Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 730

Search results for: Jihyun Park

40 Anaerobic Digestion of Green Wastes at Different Solids Concentrations and Temperatures to Enhance Methane Generation

Authors: A. Bayat, R. Bello-Mendoza, D. G. Wareham


Two major categories of green waste are fruit and vegetable (FV) waste and garden and yard (GY) waste. Although, anaerobic digestions (AD) is able to manage FV waste; there is less confidence in the conditions for AD to handle GY wastes (grass, leaves, trees and bush trimmings); mainly because GY contains lignin and other recalcitrant organics. GY in the dry state (TS ≥ 15 %) can be digested at mesophilic temperatures; however, little methane data has been reported under thermophilic conditions, where conceivably better methane yields could be achieved. In addition, it is suspected that at lower solids concentrations, the methane yield could be increased. As such, the aim of this research is to find the temperature and solids concentration conditions that produce the most methane; under two different temperature regimes (mesophilic, thermophilic) and three solids states (i.e. 'dry', 'semi-dry' and 'wet'). Twenty liters of GY waste was collected from a public park located in the northern district in Tehran. The clippings consisted of freshly cut grass as well as dry branches and leaves. The GY waste was chopped before being fed into a mechanical blender that reduced it to a paste-like consistency. An initial TS concentration of approximately 38 % was achieved. Four hundred mL of anaerobic inoculum (average total solids (TS) concentration of 2.03 ± 0.131 % of which 73.4% were volatile solid (VS), soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) of 4.59 ± 0.3 g/L) was mixed with the GY waste substrate paste (along with distilled water) to achieve a TS content of approximately 20 %. For comparative purposes, approximately 20 liters of FV waste was ground in the same manner as the GY waste. Since FV waste has a much higher natural water content than GY, it was dewatered to obtain a starting TS concentration in the dry solid-state range (TS ≥ 15 %). Three samples were dewatered to an average starting TS concentration of 32.71 %. The inoculum was added (along with distilled water) to dilute the initial FV TS concentrations down to semi-dry conditions (10-15 %) and wet conditions (below 10 %). Twelve 1-L batch bioreactors were loaded simultaneously with either GY or FV waste at TS solid concentrations ranging from 3.85 ± 1.22 % to 20.11 ± 1.23 %. The reactors were sealed and were operated for 30 days while being immersed in water baths to maintain a constant temperature of 37 ± 0.5 °C (mesophilic) or 55 ± 0.5 °C (thermophilic). A maximum methane yield of 115.42 (L methane/ kg VS added) was obtained for the GY thermophilic-wet AD combination. Methane yield was enhanced by 240 % compared to the GY waste mesophilic-dry condition. The results confirm that high temperature regimes and small solids concentrations are conditions that enhance methane yield from GY waste. A similar trend was observed for the anaerobic digestion of FV waste. Furthermore, a maximum value of VS (53 %) and sCOD (84 %) reduction was achieved during the AD of GY waste under the thermophilic-wet condition.

Keywords: Anaerobic Digestion, mesophilic, thermophilic, total solids concentration

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39 Estimating Affected Croplands and Potential Crop Yield Loss of an Individual Farmer Due to Floods

Authors: Shima Nabinejad, Holger Schüttrumpf


Farmers who are living in flood-prone areas such as coasts are exposed to storm surges increased due to climate change. Crop cultivation is the most important economic activity of farmers, and in the time of flooding, agricultural lands are subject to inundation. Additionally, overflow saline water causes more severe damage outcomes than riverine flooding. Agricultural crops are more vulnerable to salinity than other land uses for which the economic damages may continue for a number of years even after flooding and affect farmers’ decision-making for the following year. Therefore, it is essential to assess what extent the agricultural areas are flooded and how much the associated flood damage to each individual farmer is. To address these questions, we integrated farmers’ decision-making at farm-scale with flood risk management. The integrated model includes identification of hazard scenarios, failure analysis of structural measures, derivation of hydraulic parameters for the inundated areas and analysis of the economic damages experienced by each farmer. The present study has two aims; firstly, it attempts to investigate the flooded cropland and potential crop damages for the whole area. Secondly, it compares them among farmers’ field for three flood scenarios, which differ in breach locations of the flood protection structure. To achieve its goal, the spatial distribution of fields and cultivated crops of farmers were fed into the flood risk model, and a 100-year storm surge hydrograph was selected as the flood event. The study area was Pellworm Island that is located in the German Wadden Sea National Park and surrounded by North Sea. Due to high salt content in seawater of North Sea, crops cultivated in the agricultural areas of Pellworm Island are 100% destroyed by storm surges which were taken into account in developing of depth-damage curve for analysis of consequences. As a result, inundated croplands and economic damages to crops were estimated in the whole Island which was further compared for six selected farmers under three flood scenarios. The results demonstrate the significance and the flexibility of the proposed model in flood risk assessment of flood-prone areas by integrating flood risk management and decision-making.

Keywords: crop damages, flood risk analysis, individual farmer, inundated cropland, Pellworm Island, storm surges

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38 Finite Element Study of Coke Shape Deep Beam to Column Moment Connection Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Authors: Robel Wondimu Alemayehu, Sihwa Jung, Manwoo Park, Young K. Ju


Following the aftermath of the 1994 Northridge earthquake, intensive research on beam to column connections is conducted, leading to the current design basis. The current design codes require the use of either a prequalified connection or a connection that passes the requirements of large-scale cyclic qualification test prior to use in intermediate or special moment frames. The second alternative is expensive both in terms of money and time. On the other hand, the maximum beam depth in most of the prequalified connections is limited to 900mm due to the reduced rotation capacity of deeper beams. However, for long span beams the need to use deeper beams may arise. In this study, a beam to column connection detail suitable for deep beams is presented. The connection detail comprises of thicker-tapered beam flange adjacent to the beam to column connection. Within the thicker-tapered flange region, two reduced beam sections are provided with the objective of forming two plastic hinges within the tapered-thicker flange region. In addition, the length, width, and thickness of the tapered-thicker flange region are proportioned in such a way that a third plastic hinge forms at the end of the tapered-thicker flange region. As a result, the total rotation demand is distributed over three plastic zones. Making it suitable for deeper beams that have lower rotation capacity at one plastic hinge. The effectiveness of this connection detail is studied through finite element analysis. For the study, a beam that has a depth of 1200mm is used. Additionally, comparison with welded unreinforced flange-welded web (WUF-W) moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection is made. The results show that the rotation capacity of a WUF-W moment connection is increased from 2.0% to 2.2% by applying the proposed moment connection detail. Furthermore, the maximum moment capacity, energy dissipation capacity and stiffness of the WUF-W moment connection is increased up to 58%, 49%, and 32% respectively. In contrast, applying the reduced beam section detail to the same WUF-W moment connection reduced the rotation capacity from 2.0% to 1.50% plus the maximum moment capacity and stiffness of the connection is reduced by 22% and 6% respectively. The proposed connection develops three plastic hinge regions as intended and it shows improved performance compared to both WUF-W moment connection and reduced beam section moment connection. Moreover, the achieved rotation capacity satisfies the minimum required for use in intermediate moment frames.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Seismic Design, Connections, steel intermediate moment frame

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37 A Bottleneck-Aware Power Management Scheme in Heterogeneous Processors for Web Apps

Authors: Inyoung Park, Youngjoo Woo, Euiseong Seo


With the advent of WebGL, Web apps are now able to provide high quality graphics by utilizing the underlying graphic processing units (GPUs). Despite that the Web apps are becoming common and popular, the current power management schemes, which were devised for the conventional native applications, are suboptimal for Web apps because of the additional layer, the Web browser, between OS and application. The Web browser running on a CPU issues GL commands, which are for rendering images to be displayed by the Web app currently running, to the GPU and the GPU processes them. The size and number of issued GL commands determine the processing load of the GPU. While the GPU is processing the GL commands, CPU simultaneously executes the other compute intensive threads. The actual user experience will be determined by either CPU processing or GPU processing depending on which of the two is the more demanded resource. For example, when the GPU work queue is saturated by the outstanding commands, lowering the performance level of the CPU does not affect the user experience because it is already deteriorated by the retarded execution of GPU commands. Consequently, it would be desirable to lower CPU or GPU performance level to save energy when the other resource is saturated and becomes a bottleneck in the execution flow. Based on this observation, we propose a power management scheme that is specialized for the Web app runtime environment. This approach incurs two technical challenges; identification of the bottleneck resource and determination of the appropriate performance level for unsaturated resource. The proposed power management scheme uses the CPU utilization level of the Window Manager to tell which one is the bottleneck if exists. The Window Manager draws the final screen using the processed results delivered from the GPU. Thus, the Window Manager is on the critical path that determines the quality of user experience and purely executed by the CPU. The proposed scheme uses the weighted average of the Window Manager utilization to prevent excessive sensitivity and fluctuation. We classified Web apps into three categories using the analysis results that measure frame-per-second (FPS) changes under diverse CPU/GPU clock combinations. The results showed that the capability of the CPU decides user experience when the Window Manager utilization is above 90% and consequently, the proposed scheme decreases the performance level of CPU by one step. On the contrary, when its utilization is less than 60%, the bottleneck usually lies in the GPU and it is desirable to decrease the performance of GPU. Even the processing unit that is not on critical path, excessive performance drop can occur and that may adversely affect the user experience. Therefore, our scheme lowers the frequency gradually, until it finds an appropriate level by periodically checking the CPU utilization. The proposed scheme reduced the energy consumption by 10.34% on average in comparison to the conventional Linux kernel, and it worsened their FPS by 1.07% only on average.

