Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 173

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electrical and Information Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

173 The EE-COV-SSI Method for the Exact Identification of Model Order in Modal Analysis

Authors: Yafei Zhang, Youming Wang


The model order determined by the traditional singular value jump method is too small due to noise and computational errors, which leads to the occurrence of mode omission in stochastic subspace identification (SSI). To effectively determine the model order and avoid mode omission, an eigenvalue entropy incremental covariance-driven stochastic subspace identification (EE-COV-SSI) method is proposed. Regardless of the signal-to-noise ratio, the model order of the eigenvalue entropy increment for the complete extraction of the effective information of the vibration signal is certain. The eigenvalue entropy increment is calculated from the state matrix eigenvalues, and the graph of the variation between the eigenvalue entropy increment and the model order is depicted. The order corresponding to the eigenvalue entropy increment when it tends to be stable in the graph is the model order to be determined. However, the model order affects the size of the state matrix condition number and the frequency coefficient of variation. The smaller the number of state matrix conditions, in which case the system stability is better and the accuracy of the identification of the modal parameters to be identified will be higher. When the frequency coefficient of variation is smaller, the result of modal identification is better. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness of the EE-COV-SSI method are illustrated by a four-story frame structure example. The results show that the EE-COV-SSI method can determine the model order and obtain more complete modal parameters.

Keywords: EE-COV-SSI, model order, condition number, entropy increment

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172 Deep Composite Kernels Extreme Learning Machine Based on Spatial Feature Extraction for Hyperspectral Vegetation Image Classification

Authors: Zhao Guang-Yuan, Lei Yu, Zhang Ling-Jie


Vegetation classification has a pivotal role in forest management and ecological research. It is a specific application problem in hyperspectral image classification. However, the existing classification models do not make sufficient use of the spatial features of vegetation, and cannot extract deep feature information. To address these issues, we propose a deep composite kernel extreme learning machine based on spatial feature extraction (DCKELM-SPATIAL) to classify vegetation. Especially, we use the Gabor filter and super-pixel density peak clustering method to obtain a set of spatial composite kernels. Experiments are carried out on two sets of real hyperspectral vegetation datasets. The results show that this method is superior to some classical and advanced methods in classification accuracy, and satisfactory results are obtained.

Keywords: vegetation classification, hyperspectral image, deep composite kernel, density peak clustering, feature selection

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171 Apple Leaf Disease Recognition Based on Improved Convolutional Neural Network with an Attention Mechanism

Authors: Xu Huang, Guangyuan Zhao


Traditional plant disease recognition algorithms have a complicated approach, difficult feature extraction, and low recognition accuracy. Based on the improved EfficientNetV2 model, this research classifies images of apple leaf disease. This study collected images of seven common apple leaf disease categories and one healthy category to address the present needs of various complex disease recognition scenarios. The disease images not only contain the common laboratory background but also add the background of the field growth environment of apple trees. And different recognition scenarios are further enriched by image enhancement techniques. For the model part, the processing of spatial feature information was strengthened while focusing on the channel feature information to ensure that the model focuses more on the subtle disease spot information for different disease classifications. The experimental results show that the accuracy of the model training recognition is 97.49%. To better evaluate this study, comparison experiments were conducted with five other popular convolutional neural network classification models, such as ResNet-50, DenseNet-121, Xception, MobileNet, and EfficientNet-B3. The improved models enhance the recognition accuracy of complex scenes and improve the model parameters and training speed. It provides a reference for apple leaf disease recognition and the development needs of smart agriculture.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, attention mechanism, apple leaf disease recognition, smart agriculture

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170 Algorithm Research on Traffic Sign Detection Based on Improved EfficientDet

Authors: Ma Lei-Lei, Zhou You


Aiming at the problems of low detection accuracy of deep learning algorithm in traffic sign detection, this paper proposes improved EfficientDet based traffic sign detection algorithm. Multi-head self-attention is introduced in the minimum resolution layer of the backbone of EfficientDet to achieve effective aggregation of local and global depth information, and this study proposes an improved feature fusion pyramid with increased vertical cross-layer connections, which improves the performance of the model while introducing a small amount of complexity, the Balanced L1 Loss is introduced to replace the original regression loss function Smooth L1 Loss, which solves the problem of balance in the loss function. Experimental results show, the algorithm proposed in this study is suitable for the task of traffic sign detection. Compared with other models, the improved EfficientDet has the best detection accuracy. Although the test speed is not completely dominant, it still meets the real-time requirement.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, transformer, feature pyramid networks, loss function

