Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23077

Search results for: productivity analysis

23077 The Measurement of the Multi-Period Efficiency of the Turkish Health Care Sector

Authors: Erhan Berk

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the efficiency and productivity of the health care sector in Turkey based on four years of health care cross-sectional data. Efficiency measures are calculated by a nonparametric approach known as Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Productivity is measured by the Malmquist index. The research shows how DEA-based Malmquist productivity index can be operated to appraise the technology and productivity changes resulted in the Turkish hospitals which are located all across the country.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, efficiency, health care, Malmquist Index

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23076 Monitoring Land Productivity Dynamics of Gombe State, Nigeria

Authors: Ishiyaku Abdulkadir, Satish Kumar J

Abstract:

Land Productivity is a measure of the greenness of above-ground biomass in health and potential gain and is not related to agricultural productivity. Monitoring land productivity dynamics is essential to identify, especially when and where the trend is characterized degraded for mitigation measures. This research aims to monitor the land productivity trend of Gombe State between 2001 and 2015. QGIS was used to compute NDVI from AVHRR/MODIS datasets in a cloud-based method. The result appears that land area with improving productivity account for 773sq.km with 4.31%, stable productivity traced to 4,195.6 sq.km with 23.40%, stable but stressed productivity represent 18.7sq.km account for 0.10%, early sign of decline productivity occupied 5203.1sq.km with 29%, declining productivity account for 7019.7sq.km, represent 39.2%, water bodies occupied 718.7sq.km traced to 4% of the state’s area.

Keywords: above-ground biomass, dynamics, land productivity, man-environment relationship

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23075 Theoretical Comparisons and Empirical Illustration of Malmquist, Hicks–Moorsteen, and Luenberger Productivity Indices

Authors: Fatemeh Abbasi, Sahand Daneshvar

Abstract:

Productivity is one of the essential goals of companies to improve performance, which as a strategy-oriented method, determines the basis of the company's economic growth. The history of productivity goes back centuries, but most researchers defined productivity as the relationship between a product and the factors used in production in the early twentieth century. Productivity as the optimal use of available resources means that "more output using less input" can increase companies' economic growth and prosperity capacity. Also, having a quality life based on economic progress depends on productivity growth in that society. Therefore, productivity is a national priority for any developed country. There are several methods for calculating productivity growth measurements that can be divided into parametric and non-parametric methods. Parametric methods rely on the existence of a function in their hypotheses, while non-parametric methods do not require a function based on empirical evidence. One of the most popular non-parametric methods is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which measures changes in productivity over time. The DEA evaluates the productivity of decision-making units (DMUs) based on mathematical models. This method uses multiple inputs and outputs to compare the productivity of similar DMUs such as banks, government agencies, companies, airports, Etc. Non-parametric methods are themselves divided into the frontier and non frontier approaches. The Malmquist productivity index (MPI) proposed by Caves, Christensen, and Diewert (1982), the Hicks–Moorsteen productivity index (HMPI) proposed by Bjurek (1996), or the Luenberger productivity indicator (LPI) proposed by Chambers (2002) are powerful tools for measuring productivity changes over time. This study will compare the Malmquist, Hicks–Moorsteen, and Luenberger indices theoretically and empirically based on DEA models and review their strengths and weaknesses.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, Hicks–Moorsteen productivity index, Leuenberger productivity indicator, malmquist productivity index

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23074 Quantile Smoothing Splines: Application on Productivity of Enterprises

Authors: Semra Turkan

Abstract:

In this paper, we have examined the factors that affect the productivity of Turkey’s Top 500 Industrial Enterprises in 2014. The labor productivity of enterprises is taken as an indicator of productivity of industrial enterprises. When the relationships between some financial ratios and labor productivity, it is seen that there is a nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales. In addition, the distribution of labor productivity of enterprises is right-skewed. If the dependent distribution is skewed, the quantile regression is more suitable for this data. Hence, the nonparametric relationship between labor productivity and return on sales by quantile smoothing splines.

