Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: J. K. Parikh

9 Hawking Radiation of Grumiller Black

Authors: Sherwan Kher Alden Yakub Alsofy


In this paper, we consider the relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equation and study the Hawking radiation (HR) of scalar particles from uncharged Grumiller black hole (GBH) which is affordable for testing in astrophysics. GBH is also known as Rindler modified Schwarzschild BH. Our aim is not only to investigate the effect of the Rindler parameter A on the Hawking temperature (TH ), but to examine whether there is any discrepancy between the computed horizon temperature and the standard TH as well. For this purpose, in addition to its naive coordinate system, we study on the three regular coordinate systems which are Painlev´-Gullstrand (PG), ingoing Eddington- Finkelstein (IEF) and Kruskal-Szekeres (KS) coordinates. In all coordinate systems, we calculate the tunneling probabilities of incoming and outgoing scalar particles from the event horizon by using the HJ equation. It has been shown in detail that the considered HJ method is concluded with the conventional TH in all these coordinate systems without giving rise to the famous factor- 2 problem. Furthermore, in the PG coordinates Parikh-Wilczek’s tunneling (PWT) method is employed in order to show how one can integrate the quantum gravity (QG) corrections to the semiclassical tunneling rate by including the effects of self-gravitation and back reaction. We then show how these corrections yield a modification in the TH.

Keywords: ingoing Eddington, Finkelstein, coordinates Parikh-Wilczek’s, Hamilton-Jacobi equation

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8 Technology Computer Aided Design Simulation of Space Charge Limited Conduction in Polycrystalline Thin Films

Authors: Kunj Parikh, S. Bhattacharya, V. Natarajan


TCAD numerical simulation is one of the most tried and tested powerful tools for designing devices in semiconductor foundries worldwide. It has also been used to explain conduction in organic thin films where the processing temperature is often enough to make homogeneous samples (often imperfect, but homogeneously imperfect). In this report, we have presented the results of TCAD simulation in multi-grain thin films. The work has addressed the inhomogeneity in one dimension, but can easily be extended to two and three dimensions. The effect of grain boundaries has mainly been approximated as barriers located at the junction between two adjacent grains. The effect of the value of grain boundary barrier, the bulk traps, and the measurement temperature have been investigated.

Keywords: polycrystalline thin films, space charge limited conduction, Technology Computer-Aided Design (TCAD) simulation, traps

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7 Formulation of Film Forming Transdermal Spray Containing Fluconazole Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Paresh M. Patel, Amit A. Patel, R. H. Parikh


The present investigation was undertaken to fabricate modified transport fluconazole that belongs to BCS class II and have a poor applicability on topical infection. So to improve topical application, transdermal spray could play a vital role by using ethyl cellulose and Eudragit® S100 as film-forming polymers. Concentration of Eudragit® S100, ethyl cellulose and permeation enhancer (camphor and menthol) were selected as independent variables, whereas drying time, viscosity and in-vitro drug release were selected as dependent variables in factorial design. The viscosity, drying time and in-vitro drug release of the optimize batch B15 was 40.1 cps, 47 sec. and 90.79% respectively. The film of optimized batch was flexible and dermal-adhesive.

Keywords: Eudragit, ethyl cellulose, fluconazole, transdermal spray

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6 Ways to Spend Time at an Airport before Boarding a Flight

Authors: Amol Parikh


The goal of this study is to understand the most preferred ways to spend time at an airport while waiting for a flight to board. Survey was done on 1639 people of the United States of America. In the overall data, it was found that majority people always preferred spending time doing something in their mobile phone. Second most preferred option was reading something, followed by wanting a companion to talk to or to eat/drink. Least preferred option was to eat/drink alone. Overall data was then filtered based on age, gender, income and urban density groups. Percentage of people wanting to use a mobile phone was highest in the age group of 18-24. People aged 45 and above chose reading as the most preferred option. In any of the ranges of income, gender or urban density using mobile phone was the most preferred option. Conclusion of this study is that introducing a mobile app to search for a companion at an airport to do like minded activity would get noticed by majority travelers and would be a business idea worth trying as wanting a companion to talk or eat/drink with is not the least preferred option.

