Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 183

Search results for: BLAST

183 Effect of Blast Loads on the Seismically Designed Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Jhuma Debnath, Hrishikesh Sharma


The work done here in this paper is dedicated to studying the effect of high blast explosives over the seismically designed buildings. Buildings are seismically designed in SAP 2000 software to simulate seismic designs of buildings using response spectrum method. Later these buildings have been studied applying blast loads with the same amount of the blast explosives. This involved varying the standoff distances of the buildings from the blast explosion. The study found out that, for a seismically designed building, the minimum standoff distance is to be at least 120m from the place of explosion for an average blast explosive weight of 20kg TNT. This has shown that the building does not fail due to this huge explosive weight of TNT but resists immediate collapse of the building. The results also show that the adverse effect of the column failure due to blasting is reduced to 73.75% from 22.5% due to the increase of the standoff distance from the blast loads. The maximum affected locations due to the blast loads are also detected in this study.

Keywords: blast loads, seismically designed buildings, standoff distance, reinforced concrete buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
182 Blast Resistance Enhancement of Structures Subjected to Improvised Explosive Devices Attack: A Numerical Study

Authors: Michael I. Okereke, Ambrose I. Akpoyomare


This paper presents a numerical study of the impact mechanic of metallic and sandwich structures incorporate with blast resistance enhancements. The study focuses on structures that have been exposed to improvised explosives devices (IEDs) attacks. The results show numerical conclusions on mechanisms to ensure blast resistance enhancement for the applications studied in this work. The work has identified optimal panel configuration both in geometry and configurations to ensure optimal blast resistance response to such IEDs discharges. Findings from this work will drive improvements in especially military and civilian vehicles in countries where blast attacks on vehicular occupants are quite rampant like Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Keywords: blast resistance, blast enhancement, explosives, material behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
181 The Study on Treatment Technology of Fused Carbonized Blast Furnace Slag

Authors: Jiaxu Huang


The melt carbonized blast furnace slag containing TiC was produced by carbothermal reduction of high titanium blast furnace slag. The treatment technology of melt carbonized blast furnace slag with TiC as raw material was studied, including the influence of different cooling methods, crushing atmosphere and sieving particle size on the target product TiC in the slag. The results show that air-cooling and water-cooling have little effect on TiC content of molten carbide blast furnace slag, and have great effect on crystal structure and grain size. TiC content in slag is different when carbide blast furnace slag is crushed in argon atmosphere and air atmosphere. After screening, the difference of TiC content of carbide blast furnace slag with different particle size distribution is obvious. The average TiC content of 100-400 mesh carbide blast furnace slag is 14%. And the average TiC content of carbide blast furnace slag with particle size less than 400 mesh is 10.5%.

Keywords: crushing atmosphere, cooling methods, sieving particle size, TiC

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
180 Full Analytical Procedure to Derive P-I Diagram of a Steel Beam under Blast Loading

Authors: L. Hamra, J. F. Demonceau, V. Denoël


The aim of this paper is to study a beam extracted from a frame and subjected to blast loading. The demand of ductility depends on six dimensionless parameters: two related to the blast loading, two referring to the bending behavior of the beam and two corresponding to the dynamic behavior of the rest of the structure. We develop a full analytical procedure that provides the ductility demand as a function of these six dimensionless parameters.

Keywords: analytical procedure, blast loading, membrane force, P-I diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
179 Significant Reduction in Specific CO₂ Emission through Process Optimization at G Blast Furnace, Tata Steel Jamshedpur

Authors: Shoumodip Roy, Ankit Singhania, M. K. G. Choudhury, Santanu Mallick, M. K. Agarwal, R. V. Ramna, Uttam Singh


One of the key corporate goals of Tata Steel company is to demonstrate Environment Leadership. Decreasing specific CO₂ emission is one of the key steps to achieve the stated corporate goal. At any Blast Furnace, specific CO₂ emission is directly proportional to fuel intake. To reduce the fuel intake at G Blast Furnace, an initial benchmarking exercise was carried out with international and domestic Blast Furnaces to determine the potential for improvement. The gap identified during the exercise revealed that the benchmark Blast Furnaces operated with superior raw material quality than that in G Blast Furnace. However, since the raw materials to G Blast Furnace are sourced from the captive mines, improvement in the raw material quality was out of scope. Therefore, trials were taken with different operating regimes, to identify the key process parameters, which on optimization could significantly reduce the fuel intake in G Blast Furnace. The key process parameters identified from the trial were the Stoichiometric Oxygen Ratio, Melting Capacity ratio and the burden distribution inside the furnace. These identified process parameters were optimized to bridge the gap in fuel intake at G Blast Furnace, thereby reducing specific CO₂ emission to benchmark levels. This paradigm shift enabled to lower the fuel intake by 70kg per ton of liquid iron produced, thereby reducing the specific CO₂ emission by 15 percent.