Keywords: quantile regression, smoothing spline, labor productivity, financial ratios

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23073 Window Analysis and Malmquist Index for Assessing Efficiency and Productivity Growth in a Pharmaceutical Industry

Authors: Abbas Al-Refaie, Ruba Najdawi, Nour Bata, Mohammad D. AL-Tahat

Abstract:

The pharmaceutical industry is an important component of health care systems throughout the world. Measurement of a production unit-performance is crucial in determining whether it has achieved its objectives or not. This paper applies data envelopment (DEA) window analysis to assess the efficiencies of two packaging lines; Allfill (new) and DP6, in the Penicillin plant in a Jordanian Medical Company in 2010. The CCR and BCC models are used to estimate the technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, and scale efficiency. Further, the Malmquist productivity index is computed to measure then employed to assess productivity growth relative to a reference technology. Two primary issues are addressed in computation of Malmquist indices of productivity growth. The first issue is the measurement of productivity change over the period, while the second is to decompose changes in productivity into what are generally referred to as a ‘catching-up’ effect (efficiency change) and a ‘frontier shift’ effect (technological change). Results showed that DP6 line outperforms the Allfill in technical and pure technical efficiency. However, the Allfill line outperforms DP6 line in scale efficiency. The obtained efficiency values can guide production managers in taking effective decisions related to operation, management, and plant size. Moreover, both machines exhibit a clear fluctuations in technological change, which is the main reason for the positive total factor productivity change. That is, installing a new Allfill production line can be of great benefit to increasing productivity. In conclusions, the DEA window analysis combined with the Malmquist index are supportive measures in assessing efficiency and productivity in pharmaceutical industry.

Keywords: window analysis, malmquist index, efficiency, productivity

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23072 Labor Productivity and Organization Performance in Specialty Trade Construction: The Moderating Effect of Safety

Authors: Shalini Priyadarshini

Abstract:

The notion of performance measurement has held great appeal for the industry and research communities alike. This idea is also true for the construction sector, and some propose that performance measurement and productivity analysis are two separate management functions, where productivity is a subset of performance, the latter requiring comprehensive analysis of comparable factors. Labor productivity is considered one of the best indicators of production efficiency. The construction industry continues to account for a disproportionate share of injuries and illnesses despite adopting several technological and organizational interventions that promote worker safety. Specialty trades contractors typically complete a large fraction of work on any construction project, but insufficient body of work exists that address subcontractor safety and productivity issues. Literature review has revealed the possibility of a relation between productivity, safety and other factors and their links to project, organizational, task and industry performance. This research posits that there is an association between productivity and performance at project as well as organizational levels in the construction industry. Moreover, prior exploration of the importance of safety within the performance-productivity framework has been anecdotal at best. Using structured questionnaire survey and organization- and project level data, this study, which is a combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal research designs, addresses the identified research gap and models the relationship between productivity, safety, and performance with a focus on specialty trades in the construction sector. Statistical analysis is used to establish a correlation between the variables of interest. This research identifies the need for developing and maintaining productivity and safety logs for smaller businesses. Future studies can design and develop research to establish causal relationships between these variables.

Keywords: construction, safety, productivity, performance, specialty trades

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23071 Productivity, Labour Flexibility, and Migrant Workers in Hotels: An Establishment and Departmental Level Analysis

Authors: Natina Yaduma, Allan Williams, Sangwon Park, Andrew Lockwood

Abstract:

This paper analyses flexible working, and the employment of migrants, as determinants of productivity in hotels. Controlling for the institutional environment, by focussing on a single firm, it analyses data on actual hours worked and outputs, on a weekly basis, over an 8 year period. The unusually disaggregated data allows the paper to examine not only inter-establishment, but also intra-establishment (departmental) variations in productivity, and to compare financial versus physical measures. The findings emphasise the complexity of productivity findings, sometimes contrasting evidence for establishments versus departments, and the positive but scale and measure-specific contributions of both the employment of migrants and flexible working, especially the utilisation of zero hours contracts.

Keywords: labour productivity, physical productivity, financial productivity, numerical flexibility, functional flexibility, migrant employment, cero-contract employment

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23070 The Appraisal of Construction Sites Productivity: In Kendall’s Concordance

Authors: Abdulkadir Abu Lawal

Abstract:

For the dearth of reliable cardinal numerical data, the linked phenomena in productivity indices such as operational costs and company turnovers, etc. could not be investigated. This would not give us insight to the root of productivity problems at unique sites. So, ordinal ranking by professionals who were most directly involved with construction sites was applied for Kendall’s concordance. Responses gathered from independent architects, builders/engineers, and quantity surveyors were herein analyzed. They were responses based on factors that affect sites productivity, and these factors were categorized as head office factors, resource management effectiveness factors, motivational factors, and training/skill development factors. It was found that productivity is low and has to be improved in order to facilitate Nigerian efforts in bridging its infrastructure deficit. The significance of this work is underlined with the Kendall’s coefficient of concordance of 0.78, while remedial measures must be emphasized to stimulate better productivity. Further detailed study can be undertaken by using Fuzzy logic analysis on wider Delphi survey.