Keywords: waiting for a flight, airport, mobile phone, companion

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5 Green Extraction of Patchoulol from Patchouli Leaves Using Ultrasound-Assisted Ionic Liquids

Authors: G. C. Jadeja, M. A. Desai, D. R. Bhatt, J. K. Parikh


Green extraction techniques are fast paving ways into various industrial sectors due to the stringent governmental regulations leading to the banning of toxic chemicals’ usage and also due to the increasing health/environmental awareness. The present work describes the ionic liquids based sonication method for selectively extracting patchoulol from the leaves of patchouli. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim]BF4) and N,N,N,N’,N’,N’-Hexaethyl-butane-1,4-diammonium dibromide (dicationic ionic liquid - DIL) were selected for extraction. Ultrasound assisted ionic liquid extraction was employed considering concentration of ionic liquid (4–8 %, w/w), ultrasound power (50–150 W for [Bmim]BF4 and 20–80 W for DIL), temperature (30–50 oC) and extraction time (30–50 min) as major parameters influencing the yield of patchoulol. Using the Taguchi method, the parameters were optimized and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to find the most influential factor in the selected extraction method. In case of [Bmim]BF4, the optimum conditions were found to be: 4 % (w/w) ionic liquid concentration, 50 W power, 30 oC temperature and extraction time of 30 min. The yield obtained under the optimum conditions was 3.99 mg/g. In case of DIL, the optimum conditions were obtained as 6 % (w/w) ionic liquid concentration, 80 W power, 30 oC temperature and extraction time of 40 min, for which the yield obtained was 4.03 mg/g. Temperature was found to be the most significant factor in both the cases. Extraction time was the insignificant parameter while extracting the product using [Bmim]BF4 and in case of DIL, power was found to be the least significant factor affecting the process. Thus, a green method of recovering patchoulol is proposed.

Keywords: green extraction, ultrasound, patchoulol, ionic liquids

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4 Comparison of Mini-BESTest versus Berg Balance Scale to Evaluate Balance Disorders in Parkinson's Disease

Authors: R. Harihara Prakash, Shweta R. Parikh, Sangna S. Sheth


The purpose of this study was to explore the usefulness of the Mini-BESTest compared to the Berg Balance Scale in evaluating balance in people with Parkinson's Disease (PD) of varying severity. Evaluation were done to obtain (1) the distribution of patients scores to look for ceiling effects, (2) concurrent validity with severity of disease, and (3) the sensitivity & specificity of separating people with or without postural response deficits. Methods and Material: Seventy-seven(77) people with Parkinson's Disease were tested for balance deficits using the Berg Balance Scale, Mini-BESTest. Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) III and the Hoehn & Yahr (H&Y) disease severity scales were used for classification. Materials used in this study were case record sheet, chair without arm rests or wheels, Incline ramp, stopwatch, a box, 3 meter distance measured out and marked on the floor with tape [from chair]. Statistical analysis used: Multiple Linear regression was carried out of UPDRS jointly on the two scores for the Berg and Mini-BESTest. Receiver operating characteristic curves for classifying people into two groups based on a threshold for the H&Y score, to discriminate between mild PD versus more severe PD.Correlation co-efficient to find relativeness between the two variables. Results: The Mini-BESTest is highly correlated with the Berg (r = 0.732,P < 0.001), but avoids the ceiling compression effect of the Berg for mild PD (skewness −0.714 Berg, −0.512 Mini-BESTest). Consequently, the Mini-BESTest is more effective than the Berg for predicting UPDRS Motor score (P < 0.001 Mini-BESTest versus P = 0.72 Berg), and for discriminating between those with and without postural response deficits as measured by the H&Y (ROC).

Keywords: balance, berg balance scale, MINI BESTest, parkinson's disease

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3 The "Street Less Traveled": Body Image and Its Relationship with Eating Attitudes, Influence of Media and Self-Esteem among College Students

Authors: Aditya Soni, Nimesh Parikh, R. A. Thakrar


Background: A cross-sectional study looked to focus body image satisfaction, heretofore under investigated arena in our setting. This study additionally examined the relationship of body mass index, influence of media and self-esteem. Our second objective was to assess whether there was any relationship between body image dissatisfaction and gender. Methods: A cross-sectional study using body image satisfaction described in words was undertaken, which also explored relationship with body mass index (BMI), influence of media, self-esteem and other selected co-variables such as socio-demographic details, overall satisfaction in life, and particularly in academic/professional life, current health status using 5-item based Likert scale. Convenience sampling was used to select participants of both genders aged from 17 to 32 on a sample size of 303 participants. Results : The body image satisfaction had significant relationship with Body mass index (P<0.001), eating attitude (P<0.001), influence of media (P<0.001) and self-esteem (P<0.001). Students with low weight had a significantly higher prevalence of body image satisfaction while overweight students had a significantly higher prevalence of dissatisfaction (P<0.001). Females showed more concern about body image as compared to males. Conclusions: Generally, this study reveals that the eating attitude, influence of the media and self-esteem is significantly related to the body image. On an empowering note, this level needs to be saved for overall mental and sound advancement of people. Proactive preventive measures could be started in foundations on identity improvement, acknowledgement of self and individual contrasts while keeping up ideal weight and dynamic life style.