Keywords: benchmark, blast furnace, CO₂ emission, fuel rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
178 Effects of Blast Load on Historic Stone Masonry Buildings in Canada: A Review and Analytical Study

Authors: Abass Braimah, Maha Hussein Abdallah


The global ascendancy of terrorist attacks on building infrastructure with economic and heritage significance has increased awareness of the possibility of terrorism in Canada. Many structures in Canada that are at risk of terrorist attacks include government buildings, built many years ago of historic stone masonry construction. Although many researchers are investigating ways to retrofit masonry stone buildings to mitigate the effect of blast loadings, lack of knowledge on the dynamic behavior of historic stone masonry structures under blast loads makes it difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of the retrofitting techniques. This paper presents a review of open-source literature for the experimental and numerical stone masonry structures under blast loads. This review yielded very little information of the response of the historic stone masonry structures under blast loads. Thus, a comprehensive study is needed to understand the blast load effects on historic stone masonry buildings. The out-of-plane response of historic masonry structures to blast loads is investigated by using single-degree-of-freedom analysis. This approach presents equations that can be used effectively in the analysis of historic masonry walls to out-of-plane blast loading.

Keywords: blast loads, historical buildings, masonry structure, single-degree-of-freedom analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
177 Construction of India’s Largest Blast Furnace (4554 cum) Foundation at JSPL, Angul, Odisha: A Qualitative Approach

Authors: N. S. S. Rao, Tapan Kumar Das, Latiful Pasha


Tata Projects Limited (TPL) located in Hyderabad, India has taken up the challenging venture of executing the entire civil works for India’s largest Blast Furnace with a capacity of 4554 cum at Jindal Steel and Power Limited (JSPL), Angul, Odisha, India. The following write-up briefly elaborates the various steps and methodologies involved in the construction of the foundation for this India’s largest blast furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, construction, qualitative, approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
176 Reduction in Hot Metal Silicon through Statistical Analysis at G-Blast Furnace, Tata Steel Jamshedpur

Authors: Shoumodip Roy, Ankit Singhania, Santanu Mallick, Abhiram Jha, M. K. Agarwal, R. V. Ramna, Uttam Singh


The quality of hot metal at any blast furnace is judged by the silicon content in it. Lower hot metal silicon not only enhances process efficiency at steel melting shops but also reduces hot metal costs. The Hot metal produced at G-Blast furnace Tata Steel Jamshedpur has a significantly higher Si content than Benchmark Blast furnaces. The higher content of hot metal Si is mainly due to inferior raw material quality than those used in benchmark blast furnaces. With minimum control over raw material quality, the only option left to control hot metal Si is via optimizing the furnace parameters. Therefore, in order to identify the levers to reduce hot metal Si, Data mining was carried out, and multiple regression models were developed. The statistical analysis revealed that Slag B3{(CaO+MgO)/SiO2}, Slag Alumina and Hot metal temperature are key controllable parameters affecting hot metal silicon. Contour Plots were used to determine the optimum range of levels identified through statistical analysis. A trial plan was formulated to operate relevant parameters, at G blast furnace, in the identified range to reduce hot metal silicon. This paper details out the process followed and subsequent reduction in hot metal silicon by 15% at G blast furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, optimization, silicon, statistical tools

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
175 Multiscale Model of Blast Explosion Human Injury Biomechanics

Authors: Raj K. Gupta, X. Gary Tan, Andrzej Przekwas


Bomb blasts from Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) account for vast majority of terrorist attacks worldwide. Injuries caused by IEDs result from a combination of the primary blast wave, penetrating fragments, and human body accelerations and impacts. This paper presents a multiscale computational model of coupled blast physics, whole human body biodynamics and injury biomechanics of sensitive organs. The disparity of the involved space- and time-scales is used to conduct sequential modeling of an IED explosion event, CFD simulation of blast loads on the human body and FEM modeling of body biodynamics and injury biomechanics. The paper presents simulation results for blast-induced brain injury coupling macro-scale brain biomechanics and micro-scale response of sensitive neuro-axonal structures. Validation results on animal models and physical surrogates are discussed. Results of our model can be used to 'replicate' filed blast loadings in laboratory controlled experiments using animal models and in vitro neuro-cultures.