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169 Artificial Neural Network Based Parameter Prediction of Miniaturized Solid Rocket Motor

Authors: Hao Yan, Xiaobing Zhang


The working mechanism of miniaturized solid rocket motors (SRMs) is not yet fully understood. It is imperative to explore its unique features. However, there are many disadvantages to using common multi-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) in predicting the parameters of the miniaturized SRM during its conceptual design phase. Initially, the design variables and objectives are constrained in a lumped parameter model (LPM) of this SRM, which leads to local optima in MOEAs. In addition, MOEAs require a large number of calculations due to their population strategy. Although the calculation time for simulating an LPM just once is usually less than that of a CFD simulation, the number of function evaluations (NFEs) is usually large in MOEAs, which makes the total time cost unacceptably long. Moreover, the accuracy of the LPM is relatively low compared to that of a CFD model due to its assumptions. CFD simulations or experiments are required for comparison and verification of the optimal results obtained by MOEAs with an LPM. The conceptual design phase based on MOEAs is a lengthy process, and its results are not precise enough due to the above shortcomings. An artificial neural network (ANN) based parameter prediction is proposed as a way to reduce time costs and improve prediction accuracy. In this method, an ANN is used to build a surrogate model that is trained with a 3D numerical simulation. In design, the original LPM is replaced by a surrogate model. Each case uses the same MOEAs, in which the calculation time of the two models is compared, and their optimization results are compared with 3D simulation results. Using the surrogate model for the parameter prediction process of the miniaturized SRMs results in a significant increase in computational efficiency and an improvement in prediction accuracy. Thus, the ANN-based surrogate model does provide faster and more accurate parameter prediction for an initial design scheme. Moreover, even when the MOEAs converge to local optima, the time cost of the ANN-based surrogate model is much lower than that of the simplified physical model LPM. This means that designers can save a lot of time during code debugging and parameter tuning in a complex design process. Designers can reduce repeated calculation costs and obtain accurate optimal solutions by combining an ANN-based surrogate model with MOEAs.

Keywords: artificial neural network, solid rocket motor, multi-objective evolutionary algorithm, surrogate model

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168 The Asymmetric Proximal Support Vector Machine Based on Multitask Learning for Classification

Authors: Qing Wu, Feiyan Li, Hengchang Zhang


The multitask learning support vector machines (SVMs) have recently attracted increasing research attention. Given several related tasks, the single-task learning methods trains each task separately and ignores the inner cross-relationship among tasks. However, the multitask learning can capture the correlation information among tasks and achieve a better performance by training all tasks simultaneously. In addition, the asymmetric squared loss function can better improve the generalization ability of the models on the most asymmetric distributed data. In this paper, we first make two assumptions on the relatedness among tasks and propose two multitask learning proximal support vector machine algorithms, named as MTL-a-PSVM and EMTL-a-PSVM respectively. MTL-a-PSVM seeks for a trade off between the maximum expectile distance for each task model and the closeness of each task model to the general model. As an extension of the MTL-a-PSVM, EMTL-a-PSVM can select appropriate kernel functions for the shared information and private information. Besides, two corresponding special cases named as MTL-PSVM and EMTL-PSVM are proposed by analyzing the asymmetric squared loss function, which can be easily implemented by solving linear systems. Experimental analysis on three classification datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and superiority of our proposed multitask learning algorithms.

Keywords: multitask learning, asymmetric squared loss function, EMTL-a-PSVM, classification

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167 Study on Control Techniques for Adaptive Impact Mitigation

Authors: Rami Faraj, Cezary Graczykowski, Błażej Popławski, Grzegorz Mikułowski, Rafał Wiszowaty