Keywords: factors, Kendall's coefficient of concordance, magnitude of agreement, percentage magnitude of dichotomy, ranking variables

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23069 Strategy in Controlling Rice-Field Conversion in Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Nurliani, Ida Rosada

Abstract:

The national rice consumption keeps increasing along with raising income of the households and the rapid growth of population. However, food availability, particularly rice, is limited. Impacts of rice-field conversion have run cumulatively, as we can see on potential losses of rice and crops production, as well as work opportunity that keeps increasing year-by-year. Therefore, it requires policy recommendation to control rice-field conversion through economic, social, and ecological approaches. The research was a survey method intended to: (1) Identify internal factors; quality and productivity of the land as the cause of land conversion, (2) Identify external factors of land conversion, value of the rice-field and the competitor’s land, workforce absorption, and regulation, as well as (3) Formulate strategies in controlling rice-field conversion. Population of the research was farmers who applied land conversion at Pangkep Regency, South Sulawesi. Samples were determined using the incidental sampling method. Data analysis used productivity analysis, land quality analysis, total economic value analysis, and SWOT analysis. Results of the research showed that the quality of rice-field was low as well as productivity of the grains (unhulled-rice). So that, average productivity of the grains and quality of rice-field were low as well. Total economic value of rice-field was lower than the economic value of the embankment. Workforce absorption value on rice-field was higher than on the embankment. Strategies in controlling such rice-field conversion can be done by increasing rice-field productivity, improving land quality, applying cultivation technique of specific location, improving the irrigation lines, and socializing regulation and sanction about the transfer of land use.

Keywords: land conversion, quality of rice-field, productivity, land economic value.

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23068 Development of Value Productivity in Automotive Industry

Authors: Jiří Klečka, Dagmar Čámská

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the investigation of productivity (total productivity and partial productivity). The value productivity is an indicator of level and changes in technical economic efficiency of production factors. It represents an important factor in achieving corporate objectives. This text works with the contemporary concept of value productivity that means that indicators of the productivity express the effect of economic efficiency not only of inputs consumption, but also of inputs binding efficiency. This approach is based on principles of the economic profit, respectively the economic value added (EVA). The research is done on the sample of Czech enterprises operating in the automotive industry in the regions of Liberec and the Central Bohemia. The data sample covers the time period 2006-2011 which allows the comparison of development before crisis and during crisis period. It enables to discover the companies' reaction during crises and the regional comparison allows to showing if there are significant differences between regions.

Keywords: automotive industry, Czech Republic, economic efficiency, regional comparison, value productivity

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23067 Capacity Building and Motivation as Determinants of Productivity among Library Personnel in Colleges of Education in Southwest, Nigeria

Authors: E. K. Soyele

Abstract:

This study is on capacity building and motivation as determinants of productivity among library personnel in colleges of education in South West, Nigeria. This study made use of a descriptive research design of survey type. A total enumeration sampling technique was used for the selected sample. The research sample consisted of 40 library personnel. The instrument used for the study was a structured questionnaire divided into four parts. Statistics data analysis used were descriptive statistics with frequencies, percentages, and regression statistics analysis. Findings from this study revealed that capacity building and motivation have positive impact on library personnel productivity with their percentages greater than 50% acceptance level. A test of null hypotheses at P < 0.05 significant level was tested to see the significance between capacity building and productivity, which was positive at P < 0.05 significant level. This implies that capacity building and motivation significantly determine productivity among library personnel in selected college libraries in Nigeria. The study concluded that there is need for institutions to equip their library personnel via training programmes, in-service, digital training, ICT training, seminars, and conferences, etc. Incentives should be provided to motivate personnel for high productivity. The study, therefore, recommends that government, institutions and library management should fund college libraries adequately so as to enhance capacity building, staff commitment and training for further education

Keywords: capacity building, library personnel, motivation, productivity

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23066 Fuzzy Total Factor Productivity by Credibility Theory

Authors: Shivi Agarwal, Trilok Mathur

Abstract:

This paper proposes the method to measure the total factor productivity (TFP) change by credibility theory for fuzzy input and output variables. Total factor productivity change has been widely studied with crisp input and output variables, however, in some cases, input and output data of decision-making units (DMUs) can be measured with uncertainty. These data can be represented as linguistic variable characterized by fuzzy numbers. Malmquist productivity index (MPI) is widely used to estimate the TFP change by calculating the total factor productivity of a DMU for different time periods using data envelopment analysis (DEA). The fuzzy DEA (FDEA) model is solved using the credibility theory. The results of FDEA is used to measure the TFP change for fuzzy input and output variables. Finally, numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed method to measure the TFP change input and output variables. The suggested methodology can be utilized for performance evaluation of DMUs and help to assess the level of integration. The methodology can also apply to rank the DMUs and can find out the DMUs that are lagging behind and make recommendations as to how they can improve their performance to bring them at par with other DMUs.