Keywords: blast waves, improvised explosive devices, injury biomechanics, mathematical models, traumatic brain injury

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
174 Solution of the Blast Wave Problem in Dusty Gas

Authors: Triloki Nath, R. K. Gupta, L. P. Singh


The aim of this paper is to find the new exact solution of the blast wave problem in one-dimensional unsteady adiabatic flow for generalized geometry in a compressible, inviscid ideal gas with dust particles. The density of the undisturbed region is assumed to vary according to a power law of the distance from the point of explosion. The exact solution of the problem in form of a power in the distance and the time is obtained. Further, the behaviour of the total energy carried out by the blast wave for planar, cylindrically symmetric and spherically symmetric flow corresponding to different Mach number of the fluid flow in dusty gas is presented. It is observed that the presence of dust particles in the gas yields more complex expression as compared to the ordinary Gasdynamics.

Keywords: shock wave, blast wave, dusty gas, strong shock

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
173 Extension of D Blast Furnace Campaign Life at Tata Steel Ltd

Authors: Biswajit Seal, Dushyant Kumar, Shambhu Nath, A. B. Raju


Extension of blast furnace campaign life is highly desired for blast furnace operators mainly because of reduction of operating cost and to avoid capital expenditure cost. Tata Steel Ltd, Jamshedpur plant operates seven blast furnaces with combination of old and new technologies. The focus of Tata Steel Ltd is to push for increasing productivity with good quality product and increasing campaign life. This has been challenging for older furnaces because older furnaces are generally equipped with less automation, old design and old equipment. Good operational practices, appropriate remedial measures, and regular planned maintenance helps to achieve long campaign life of old furnaces. Good operating practices like stable and consistent productivity, control of burden distribution, remedial measures like stack gunning and shotcreting for protection of stack wall, enhanced cooling system, and intermediate stack repair helps to achieve long campaign life of old blast furnaces. This paper describes experiences with the current old equipment and design of Tata Steel’s D Blast Furnace for campaign life extension.

Keywords: blast furnace, burden distribution, campaign life, productivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
172 An Analysis of the Results of Trial Blasting of Site Development Project in the Volcanic Island

Authors: Dong Wook Lee, Seung Hyun Kim


Trial blasting is conducted to identify the characteristics of the blasting of the applicable ground before production blasting and to investigate various problems posed by blasting. The methods and pattern of production blasting are determined based on an analysis of the results of trial blasting. The bedrock in Jeju Island, South Korea is formed through the volcanic activities unlike the inland areas, composed of porous basalt. Trial blasting showed that the blast vibration frequency of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks in the inland areas is in a high frequency band of about 80 Hz while the blast vibration frequency of Jeju Island is in a low frequency band of 10~25 Hz. The frequency band is analyzed to be low due to the large cycle of blasting pattern as blast vibration passes through the layered structured ground layer where the rock formation and clickers irregularly repeat. In addition, the blast vibration equation derived from trial blasting was R: 0.885, S.E: 0.216 when applying the square root scaled distance (SRSD) relatively suitable for long distance, estimated at the confidence level of 95%.

Keywords: attenuation index, basaltic ground, blast vibration constant, blast vibration equation, clinker layer

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
171 The Current Practices of Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Panels Subjected to Blast Loading

Authors: Palak J. Shukla, Atul K. Desai, Chentankumar D. Modhera


For any country in the world, it has become a priority to protect the critical infrastructure from looming risks of terrorism. In any infrastructure system, the structural elements like lower floors, exterior columns, walls etc. are key elements which are the most susceptible to damage due to blast load. The present study revisits the state of art review of the design and analysis of reinforced concrete panels subjected to blast loading. Various aspects in association with blast loading on structure, i.e. estimation of blast load, experimental works carried out previously, the numerical simulation tools, various material models, etc. are considered for exploring the current practices adopted worldwide. Discussion on various parametric studies to investigate the effect of reinforcement ratios, thickness of slab, different charge weight and standoff distance is also made. It was observed that for the simulation of blast load, CONWEP blast function or equivalent numerical equations were successfully employed by many researchers. The study of literature indicates that the researches were carried out using experimental works and numerical simulation using well known generalized finite element methods, i.e. LS-DYNA, ABAQUS, AUTODYN. Many researchers recommended to use concrete damage model to represent concrete and plastic kinematic material model to represent steel under action of blast loads for most of the numerical simulations. Most of the studies reveal that the increase reinforcement ratio, thickness of slab, standoff distance was resulted in better blast resistance performance of reinforced concrete panel. The study summarizes the various research results and appends the present state of knowledge for the structures exposed to blast loading.