Progress in the field of sensors, electronics and computing results in more and more often applications of adaptive techniques for dynamic response mitigation. When it comes to systems excited with mechanical impacts, the control system has to take into account the significant limitations of actuators responsible for system adaptation. The paper provides a comprehensive discussion of the problem of appropriate design and implementation of adaptation techniques and mechanisms. Two case studies are presented in order to compare completely different adaptation schemes. The first example concerns a double-chamber pneumatic shock absorber with a fast piezo-electric valve and parameters corresponding to the suspension of a small unmanned aerial vehicle, whereas the second considered system is a safety air cushion applied for evacuation of people from heights during a fire. For both systems, it is possible to ensure adaptive performance, but a realization of the system’s adaptation is completely different. The reason for this is technical limitations corresponding to specific types of shock-absorbing devices and their parameters. Impact mitigation using a pneumatic shock absorber corresponds to much higher pressures and small mass flow rates, which can be achieved with minimal change of valve opening. In turn, mass flow rates in safety air cushions relate to gas release areas counted in thousands of sq. cm. Because of these facts, both shock-absorbing systems are controlled based on completely different approaches. Pneumatic shock-absorber takes advantage of real-time control with valve opening recalculated at least every millisecond. In contrast, safety air cushion is controlled using the semi-passive technique, where adaptation is provided using prediction of the entire impact mitigation process. Similarities of both approaches, including applied models, algorithms and equipment, are discussed. The entire study is supported by numerical simulations and experimental tests, which prove the effectiveness of both adaptive impact mitigation techniques.

Keywords: adaptive control, adaptive system, impact mitigation, pneumatic system, shock-absorber

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166 A Numerical Investigation of Total Temperature Probes Measurement Performance

Authors: Erdem Meriç


Measuring total temperature of air flow accurately is a very important requirement in the development phases of many industrial products, including gas turbines and rockets. Thermocouples are very practical devices to measure temperature in such cases, but in high speed and high temperature flows, the temperature of thermocouple junction may deviate considerably from real flow total temperature due to the effects of heat transfer mechanisms of convection, conduction, and radiation. To avoid errors in total temperature measurement, special probe designs which are experimentally characterized are used. In this study, a validation case which is an experimental characterization of a specific class of total temperature probes is selected from the literature to develop a numerical conjugate heat transfer analysis methodology to study the total temperature probe flow field and solid temperature distribution. Validated conjugate heat transfer methodology is used to investigate flow structures inside and around the probe and effects of probe design parameters like the ratio between inlet and outlet hole areas and prob tip geometry on measurement accuracy. Lastly, a thermal model is constructed to account for errors in total temperature measurement for a specific class of probes in different operating conditions. Outcomes of this work can guide experimentalists to design a very accurate total temperature probe and quantify the possible error for their specific case.

Keywords: conjugate heat transfer, recovery factor, thermocouples, total temperature probes

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165 Motor Controller Implementation Using Model Based Design

Authors: Cau Tran, Tu Nguyen, Tien Pham


Model-based design (MBD) is a mathematical and visual technique for addressing design issues in the fields of communications, signal processing, and complicated control systems. It is utilized in several automotive, aerospace, industrial, and motion control applications. Virtual models are at the center of the software development process with model based design. A method used in the creation of embedded software is model-based design. In this study, the LAT motor is modeled in a simulation environment, and the LAT motor control is designed with a cascade structure, a speed and current control loop, and a controller that is used in the next part. A PID structure serves as this controller. Based on techniques and motor parameters that match the design goals, the PID controller is created for the model using traditional design principles. The MBD approach will be used to build embedded software for motor control. The paper will be divided into three distinct sections. The first section will introduce the design process and the benefits and drawbacks of the MBD technique. The design of control software for LAT motors will be the main topic of the next section. The experiment's results are the subject of the last section.

Keywords: model based design, limited angle torque, intellectual property core, hardware description language, controller area network, user datagram protocol

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164 Deep-Learning to Generation of Weights for Image Captioning Using Part-of-Speech Approach

Authors: Tiago do Carmo Nogueira, Cássio Dener Noronha Vinhal, Gélson da Cruz Júnior, Matheus Rudolfo Diedrich Ullmann


Generating automatic image descriptions through natural language is a challenging task. Image captioning is a task that consistently describes an image by combining computer vision and natural language processing techniques. To accomplish this task, cutting-edge models use encoder-decoder structures. Thus, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) are used to extract the characteristics of the images, and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) generate the descriptive sentences of the images. However, cutting-edge approaches still suffer from problems of generating incorrect captions and accumulating errors in the decoders. To solve this problem, we propose a model based on the encoder-decoder structure, introducing a module that generates the weights according to the importance of the word to form the sentence, using the part-of-speech (PoS). Thus, the results demonstrate that our model surpasses state-of-the-art models.