Keywords: chance-constrained programming, credibility theory, data envelopment analysis, fuzzy data, Malmquist productivity index

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23065 Check Factors Contributing to the Increase or Decrease in Labor Productivity in Employees Applied Science Center Municipal Andimeshk

Authors: Hossein Boromandfar, Ahmad Ghalavandi

Abstract:

This paper examines the importance of human resources as a strategic resource and the factors that lead to increased Labor productivity in Applied Science Center Andimeshk pay. First, the concepts and definitions of productivity and factors affecting it, and then determine the center Recommendations for improving the productivity of the university at a high level its improvement. What leads to increased productivity of labor is worth. The most competent human resources infrastructure is set, because by moving towards the development and promotion. The use of qualified employees in the university with a focus on specific objectives can be effective on its promotion.

Keywords: productivity, manage, human resources, center for applied science

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23064 The Effect of Wellness Program on Organizations Productivity: The Case of Pakistani Corporation’s

Authors: Saad Bin Nasir

Abstract:

This study imperially evaluated of five human resource (HR) practices (Wellness program extents are Employee’s assistance program, Health care screenings, and Recreation trips, Seminars for life style, Indoor and Outdoor activities) and there likely impact on the organization productivity in Pakistani organizations. The data were gathering by administrating questionnaires. The result indicated that all five variables are positively and significantly correlated with organization productivity. Results of regressing the all variables on organization productivity show that seminars for life style and employee’s assistance program strong predictors of organization productivity.

Keywords: wellness program, organization’s productivity, employee’s assistance program, health care screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
23063 A Framework for Improving Trade Contractors’ Productivity Tracking Methods

Authors: Sophia Hayes, Kenny L. Liang, Sahil Sharma, Austin Shema, Mahmoud Bader, Mohamed Elbarkouky

Abstract:

Despite being one of the most significant economic contributors of the country, Canada’s construction industry is lagging behind other sectors when it comes to labor productivity improvements. The construction industry is very collaborative as a general contractor, will hire trade contractors to perform most of a project’s work; meaning low productivity from one contractor can have a domino effect on the shared success of a project. To address this issue and encourage trade contractors to improve their productivity tracking methods, an investigative study was done on the productivity views and tracking methods of various trade contractors. Additionally, an in-depth review was done on four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry: cost codes, benchmarking, the job productivity measurement (JPM) standard, and WorkFace Planning (WFP). The four tracking methods were used as a baseline in comparing the trade contractors’ responses, determining gaps within their current tracking methods, and for making improvement recommendations. 15 interviews were conducted with different trades to analyze how contractors value productivity. The results of these analyses indicated that there seem to be gaps within the construction industry when it comes to an understanding of the purpose and value in productivity tracking. The trade contractors also shared their current productivity tracking systems; which were then compared to the four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry. Gaps were identified in their various tracking methods and using a framework; recommendations were made based on the type of trade on how to improve how they track productivity.

Keywords: labor productivity, productivity tracking methods, trade contractors, construction

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23062 Systems Integrated Approach to Improve the Design and Construction of Green Buildings

Authors: Saleh Hayat

Abstract:

Efficiency, productivity and sustainability are important factors for structure and the application of processes in green building. Various previous studies have addressed efficiency, productivity and sustainability separately. This research study aims to investigate the implications of these three factors taking together. Frequency analysis and the ranking techniques are carried out to explore the connection between these factors. The interconnection matrix has been developed and functional grouping is made based upon data from expert opinion and field professionals. The existence of a relationship, the type of relationship and the scaled impact have been drawn. Additionally, a system diagram has been developed to show the variable correlation. The results of expert opinion show that efficiency, productivity and sustainability have a stronger impact on green buildings.