Keywords: blast phenomenon, experimental methods, material models, numerical methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
170 Safety of Built Infrastructure: Single Degree of Freedom Approach to Blast Resistant RC Wall Panels

Authors: Muizz Sanni-Anibire


The 21st century has witnessed growing concerns for the protection of built facilities against natural and man-made disasters. Studies in earthquake resistant buildings, fire, and explosion resistant buildings now dominate the arena. To protect people and facilities from the effects of the explosion, reinforced concrete walls have been designed to be blast resistant. Understanding the performance of these walls is a key step in ensuring the safety of built facilities. Blast walls are mostly designed using simple techniques such as single degree of freedom (SDOF) method, despite the increasing use of multi-degree of freedom techniques such as the finite element method. This study is the first stage of a continuous research into the safety and reliability of blast walls. It presents the SDOF approach applied to the analysis of a concrete wall panel under three representative bomb situations. These are motorcycle 50 kg, car 400kg and also van with the capacity of 1500 kg of TNT explosive.

Keywords: blast wall, safety, protection, explosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
169 The Effect of Traffic Load on the Maximum Response of a Cable-Stayed Bridge under Blast Loads

Authors: S. K. Hashemi, M. A. Bradford, H. R. Valipour


The Recent collapse of bridges has raised the awareness about safety and robustness of bridges subjected to extreme loading scenarios such as intentional/unintentional blast loads. The air blast generated by the explosion of bombs or fuel tankers leads to high-magnitude short-duration loading scenarios that can cause severe structural damage and loss of critical structural members. Hence, more attentions need to put towards bridge structures to develop guidelines to increase the resistance of such structures against the probable blast. Recent advancements in numerical methods have brought about the viable and cost effective facilities to simulate complicated blast scenarios and subsequently provide useful reference for safeguarding design of critical infrastructures. In the previous studies common bridge responses to blast load, the traffic load is sometimes not included in the analysis. Including traffic load will increase the axial compression in bridge piers especially when the axial load is relatively small. Traffic load also can reduce the uplift of girders and deck when the bridge experiences under deck explosion. For more complicated structures like cable-stayed or suspension bridges, however, the effect of traffic loads can be completely different. The tension in the cables increase and progressive collapse is likely to happen while traffic loads exist. Accordingly, this study is an attempt to simulate the effect of traffic load cases on the maximum local and global response of an entire cable-stayed bridge subjected to blast loadings using LS-DYNA explicit finite element code. The blast loads ranged from small to large explosion placed at different positions above the deck. Furthermore, the variation of the traffic load factor in the load combination and its effect on the dynamic response of the bridge under blast load is investigated.

Keywords: blast, cable-stayed bridge, LS-DYNA, numerical, traffic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
168 Damage Assessment of Reinforced Concrete Slabs Subjected to Blast Loading

Authors: W. Badla


A numerical investigation has been carried out to examine the behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs to uniform blast loading. The aim of this work is to determine the effects of various parameters on the results. Finite element simulations were performed in the non linear dynamic range using an elasto-plastic damage model. The main parameters considered are: the negative phase of blast loading, time duration, equivalent weight of TNT, distance of the explosive and slab dimensions. Numerical modelling has been performed using ABAQUS/Explicit. The results obtained in terms of displacements and propagation of damage show that the above parameters influence considerably the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of reinforced concrete slabs under uniform blast loading.