Keywords: gated recurrent units, caption generation, convolutional neural network, part-of-speech

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163 Meta Root ID Passwordless Authentication Using ZKP Bitcoin Protocol

Authors: Saransh Sharma, Atharv Dekhne


Passwords stored on central services and hashed are prone to cyberattacks and hacks. Hence, given all these nuisances, there’s a need to eliminate character-based authentication protocols, which would ultimately benefit all developers as well as end-users.To replace this conventional but antiquated protocol with a secure alternative would be Passwordless Authentication. The meta system creates a public and private key, of which the user is only able to access the private key. Further, after signing the key, the user sends the information over the API to the server, which checks its validity with the public key and grants access accordingly.

Keywords: passwordless, OAuth, bitcoin, ZKP, SIN, BIP

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162 Robot Movement Using the Trust Region Policy Optimization

Authors: Romisaa Ali


The Policy Gradient approach is one of the deep reinforcement learning families that combines deep neural networks (DNN) with reinforcement learning RL to discover the optimum of the control problem through experience gained from the interaction between the robot and its surroundings. In contrast to earlier policy gradient algorithms, which were unable to handle these two types of error because of over-or under-estimation introduced by the deep neural network model, this article will discuss the state-of-the-art SOTA policy gradient technique, trust region policy optimization (TRPO), by applying this method in various environments compared to another policy gradient method, the Proximal Policy Optimization (PPO), to explain their robust optimization, using this SOTA to gather experience data during various training phases after observing the impact of hyper-parameters on neural network performance.

Keywords: deep neural networks, deep reinforcement learning, proximal policy optimization, state-of-the-art, trust region policy optimization

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161 Artificial Neural Network Approach for Modeling Very Short-Term Wind Speed Prediction

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Maria G. Serna-Diaz, Juan C. Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Irving Barragán-Vite


Wind speed forecasting is an important issue for planning wind power generation facilities. The accuracy in the wind speed prediction allows a good performance of wind turbines for electricity generation. A model based on artificial neural networks is presented in this work. A dataset with atmospheric information about air temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind direction, and wind speed in Pachuca, Hidalgo, México, was used to train the artificial neural network. The data was downloaded from the web page of the National Meteorological Service of the Mexican government. The records were gathered for three months, with time intervals of ten minutes. This dataset was used to develop an iterative algorithm to create 1,110 ANNs, with different configurations, starting from one to three hidden layers and every hidden layer with a number of neurons from 1 to 10. Each ANN was trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm, which is used to learn the relationship between input and output values. The model with the best performance contains three hidden layers and 9, 6, and 5 neurons, respectively; and the coefficient of determination obtained was r²=0.9414, and the Root Mean Squared Error is 1.0559. In summary, the ANN approach is suitable to predict the wind speed in Pachuca City because the r² value denotes a good fitting of gathered records, and the obtained ANN model can be used in the planning of wind power generation grids.

Keywords: wind power generation, artificial neural networks, wind speed, coefficient of determination

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160 Proportional and Integral Controller-Based Direct Current Servo Motor Speed Characterization

Authors: Adel Salem Bahakeem, Ahmad Jamal, Mir Md. Maruf Morshed, Elwaleed Awad Khidir


Direct Current (DC) servo motors, or simply DC motors, play an important role in many industrial applications such as manufacturing of plastics, precise positioning of the equipment, and operating computer-controlled systems where speed of feed control, maintaining the position, and ensuring to have a constantly desired output is very critical. These parameters can be controlled with the help of control systems such as the Proportional Integral Derivative (PID) controller. The aim of the current work is to investigate the effects of Proportional (P) and Integral (I) controllers on the steady state and transient response of the DC motor. The controller gains are varied to observe their effects on the error, damping, and stability of the steady and transient motor response. The current investigation is conducted experimentally on a servo trainer CE 110 using analog PI controller CE 120 and theoretically using Simulink in MATLAB. Both experimental and theoretical work involves varying integral controller gain to obtain the response to a steady-state input, varying, individually, the proportional and integral controller gains to obtain the response to a step input function at a certain frequency, and theoretically obtaining the proportional and integral controller gains for desired values of damping ratio and response frequency. Results reveal that a proportional controller helps reduce the steady-state and transient error between the input signal and output response and makes the system more stable. In addition, it also speeds up the response of the system. On the other hand, the integral controller eliminates the error but tends to make the system unstable with induced oscillations and slow response to eliminate the error. From the current work, it is desired to achieve a stable response of the servo motor in terms of its angular velocity subjected to steady-state and transient input signals by utilizing the strengths of both P and I controllers.