Keywords: efficiency, green building, productivity, sustainability

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23061 Labour Productivity Measurement and Control Standards for Hotels

Authors: Kristine Joy Simpao

Abstract:

Improving labour productivity is one of the most enthralling and challenging aspects of managing hotels and restaurant business. The demand to secure countless productivity became an increasingly pivotal role of managers to survive and sustain the business. Besides making business profitable, they are in the doom to make every resource to become productive and effective towards achieving company goal while maximizing the value of organization. This paper examines what productivity means to the services industry, in particular, to the hotel industry. This is underpinned by an investigation of the extent of practice of respondent hotels to the labour productivity aspect in the areas of materials management, human resource management and leadership management and in a way, computing the labour productivity ratios using the hotel simple ratios of productivity in order to find a suitable measurement and control standards for hotels with SBMA, Olongapo City as the locale of the study. The finding shows that hotels labour productivity ratings are not perfect with some practices that are far below particularly on strategic and operational decisions in improving performance and productivity of its human resources. It further proves of the no significant difference ratings among the respondent’s type in all areas which indicated that they are having similar perception of the weak implementation of some of the indicators in the labour productivity practices. Furthermore, the results in the computation of labour productivity efficiency ratios resulted relationship of employees versus labour productivity practices are inversely proportional. This study provides a potential measurement and control standards for the enhancement of hotels labour productivity. These standards should also contain labour productivity customized for standard hotels in Subic Bay Freeport Zone to assist hotel owners in increasing the labour productivity while meeting company goals and objectives effectively.

Keywords: labour productivity, hotel, measurement and control, standards, efficiency ratios, practices

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23060 Economic Growth and Total Factor Productivity by the Use of Rail Way Transport in the City of Medellín - Colombia in the Period 2012-2016

Authors: Mauricio Molina

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The present research project aims to determine whether it is possible to have a statement, allowing you to have an economic model to establish clearly if the population that uses the rail system underground in the city of Medellin with an increase in productivity total factor. The present project aims to concentrate on the surroundings to the system underground for a period of 60 months in the city of Medellin. According to the review bibliographic is can establish that in it most of them cases, the cities that have with systems of transport rail are more productive. And should to its time present is an analysis that may lead to determine if effectively the use of the transport railway improves the productivity of a city and its inhabitants.

Keywords: economic growth, mobility urban, total factor productivity, rail transport

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23059 Dynamic Risk Identification Using Fuzzy Failure Mode Effect Analysis in Fabric Process Industries: A Research Article as Management Perspective

Authors: A. Sivakumar, S. S. Darun Prakash, P. Navaneethakrishnan

Abstract:

In and around Erode District, it is estimated that more than 1250 chemical and allied textile processing fabric industries are affected, partially closed and shut off for various reasons such as poor management, poor supplier performance, lack of planning for productivity, fluctuation of output, poor investment, waste analysis, labor problems, capital/labor ratio, accumulation of stocks, poor maintenance of resources, deficiencies in the quality of fabric, low capacity utilization, age of plant and equipment, high investment and input but low throughput, poor research and development, lack of energy, workers’ fear of loss of jobs, work force mix and work ethic. The main objective of this work is to analyze the existing conditions in textile fabric sector, validate the break even of Total Productivity (TP), analyze, design and implement fuzzy sets and mathematical programming for improvement of productivity and quality dimensions in the fabric processing industry. It needs to be compatible with the reality of textile and fabric processing industries. The highly risk events from productivity and quality dimension were found by fuzzy systems and results are wrapped up among the textile fabric processing industry.

Keywords: break even point, fuzzy crisp data, fuzzy sets, productivity, productivity cycle, total productive maintenance

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23058 The Analysis Fleet Operational Performance as an Indicator of Load and Haul Productivity

Authors: Linet Melisa Daubanes, Nhleko Monique Chiloane

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The shovel-truck system is the most prevalent material handling system used in surface mining operations. Material handling entails the loading and hauling of material from production areas to dumping areas. The material handling process has operational delays that have a negative impact on the productivity of the load and haul fleet. Factors that may contribute to operational delays include shovel-truck mismatch, haul routes, machine breakdowns, extreme weather conditions, etc. The aim of this paper is to investigate factors that contribute to operational delays affecting the productivity of the load and haul fleet at the mine. Productivity is the measure of the effectiveness of producing products from a given quantity of units, the ratio of output to inputs. Productivity can be improved by producing more outputs with the same or fewer units and/or introducing better working methods etc. Several key performance indicators (KPI) for the evaluation of productivity will be discussed in this study. These KPIs include but are not limited to hauling conditions, bucket fill factor, cycle time, and utilization. The research methodology of this study is a combination of on-site time studies and observations. Productivity can be optimized by managing the factors that affect the operational performance of the haulage fleet.