Keywords: Power management, QoS, Interactive Applications, WebGL, Web apps

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36 Composing Method of Decision-Making Function for Construction Management Using Active 4D/5D/6D Objects

Authors: Sang-Mi Park, Leen-Seok Kang, Hyeon-Seung Kim, Sun-ju Han


As BIM (Building Information Modeling) application continually expands, the visual simulation techniques used for facility design and construction process information are becoming increasingly advanced and diverse. For building structures, BIM application is design - oriented to utilize 3D objects for conflict management, whereas for civil engineering structures, the usability of nD object - oriented construction stage simulation is important in construction management. Simulations of 5D and 6D objects, for which cost and resources are linked along with process simulation in 4D objects, are commonly used, but they do not provide a decision - making function for process management problems that occur on site because they mostly focus on the visual representation of current status for process information. In this study, an nD CAD system is constructed that facilitates an optimized schedule simulation that minimizes process conflict, a construction duration reduction simulation according to execution progress status, optimized process plan simulation according to project cost change by year, and optimized resource simulation for field resource mobilization capability. Through this system, the usability of conventional simple simulation objects is expanded to the usability of active simulation objects with which decision - making is possible. Furthermore, to close the gap between field process situations and planned 4D process objects, a technique is developed to facilitate a comparative simulation through the coordinated synchronization of an actual video object acquired by an on - site web camera and VR concept 4D object. This synchronization and simulation technique can also be applied to smartphone video objects captured in the field in order to increase the usability of the 4D object. Because yearly project costs change frequently for civil engineering construction, an annual process plan should be recomposed appropriately according to project cost decreases/increases compared with the plan. In the 5D CAD system provided in this study, an active 5D object utilization concept is introduced to perform a simulation in an optimized process planning state by finding a process optimized for the changed project cost without changing the construction duration through a technique such as genetic algorithm. Furthermore, in resource management, an active 6D object utilization function is introduced that can analyze and simulate an optimized process plan within a possible scope of moving resources by considering those resources that can be moved under a given field condition, instead of using a simple resource change simulation by schedule. The introduction of an active BIM function is expected to increase the field utilization of conventional nD objects.

Keywords: active BIM

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35 Accurate Calculation of the Penetration Depth of a Bullet Using ANSYS

Authors: Eunsu Jang, Kang Park


In developing an armored ground combat vehicle (AGCV), it is a very important step to analyze the vulnerability (or the survivability) of the AGCV against enemy’s attack. In the vulnerability analysis, the penetration equations are usually used to get the penetration depth and check whether a bullet can penetrate the armor of the AGCV, which causes the damage of internal components or crews. The penetration equations are derived from penetration experiments which require long time and great efforts. However, they usually hold only for the specific material of the target and the specific type of the bullet used in experiments. Thus, penetration simulation using ANSYS can be another option to calculate penetration depth. However, it is very important to model the targets and select the input parameters in order to get an accurate penetration depth. This paper performed a sensitivity analysis of input parameters of ANSYS on the accuracy of the calculated penetration depth. Two conflicting objectives need to be achieved in adopting ANSYS in penetration analysis: maximizing the accuracy of calculation and minimizing the calculation time. To maximize the calculation accuracy, the sensitivity analysis of the input parameters for ANSYS was performed and calculated the RMS error with the experimental data. The input parameters include mesh size, boundary condition, material properties, target diameter are tested and selected to minimize the error between the calculated result from simulation and the experiment data from the papers on the penetration equation. To minimize the calculation time, the parameter values obtained from accuracy analysis are adjusted to get optimized overall performance. As result of analysis, the followings were found: 1) As the mesh size gradually decreases from 0.9 mm to 0.5 mm, both the penetration depth and calculation time increase. 2) As diameters of the target decrease from 250mm to 60 mm, both the penetration depth and calculation time decrease. 3) As the yield stress which is one of the material property of the target decreases, the penetration depth increases. 4) The boundary condition with the fixed side surface of the target gives more penetration depth than that with the fixed side and rear surfaces. By using above finding, the input parameters can be tuned to minimize the error between simulation and experiments. By using simulation tool, ANSYS, with delicately tuned input parameters, penetration analysis can be done on computer without actual experiments. The data of penetration experiments are usually hard to get because of security reasons and only published papers provide them in the limited target material. The next step of this research is to generalize this approach to anticipate the penetration depth by interpolating the known penetration experiments. This result may not be accurate enough to be used to replace the penetration experiments, but those simulations can be used in the early stage of the design process of AGCV in modelling and simulation stage.

Keywords: Sensitivity Analysis, ANSYS, penetration depth, input parameters

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34 Gross and Clinical Anatomy of the Skull of Adult Chinkara, Gazella bennettii

Authors: Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Masood, Salahud Din, Imad Khan, Habib Ur Rehman, Saima Ashraf, Muqader Shah


The objective of this study was (1) to study gross morphological, osteometric and clinical important landmarks in the skull of adult Chinkara to obtain baseline data and (2) to study sexual dimorphism in male and female adult Chinkara through osteometry. For this purpose, after performing postmortem examination, the carcass of adult Chinkara of known sex and age was buried in the locality of the Manglot Wildlife Park and Ungulate Breeding Centre, Nizampur, Pakistan; after a specific period of time, the bones were unearthed. Gross morphological features and various osteometric parameters of the skull were studied in the University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. The shape of the Chinkara skull was elongated and had thirty-two bones. The skull was comprised of the cranial and the facial part. The facial region of the skull was formed by maxilla, incisive, palatine, vomar, pterygoid, frontal, parietal, nasal, incisive, turbinates, mandible and hyoid apparatus. The bony region of the cranium of Chinkara was comprised of occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid, interparietal, parietal, temporal, and frontal bone. The foramina identified in the facial region of the skull of Chinkara were infraorbital, supraorbital foramen, lacrimal, sphenopalatine, maxillary and caudal palatine foramina. The foramina of the cranium of the skull of the Chinkara were the internal acoustic meatus, external acoustic meatus, hypoglossal canal, transverse canal, sphenorbital fissure, carotid canal, foramen magnum, stylomastoid foramen, foramen rotundum, foramen ovale and jugular foramen, and the rostral and the caudal foramina that formed the pterygoid canal. The measured craniometric parameters did not show statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between male and female adult Chinkara except Palatine bone, OI, DO, IOCDE, OCT, ICW, IPCW, and PCPL were significantly higher (p > 0.05) in male than female Chinkara and mean values of the mandibular parameters except b and h were significantly (p < 0.5) higher in male Chinkara than female Chinkara. Sexual dimorphism exists in some of the orbital and foramen magnum parameters, while high levels of sexual dimorphism identified in mandible. In conclusion, morphocraniometric studies of Chinkara skull made it possible to identify species-specific skull and use clinical measurements during practical application.

Keywords: Morphology, Sexual Dimorphism, morphometrics, chinkara, skull

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33 Effect of Pollutions on Mangrove Forests of Nayband National Marine Park

Authors: Esmaeil Kouhgardi, Elaheh Shakerdargah


The mangrove ecosystem is a complex of various inter-related elements in the land-sea interface zone which is linked with other natural systems of the coastal region such as corals, sea-grass, coastal fisheries and beach vegetation. The mangrove ecosystem consists of water, muddy soil, trees, shrubs, and their associated flora, fauna and microbes. It is a very productive ecosystem sustaining various forms of life. Its waters are nursery grounds for fish, crustacean, and mollusk and also provide habitat for a wide range of aquatic life, while the land supports a rich and diverse flora and fauna, but pollutions may affect these characteristics. Iran has the lowest share of Persian Gulf pollution among the eight littoral states; environmental experts are still deeply concerned about the serious consequences of the pollution in the oil-rich gulf. Prolongation of critical conditions in the Persian Gulf has endangered its aquatic ecosystem. Water purification equipment, refineries, wastewater emitted by onshore installations, especially petrochemical plans, urban sewage, population density and extensive oil operations of Arab states are factors contaminating the Persian Gulf waters. Population density has been the major cause of pollution and environmental degradation in the Persian Gulf. Persian Gulf is a closed marine environment which is connected to open waterways only from one way. It usually takes between three and four years for the gulf's water to be completely replaced. Therefore, any pollution entering the water will remain there for a relatively long time. Presently, the high temperature and excessive salt level in the water have exposed the marine creatures to extra threats, which mean they have to survive very tough conditions. The natural environment of the Persian Gulf is very rich with good fish grounds, extensive coral reefs and pearl oysters in abundance, but has become increasingly under pressure due to the heavy industrialization and in particular the repeated major oil spillages associated with the various recent wars fought in the region. Pollution may cause the mortality of mangrove forests by effect on root, leaf and soil of the area. Study was showed the high correlation between industrial pollution and mangrove forests health in south of Iran and increase of population, coupled with economic growth, inevitably caused the use of mangrove lands for various purposes such as construction of roads, ports and harbors, industries and urbanization.