Keywords: blast loading, reinforced concrete slabs, elasto-plastic damage model, negative phase, time duration, equivalent weight of TNT, explosive distance, slab dimensions

Procedia PDF Downloads 446
167 Stability Analysis of Rock Tunnel Subjected to Internal Blast Loading

Authors: Mohammad Zaid, Md. Rehan Sadique


Underground structures are an integral part of urban infrastructures. Tunnels are being used for the transportation of humans and goods from distance to distance. Terrorist attacks on underground structures such as tunnels have resulted in the improvement of design methodologies of tunnels. The design of underground tunnels must include anti-terror design parameters. The study has been carried out to analyse the rock tunnel when subjected to internal blast loading. The finite element analysis has been carried out for 30m by 30m of the cross-section of the tunnel and 35m length of extrusion of the rock tunnel model. The effect of tunnel diameter and overburden depth of tunnel has been studied under internal blast loading. Four different diameters of tunnel considered are 5m, 6m, 7m, and 8m, and four different overburden depth of tunnel considered are 5m, 7.5m, 10m, and 12.5m. The mohr-coulomb constitutive material model has been considered for the Quartzite rock. A concrete damage plasticity model has been adopted for concrete tunnel lining. For the trinitrotoluene (TNT) Jones-Wilkens-Lee (JWL) material model has been considered. Coupled-Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) approach for blast analysis has been considered in the present study. The present study concludes that a shallow tunnel having smaller diameter needs more attention in comparison to blast resistant design of deep tunnel having a larger diameter. Further, in the case of shallow tunnels, more bulging has been observed, and a more substantial zone of rock has been affected by internal blast loading.

Keywords: finite element method, blast, rock, tunnel, CEL, JWL

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
166 Reduction of Content of Lead and Zinc from Wastewater by Using of Metallurgical Waste

Authors: L. Rozumová, J. Seidlerová


The aim of this paper was to study the sorption properties of a blast furnace sludge used as the sorbent. The sorbent was utilized for reduction of content of lead and zinc ions. Sorbent utilized in this work was obtained from metallurgical industry from process of wet gas treatment in iron production. The blast furnace sludge was characterized by X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and XRFS spectroscopy. Sorption experiments were conducted in batch mode. The sorption of metal ions in the sludge was determined by correlation of adsorption isotherm models. The adsorption of lead and zinc ions was best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherms. The adsorption capacity of lead and zinc ions was 53.8 mg.g-1 and 10.7 mg.g-1, respectively. The results indicated that blast furnace sludge could be effectively used as secondary material and could be also employed as a low-cost alternative for the removal of heavy metals ions from wastewater.

Keywords: blast furnace sludge, lead, zinc, sorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
165 Achieving Process Stability through Automation and Process Optimization at H Blast Furnace Tata Steel, Jamshedpur

Authors: Krishnendu Mukhopadhyay, Subhashis Kundu, Mayank Tiwari, Sameeran Pani, Padmapal, Uttam Singh


Blast Furnace is a counter current process where burden descends from top and hot gases ascend from bottom and chemically reduce iron oxides into liquid hot metal. One of the major problems of blast furnace operation is the erratic burden descent inside furnace. Sometimes this problem is so acute that burden descent stops resulting in Hanging and instability of the furnace. This problem is very frequent in blast furnaces worldwide and results in huge production losses. This situation becomes more adverse when blast furnaces are operated at low coke rate and high coal injection rate with adverse raw materials like high alumina ore and high coke ash. For last three years, H-Blast Furnace Tata Steel was able to reduce coke rate from 450 kg/thm to 350 kg/thm with an increase in coal injection to 200 kg/thm which are close to world benchmarks and expand profitability. To sustain this regime, elimination of irregularities of blast furnace like hanging, channeling, and scaffolding is very essential. In this paper, sustaining of zero hanging spell for consecutive three years with low coke rate operation by improvement in burden characteristics, burden distribution, changes in slag regime, casting practices and adequate automation of the furnace operation has been illustrated. Models have been created to comprehend and upgrade the blast furnace process understanding. A model has been developed to predict the process of maintaining slag viscosity in desired range to attain proper burden permeability. A channeling prediction model has also been developed to understand channeling symptoms so that early actions can be initiated. The models have helped to a great extent in standardizing the control decisions of operators at H-Blast Furnace of Tata Steel, Jamshedpur and thus achieving process stability for last three years.

