both the waves are derived. Numerical simulation involving finite difference method for the time domain and pseudo spectral method for the spatial domain is then performed to analyze the transient evolution of these waves. The power spectra of the Dispersive Alfvén wave is also investigated. The power spectra shows the distribution of the magnetic field intensity of the Dispersive Alfvén wave over different wave numbers. For DAW the spectra shows a steepening for scales larger than the proton inertial length. This means that the wave energy gets transferred to the solar wind particles as the wave reaches higher wave numbers. This steepening of the power spectra can be explained on account of the finite frequency of the Alfvén wave. The obtained results are consistent with the observations made by CLUSTER spacecraft.

Keywords: solar wind, turbulence, dispersive alfven wave

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470 Effect of Waste Foundry Slag and Alccofine on Durability Properties of High Strength Concrete

Authors: Devinder Sharma, Sanjay Sharma, Ajay Goyal, Ashish Kapoor


The present research paper discussed the durability properties of high strength concrete (HSC) using Foundry Slag(FD) as partial substitute for fine aggregates (FA) and Alccofine (AF) in addition to portland pozzolana (PPC) cement. Specimens of Concrete M100 grade with water/binder ratio 0.239, with Foundry Slag (FD) varying from 0 to 50% and with optimum quantity of AF(15%) were casted and tested for durability properties such as Water absorption, water permeability, resistance to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 7, 14, 28, 56 and 90 days. Substitution of fine aggregates (FA) with up to 45% of foundry slag(FD) content and cement with 15% substitution and addition of alccofine showed an excellent resistance against durability properties at all ages but showed a decrease in these properties with 50% of FD contents. Loss of weight in concrete samples due to sulphate attack, alkali attack and nitrate attack of HSC at the age of 365 days was compared with loss in compressive strength. Correlation between loss in weight and loss in compressive strength in all the tests was found to be excellent.

Keywords: alccofine, alkali attack, foundry slag, high strength concrete, nitrate attack, water absorption, water permeability

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469 Role of Direct Immunofluorescence in Diagnosing Vesiculobullous Lesions

Authors: Mitakshara Sharma, Sonal Sharma


Vesiculobullous diseases are heterogeneous group of dermatological disorders with protean manifestations. The most important technique for the patients with vesiculobullous diseases is conventional histopathology and confirmatory tests like direct immunofluorescence (DIF) and indirect immunofluorescence (IIF). DIF has been used for decades to investigate pathophysiology and in the diagnosis. It detects molecules such as immunoglobulins and complement components. It is done on the perilesional skin. Diagnosis of DIF test depends on features like primary site of the immune deposits, class of immunoglobulin, number of immune deposits and deposition at other sites. The aim of the study is to correlate DIF with clinical and histopathological findings and to analyze the utility of DIF in the diagnosis of these disorders. It is a retrospective descriptive study conducted for 2 years from 2015 to 2017 in Department of Pathology, GTB Hospital on perilesional punch biopsies of vesiculobullous lesions. Biopsies were sent in Michael’s medium. The specimens were washed, frozen and incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) tagged antihuman antibodies IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 & F and were viewed under fluorescent microscope. Out of 401 skin biopsies submitted for DIF, 285 were vesiculobullous diseases, in which the most common was Pemphigus vulgaris (34%) followed by Bullous pemphigoid (21.5%), Dermatitis herpetiformis (16%), Pemphigus foliaceus (11.9%), Linear IgA disease (11.9%), Epidermolysisbullosa (2.39%) and Pemphigus herpetiformis (1.7%). We will be presenting the DIF findings in the all these vesiculobullous diseases. DIF in conjugation with histopathology gives the best diagnostic yield in these lesions. It also helps in the diagnosis whenever there is a clinical and histopathological overlap.

Keywords: antibodies, direct immunofluorescence, pemphigus, vesiculobullous

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468 Scope of Virtualization

Authors: Pavneet Kaur, Palak Sharma


Virtualization is a term that basically describe creation of virtual version of something like operating system, network, etc. Virtualization is a technology which is in use from 1970, but with new developments and inventions, it is now useful in education, software development etc. This paper will describe basic introduction of virtualization, along with its various categories. It will also describe use of virtualization in software engineering, its various benefits and shortcomings.