Keywords: Environment, Pollution, Population, mangrove forest, Persian Gulf

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32 Examining the Effects of National Disaster on the Performance of Hospitality Industry in Korea

Authors: Kim Sang Hyuck, Y. Park Sung


The outbreak of national disasters stimulates the decrease of the both internal and domestic tourism demands, causing bad effects on the hospitality industry. The effective and efficient risk management regarding national disasters are being increasingly required from the hospitality industry practitioners and the tourism policymakers. To establish the effective and efficient risk management strategy on national disasters, the most essential prerequisite condition is the correct estimation of national disasters’ effects in terms of the size and duration of the damages occurred from national disaster on hospitality industry. More specifically, the national disasters are twofold: natural disaster and social disaster. In addition, the hospitality industry has consisted of several types of business, such as hotel, restaurant, travel agency, etc. As reasons of the above, it is important to consider how each type of national disasters differently influences on the performance of each type of hospitality industry. Therefore, the purpose of this study is examining the effects of national disaster on hospitality industry in Korea based on the types of national disasters as well as the types of hospitality business. The monthly data was collected from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2016. The indexes of industrial production for each hospitality industry in Korea were used with the proxy variable for the performance of each hospitality industry. Two national disaster variables (natural disaster and social disaster) were treated as dummy variables. In addition, the exchange rate, industrial production index, and consumer price index were used as control variables in the research model. The impulse response analysis was used to examine the size and duration of the damages occurred from each type of national disaster on each type of hospitality industries. The results of this study show that the natural disaster and the social disaster differently influenced on each type of hospitality industry. More specifically, the performance of airline industry is negatively influenced by the natural disaster at the time of 3 months later from the incidence. However, the negative impacts of social disaster on airline industry occurred not significantly over the time periods. For the hotel industry, both natural disaster and social disaster negatively influence the performance of hotel industry at the time of 5 months and 6 months later, respectively. Also, the negative impact of natural disaster on the performance of restaurant industry occurred at the time of 5 months later, as well as for both 3 months and 6 months later for the social disaster. Finally, both natural disaster and social disaster negatively influence the performance of travel agency at the time of 3 months and 4 months later, respectively. In conclusion, the types of national disasters differently influence the performance of each type of hospitality industry in Korea. These results would provide an important information to establish the effective and efficient risk management strategy for the national disasters.

Keywords: Korea, impulse response analysis, national disaster, performance of hospitality industry

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31 The Effects of Self-Reflections on Intercultural Communication Competency: A Case Study of the University of Arkansas-Fort Smith

Authors: JaeYoon Park


The ability to communicate effectively across different cultures is a necessary skill in today’s increasingly globalized world. Intercultural communication competency (ICC) is a way of being that benefits all members of a society in their living, learning, and working environments as well as in the context of mediated communications. This study examines the effects of self-reflection processes on the improvement of intercultural communication skills focusing on college students at the University of Arkansas-Fort Smith. A total of sixty-nine students’ works were analyzed based on the data collected in the past three years (2016, 2017 and 2018). The students in the ‘Culture and Communication’ class, each spring, completed the Diversity Awareness Profile (DAP) survey as a pre- and post-test for the course. DAP is a self-assessment tool designed by Karen Stinson and widely used in college classes, companies, and organizations to evaluate an individual’s behaviors in various intercultural settings. It can assist individuals in becoming more aware of diversity issues and also provide a foundation for developing strategies for modifying any undesirable behavior they may discover in the assessment. In addition to the DAP surveys, the students also submitted self-reflection essays that discussed their own scores. The University of Arkansas-Fort Smith is a small regional university located in the Bible Belt of the United States. White, Christian, working-class students dominate its student population. The students, whose data were collected, were predominantly seniors in college majoring in either Media Communication or International Business. Approximately, 80% of the students increased their scores, and 42% of them moved forward to a new category. The findings also indicate that the students in the underrepresented groups (i.e., women, minority, and international students) show less change in their scores and behaviors than the rest of the students (i.e., white heterosexual male students). These findings, in most part, result from the fact that the underrepresented students were already aware of diversity and intercultural issues through their personal experiences before taking the class. The white heterosexual male students demonstrated the greatest improvements, judging from their DAP scores (pre- and post-tests) and self-reflection essays. Through the class assignments and discussions, which emphasized critical thinking and self-reflection, the latter group of students not only became more aware of the meaning of their own words and behaviors, but they were also able to develop greater proficiency in intercultural communication. This e-poster presentation will analyze the findings of this research data, and also discuss the pedagogical implications of such results.

Keywords: Cross-Cultural Communication, Self-Reflection, diversity awareness survey, underrepresented students

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30 The Physiological Effect of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma on Cancer Cells, Cancer Stem Cells, and Adult Stem Cells

Authors: Jeongyeon Park, Yeo Jun Yoon, Jiyoung Seo, In Seok Moon, Hae Jun Lee, Kiwon Song


Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma (CAPP) is defined as a partially ionized gas with electrically charged particles at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. CAPP generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and has potential as a new apoptosis-promoting cancer therapy. With an annular type dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) CAPP-generating device combined with a helium (He) gas feeding system, we showed that CAPP selectively induced apoptosis in various cancer cells while it promoted proliferation of the adipose tissue-derived stem cell (ASC). The apoptotic effect of CAPP was highly selective toward p53-mutated cancer cells. The intracellular ROS was mainly responsible for apoptotic cell death in CAPP-treated cancer cells. CAPP induced apoptosis even in doxorubicin-resistant cancer cell lines, demonstrating the feasibility of CAPP as a potent cancer therapy. With the same device and exposure conditions to cancer cells, CAPP stimulated proliferation of the ASC, a kind of mesenchymal stem cell that is capable of self-renewing and differentiating into adipocytes, chondrocytes, osteoblasts and neurons. CAPP-treated ASCs expressed the stem cell markers and differentiated into adipocytes as untreated ASCs. The increase of proliferation by CAPP in ASCs was offset by a NO scavenger but was not affected by ROS scavengers, suggesting that NO generated by CAPP is responsible for the activated proliferation in ASCs. Usually, cancer stem cells are reported to be resistant to known cancer therapies. When we applied CAPP of the same device and exposure conditions to cancer cells to liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) that express CD133 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) cancer stem cell markers, apoptotic cell death was not examined. Apoptotic cell death of liver CSCs was induced by the CAPP generated from a device with an air-based flatten type DBD. An exposure of liver CSCs to CAPP decreased the viability of liver CSCs to a great extent, suggesting plasma be used as a promising anti-cancer treatment. To validate whether CAPP can be a promising anti-cancer treatment or an adjuvant modality to eliminate remnant tumor in cancer surgery of vestibular schwannoma, we applied CAPP to mouse schwannoma cell line SC4 Nf2 ‑/‑ and human schwannoma cell line HEI-193. A CAPP treatment leads to anti-proliferative effect in both cell lines. We are currently studying the molecular mechanisms of differential physiological effect of CAPP; the proliferation of ASCs and apoptosis of various cancer cells and CSCs.

Keywords: apoptosis, cancer cells, Adult Stem Cells, proliferation, cold atmospheric pressure plasma

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29 Experiences of Pediatric Cancer Patients and Their Families: A Focus Group Interview

Authors: Bu Kyung Park


Background: The survival rate of pediatric cancer patients has been increased. Thus, the needs of long-term management and follow-up education after discharge continue to grow. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of pediatric cancer patients and their families from first diagnosis to returning their social life. The ultimate goal of this study was to assess which information and intervention did pediatric cancer patients and their families required and needed, so that this could provide fundamental information for developing educational content of web-based intervention program for pediatric cancer patients. Research Approach: This study was based on a descriptive qualitative research design using semi-structured focus group interview. Participants: Twelve pediatric cancer patients and 12 family members participated in a total six focus group interview sessions. Methods: All interviews were audiotaped after obtaining participants’ approval. The recordings were transcribed. Qualitative Content analysis using the inductive coding approach was performed on the transcriptions by three coders. Findings: Eighteen categories emerged from the six main themes: 1) Information needs, 2) Support system, 3) Barriers to treatment, 4) Facilitators to treatment, 5) Return to social life, 6) Healthcare system issues. Each theme had both pediatric cancer patients’ codes and their family members’ codes. Patients and family members had high information needs through the whole process of treatment, not only the first diagnosis but also after completion of treatment. Hospitals provided basic information on chemo therapy, medication, and various examinations. However, they were more likely to rely on information from other patients and families by word of mouth. Participants’ information needs were different according to their treatment stage (e.g., first admitted patients versus cancer survivors returning to their social life). Even newly diagnosed patients worried about social adjustment after completion of all treatment, such as return to school and diet and physical activity at home. Most family members had unpleasant experiences while they were admitted in hospitals and concerned about healthcare system issues, such as medical error and patient safety. Conclusions: In conclusion, pediatric cancer patients and their family members wanted information source which can provide tailored information based on their needs. Different information needs with patients and their family members based on their diagnosis, progress, stage of treatment were identified. Findings from this study will be used to develop a patient-centered online health intervention program for pediatric cancer patients. Pediatric cancer patients and their family members had variety fields of education needs and soak the information from various sources. Web-based health intervention program for them is required to satisfy their inquiries to provide reliable information.