Keywords: DC servo motor, proportional controller, integral controller, controller gain optimization, Simulink

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159 A Grey-Box Text Attack Framework Using Explainable AI

Authors: Esther Chiramal, Kelvin Soh Boon Kai


Explainable AI is a strong strategy implemented to understand complex black-box model predictions in a human-interpretable language. It provides the evidence required to execute the use of trustworthy and reliable AI systems. On the other hand, however, it also opens the door to locating possible vulnerabilities in an AI model. Traditional adversarial text attack uses word substitution, data augmentation techniques, and gradient-based attacks on powerful pre-trained Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers (BERT) variants to generate adversarial sentences. These attacks are generally white-box in nature and not practical as they can be easily detected by humans e.g., Changing the word from “Poor” to “Rich”. We proposed a simple yet effective Grey-box cum Black-box approach that does not require the knowledge of the model while using a set of surrogate Transformer/BERT models to perform the attack using Explainable AI techniques. As Transformers are the current state-of-the-art models for almost all Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks, an attack generated from BERT1 is transferable to BERT2. This transferability is made possible due to the attention mechanism in the transformer that allows the model to capture long-range dependencies in a sequence. Using the power of BERT generalisation via attention, we attempt to exploit how transformers learn by attacking a few surrogate transformer variants which are all based on a different architecture. We demonstrate that this approach is highly effective to generate semantically good sentences by changing as little as one word that is not detectable by humans while still fooling other BERT models.

Keywords: BERT, explainable AI, Grey-box text attack, transformer

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158 Simulation, Optimization, and Analysis Approach of Microgrid Systems

Authors: Saqib Ali


Sources are classified into two depending upon the factor of reviving. These sources, which cannot be revived into their original shape once they are consumed, are considered as nonrenewable energy resources, i.e., (coal, fuel) Moreover, those energy resources which are revivable to the original condition even after being consumed are known as renewable energy resources, i.e., (wind, solar, hydel) Renewable energy is a cost-effective way to generate clean and green electrical energy Now a day’s majority of the countries are paying heed to energy generation from RES Pakistan is mostly relying on conventional energy resources which are mostly nonrenewable in nature coal, fuel is one of the major resources, and with the advent of time their prices are increasing on the other hand RES have great potential in the country with the deployment of RES greater reliability and an effective power system can be obtained In this thesis, a similar concept is being used and a hybrid power system is proposed which is composed of intermixing of renewable and nonrenewable sources The Source side is composed of solar, wind, fuel cells which will be used in an optimal manner to serve load The goal is to provide an economical, reliable, uninterruptable power supply. This is achieved by optimal controller (PI, PD, PID, FOPID) Optimization techniques are applied to the controllers to achieve the desired results. Advanced algorithms (Particle swarm optimization, Flower Pollination Algorithm) will be used to extract the desired output from the controller Detailed comparison in the form of tables and results will be provided, which will highlight the efficiency of the proposed system.

Keywords: distributed generation, demand-side management, hybrid power system, micro grid, renewable energy resources, supply-side management

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157 Model Predictive Controller for Pasteurization Process

Authors: Tesfaye Alamirew Dessie


Our study focuses on developing a Model Predictive Controller (MPC) and evaluating it against a traditional PID for a pasteurization process. Utilizing system identification from the experimental data, the dynamics of the pasteurization process were calculated. Using best fit with data validation, residual, and stability analysis, the quality of several model architectures was evaluated. The validation data fit the auto-regressive with exogenous input (ARX322) model of the pasteurization process by roughly 80.37 percent. The ARX322 model structure was used to create MPC and PID control techniques. After comparing controller performance based on settling time, overshoot percentage, and stability analysis, it was found that MPC controllers outperform PID for those parameters.