Keywords: virtualization, hardware, software, os

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
467 Effect of Scaling and Root Planing on Improvement of Glycemic Control in Periodontitis Patients with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Shivalal Sharma, Sanjib K. Sharma, Madhab Lamsal


Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and laboratory changes three months after full-mouth scaling and root planing (SRP) in periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Methods: Forty-seven type 2 DM subjects with moderate to severe periodontitis were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group (TG), 25 subjects, received full-mouth scaling and root planning; control group (CG), 22 subjects, received no treatment. At baseline and at the end of three months, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values, fasting glucose, and clinical parameters like plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were recorded in all the patients. Following SRP, the patients were enrolled in a monthly interval maintenance program for 3 months. Results: A statistically significant effect could be demonstrated for PI, GI, PPD, and CAL for the treatment group. HbA1c levels in the treatment group decreased significantly whereas the control group showed a slight but insignificant increase for these parameters. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that non-surgical periodontal treatment (SRP) is associated with improved glycemic control in type 2 DM patients and could be undertaken along with the standard measures for the diabetic patient care.

Keywords: periodontitis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-surgical periodontal therapy, SRP

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466 Entropically Favoured Through Space Charge Transfer ‘Lighted’ Photosensitizing Assemblies for ‘Metal Free’ Regulated Photooxidation of Alcohols and Aldehydes

Authors: Gurpreet Kaur, Manoj Kumar, Vandana Bhalla


Strong acceptor-weak acceptor system FN-TPy has been designed and synthesized which undergoes solvent dependent self-assembly in mixed aqueous media to generate through space intermolecular charge transfer assemblies. The as prepared entropically favoured assemblies of FN-TPy exhibit excellent photostability and photosensitizing properties in the assembled state to activate aerial oxygen for efficient generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through Type-I and Type-II pathways. The FN-TPy assemblies exhibit excellent potential for regulated oxidation of alcohols and aldehydes under mild reaction conditions (visible light irradiation, aqueous media, room temperature) using aerial oxygen as the ‘oxidant’. The present study demonstrates the potential of FN-TPy assemblies to catalyze controlled oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde and to corresponding benzoic acid.

Keywords: oxidations, photosensitizer, reactive oxygen species, supramolecular assemblies, through space charge transfer.

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465 Load-Enabled Deployment and Sensing Range Optimization for Lifetime Enhancement of WSNs

Authors: Krishan P. Sharma, T. P. Sharma


Wireless sensor nodes are resource constrained battery powered devices usually deployed in hostile and ill-disposed areas to cooperatively monitor physical or environmental conditions. Due to their limited power supply, the major challenge for researchers is to utilize their battery power for enhancing the lifetime of whole network. Communication and sensing are two major sources of energy consumption in sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a deployment strategy for enhancing the average lifetime of a sensor network by effectively utilizing communication and sensing energy to provide full coverage. The proposed scheme is based on the fact that due to heavy relaying load, sensor nodes near to the sink drain energy at much faster rate than other nodes in the network and consequently die much earlier. To cover this imbalance, proposed scheme finds optimal communication and sensing ranges according to effective load at each node and uses a non-uniform deployment strategy where there is a comparatively high density of nodes near to the sink. Probable relaying load factor at particular node is calculated and accordingly optimal communication distance and sensing range for each sensor node is adjusted. Thus, sensor nodes are placed at locations that optimize energy during network operation. Formal mathematical analysis for calculating optimized locations is reported in present work.

Keywords: load factor, network lifetime, non-uniform deployment, sensing range

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464 Binding Studies and Structure Determination of the Recombinantly Produced Type-II 3-Dehydroquinate Dehydratase from Acinetobacter Baumannii

Authors: Naseer Iqbal, Mukesh Kumar, Pradeep Sharma, Satya Prakash Yadav, Punit Kaur, Sujata Sharma, T. P. Singh


Dehydroquinase (3-dehydroquinate dehydratase, DHQD, EC is involved in shikimate pathway and catalyzes the conversion of dehydroquinate to dehydroshikimate. Shikimate pathway is important drug target as this pathway is absent in mammals. DHQD from Acinetobacter baumannii (AbDHQD) was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The binding studies showed that compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid bound to AbDHQD at micromolar concentrations. AbDHQD was crystallized using 30% PEG-3350, 50mM tris-HCl, and 1.0M MgSO4 at PH 8.0. Crystals of AbDHQD were stabilized by transferring them into reservoir solution to which 25% glycerol was added for data collection at 100K. The X-ray intensity data were collected to 2.0Å resolution. The crystals belong to monoclinic space group P21 with cell dimensions, a = 82.3, b = 95.3, c = 132.3Å and β = 95.7°. The structure was solved with molecular replacement method and refined to Rcryst/Rfree factors of 0.200/0.232. The structures of 12 crystallographically independent molecules in the asymmetry unit were identical with r.m.s shifts for the C atoms ranging from 0.3 Å to 0.8 Å. They formed a dodecamer with four trimers arranged in a tetrahedral manner. The classical lid adopted an open conformation although a sulfate ion was observed in the substrate binding site. As a result of which, the compounds quinic acid and citrazinic acid did not bind to AbDHQD.