Keywords: family caregivers, focus group interview, pediatric cancer patients, qualitative content analysis

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28 Biocompatibility Tests for Chronic Application of Sieve-Type Neural Electrodes in Rats

Authors: Jinseok Kim, Jeong-Hyun Hong, Wonsuk Choi, Hyungdal Park, Junesun Kim


Identifying the chronic functions of an implanted neural electrode is an important factor in acquiring neural signals through the electrode or restoring the nerve functions after peripheral nerve injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of the chronic implanted neural electrode into the sciatic nerve. To do this, a sieve-type neural electrode was implanted at proximal and distal ends of a transected sciatic nerve as an experimental group (Sieve group, n=6), and the end-to-end epineural repair was operated with the cut sciatic nerve as a control group (reconstruction group, n=6). All surgeries were performed on the sciatic nerve of the right leg in Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests were performed before and 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, and weekly days until 5 months following surgery. Changes in sensory function were assessed by measuring paw withdrawal responses to mechanical and cold stimuli. Motor function was assessed by motion analysis using a Qualisys program, which showed a range of motion (ROM) related to the joints. Neurofilament-heavy chain and fibronectin expression were detected 5 months after surgery. In both groups, the paw withdrawal response to mechanical stimuli was slightly decreased from 3 weeks after surgery and then significantly decreased at 6 weeks after surgery. The paw withdrawal response to cold stimuli was increased from 4 days following surgery in both groups and began to decrease from 6 weeks after surgery. The ROM of the ankle joint was showed a similar pattern in both groups. There was significantly increased from 1 day after surgery and then decreased from 4 days after surgery. Neurofilament-heavy chain expression was observed throughout the entire sciatic nerve tissues in both groups. Especially, the sieve group was showed several neurofilaments that passed through the channels of the sieve-type neural electrode. In the reconstruction group, however, a suture line was seen through neurofilament-heavy chain expression up to 5 months following surgery. In the reconstruction group, fibronectin was detected throughout the sciatic nerve. However, in the sieve group, the fibronectin was observed only in the surrounding nervous tissues of an implanted neural electrode. The present results demonstrated that the implanted sieve-type neural electrode induced a focal inflammatory response. However, the chronic implanted sieve-type neural electrodes did not cause any further inflammatory response following peripheral nerve injury, suggesting the possibility of the chronic application of the sieve-type neural electrodes. This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program funded by the Ministry of Science (2016R1D1A1B03933986), and by the convergence technology development program for bionic arm (2017M3C1B2085303).

Keywords: Biocompatibility, motor functions, neural electrodes, peripheral nerve injury, sensory functions

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27 Damage-Based Seismic Design and Evaluation of Reinforced Concrete Bridges

Authors: Kuo-Chun Chang, Ping-Hsiung Wang


There has been a common trend worldwide in the seismic design and evaluation of bridges towards the performance-based method where the lateral displacement or the displacement ductility of bridge column is regarded as an important indicator for performance assessment. However, the seismic response of a bridge to an earthquake is a combined result of cyclic displacements and accumulated energy dissipation, causing damage to the bridge, and hence the lateral displacement (ductility) alone is insufficient to tell its actual seismic performance. This study aims to propose a damage-based seismic design and evaluation method for reinforced concrete bridges on the basis of the newly developed capacity-based inelastic displacement spectra. The capacity-based inelastic displacement spectra that comprise an inelastic displacement ratio spectrum and a corresponding damage state spectrum was constructed by using a series of nonlinear time history analyses and a versatile, smooth hysteresis model. The smooth model could take into account the effects of various design parameters of RC bridge columns and correlates the column’s strength deterioration with the Park and Ang’s damage index. It was proved that the damage index not only can be used to accurately predict the onset of strength deterioration, but also can be a good indicator for assessing the actual visible damage condition of column regardless of its loading history (i.e., similar damage index corresponds to similar actual damage condition for the same designed columns subjected to very different cyclic loading protocols as well as earthquake loading), providing a better insight into the seismic performance of bridges. Besides, the computed spectra show that the inelastic displacement ratio for far-field ground motions approximately conforms to the equal displacement rule when structural period is larger than around 0.8 s, but that for near-fault ground motions departs from the rule in the whole considered spectral regions. Furthermore, the near-fault ground motions would lead to significantly greater inelastic displacement ratio and damage index than far-field ground motions and most of the practical design scenarios cannot survive the considered near-fault ground motion when the strength reduction factor of bridge is not less than 5.0. Finally, the spectrum formula is presented as a function of structural period, strength reduction factor, and various column design parameters for far-field and near-fault ground motions by means of the regression analysis of the computed spectra. And based on the developed spectrum formula, a design example of a bridge is presented to illustrate the proposed damage-based seismic design and evaluation method where the damage state of the bridge is used as the performance objective.

Keywords: near-fault, damage index, far-field, reinforced concrete bridge, seismic design and evaluation

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26 From Social Equity to Spatial Equity in Urban Space: Precedent Study Approach

Authors: Dorsa Pourmojib, Marc J. Boutin


Urban space is used everyday by a diverse range of urban dwellers, each with different expectations. In this space, opportunities and resources are not distributed equitably among urban dwellers, despite the importance of inclusivity. In addition, some marginalized groups may not be considered. These include people with low incomes, immigrants from diverse cultures, various age groups, and those with special needs. To this end, this research aims to enhance social equity in urban space by bridging the gap between social equity and spatial equity in the urban context. This gap in the knowledge base related to urban design may be present for several reasons; lack of studies on relationship between social equity and spatial equity in urban open space, lack of practical design strategies for promoting social equity in urban open space, lack of proper site analysis in terms of context and users of the site both for designing new urban open spaces and developing the existing ones, and lack of researchers that are designers and finally it could be related to priorities of the city’s policies in addressing such issues, since it is time, money and energy consuming. The main objective of this project is addressing the aforementioned gap in the knowledge by exploring the relationship between social equity and spatial equity in urban open space. Answering the main question of this research is a promising step to this end; 'What are the considerations towards providing social equity through the design of urban elements that offer spatial equity?' To answer the main question of this research there are several secondary questions which should be addressed. Such as; how can the characteristics of social equity be translated to spatial equity? What are the diverse user’s needs and which of their needs are not considered in that site? What are the specific elements in the site which should be designed in order to promote social equity? What is the current situation of social and spatial equity in the proposed site? To answer the research questions and achieve the proposed objectives, a three-step methodology has been implemented. Firstly, a comprehensive research framework based on the available literature has been presented. Afterwards, three different urban spaces have been analyzed in terms of specific key research questions as the precedent studies; Naqsh-e Jahan Square (Iran), Superkilen Park (Denmark) and Campo Dei Fiori (Italy). In this regard, a proper gap analysis of the current situation and the proposed situation of these sites has been conducted. Finally, by combining the extracted design considerations from the precedent studies and the literature review, practical design strategies have been introduced as a result of this research. The presented guidelines enable the designers to create socially equitable urban spaces. To conclude, this research proposes a spatial approach to social inclusion and equity in urban space by presenting a practical framework and criteria for translating social equity to spatial equity in urban areas.

Keywords: Social Inclusion, social equity, inclusive urban design, spatial equity

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25 Evaluation of Groundwater Quality and Contamination Sources Using Geostatistical Methods and GIS in Miryang City, Korea

Authors: S. Y. Chung, H. E. Elzain, V. Senapathi, Kye-Hun Park


Groundwater is considered a significant source for drinking and irrigation purposes in Miryang city, and it is attributed to a limited number of a surface water reservoirs and high seasonal variations in precipitation. Population growth in addition to the expansion of agricultural land uses and industrial development may affect the quality and management of groundwater. This research utilized multidisciplinary approaches of geostatistics such as multivariate statistics, factor analysis, cluster analysis and kriging technique in order to identify the hydrogeochemical process and characterizing the control factors of the groundwater geochemistry distribution for developing risk maps, exploiting data obtained from chemical investigation of groundwater samples under the area of study. A total of 79 samples have been collected and analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) for major and trace elements. Chemical maps using 2-D spatial Geographic Information System (GIS) of groundwater provided a powerful tool for detecting the possible potential sites of groundwater that involve the threat of contamination. GIS computer based map exhibited that the higher rate of contamination observed in the central and southern area with relatively less extent in the northern and southwestern parts. It could be attributed to the effect of irrigation, residual saline water, municipal sewage and livestock wastes. At wells elevation over than 85m, the scatter diagram represents that the groundwater of the research area was mainly influenced by saline water and NO3. Level of pH measurement revealed low acidic condition due to dissolved atmospheric CO2 in the soil, while the saline water had a major impact on the higher values of TDS and EC. Based on the cluster analysis results, the groundwater has been categorized into three group includes the CaHCO3 type of the fresh water, NaHCO3 type slightly influenced by sea water and Ca-Cl, Na-Cl types which are heavily affected by saline water. The most predominant water type was CaHCO3 in the study area. Contamination sources and chemical characteristics were identified from factor analysis interrelationship and cluster analysis. The chemical elements that belong to factor 1 analysis were related to the effect of sea water while the elements of factor 2 associated with agricultural fertilizers. The degree level, distribution, and location of groundwater contamination have been generated by using Kriging methods. Thus, geostatistics model provided more accurate results for identifying the source of contamination and evaluating the groundwater quality. GIS was also a creative tool to visualize and analyze the issues affecting water quality in the Miryang city.