Keywords: cycle time, fleet performance, load and haul, surface mining

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23057 Hierarchy and Weight of Influence Factors on Labor Productivity in the Construction Industry of the Nepal

Authors: Shraddha Palikhe, Sunkuk Kim

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The construction industry is the most labor intensive in Nepal. It is obvious that construction is a major sector and any productivity enhancement activity in this sector will have a positive impact in the overall improvement of the national economy. Previous studies have stated that Nepal has poor labor productivity among other south Asian countries. Though considerable research has been done on productivity factors in other countries, no study has addressed labor productivity issues in Nepal. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to identify and hierarchy the influence factors for poor labor productivity. In this study, a questionnaire approach is chosen as a method of the survey from thirty experts involved in the construction industry, such as Architects, Civil Engineers, Project Engineers and Site Engineers. A survey was conducted in Nepal, to identify the major factors impacting construction labor productivity. Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) analysis method was used to understand the underlying relationships among the factors, categorized into five groups, namely (1) Labor-management group; (2) Material management group; (3) Human labor group; (4) Technological group and (5) External group and was divided into 33 subfactors. AHP was used to establish the relative importance of the criteria. The AHP makes pairwise comparisons of relative importance between hierarchy elements grouped by labor productivity decision criteria. Respondents were asked to answer based on their experience of construction works. On the basis of the respondent’s response, weight of all the factors were calculated and ranked it. The AHP results were tabulated based on weight and ranking of influence factors. AHP model consists of five main criteria and 33 sub-criteria. Among five main criteria, the scenario assigns a weight of highest influential factor i.e. 26.15% to human labor group followed by 23.01% to technological group, 22.97% to labor management group, 17.61% material management group and 10.25% to external group. While in 33 sub-criteria, the most influential factor for poor productivity in Nepal are lack of monetary incentive (20.53%) for human labor group, unsafe working condition (17.55%) for technological group, lack of leadership (18.43%) for labor management group, unavailability of tools at site (25.03%) for material management group and strikes (35.01%) for external group. The results show that AHP model associated criteria are helpful to predict the current situation of labor productivity. It is essential to consider these influence factors to improve the labor productivity in the construction industry of Nepal.

Keywords: construction, hierarchical analysis, influence factors, labor productivity

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23056 Assessing Project Performance through Work Sampling and Earned Value Analysis

Authors: Shobha Ramalingam

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The majority of the infrastructure projects are affected by time overrun, resulting in project delays and subsequently cost overruns. Time overrun may vary from a few months to as high as five or more years, placing the project viability at risk. One of the probable reasons noted in the literature for this outcome in projects is due to poor productivity. Researchers contend that productivity in construction has only marginally increased over the years. While studies in the literature have extensively focused on time and cost parameters in projects, there are limited studies that integrate time and cost with productivity to assess project performance. To this end, a study was conducted to understand the project delay factors concerning cost, time and productivity. A case-study approach was adopted to collect rich data from a nuclear power plant project site for two months through observation, interviews and document review. The data were analyzed using three different approaches for a comprehensive understanding. Foremost, a root-cause analysis was performed on the data using Ishikawa’s fish-bone diagram technique to identify the various factors impacting the delay concerning time. Based on it, a questionnaire was designed and circulated to concerned executives, including project engineers and contractors to determine the frequency of occurrence of the delay, which was then compiled and presented to the management for a possible solution to mitigate. Second, a productivity analysis was performed on select activities, including rebar bending and concreting through a time-motion study to analyze product performance. Third, data on cost of construction for three years allowed analyzing the cost performance using earned value management technique. All three techniques allowed to systematically and comprehensively identify the key factors that deter project performance and productivity loss in the construction of the nuclear power plant project. The findings showed that improper planning and coordination between multiple trades, concurrent operations, improper workforce and material management, fatigue due to overtime were some of the key factors that led to delays and poor productivity. The findings are expected to act as a stepping stone for further research and have implications for practitioners.

Keywords: earned value analysis, time performance, project costs, project delays, construction productivity

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23055 Effects of Climate Change and Livelihood Diversification on Gendered Productivity Gap of Farmers in Northern Regions of Ghana

Authors: William Adzawla

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In the midst of climate variability and change, the role of gender in ensuring food production remains vital. Therefore, this study analysed the gendered productivity among maize farmers, and the effects of climate change and variability as well as livelihood diversification on gendered productivity gap. This involved a total of 619 farmers selected through a multistage sampling procedure. The data was analysed using Oaxaca Blinder decomposition model. From the result, there is a significant productivity gap of 58.8% and 44.8% between male and female heads, and between male heads and female spouses, respectively. About 87.47% and 98.08% of the variations in gendered productivity were explained by resource endowment. While livelihood diversification significantly influenced gendered productivity through endowment and coefficient effect, climate variables significantly affect productivity gap through only coefficient effects. The study concluded that there is a substantial gendered productivity gap among farmers and this is particularly due to differences in endowment. Generally, there is a high potential of reducing gendered productivity gaps through the provision of equal diversification opportunities and reducing females’ vulnerability to climate change. Among the livelihood activities, off-farm activities such as agro-processing and shea butter processing should be promoted. Similarly, the adoption of on-farm adaptation strategies should be promoted among the farmers.