Keywords: acinetobacter Bauman Nii, dehydroquinate dehydratase, dodecamer, open conformation

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463 Approximation by Generalized Lupaş-Durrmeyer Operators with Two Parameter α and β

Authors: Preeti Sharma


This paper deals with the Stancu type generalization of Lupaş-Durrmeyer operators. We establish some direct results in the polynomial weighted space of continuous functions defined on the interval [0, 1]. Also, Voronovskaja type theorem is studied.

Keywords: Lupas-Durrmeyer operators, polya distribution, weighted approximation, rate of convergence, modulus of continuity

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462 Estimation and Removal of Chlorophenolic Compounds from Paper Mill Waste Water by Electrochemical Treatment

Authors: R. Sharma, S. Kumar, C. Sharma


A number of toxic chlorophenolic compounds are formed during pulp bleaching. The nature and concentration of these chlorophenolic compounds largely depends upon the amount and nature of bleaching chemicals used. These compounds are highly recalcitrant and difficult to remove but are partially removed by the biochemical treatment processes adopted by the paper industry. Identification and estimation of these chlorophenolic compounds has been carried out in the primary and secondary clarified effluents from the paper mill by GCMS. Twenty-six chorophenolic compounds have been identified and estimated in paper mill waste waters. Electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for oxidation of pollutants and has successfully been used to treat textile and oil waste water. Electrochemical treatment using less expensive anode material, stainless steel electrodes has been tried to study their removal. The electrochemical assembly comprised a DC power supply, a magnetic stirrer and stainless steel (316 L) electrode. The optimization of operating conditions has been carried out and treatment has been performed under optimized treatment conditions. Results indicate that 68.7% and 83.8% of cholorphenolic compounds are removed during 2 h of electrochemical treatment from primary and secondary clarified effluent respectively. Further, there is a reduction of 65.1, 60 and 92.6% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for primary clarified and 83.8%, 75.9% and 96.8% of COD, AOX and color, respectively for secondary clarified effluent. EC treatment has also been found to increase significantly the biodegradability index of wastewater because of conversion of non- biodegradable fraction into biodegradable fraction. Thus, electrochemical treatment is an efficient method for the degradation of cholorophenolic compounds, removal of color, AOX and other recalcitrant organic matter present in paper mill waste water.

Keywords: chlorophenolics, effluent, electrochemical treatment, wastewater

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461 Bcl-2: A Molecule to Detect Oral Cancer and Precancer

Authors: Vandana Singh, Subash Singh


Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity. Normally the death of cell and the growth are active processes and depend not only on external factors but also on the expression of genes like Bcl-2, which activate and inhibit apoptosis. The term Bcl-2 is an acronym for B-cell lymphoma/ leukemia -2 genes. Objectives: An attempt was made to evaluate Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression in patients with oral precancer and cancer and to assess possible correlation between Bcl-2 oncoprotein expression and clinicopathological features of oral precancer and cancer. Material and Methods: This is a selective prospective clinical and immunohistochemical study. Clinicopathological examination is correlated with immunohistochemical findings. The immunolocalization of Bcl-2 protein is performed using the labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB) method. To visualize the reaction, 3, 3-diaminobenzidine (DAB) is used. Results: Bcl-2 expression was positive in 11 [36.66 %, low Bcl-2 expression 3 (10.00 %), moderate Bcl-2 expression 7 (23.33 %), and high Bcl-2 expression 1 (3.33 %)] oral cancer cases and in 14 [87.50 %, low expression 8 (50 %), moderate expression 6 (37.50 %)] precancer cases. Conclusion: On the basis of the results of our study we conclude that positive Bcl-2 expression may be an indicator of poor prognosis in oral cancer and precancer. Relevance: It has been reported that there is deregulation of Bcl-2 expression during progression from oral epithelial dysplasia to squamous cell carcinoma. It can be used for revealing progression of epithelial dysplasia to malignancy and as a prognostic marker in oral precancer and cancer.