Keywords: Cluster Analysis, Factor Analysis, groundwater characteristics, GIS chemical maps, Kriging techniques

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24 Effects of the Age, Education, and Mental Illness Experience on Depressive Disorder Stigmatization

Authors: Soowon Park, Min-Ji Kim, Jun-Young Lee


Motivation: The stigma of mental illness has been studied in many disciplines, including social psychology, counseling psychology, sociology, psychiatry, public health care, and related areas, because individuals labeled as ‘mentally ill’ are often deprived of their rights and their life opportunities. To understand the factors that deepen the stigma of mental illness, it is important to understand the influencing factors of the stigma. Problem statement: Depression is a common disorder in adults, but the incidence of help-seeking is low. Researchers have believed that this poor help-seeking behavior is related to the stigma of mental illness, which results from low mental health literacy. However, it is uncertain that increasing mental health literacy decreases mental health stigmatization. Furthermore, even though decreasing stigmatization is important, the stigma of mental illness is still a stable and long-lasting phenomenon. Thus, factors other than knowledge about mental disorders have the power to maintain the stigma. Investigating the influencing factors that facilitate the stigma of psychiatric disease could help lower the social stigmatization. Approach: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with a multi-clustering sample. A total of 700 Korean participants (38% male), ranging in age from 18 to 78 (M(SD)age= 48.5(15.7)) answered demographical questions, Korean version of Link’s Perceived Devaluation and Discrimination (PDD) scale for the assessment of social stigmatization against depression, and the Korean version of the WHO-Composite International Diagnostic Interview for the assessment of mental disorders. Multiple-regression was conducted to find the predicting factors of social stigmatization against depression. Ages, sex, years of education, income, living location, and experience of mental illness were used as the predictors. Results: Predictors accounted for 14% of the variance in the stigma of depressive disorders (F(6, 693) = 20.27, p < .001). Among those, only age, years of education, and experience of mental illness significantly predicted social stigmatization against depression. The standardized regression coefficient of age had a negative association with stigmatization (β = -.20, p < .001), but years of education (β = .20, p < .001) and experience of mental illness (β = .08, p < .05) positively predicted depression stigmatization. Conclusions: The present study clearly demonstrates the association between personal factors and depressive disorder stigmatization. Younger age, more education, and self-stigma appeared to increase the stigmatization. Young, highly educated, and mentally ill people tend to reject patients with depressive disorder as friends, teachers, or babysitters; they also tend to think that those patients have lower intelligence and abilities. These results suggest the possibility that people from a high social class, or highly educated people, who have the power to make decisions, help maintain the social stigma against mental illness patients. To increase the awareness that people from high social classes have more stigmatization against depressive disorders will help decrease the biased attitudes against mentally ill patients.

Keywords: Education, age, depressive disorder stigmatization, self-stigma

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23 Carbon Dioxide Capture and Utilization by Using Seawater-Based Industrial Wastewater and Alkanolamine Absorbents

Authors: Dongwoo Kang, Yunsung Yoo, Injun Kim, Jongin Lee, Jinwon Park


Since industrial revolution, energy usage by human-beings has been drastically increased resulting in the enormous emissions of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. High concentration of carbon dioxide is well recognized as the main reason for the climate change by breaking the heat equilibrium of the earth. In order to decrease the amount of carbon dioxide emission, lots of technologies have been developed. One of the methods is to capture carbon dioxide after combustion process using liquid type absorbents. However, for some nations, captured carbon dioxide cannot be treated and stored properly due to their geological structures. Also, captured carbon dioxide can be leaked out when crust activities are active. Hence, the method to convert carbon dioxide as stable and useful products were developed. It is usually called CCU, that is, Carbon Capture and Utilization. There are several ways to convert carbon dioxide into useful substances. For example, carbon dioxide can be converted and used as fuels such as diesel, plastics, and polymers. However, these types of technologies require lots of energy to make stable carbon dioxide into a reactive one. Hence, converting it into metal carbonates salts have been studied widely. When carbon dioxide is captured by alkanolamine-based liquid absorbents, it exists as ionic forms such as carbonate, carbamate, and bicarbonate. When adequate metal ions are added, metal carbonate salt can be produced by ionic reaction with fast reaction kinetics. However, finding metal sources can be one of the problems for this method to be commercialized. If natural resources such as calcium oxide were used to supply calcium ions, it is not thought to have the economic feasibility to use natural resources to treat carbon dioxide. In this research, high concentrated industrial wastewater produced from refined salt production facility have been used as metal supplying source, especially for calcium cations. To ensure purity of final products, calcium ions were selectively separated in the form of gypsum dihydrate. After that, carbon dioxide is captured using alkanolamine-based absorbents making carbon dioxide into reactive ionic form. And then, high purity calcium carbonate salt was produced. The existence of calcium carbonate was confirmed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images. Also, carbon dioxide loading curves for absorption, conversion, and desorption were provided. Also, in order to investigate the possibility of the absorbent reuse, reabsorption experiments were performed either. Produced calcium carbonate as final products is seemed to have potential to be used in various industrial fields including cement and paper making industries and pharmaceutical engineering fields.

Keywords: Climate Change, Industrial Wastewater, Seawater, calcium carbonate, alkanolamine

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22 Technology Management for Early Stage Technologies

Authors: Taeho Park, Ming Zhou


Early stage technologies have been particularly challenging to manage due to high degrees of their numerous uncertainties. Most research results directly out of a research lab tend to be at their early, if not the infant stage. A long while uncertain commercialization process awaits these lab results. The majority of such lab technologies go nowhere and never get commercialized due to various reasons. Any efforts or financial resources put into managing these technologies turn fruitless. High stake naturally calls for better results, which make a patenting decision harder to make. A good and well protected patent goes a long way for commercialization of the technology. Our preliminary research showed that there was not a simple yet productive procedure for such valuation. Most of the studies now have been theoretical and overly comprehensive where practical suggestions were non-existent. Hence, we attempted to develop a simple and highly implementable procedure for efficient and scalable valuation. We thoroughly reviewed existing research, interviewed practitioners in the Silicon Valley area, and surveyed university technology offices. Instead of presenting another theoretical and exhaustive research, we aimed at developing a practical guidance that a government agency and/or university office could easily deploy and get things moving to later steps of managing early stage technologies. We provided a procedure to thriftily value and make the patenting decision. A patenting index was developed using survey data and expert opinions. We identified the most important factors to be used in the patenting decision using survey ratings. The rating then assisted us in generating good relative weights for the later scoring and weighted averaging step. More importantly, we validated our procedure by testing it with our practitioner contacts. Their inputs produced a general yet highly practical cut schedule. Such schedule of realistic practices has yet to be witnessed our current research. Although a technology office may choose to deviate from our cuts, what we offered here at least provided a simple and meaningful starting point. This procedure was welcomed by practitioners in our expert panel and university officers in our interview group. This research contributed to our current understanding and practices of managing early stage technologies by instating a heuristically simple yet theoretical solid method for the patenting decision. Our findings generated top decision factors, decision processes and decision thresholds of key parameters. This research offered a more practical perspective which further completed our extant knowledge. Our results could be impacted by our sample size and even biased a bit by our focus on the Silicon Valley area. Future research, blessed with bigger data size and more insights, may want to further train and validate our parameter values in order to obtain more consistent results and analyze our decision factors for different industries.