Keywords: body image, body mass index, media, self-esteem

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2 Enhancing the Flotation of Fine and Ultrafine Pyrite Particles Using Electrolytically Generated Bubbles

Authors: Bogale Tadesse, Krutik Parikh, Ndagha Mkandawire, Boris Albijanic, Nimal Subasinghe


It is well established that the floatability and selectivity of mineral particles are highly dependent on the particle size. Generally, a particle size of 10 micron is considered as the critical size below which both flotation selectivity and recovery decline sharply. It is widely accepted that the majority of ultrafine particles, including highly liberated valuable minerals, will be lost in tailings during a conventional flotation process. This is highly undesirable particularly in the processing of finely disseminated complex and refractory ores where there is a requirement for fine grinding in order to liberate the valuable minerals. In addition, the continuing decline in ore grade worldwide necessitates intensive processing of low grade mineral deposits. Recent advances in comminution allow the economic grinding of particles down to 10 micron sizes to enhance the probability of liberating locked minerals from low grade ores. Thus, it is timely that the flotation of fine and ultrafine particles is improved in order to reduce the amount of valuable minerals lost as slimes. It is believed that the use of fine bubbles in flotation increases the bubble-particle collision efficiency and hence the flotation performance. Electroflotation, where bubbles are generated by the electrolytic breakdown of water to produce oxygen and hydrogen gases, leads to the formation of extremely finely dispersed gas bubbles with dimensions varying from 5 to 95 micron. The sizes of bubbles generated by this method are significantly smaller than those found in conventional flotation (> 600 micron). In this study, microbubbles generated by electrolysis of water were injected into a bench top flotation cell to assess the performance electroflotation in enhancing the flotation of fine and ultrafine pyrite particles of sizes ranging from 5 to 53 micron. The design of the cell and the results from optimization of the process variables such as current density, pH, percent solid and particle size will be presented at this conference.

Keywords: electroflotation, fine bubbles, pyrite, ultrafine particles

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1 An Exploratory Study to Understand the Economic Opportunities from Climate Change

Authors: Sharvari Parikh


Climate change has always been looked upon as a threat. Increased use of fossil fuels, depletion of bio diversity, certain human activities, rising levels of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are the factors that have caused climate change. Climate change is creating new risks and aggravating the existing ones. The paper focuses on breaking the stereotypical perception of climate change and draws attention towards the constructive side of it. Researches around the world have concluded that climate change has provided us with many untapped opportunities. The next 15 years will be crucial, as it is in our hands whether we are able to grab these opportunities or just let the situation get worse. The world stands at a stage where we cannot think of making a choice between averting climate change and promoting growth and development. In fact, the solution to climate change itself has got economic opportunities. The data evidences from the paper show how we can create the opportunity to improve the lives of the world’s population at large through structural change which will promote environment friendly investments. Rising Investment in green energy and increased demand of climate friendly products has got ample of employment opportunities. Old technologies and machinery which are employed today lack efficiency and demand huge maintenance because of which we face high production cost. This can be drastically brought down by adaptation of Green technologies which are more accessible and affordable. Overall GDP of the world has been heavily affected in aggravating the problems arising out of increasing weather problems. Shifting to green economy can not only eliminate these costs but also build a sound economy. Accelerating the economy in direction of low-carbon future can lessen the burdens such as subsidies for fossil fuels, several public debts, unemployment, poverty, reduce healthcare expenses etc. It is clear that the world will be dragged into the ‘Darker phase’ if the current trends of fossil fuels and carbon are being consumed. Switching to Green economy is the only way in which we can lift the world from darker phase. Climate change has opened the gates for ‘Green and Clean economy’. It will also bring countries of the world together in achieving the common goal of Green Economy.

Keywords: climate change, economic opportunities, green economy, green technology

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