Keywords: hanging, channelling, blast furnace, coke

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
164 Pattern of External Injuries Sustained during Bomb Blast Attacks in Karachi, Pakistan from 2000 to 2007

Authors: Arif Anwar Surani, Salman Ali, Asif Surani, Sohaib Zahid, Akbar Shoukat Ali, Zeeshan-Ul-Hassan Usmani, Joseph Varon, Salim Surani


Objective: Terrorism and suicidal bomb blast attacks are commonplace in Karachi, Pakistan. During the years 2000 to 2007, there were over 60 bomb explosions resulting in more than 1500 casualties. These explosions produce a wide variety of external injuries. We undertook this study to evaluate pattern of external injury produced after bomb blast attacks and to compare injury profile resulting from explosions in open versus semi-confined blast environments. Method: A retrospective, cross-sectional, study was conducted to review injuries sustained after bomb blast attacks in Karachi, Pakistan, from January 2000 to October 2007. Emergency medical records and medico legal certificates of patients presented to three major public sector hospitals of Karachi were evaluated using self-design proforma. Results: Data of 481 victims meet inclusion criteria and were incorporated for final analysis. Of these, 63.6% were injured in open spaces and 36.4% were injured in semi-confined blast environments. Lacerations were commonly encountered as external injury (47.7%) followed by penetrating wounds (15.3%). Lower and upper extremities were most commonly affected (38.6% and 19% respectively). Open and semi-confined blast environments produced a specific injury pattern and profile (p=<0.001). Conclusions: Bomb blast attacks in Karachi produce an external injury pattern consistent with other studies, with exception of an increased frequency in penetrating wounds. Semi-confined blast environments were associated with severe injuries. Further studies are required to better classify injuries and their severity based on standardized scoring systems. Effective emergency response systems must be designed to cope with mass causalities following bomb explosions.

Keywords: bomb blast attacks, injury pattern, external injury, open space, semi-confined space, blast environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
163 Heat Loss Control in Stave Cooled Blast Furnace by Optimizing Gas Flow Pattern through Burden Distribution

Authors: Basant Kumar Singh, S. Subhachandhar, Vineet Ranjan Tripathi, Amit Kumar Singh, Uttam Singh, Santosh Kumar Lal


Productivity of Blast Furnace is largely impacted by fuel efficiency and controlling heat loss is one of the enabling parameters for achieving lower fuel rate. 'I' Blast Furnace is the latest and largest Blast Furnace of Tata Steel Jamshedpur with working volume of 3230 m³ and with rated capacity of 3.055 million tons per annum. Optimizing heat losses in Belly and Bosh zone remained major challenge for blast furnace operators after its commissioning. 'I' Blast has installed Cast Iron & Copper Staves cooling members where copper staves are installed in Belly, Bosh & Lower Stack whereas cast iron staves are installed in upper stack area. Stave cooled Blast Furnaces are prone to higher heat losses in Belly and Bosh region with an increase in coal injection rate as Bosh gas volume increases. Under these conditions, managing gas flow pattern through proper burden distribution, casting techniques & by maintaining desired raw material qualities are of utmost importance for sustaining high injection rates. This study details, the burden distribution control by Ore & Coke ratio adjustment at wall and center of Blast Furnace as the coal injection rates increased from 140 kg/thm to 210 kg/thm. Control of blowing parameters, casting philosophy, specification for raw materials & devising operational practice for controlling heat losses is also elaborated with the model that is used to visualize heat loss pattern in different zones of Blast Furnace.

Keywords: blast furnace, staves, gas flow pattern, belly/bosh heat losses, ore/coke ratio, blowing parameters, casting, operation practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
162 Development of Blast Vibration Equation Considering the Polymorphic Characteristics of Basaltic Ground

Authors: Dong Wook Lee, Seung Hyun Kim


Geological structure formed by volcanic activities shows polymorphic characteristics due to repeated cooling and hardening of lava. The Jeju region is showing polymorphic characteristics in which clinker layers are irregularly distributed along with vesicular basalt due to volcanic activities. Accordingly, resident damages and environmental disputes occur frequently in the Jeju region due to blasting. The purpose of this study is to develop a blast vibration equation considering the polymorphic characteristics of basaltic ground in Jeju. The blast vibration equation consists of a functional formula of the blasting vibration constant K that changes according to ground characteristics, and attenuation index n. The case study results in Jeju showed that if there are clinker layers, attenuation index n showed a distribution of -1.11~-1.87, whereas if there are no clinker layers, n was -2.79. Moreover, if there are no clinker layers, the frequency of blast vibration showed a high frequency band from 30Hz to 100Hz, while in rocks with clinker layers it showed a low frequency band from 10Hz to 20Hz.