Keywords: climate change and variability, gender, livelihood diversification, oaxaca-blinder decomposition, productivity gap

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23054 Livestock Production in Vietnam: Technical Efficiency and Productivity Performance Based on Regional Differences

Authors: Diep Thanh Tung

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This study aims to measure technical efficiency and examine productivity performance of livestock production in regions of Vietnam based on a panel data of 2008–2012. After four years, although there are improvements in efficiency of some regions, low technical efficiency, poor performance of productivity and its compositions are dominant features in almost regions. Households which much depend on livestock income in agricultural income or agricultural income in total income are more vulnerable than the others in term of livestock production.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, meta-frontier, Malmquist, technical efficiency, livestock production

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23053 The Influence of Construction Workers Wages and Working Conditions on Productivity in Ghana

Authors: Emmanuel Donkor

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Aim/Purpose – This paper examines the influence of construction workers wages and working conditions on productivity in Ghana. Design/methodology/Approach - The study adopted a quantitative research approach with purposive sampling techniques where data was collected using surveys. The data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20.0, which enables the findings of the study to be examined under thematic areas.Findings: - The study revealed that good wages and working condition of workers have a positive correlation on productivity in the construction industry. Increase and improved wages and working conditions can results in higher productivity in the construction industry.Originality/value - This paper is exceptional in the sense that, it does examine the influence of construction workers wages and working conditions on productivity in Ghana. Social value/implications - The paper concludes that workers’ wages and their conditions have a high influence on productivity. It is then recommended that government should train, educate, give good wages to workers and improve on their working condition, give incentives and reduce tax importation on building or construction materials to aid in good productivity of construction firms.

Keywords: construction firms, construction industry, productivity, workers’ wages, working conditions

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23052 Understanding the Productivity Effect on Industrial Management: The Portuguese Wood Furniture Industry Case Study

Authors: Jonas A. R. H. Lima, Maria Antonia Carravilla

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As productivity concepts are widely related to industrial savings, it is becoming particularly important in a more and more competitive world, to really understand how productivity can be well used in industrial management techniques. Nowadays, consumers are no more willing to pay for mistakes and inefficiencies. Therefore, one way for companies to stay competitive is to control and increase their productivity. This study aims to define clearly the productivity concept, understand how a company can affect productivity, and, if possible, identify the relation between each identified productivity factor. This will help managers, by clarifying the main issues behind productivity concepts and proposing a methodology to measure, control and increase productivity. The main questions to be answered are: what is the importance of productivity for the Portuguese Wood Furniture Industry? Is it possible to control productivity internally, or is it a phenomenon external to companies, hard or even impossible to control? How to understand, control and adjust productivity performance? How to make productivity to become one main asset for maximizing the use of the available resources? This essay will follow a constructive approach mostly based in the research hypothesis mentioned above. For that, a literature review is being done to find the main conceptual frameworks and empirical studies that already exist, and by doing so, highlight eventual knowledge or conflicting research to be addressed in this work. We expect to build theoretical explanations and test theoretical predictions from participants understandings and own experiences, by elaborating field surveys and interviews, to select adjusted productivity indicators and analyze the productivity evolution according the adjustments on other variables. Its intended the conduction of an exploratory work that can simultaneous clarify productivity concepts, objectives, and define frameworks. This investigation intends to migrate from merely academic concepts to a daily basis operational reality of the companies from the Portuguese Wood Furniture Industry highlighting productivity increased importance within modern engineering and industrial management. The ambition is to clarify, systemize and develop a management tool that may not only control but positively influence the way resources are used.