Keywords: Technology Management, Decision, patent, early stage technology

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21 Introducing an Innovative Structural Fuse for Creation of Repairable Buildings with See-Saw Motion during Earthquake and Investigating It by Nonlinear Finite Element Modeling

Authors: M. Hosseini, M. Zhian, N. Ghorbani Amirabad


Seismic design codes accept structural and nonstructural damages after the sever earthquakes (provided that the building is prevented from collapse), so that in many cases demolishing and reconstruction of the building is inevitable, and this is usually very difficult, costly and time consuming. Therefore, designing and constructing of buildings in such a way that they can be easily repaired after earthquakes, even major ones, is quite desired. For this purpose giving the possibility of rocking or see-saw motion to the building structure, partially or as a whole, has been used by some researchers in recent decade .the central support which has a main role in creating the possibility of see-saw motion in the building’s structural system. In this paper, paying more attention to the key role of the central fuse and support, an innovative energy dissipater which can act as the central fuse and support of the building with seesaw motion is introduced, and the process of reaching an optimal geometry for that by using finite element analysis is presented. Several geometric shapes were considered for the proposed central fuse and support. In each case the hysteresis moment rotation behavior of the considered fuse were obtained under simultaneous effect of vertical and horizontal loads, by nonlinear finite element analyses. To find the optimal geometric shape, the maximum plastic strain value in the fuse body was considered as the main parameter. The rotational stiffness of the fuse under the effect of acting moments is another important parameter for finding the optimum shape. The proposed fuse and support can be called Yielding Curved Bars and Clipped Hemisphere Core (YCB&CHC or more briefly YCB) energy dissipater. Based on extensive nonlinear finite element analyses it was found out the using rectangular section for the curved bars gives more reliable results. Then, the YCB energy dissipater with the optimal shape was used in a structural model of a 12 story regular building as its central fuse and support to give it the possibility of seesaw motion, and its seismic responses were compared to those of a the building in the fixed based conditions, subjected to three-components acceleration of several selected earthquakes including Loma Prieta, Northridge, and Park Field. In building with see-saw motion some simple yielding-plate energy dissipaters were also used under circumferential columns.The results indicated that equipping the buildings with central and circumferential fuses result in remarkable reduction of seismic responses of the building, including the base shear, inter story drift, and roof acceleration. In fact by using the proposed technique the plastic deformations are concentrated in the fuses in the lowest story of the building, so that the main body of the building structure remains basically elastic, and therefore, the building can be easily repaired after earthquake.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, hysteretic behavior, rocking mechanism, see-saw motion

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20 Assessment of Food Safety Culture in Select Restaurants and a Produce Market in Doha, Qatar

Authors: Hao Feng, Ipek Goktepe, Israa Elnemr, Hammad Asim, Mosbah Kushad, Hee Park, Sheikha Alzeyara, Mohammad Alhajri


Food safety management in Qatar is under the shared oversight of multiple agencies in two government ministries (Ministry of Public Health and Ministry of Municipality and Environment). Despite the increasing number and diversity of the food service establishments, no systematic food surveillance system is in place in the country, which creates a gap in terms of determining the food safety attitudes and practices applied in the food service operations. Therefore, this study seeks to partially address this gap through determination of food safety knowledge among food handlers, specifically with respect to food preparation and handling practices, and sanitation methods applied in food service providers (FSPs) and a major market in Doha, Qatar. The study covered a sample of 53 FSPs randomly selected out of 200 FSPs. Face-to-face interviews with managers at participating FSPs were conducted using a 40-questions survey. Additionally, 120 produce handlers who are in direct contact with fresh produce at the major produce market in Doha were surveyed using a questionnaire containing 21 questions. A written informed consent was obtained from each survey participant. The survey data were analyzed using the chi-square test and correlation test. The significance was evaluated at p ˂ 0.05. The results from the FSPs surveys indicated that the average age of FSPs was 11 years, with the oldest and newest being established in 1982 and 2015, respectively. Most managers (66%) had college degree and 68% of them were trained on the food safety management system known as HACCP. These surveys revealed that FSP managers’ training and education level were highly correlated with the probability of their employees receiving food safety training while managers with lower education level had no formal training on food safety for themselves nor for their employees. Casual sit-in and fine dine-in restaurants consistently kept records (100%), followed by fast food (36%), and catering establishments (14%). The produce handlers’ survey results showed that none of the workers had any training on safe produce handling practices. The majority of the workers were in the age range of 31-40 years (37%) and only 38% of them had high-school degree. Over 64% of produce handlers claimed to wash their hands 4-5 times per day but field observations pointed limited handwashing as there was soap in the settings. This observation suggests potential food safety risks since a significant correlation (p ˂ 0.01) between the educational level and the hand-washing practices was determined. This assessment on food safety culture through determination of food and produce handlers' level of knowledge and practices, the first of its kind in Qatar, demonstrated that training and education are important factors which directly impact the food safety culture in FSPs and produce markets. These findings should help in identifying the need for on-site training of food handlers for effective food safety practices in food establishments in Qatar.

Keywords: Food Safety, food handlers, food safety culture, food service providers

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19 Strength Properties of Ca-Based Alkali Activated Fly Ash System

Authors: Hong-Gun Park, Jung-Il Suh, Jae-Eun Oh


Recently, the use of long-span precast concrete (PC) construction has increased in modular construction such as storage buildings and parking facilities. When applying long span PC member, reducing weight of long span PC member should be conducted considering lifting capacity of crane and self-weight of PC member and use of structural lightweight concrete made by lightweight aggregate (LWA) can be considered. In the process of lightweight concrete production, segregation and bleeding could occur due to difference of specific gravity between cement (3.3) and lightweight aggregate (1.2~1.8) and reducing weight of binder is needed to prevent the segregation between binder and aggregate. Also, lightweight precast concrete made by cementitious materials such as fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace (GGBFS) which is lower than specific gravity of cement as a substitute for cement has been studied. When only using fly ash for cementless binder alkali-activation of fly ash is most important chemical process in which the original fly ash is dissolved by a strong alkaline medium in steam curing with high-temperature condition. Because curing condition is similar with environment of precast member production, additional process is not needed. Na-based chloride generally used as a strong alkali activator has a practical problem such as high pH toxicity and high manufacturing cost. Instead of Na-based alkali activator calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] and sodium hydroxide [Na2CO3] might be used because it has a lower pH and less expensive than Na-based alkali activator. This study explored the influences on Ca(OH)2-Na2CO3-activated fly ash system in its microstructural aspects and strength and permeability using powder X-ray analysis (XRD), thermogravimetry (TGA), mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). On the basis of microstructural analysis, the conclusions are made as follows. Increase of Ca(OH)2/FA wt.% did not affect improvement of compressive strength. Also, Ca(OH)2/FA wt.% and Na2CO3/FA wt.% had little effect on specific gravity of saturated surface dry (SSD) and absolute dry (AD) condition to calculate water absorption. Especially, the binder is appropriate for structural lightweight concrete because specific gravity of the hardened paste has no difference with that of lightweight aggregate. The XRD and TGA/DTG results did not present considerable difference for the types and quantities of hydration products depending on w/b ratio, Ca(OH)2 wt.%, and Na2CO3 wt.%. In the case of higher molar quantity of Ca(OH)2 to Na2CO3, XRD peak indicated unreacted Ca(OH)2 while DTG peak was not presented because of small quantity. Thus, presence of unreacted Ca(OH)2 is too small quantity to effect on mechanical performance. As a result of MIP, the porosity volume related to capillary pore depends on the w/b ratio. In the same condition of w/b ratio, quantities of Ca(OH)2 and Na2CO3 have more influence on pore size distribution rather than total porosity. While average pore size decreased as Na2CO3/FA w.t% increased, the average pore size increased over 20 nm as Ca(OH)2/FA wt.% increased which has inverse proportional relationship between pore size and mechanical properties such as compressive strength and water permeability.

Keywords: Microstructure, fly ash, compressive strength, water absorption, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3

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18 Carbon Footprint Assessment and Application in Urban Planning and Geography

Authors: Taehyun Kim, Hyunjoo Park


Human life, activity, and culture depend on the wider environment. Cities offer economic opportunities for goods and services, but cannot exist in environments without food, energy, and water supply. Technological innovation in energy supply and transport speeds up the expansion of urban areas and the physical separation from agricultural land. As a result, division of urban agricultural areas causes more energy demand for food and goods transport between the regions. As the energy resources are leaking all over the world, the impact on the environment crossing the boundaries of cities is also growing. While advances in energy and other technologies can reduce the environmental impact of consumption, there is still a gap between energy supply and demand by current technology, even in technically advanced countries. Therefore, reducing energy demand is more realistic than relying solely on the development of technology for sustainable development. The purpose of this study is to introduce the application of carbon footprint assessment in fields of urban planning and geography. In urban studies, carbon footprint has been assessed at different geographical scales, such as nation, city, region, household, and individual. Carbon footprint assessment for a nation and a city is available by using national or city level statistics of energy consumption categories. By means of carbon footprint calculation, it is possible to compare the ecological capacity and deficit among nations and cities. Carbon footprint also offers great insight on the geographical distribution of carbon intensity at a regional level in the agricultural field. The study shows the background of carbon footprint applications in urban planning and geography by case studies such as figuring out sustainable land-use measures in urban planning and geography. For micro level, footprint quiz or survey can be adapted to measure household and individual carbon footprint. For example, first case study collected carbon footprint data from the survey measuring home energy use and travel behavior of 2,064 households in eight cities in Gyeonggi-do, Korea. Second case study analyzed the effects of the net and gross population densities on carbon footprint of residents at an intra-urban scale in the capital city of Seoul, Korea. In this study, the individual carbon footprint of residents was calculated by converting the carbon intensities of home and travel fossil fuel use of respondents to the unit of metric ton of carbon dioxide (tCO₂) by multiplying the conversion factors equivalent to the carbon intensities of each energy source, such as electricity, natural gas, and gasoline. Carbon footprint is an important concept not only for reducing climate change but also for sustainable development. As seen in case studies carbon footprint may be measured and applied in various spatial units, including but not limited to countries and regions. These examples may provide new perspectives on carbon footprint application in planning and geography. In addition, additional concerns for consumption of food, goods, and services can be included in carbon footprint calculation in the area of urban planning and geography.