Keywords: blast vibration equation, basaltic ground, clinker layer, blasting vibration constant, attenuation index

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161 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Blast Pressure on Discrete Model in Shock Tube

Authors: Aldin Justin Sundararaj, Austin Lord Tennyson, Divya Jose, A. N. Subash


Blast waves are generated due to the explosions of high energy materials. An explosion yielding a blast wave has the potential to cause severe damage to buildings and its personnel. In order to understand the physics of effects of blast pressure on buildings, studies in the shock tube on generic configurations are carried out at various pressures on discrete models. The strength of shock wave is systematically varied by using different driver gases and diaphragm thickness. The basic material of the diaphragm is Aluminum. To simulate the effect of shock waves on discrete models a shock tube was used. Generic models selected for this study are suitably scaled cylinder, cone and cubical blocks. The experiments were carried out with 2mm diaphragm with burst pressure ranging from 28 to 31 bar. Numerical analysis was carried out over these discrete models. A 3D model of shock-tube with different discrete models inside the tube was used for CFD computation. It was found that cone has dissipated most of the shock pressure compared to cylinder and cubical block. The robustness and the accuracy of the numerical model were validation with the analytical and experimental data.

Keywords: shock wave, blast wave, discrete models, shock tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
160 Advanced Energy Absorbers Used in Blast Resistant Systems

Authors: Martina Drdlová, Michal Frank, Radek Řídký, Jaroslav Buchar, Josef Krátký


The main aim of the presented experiments is to improve behaviour of sandwich structures under dynamic loading, such as crash or explosion. This paper describes experimental investigation on the response of new advanced materials to low and high velocity load. Blast wave energy absorbers were designed using two types of porous lightweight raw particle materials based on expanded glass and ceramics with dimensions of 0.5-1 mm, combined with polymeric binder. The effect of binder amount on the static and dynamic properties of designed materials was observed. Prism shaped specimens were prepared and loaded to obtain physico-mechanical parameters – bulk density, compressive and flexural strength under quasistatic load, the dynamic response was determined using Split Hopkinson Pressure bar apparatus. Numerical investigation of the material behaviour in sandwich structure was performed using implicit/explicit solver LS-Dyna. As the last step, the developed material was used as the interlayer of blast resistant litter bin, and it´s functionality was verified by real field blast tests.

Keywords: blast energy absorber, SHPB, expanded glass, expanded ceramics

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
159 Evaluation of the Integration of a Direct Reduction Process into an Existing Steel Mill

Authors: Nils Mueller, Gregor Herz, Erik Reichelt, Matthias Jahn


In the context of climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in all economic sectors is considered to be an important factor in order to meet the demands of a sustainable energy system. The steel industry as one of the large industrial CO₂ emitters is currently highly dependent on fossil resources. In order to reduce coke consumption and thereby CO₂ emissions while still being able to further utilize existing blast furnaces, the possibility of including a direct reduction process (DRP) into a fully integrated steel mill was investigated. Therefore, a blast furnace model, derived from literature data and implemented in Aspen Plus, was used to analyze the impact of DRI in the blast furnace process. Furthermore, a state-of-the-art DRP was modeled to investigate the possibility of substituting the reducing agent natural gas with hydrogen. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to find the boundary percentage of hydrogen as a reducing agent without penalty to the DRI quality. Lastly, the two modeled process steps were combined to form a route of producing pig iron. By varying boundary conditions of the DRP while recording the CO₂ emissions of the two process steps, the overall potential for the reduction of CO₂ emissions was estimated. Within the simulated range, a maximum reduction of CO₂ emissions of 23.5% relative to typical emissions of a blast furnace could be determined.

Keywords: blast furnace, CO₂ mitigation, DRI, hydrogen

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
158 Structural Performance of Prefabricated Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structural Walls under Blast Loads

Authors: S. Kamil Akin, Turgut Acikara


In recent years the world and our country has experienced several explosion events occurred due to terrorist attacks and accidents. In these explosion events many people have lost their lives and many buildings have been damaged. If structures were designed taking the blast loads into account, these results may not have happened or the casualties would have been less. In this thesis analysis of the protection walls have been conducted to prevent the building damage from blast loads. These analyzes was carried out for two different types of wall, concrete and reinforced concrete. Analyses were carried out on four different thicknesses of each wall element. In each wall element the stresses and displacements of the exposed surface due to the detonation charge has been calculated. The limit shear stress and displacement of the wall element according to their material properties has been taken into account. As the result of the analyses the standoff distances and TNT equivalent amount has been determined. According to equivalent TNT amounts and standoff distances the structural response of the protective wall elements has been observed. These structural responses have been observed by ABAQUS finite element package. Explosion loads were brought into effect to the protective wall element models by using the ABAQUS / CONWEP.