Keywords: industrial management, motivation, productivity, performance indicators, reward management, wood furniture industry

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23051 The Impact of Climate Change on Cropland Ecosystem in Tibet Plateau

Authors: Weishou Shen, Chunyan Yang, Zhongliang Li

Abstract:

The crop climate productivity and the distribution of cropland reflect long-term adaption of agriculture to climate. In order to fully understand the impact of climate change on cropland ecosystem in Tibet, the spatiotemporal changes of crop climate productivity and cropland distribution were analyzed with the help of GIS and RS software. Results indicated that the climate change to the direction of wet and warm in Tibet in the recent 30 years, with a rate of 0.79℃/10 yr and 23.28 mm/10yr respectively. Correspondingly, the climate productivity increased gradually, with a rate of 346.3kg/(hm2•10a), of which, the fastest-growing rate of the crop climate productivity is in Southern Tibet Mountain- plain-valley. During the study period, the total cropland area increased from 32.54 million ha to 37.13 million ha, and cropland has expanded to higher altitude area and northward. Overall, increased cropland area and crop climate productivity due to climate change plays a positive role for agriculture in Tibet.

Keywords: climate change, productivity, cropland area, Tibet plateau

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
23050 A Comparative Study on Primary Productivity in Fish Cage Culture Unit and Fish Pond in Relation to Different Level of Water Depth

Authors: Pawan Kumar Sharma, J. Stephan Sampath Kumar, D. Manikandavelu, V. Senthil Kumar

Abstract:

The total amount of productivity in the system is the gross primary productivity. The present study was carried out to understand the relationship between productivity in the cages and water depth. The experiment was conducted in the fish cages installed in the pond at the Directorate of Sustainable Aquaculture, Thanjavur, Tamil Nadu Dr. J. Jayalalithaa Fisheries University, Tamil Nadu (10° 47' 13.1964'' N; 79° 8' 16.1700''E). Primary productivity was estimated by light and dark bottle method. The measurement of primary productivity was done at different depths viz., 20 cm, 40 cm, and 60 cm. Six Biological Oxygen Demand bottles of 300 ml capacity were collected and tagged. The productivity was obtained in mg O2/l/hr. The maximum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth was observed 5.62 ± 0.22 mg/l/hr in the light bottle in pond water while the minimum dissolved oxygen level at 20 cm depth in a cage was observed 3.62 ± 0.18 mg/l/hr in dark bottle. In the same way, the maximum and minimum value of dissolved oxygen was observed at 40, and 60 cm depth and results were compared. A slight change in pH was observed in the cage and pond. The maximum gross primary productivity observed was 1.97 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth while minimum gross primary productivity observed was 0.82±0.16 mg/l/hr in a cage at 60 cm depth. The community respiration was also variable with the depth in both cage and pond. Maximum community respiration was found 1.50±0.19 mg/l/hr in pond at 20 cm depth. A strong positive linear relationship was observed between primary productivity and fish yields in ponds. The pond primary productivity can contribute substantially to the nutrition of farm-raised aquaculture species, including shrimp. The growth of phytoplankton’s is dependent on the sun light, availability of primary nutrients (N, P, and K) in the water body and transparency, so to increase the primary productivity fertilization through organic manure may be done that will clean to the pond environment also.

Keywords: cage aquaculture, water depth, net primary productivity, gross primary productivity, community respiration

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
23049 Effects of Education on Farmers’ Productivity Outputs in Rural Nigeria

Authors: Thomas Ogilegwu Orohu

Abstract:

This paper highlights the effect of education on farmers’ productivity in rural Nigeria which includes potential to obtain paid employment or generate income through self-help employment using skills learnt in school. The paper emphasizes that education help farmers’ in agro-processing units in production to reduce post harvest wastage. It highlights the benefits of schooling for farmers’ productivity, particularly in terms of efficiency gains and increased farm productivity. As technological innovation spread more widely within the country, the importance of formal education in farm production ought to become more apparent. Education help farmers to improve attitudes, beliefs and habits that may lead to greater willingness to accept risk, adopts innovation, save investment and generally to embrace productive practices. Finally factors affecting farmers’ education and appropriate recommendation were given with the hope that if resolutely implemented would bring the attainment of desired farm education to farmers to improve farm productivity outputs.

Keywords: benefit, education, effect, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
23048 Productivity and Structural Design of Manufacturing Systems

Authors: Ryspek Usubamatov, Tan San Chin, Sarken Kapaeva

Abstract:

Productivity of the manufacturing systems depends on technological processes, a technical data of machines and a structure of systems. Technology is presented by the machining mode and data, a technical data presents reliability parameters and auxiliary time for discrete production processes. The term structure of manufacturing systems includes the number of serial and parallel production machines and links between them. Structures of manufacturing systems depend on the complexity of technological processes. Mathematical models of productivity rate for manufacturing systems are important attributes that enable to define best structure by criterion of a productivity rate. These models are important tool in evaluation of the economical efficiency for production systems.

Keywords: productivity, structure, manufacturing systems, structural design

Procedia PDF Downloads 462