Keywords: BcL-2, immunohistochemistry, oral cancer, oral precancer

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460 Tracing the History of Indian Legal System Vis-A-Vis the Code of Hammurabi

Authors: Vandana Kumari


One of the most ancient and detailed legal codes proclaimed the Babylonian King Hammurabi during his reign in the erstwhile Mesopotamian society, provides a fascinating account of the social and justice system of Babylon. The 282 laws intricately carved on eight feet black stone stela serve as an important source of contemporary commercial, family and criminals laws. This paper attempts an inquiry into the contemporary relevance of this legal code to our current legal system. An exhaustive study of one of ancient legal system based on a series of practical experiences rather than being founded on mere theoretical ideologies can be assumed pertinent to the promulgation of practically viable laws in our country. The first chapter of the paper focuses on law seven which established the rules of commerce and the role of government in overseeing justice and honesty regarding the law of property. The second chapter deals with the laws of family, marriages, divorce and adoption prevailing in the Babylonian era. The third chapter traces the earliest known history of criminal jurisprudence which impregnated the principle of an eye for an eye. The paper is not merely a theoretical account of the Mesopotamian way of living but a novice attempt to discover the roots of Indian laws in the ruins of the courtrooms of the Hammurabi Empire.

Keywords: Babylonian legal system, Contemporary relevance, criminal jurisprudence, Hammurabi Code

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459 Effects of Spent Dyebath Recycling on Pollution and Cost of Production in a Cotton Textile Industry

Authors: Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Sanjay Sharma


Textile manufacturing industry uses a substantial amount of chemicals not only in the production processes but also in manufacturing the raw materials. Dyes are the most significant raw material which provides colour to the fabric and yarn. Dyes are produced by using a large amount of chemicals both organic and inorganic in nature. Dyes are further classified as Reactive or Vat Dyes which are mostly used in cotton textiles. In the process of application of dyes to the cotton fiber, yarn or fabric, several auxiliary chemicals are also used in the solution called dyebath to improve the absorption of dyes. There is a very little absorption of dyes and auxiliary chemicals and a residual amount of all these substances is released as the spent dye bath effluent. Because of the wide variety of chemicals used in cotton textile dyes, there is always a risk of harmful effects which may not be apparent immediately but may have an irreversible impact in the long term. Colour imparted by the dyes to the water also has an adverse effect on its public acceptability and the potability. This study has been conducted with an objective to assess the feasibility of reuse of the spent dye bath. Studies have been conducted in two independent industries manufacturing dyed cotton yarn and dyed cotton fabric respectively. These have been referred as Unit-I and Unit-II. The studies included assessment of reduction in pollution levels and the economic benefits of such reuse. The study conclusively establishes that the reuse of spent dyebath results in prevention of pollution, reduction in pollution loads and cost of effluent treatment & production. This pollution prevention technique presents a good preposition for pollution prevention in cotton textile industry.

Keywords: dyes, dyebath, reuse, toxic, pollution, costs

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458 Relevance of Brain Stem Evoked Potential in Diagnosis of Central Demyelination in Guillain Barre’ Syndrome

Authors: Geetanjali Sharma


Guillain Barre’ syndrome (GBS) is an auto-immune mediated demyelination poly-radiculo-neuropathy. Clinical features include progressive symmetrical ascending muscle weakness of more than two limbs, areflexia with or without sensory, autonomic and brainstem abnormalities, the purpose of this study was to determine subclinical neurological changes of CNS with GBS and to establish the presence of central demyelination in GBS. The study was prospective and conducted in the Department of Physiology, Pt. B. D. Sharma Post-graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Health Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India to find out early central demyelination in clinically diagnosed patients of GBS. These patients were referred from the department of Medicine of our Institute to our department for electro-diagnostic evaluation. The study group comprised of 40 subjects (20 clinically diagnosed GBS patients and 20 healthy individuals as controls) aged between 6-65 years. Brain Stem evoked Potential (BAEP) were done in both groups using RMS EMG EP mark II machine. BAEP parameters included the latencies of waves I to IV, inter peak latencies I-III, III-IV & I-V. Statistically significant increase in absolute peak and inter peak latencies in the GBS group as compared with control group was noted. Results of evoked potential reflect impairment of auditory pathways probably due to focal demyelination in Schwann cell derived myelin sheaths that cover the extramedullary portion of auditory nerves. Early detection of the sub-clinical abnormalities is important as timely intervention reduces morbidity.

Keywords: brainstem, demyelination, evoked potential, Guillain Barre’

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457 Recent Advancement in Fetal Electrocardiogram Extraction

Authors: Savita, Anurag Sharma, Harsukhpreet Singh


Fetal Electrocardiogram (fECG) is a widely used technique to assess the fetal well-being and identify any changes that might be with problems during pregnancy and to evaluate the health and conditions of the fetus. Various techniques or methods have been employed to diagnose the fECG from abdominal signal. This paper describes the facile approach for the estimation of the fECG known as Adaptive Comb. Filter (ACF). The ACF can adjust according to the temporal variations in fundamental frequency by itself that used for the estimation of the quasi periodic signal of ECG signal.

Keywords: aECG, ACF, fECG, mECG

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