Keywords: Geography, Urban Planning, Carbon Footprint, Case study

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17 Manufacturing the Authenticity of Dokkaebi’s Visual Representation in Tourist Marketing

Authors: Mikyung Bak


The dokkaebi, a beloved icon of Korean culture, is represented as an elf, goblin, monster, dwarf, or any similar creature in different media, such as animated shows, comics, soap operas, and movies. It is often described as a mythical creature with a horn or horns and long teeth, wearing tiger-skin pants or a grass skirt, and carrying a magic stick. Many Korean researchers agree on the similarity of the image of the Korean dokkaebi with that of the Japanese oni, a view that is regard as negative from an anti-colonial or nationalistic standpoint. They cite such similarity between the two mythical creatures as evidence that Japanese colonialism persists in Korea. The debate on the originality of dokkaebi’s visual representation is an issue that must be addressed urgently. This research demonstrates through a diagram the plurality of interpretations of dokkaebi’s visual representations in what are considered ‘authentic’ images of dokkaebi in Korean art and culture. This diagram presents the opinions of four major groups in the debate, namely, the scholars of Korean literature and folklore, art historians, authors, and artists. It also shows the creation of new dokkaebi visual representations in popular media, including those influenced by the debate. The diagram further proves that dokkaebi’s representations varied, which include the typical persons or invisible characters found in Korean literature, original Korean folk characters in traditional art, and even universal spirit characters. They are also visually represented by completely new creatures as well as oni-based mythical beings and the actual oni itself. The earlier dokkaebi representations were driven by the creation of a national ideology or national cultural paradigm and, thus, were more uniform and protected. In contrast, the more recent representations are influenced by the Korean industrial strategy of ‘cultural economics,’ which is concerned with the international rather than the domestic market. This recent Korean cultural strategy emphasizes diversity and commonality with the global culture rather than originality and locality. It employs traditional cultural resources to construct a global image. Consequently, dokkaebi’s recent representations have become more common and diverse, thereby incorporating even oni’s characteristics. This argument has rendered the grounds of the debate irrelevant. The dokkaebi has been used recently for tourist marketing purposes, particularly in revitalizing interest in regions considered the cradle of various traditional dokkaebi tales. These campaign strategies include the Jeju-do Dokkaebi Park, Koksung Dokkaebi Land, as well as the Taebaek and Sokri-san Dokkaebi Festivals. Almost dokkaebi characters are identical to the Japanese oni in tourist marketing. However, the pursuit for dokkaebi’s authentic visual representation is less interesting and fruitful than the appreciation of the entire spectrum of dokkaebi images that have been created. Thus, scholars and stakeholders must not exclude the possibilities for a variety of potentials within the visual culture. The same sentiment applies to traditional art and craft. This study aims to contribute to a new visualization of the dokkaebi that embraces the possibilities of both folk craft and art, which continue to be uncovered by diverse and careful researchers in a still-developing field.

Keywords: Representation, Dokkaebi, post-colonial period, tourist marketing

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
16 Understanding Governance of Biodiversity-Supporting and Edible Landscapes Using Network Analysis in a Fast Urbanising City of South India

Authors: M. Soubadra Devy, Savitha Swamy, Chethana V. Casiker


Sustainable smart cities are emerging as an important concept in response to the exponential rise in the world’s urbanizing population. While earlier, only technical, economic and governance based solutions were considered, more and more layers are being added in recent times. With the prefix of 'sustainability', solutions which help in judicious use of resources without negatively impacting the environment have become critical. We present a case study of Bangalore city which has transformed from being a garden city and pensioners' paradise to being an IT city with a huge, young population from different regions and diverse cultural backgrounds. This has had a big impact on the green spaces in the city and the biodiversity that they support, as well as on farming/gardening practices. Edible landscapes comprising farms lands, home gardens and neighbourhood parks (NPs henceforth) were examined. The land prices of areas having NPs were higher than those that did not indicate an appreciation of their aesthetic value. NPs were part of old and new residential areas largely managed by the municipality. They comprised manicured gardens which were similar in vegetation structure and composition. Results showed that NPs that occurred in higher density supported reasonable levels of biodiversity. In situations where NPs occurred in lower density, the presence of a larger green space such as a heritage park or botanical garden enhanced the biodiversity of these parks. In contrast, farm lands and home gardens which were common within the city are being lost at an unprecedented scale to developmental projects. However, there is also the emergence of a 'neo-culture' of home-gardening that promotes 'locovory' or consumption of locally grown food as a means to a sustainable living and reduced carbon footprint. This movement overcomes the space constraint by using vertical and terrace gardening techniques. Food that is grown within cities comprises of vegetables and fruits which are largely pollinator dependent. This goes hand in hand with our landscape-level study that has shown that cities support pollinator diversity. Maintaining and improving these man-made ecosystems requires analysing the functioning and characteristics of the existing structures of governance. Social network analysis tool was applied to NPs to examine relationships, between actors and ties. The management structures around NPs, gaps, and means to strengthen the networks from the current state to a near-ideal state were identified for enhanced services. Learnings from NPs were used to build a hypothetical governance structure and functioning of integrated governance of NPs and edible landscapes to enhance ecosystem services such as biodiversity support, food production, and aesthetic value. They also contribute to the sustainability axis of smart cities.

Keywords: ecosystem services, biodiversity support, edible green spaces, neighbourhood parks, sustainable smart city

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15 Investigation of Yard Seam Workings for the Proposed Newcastle Light Rail Project

Authors: David L. Knott, Robert Kingsland, Alistair Hitchon


The proposed Newcastle Light Rail is a key part of the revitalisation of Newcastle, NSW and will provide a frequent and reliable travel option throughout the city centre, running from Newcastle Interchange at Wickham to Pacific Park in Newcastle East, a total of 2.7 kilometers in length. Approximately one-third of the route, along Hunter and Scott Streets, is subject to potential shallow underground mine workings. The extent of mining and seams mined is unclear. Convicts mined the Yard Seam and overlying Dudley (Dirty) Seam in Newcastle sometime between 1800 and 1830. The Australian Agricultural Company mined the Yard Seam from about 1831 to the 1860s in the alignment area. The Yard Seam was about 3 feet (0.9m) thick, and therefore, known as the Yard Seam. Mine maps do not exist for the workings in the area of interest and it was unclear if both or just one seam was mined. Information from 1830s geological mapping and other data showing shaft locations were used along Scott Street and information from the 1908 Royal Commission was used along Hunter Street to develop an investigation program. In addition, mining was encountered for several sites to the south of the alignment at depths of about 7 m to 25 m. Based on the anticipated depths of mining, it was considered prudent to assess the potential for sinkhole development on the proposed alignment and realigned underground utilities and to obtain approval for the work from Subsidence Advisory NSW (SA NSW). The assessment consisted of a desktop study, followed by a subsurface investigation. Four boreholes were drilled along Scott Street and three boreholes were drilled along Hunter Street using HQ coring techniques in the rock. The placement of boreholes was complicated by the presence of utilities in the roadway and traffic constraints. All the boreholes encountered the Yard Seam, with conditions varying from unmined coal to an open void, indicating the presence of mining. The geotechnical information obtained from the boreholes was expanded by using various downhole techniques including; borehole camera, borehole sonar, and downhole geophysical logging. The camera provided views of the rock and helped to explain zones of no recovery. In addition, timber props within the void were observed. Borehole sonar was performed in the void and provided an indication of room size as well as the presence of timber props within the room. Downhole geophysical logging was performed in the boreholes to measure density, natural gamma, and borehole deviation. The data helped confirm that all the mining was in the Yard Seam and that the overlying Dudley Seam had been eroded in the past over much of the alignment. In summary, the assessment allowed the potential for sinkhole subsidence to be assessed and a mitigation approach developed to allow conditional approval by SA NSW. It also confirmed the presence of mining in the Yard Seam, the depth to the seam and mining conditions, and indicated that subsidence did not appear to have occurred in the past.