Keywords: MPC, PID, ARX, pasteurization

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156 Between Reality and Fiction: Self-Representation as an Avatar and Its Effects on Self-Presence

Authors: Leonie Laskowitz


A self-confident appearance is a basic prerequisite for success in the world of work 4.0. Within a few seconds, people convey a first impression that usually lasts. Artificial intelligence is making it increasingly important how our virtual selves appear and communicate (nonverbally) in digital worlds such as the metaverse. In addition to the modified creation of an avatar, the field of photogrammetry is developing fast, creating exact likenesses of ourselves in virtual environments. Given the importance of self-representation in virtual space for future collaborations, it is important to investigate the impact of phenotype in virtual worlds and how an avatar type can profitably be used situationally. We analyzed the effect of self-similar versus desirable self-presentation as an avatar on one's self-awareness, considering various theoretical constructs in the area of self-awareness and stress stimuli. The avatars were arbitrarily created on the one hand and scanned on the other hand with the help of a lidar sensor, the state-of-the-art photogrammetry method. All subjects were exposed to the established Trier Social Stress Test. The results showed that especially insecure people prefer to create rather than be scanned when confronted with a stressful work situation. (1) If they are in a casual work environment and a relaxed situation, they prefer a 3D photorealistic avatar that reflects them in detail. (2) Confident people will give their avatar their true appearance in any situation, while insecure people would only do so for honesty and authenticity. (3) Thus, the choice of avatar type has considerable impact on self-confidence in different situations.

Keywords: avatar, virtual identity, self-presentation, metaverse, virtual reality, self-awareness

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155 Cross-Border Data Transfers To And From South Africa

Authors: Amy Gooden, Meshandren Naidoo


Genetic research and transfers of big data are not confined to a particular jurisdiction, but there is a lack of clarity regarding the legal requirements for importing and exporting such data. Using direct-to-consumer genetic testing (DTC-GT) as an example, this research assesses the status of data sharing into and out of South Africa (SA). While SA laws cover the sending of genetic data out of SA, prohibiting such transfer unless a legal ground exists, the position where genetic data comes into the country depends on the laws of the country from where it is sent – making the legal position less clear.

Keywords: cross-border, data, genetic testing, law, regulation, research, sharing, South Africa

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154 3D Guided Image Filtering to Improve Quality of Short-Time Binned Dynamic PET Images Using MRI Images

Authors: Tabassum Husain, Shen Peng Li, Zhaolin Chen


This paper evaluates the usability of 3D Guided Image Filtering to enhance the quality of short-time binned dynamic PET images by using MRI images. Guided image filtering is an edge-preserving filter proposed to enhance 2D images. The 3D filter is applied on 1 and 5-minute binned images. The results are compared with 15-minute binned images and the Gaussian filtering. The guided image filter enhances the quality of dynamic PET images while also preserving important information of the voxels.

Keywords: dynamic PET images, guided image filter, image enhancement, information preservation filtering

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153 Solving a Micromouse Maze Using an Ant-Inspired Algorithm

Authors: Rolando Barradas, Salviano Soares, António Valente, José Alberto Lencastre, Paulo Oliveira


This article reviews the Ant Colony Optimization, a nature-inspired algorithm, and its implementation in the Scratch/m-Block programming environment. The Ant Colony Optimization is a part of Swarm Intelligence-based algorithms and is a subset of biological-inspired algorithms. Starting with a problem in which one has a maze and needs to find its path to the center and return to the starting position. This is similar to an ant looking for a path to a food source and returning to its nest. Starting with the implementation of a simple wall follower simulator, the proposed solution uses a dynamic graphical interface that allows young students to observe the ants’ movement while the algorithm optimizes the routes to the maze’s center. Things like interface usability, Data structures, and the conversion of algorithmic language to Scratch syntax were some of the details addressed during this implementation. This gives young students an easier way to understand the computational concepts of sequences, loops, parallelism, data, events, and conditionals, as they are used through all the implemented algorithms. Future work includes the simulation results with real contest mazes and two different pheromone update methods and the comparison with the optimized results of the winners of each one of the editions of the contest. It will also include the creation of a Digital Twin relating the virtual simulator with a real micromouse in a full-size maze. The first test results show that the algorithm found the same optimized solutions that were found by the winners of each one of the editions of the Micromouse contest making this a good solution for maze pathfinding.