Keywords: blast loading, blast wave, TNT equivalent method, CONWEP, finite element analysis, detonation

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
157 Investigation of Steel Infill Panels under Blast Impulsive Loading

Authors: Seyed M. Zahrai, Saeid Lotfi


If an infill panel does not have enough ductility against the loading, it breaks and gets damaged before depreciation and load transfer. As steel infill panel has appropriate ductility before fracture, it can be used as an alternative to typical infill panels under blast loading. Concerning enough ductility of out-of-plane behavior the infill panel, the impact force enters the horizontal diaphragm and is distributed among the lateral elements which can be made from steel infill panels. This article investigates the behavior of steel infill panels with different thickness and stiffeners using finite element analysis with geometric and material nonlinearities for optimization of the steel plate thickness and stiffeners arrangement to obtain more efficient design for its out-of-plane behavior.

Keywords: blast loading, ductility, maximum displacement, steel infill panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
156 Properties of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Based Geopolymer Concrete

Authors: Niragi Dave, Ruchika Lalit


Concrete is one of the most widely used materials across the globe mostly second to water and generating high carbon dioxide emission during its whole manufacturing due to the presence of cement as an ingredient. Therefore it is necessary to find an alternative material to the Portland cement. This study focused on the use of Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as geopolymer binder. Geopolymer concrete can be an alternative material which is produced by the chemical reaction of inorganic molecules. On the other hand, waste generating from power plants and other industries like iron and steel industries can be effectively used which has disposal problems. Therefore in this study geopolymer concrete is manufactured by 100% replacement of cement content by ground granulated blast furnace slag and a combination of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide is used as an alkaline solution. The results have shown that the compressive strengths increased with increasing curing time and type of alkali activators. Naphthalene sulfonate-based superplasticizer performed better than other superplasticizers. All the specimens have been cast at ambient temperature.

Keywords: alkali activators, concrete, geopolymer, ground granulated blast furnace slag

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155 Characteristic on Compressive Strength of Blast Slag and Fly Ash Hybrid Geopolymer Mortar

Authors: G. S. Ryu, K. T. Koh, H. Y. Kim, G. H. An, D. W. Seo


Geopolymer mortar is produced by alkaline activation of pozzolanic materials such as fly ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBFS) and fly ash (FA). Its unique reaction pathway facilitates rapid strength development in comparison with hydration of ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Geopolymer can be fabricated using various types and dosages of alkali-activator, which effectively gives a wider control over the performance of the final product. The present study investigates the effect of types of precursors and curing conditions on the fresh state and strength development characteristics of geopolymers, thereby comparatively exploring the effect of precursors from various sources of origin. The obtained result showed that the setting time and strength development of the specimens with the identical mix proportion but different precursors displayed significant variations.

Keywords: alkali-activated material, blast furnace slag, fly ash, flowability, strength development

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154 The Reduction of Post-Blast Fumes to Improve Productivity and Safety: A Review Paper

Authors: Nhleko Monique Chiloane


The gold mining industry has predominantly used ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) explosives for decades, although these are known to be “gassier” and their detonation results in toxic fumes, for example, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia. Re-entry into underground workings too soon after blasting can lead to fatal exposure to toxic fumes. It is, therefore, required that the polluted air be removed from the affected areas within a reasonable period before employees' re-entry into the working area. Post-blast re-entry times have therefore been described as a productivity bottleneck. The known causes of post-blast fumes are water ingress, incorrect fuel to oxygen ratio, confinement, explosive additives etc. To prevent or minimize post-blast fumes, some researchers have used neutralization, re-burning technique and non-explosive products or different oxidizing agents. The use of commercial explosives without nitrate oxidizing agents can also minimize the production of blasting fumes and thereby reduce the time needed for the clearance of these fumes to allow workers to re-enter the underground workings safely. The reduction in non-production time directly contributes to an increase in the available time per shift for productive work, thus leading to continuous mining. However, owing to its low cost and ease of use, ANFO is still widely used in South African underground blasting operations.

Keywords: post-blast fumes, continuous mining, ammonium nitrate explosive, non-explosive blasting, re-entry period

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