Keywords: Drilling, downhole investigation techniques, mine subsidence, yard seam

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14 Three-Stage Least Squared Models of a Station-Level Subway Ridership: Incorporating an Analysis on Integrated Transit Network Topology Measures

Authors: Jungyeol Hong, Dongjoo Park


The urban transit system is a critical part of a solution to the economic, energy, and environmental challenges. Furthermore, it ultimately contributes the improvement of people’s quality of lives. For taking these kinds of advantages, the city of Seoul has tried to construct an integrated transit system including both subway and buses. The effort led to the fact that approximately 6.9 million citizens use the integrated transit system every day for their trips. Diagnosing the current transit network is a significant task to provide more convenient and pleasant transit environment. Therefore, the critical objective of this study is to establish a methodological framework for the analysis of an integrated bus-subway network and to examine the relationship between subway ridership and parameters such as network topology measures, bus demand, and a variety of commercial business facilities. Regarding a statistical approach to estimate subway ridership at a station level, many previous studies relied on Ordinary Least Square regression, but there was lack of studies considering the endogeneity issues which might show in the subway ridership prediction model. This study focused on both discovering the impacts of integrated transit network topology measures and endogenous effect of bus demand on subway ridership. It could ultimately contribute to developing more accurate subway ridership estimation accounting for its statistical bias. The spatial scope of the study covers Seoul city in South Korea, and it includes 243 subway stations and 10,120 bus stops with the temporal scope set during twenty-four hours with one-hour interval time panels each. The subway and bus ridership information in detail was collected from the Seoul Smart Card data in 2015 and 2016. First, integrated subway-bus network topology measures which have characteristics regarding connectivity, centrality, transitivity, and reciprocity were estimated based on the complex network theory. The results of integrated transit network topology analysis were compared to subway-only network topology. Also, the non-recursive approach which is Three-Stage Least Square was applied to develop the daily subway ridership model as capturing the endogeneity between bus and subway demands. Independent variables included roadway geometry, commercial business characteristics, social-economic characteristics, safety index, transit facility attributes, and dummies for seasons and time zone. Consequently, it was found that network topology measures were significant size effect. Especially, centrality measures showed that the elasticity was a change of 4.88% for closeness centrality, 24.48% for betweenness centrality while the elasticity of bus ridership was 8.85%. Moreover, it was proved that bus demand and subway ridership were endogenous in a non-recursive manner as showing that predicted bus ridership and predicted subway ridership is statistically significant in OLS regression models. Therefore, it shows that three-stage least square model appears to be a plausible model for efficient subway ridership estimation. It is expected that the proposed approach provides a reliable guideline that can be used as part of the spectrum of tools for evaluating a city-wide integrated transit network.

Keywords: endogeneity, integrated transit system, network topology measures, three-stage least squared, subway ridership

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13 Development of an Improved Paradigm for the Tourism Sector in the Department of Huila, Colombia: A Theoretical and Empirical Approach

Authors: Laura N. Bolivar T.


The tourism importance for regional development is mainly highlighted by the collaborative, cooperating and competitive relationships of the involved agents. The fostering of associativity processes, in particular, the cluster approach emphasizes the beneficial outcomes from the concentration of enterprises, where innovation and entrepreneurship flourish and shape the dynamics for tourism empowerment. Considering the department of Huila, it is located in the south-west of Colombia and holds the biggest coffee production in the country, although it barely contributes to the national GDP. Hence, its economic development strategy is looking for more dynamism and Huila could be consolidated as a leading destination for cultural, ecological and heritage tourism, if at least the public policy making processes for the tourism management of La Tatacoa Desert, San Agustin Park and Bambuco’s National Festival, were implemented in a more efficient manner. In this order of ideas, this study attempts to address the potential restrictions and beneficial factors for the consolidation of the tourism sector of Huila-Colombia as a cluster and how could it impact its regional development. Therefore, a set of theoretical frameworks such as the Tourism Routes Approach, the Tourism Breeding Environment, the Community-based Tourism Method, among others, but also a collection of international experiences describing tourism clustering processes and most outstanding problematics, is analyzed to draw up learning points, structure of proceedings and success-driven factors to be contrasted with the local characteristics in Huila, as the region under study. This characterization involves primary and secondary information collection methods and comprises the South American and Colombian context together with the identification of involved actors and their roles, main interactions among them, major tourism products and their infrastructure, the visitors’ perspective on the situation and a recap of the related needs and benefits regarding the host community. Considering the umbrella concepts, the theoretical and the empirical approaches, and their comparison with the local specificities of the tourism sector in Huila, an array of shortcomings is analytically constructed and a series of guidelines are proposed as a way to overcome them and simultaneously, raise economic development and positively impact Huila’s well-being. This non-exhaustive bundle of guidelines is focused on fostering cooperating linkages in the actors’ network, dealing with Information and Communication Technologies’ innovations, reinforcing the supporting infrastructure, promoting the destinations considering the less known places as well, designing an information system enabling the tourism network to assess the situation based on reliable data, increasing competitiveness, developing participative public policy-making processes and empowering the host community about the touristic richness. According to this, cluster dynamics would drive the tourism sector to meet articulation and joint effort, then involved agents and local particularities would be adequately assisted to cope with the current changing environment of globalization and competition.

Keywords: Local Development, innovative strategy, tourism cluster, network of tourism actors

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12 An Efficient Process Analysis and Control Method for Tire Mixing Operation

Authors: Hwang Ho Kim, Do Gyun Kim, Jin Young Choi, Sang Chul Park


Since tire production process is very complicated, company-wide management of it is very difficult, necessitating considerable amounts of capital and labors. Thus, productivity should be enhanced and maintained competitive by developing and applying effective production plans. Among major processes for tire manufacturing, consisting of mixing component preparation, building and curing, the mixing process is an essential and important step because the main component of tire, called compound, is formed at this step. Compound as a rubber synthesis with various characteristics plays its own role required for a tire as a finished product. Meanwhile, scheduling tire mixing process is similar to flexible job shop scheduling problem (FJSSP) because various kinds of compounds have their unique orders of operations, and a set of alternative machines can be used to process each operation. In addition, setup time required for different operations may differ due to alteration of additives. In other words, each operation of mixing processes requires different setup time depending on the previous one, and this kind of feature, called sequence dependent setup time (SDST), is a very important issue in traditional scheduling problems such as flexible job shop scheduling problems. However, despite of its importance, there exist few research works dealing with the tire mixing process. Thus, in this paper, we consider the scheduling problem for tire mixing process and suggest an efficient particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to minimize the makespan for completing all the required jobs belonging to the process. Specifically, we design a particle encoding scheme for the considered scheduling problem, including a processing sequence for compounds and machine allocation information for each job operation, and a method for generating a tire mixing schedule from a given particle. At each iteration, the coordination and velocity of particles are updated, and the current solution is compared with new solution. This procedure is repeated until a stopping condition is satisfied. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated through a numerical experiment by using some small-sized problem instances expressing the tire mixing process. Furthermore, we compare the solution of the proposed algorithm with it obtained by solving a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model developed in previous research work. As for performance measure, we define an error rate which can evaluate the difference between two solutions. As a result, we show that PSO algorithm proposed in this paper outperforms MILP model with respect to the effectiveness and efficiency. As the direction for future work, we plan to consider scheduling problems in other processes such as building, curing. We can also extend our current work by considering other performance measures such as weighted makespan or processing times affected by aging or learning effects.

Keywords: Compound, Particle Swarm Optimization, makespan, error rate, flexible job shop scheduling problem, particle encoding scheme, sequence dependent setup time, tire mixing process

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11 The Importance of Value Added Services Provided by Science and Technology Parks to Boost Entrepreneurship Ecosystem in Turkey

Authors: Faruk Inaltekin, Imran Gurakan


This paper will aim to discuss the importance of value-added services provided by Science and Technology Parks for entrepreneurship development in Turkey. Entrepreneurship is vital subject for all countries. It has not only fostered economic development but also promoted innovation at local and international levels. To foster high tech entrepreneurship ecosystem, Technopark (Science and Technology Park/STP) concept was initiated with the establishment of Silicon Valley in the 1950s. The success and rise of Silicon Valley led to the spread of technopark activities. Developed economies have been setting up projects to plan and build STPs since the 1960s and 1970s. To promote the establishment of STPs, necessary legislations were made by Ministry of Science, Industry, and Technology in 2001, Technology Development Zones Law (No. 4691) and it has been revised in 2016 to provide more supports. STPs’ basic aim is to provide customers high-quality office spaces with various 'value added services' such as business development, network connections, cooperation programs, investor/customers meetings and internationalization services. For this aim, STPs should help startups deal with difficulties in the early stages and to support mature companies’ export activities in the foreign market. STPs should support the production, commercialization and more significantly internationalization of technology-intensive business and foster growth of companies. Nowadays within this value-added services, internationalization is very popular subject in the world. Most of STPs design clusters or accelerator programs in order to support their companies in the foreign market penetration. If startups are not ready for international competition, STPs should help them to get ready for foreign market with training and mentoring sessions. These training and mentoring sessions should take a goal based approach to working with companies. Each company has different needs and goals. Therefore the definition of ‘success' varies for each company. For this reason, it is very important to create customized value added services to meet the needs of startups. After local supports, STPs should also be able to support their startups in foreign market. Organizing well defined international accelerator program plays an important role in this mission. Turkey is strategically placed between key markets in Europe, Russia, Central Asia and the Middle East. Its population is young and well educated. So both government agencies and the private sectors endeavor to foster and encourage entrepreneurship ecosystem with many supports. In sum, the task of technoparks with these and similar value added services is very important for developing entrepreneurship ecosystem. The priorities of all value added services are to identify the commercialization and growth obstacles faced by entrepreneurs and get rid of them with the one-to-one customized services. Also, in order to have a healthy startup ecosystem and create sustainable entrepreneurship, stakeholders (technoparks, incubators, accelerators, investors, universities, governmental organizations etc.) should fulfill their roles and/or duties and collaborate with each other. STPs play an important role as bridge for these stakeholders & entrepreneurs. STPs always should benchmark and renew services offered to how to help the start-ups to survive, develop their business and benefit from these stakeholders.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Cluster, startup, accelerator, technopark, value added services

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