Keywords: nature inspired algorithms, scratch, micromouse, problem-solving, computational thinking

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152 Price Effect Estimation of Tobacco on Low-wage Male Smokers: A Causal Mediation Analysis

Authors: Kawsar Ahmed, Hong Wang


The study's goal was to estimate the causal mediation impact of tobacco tax before and after price hikes among low-income male smokers, with a particular emphasis on the effect estimating pathways framework for continuous and dichotomous variables. From July to December 2021, a cross-sectional investigation of observational data (n=739) was collected from Bangladeshi low-wage smokers. The Quasi-Bayesian technique, binomial probit model, and sensitivity analysis using a simulation of the computational tools R mediation package had been used to estimate the effect. After a price rise for tobacco products, the average number of cigarettes or bidis sticks taken decreased from 6.7 to 4.56. Tobacco product rising prices have a direct effect on low-income people's decisions to quit or lessen their daily smoking habits of Average Causal Mediation Effect (ACME) [effect=2.31, 95 % confidence interval (C.I.) = (4.71-0.00), p<0.01], Average Direct Effect (ADE) [effect=8.6, 95 percent (C.I.) = (6.8-0.11), p<0.001], and overall significant effects (p<0.001). Tobacco smoking choice is described by the mediated proportion of income effect, which is 26.1% less of following price rise. The curve of ACME and ADE is based on observational figures of the coefficients of determination that asses the model of hypothesis as the substantial consequence after price rises in the sensitivity analysis. To reduce smoking product behaviors, price increases through taxation have a positive causal mediation with income that affects the decision to limit tobacco use and promote low-income men's healthcare policy.

Keywords: causal mediation analysis, directed acyclic graphs, tobacco price policy, sensitivity analysis, pathway estimation

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151 Human Activities Recognition Based on Expert System

Authors: Malika Yaici, Soraya Aloui, Sara Semchaoui


Recognition of human activities from sensor data is an active research area, and the main objective is to obtain a high recognition rate. In this work, we propose a recognition system based on expert systems. The proposed system makes the recognition based on the objects, object states, and gestures, taking into account the context (the location of the objects and of the person performing the activity, the duration of the elementary actions, and the activity). This work focuses on complex activities which are decomposed into simple easy to recognize activities. The proposed method can be applied to any type of activity. The simulation results show the robustness of our system and its speed of decision.

Keywords: human activity recognition, ubiquitous computing, context-awareness, expert system

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150 Challenges of Blockchain Applications in the Supply Chain Industry: A Regulatory Perspective

Authors: Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani


Due to the emergence of blockchain technology and the benefits of cryptocurrencies, intelligent or smart contracts are gaining traction. Artificial intelligence (AI) is transforming our lives, and it is being embraced by a wide range of sectors. Smart contracts, which are at the heart of blockchains, incorporate AI characteristics. Such contracts are referred to as "smart" contracts because of the underlying technology that allows contracting parties to agree on terms expressed in computer code that defines machine-readable instructions for computers to follow under specific situations. The transmission happens automatically if the conditions are met. Initially utilised for financial transactions, blockchain applications have since expanded to include the financial, insurance, and medical sectors, as well as supply networks. Raw material acquisition by suppliers, design, and fabrication by manufacturers, delivery of final products to consumers, and even post-sales logistics assistance are all part of supply chains. Many issues are linked with managing supply chains from the planning and coordination stages, which can be implemented in a smart contract in a blockchain due to their complexity. Manufacturing delays and limited third-party amounts of product components have raised concerns about the integrity and accountability of supply chains for food and pharmaceutical items. Other concerns include regulatory compliance in multiple jurisdictions and transportation circumstances (for instance, many products must be kept in temperature-controlled environments to ensure their effectiveness). Products are handled by several providers before reaching customers in modern economic systems. Information is sent between suppliers, shippers, distributors, and retailers at every stage of the production and distribution process. Information travels more effectively when individuals are eliminated from the equation. The usage of blockchain technology could be a viable solution to these coordination issues. In blockchains, smart contracts allow for the rapid transmission of production data, logistical data, inventory levels, and sales data. This research investigates the legal and technical advantages and disadvantages of AI-blockchain technology in the supply chain business. It aims to uncover the applicable legal problems and barriers to the use of AI-blockchain technology to supply chains, particularly in the food industry. It also discusses the essential legal and technological issues and impediments to supply chain implementation for stakeholders, as well as methods for overcoming them before releasing the technology to clients. Because there has been little research done on this topic, it is difficult for industrial stakeholders to grasp how blockchain technology could be used in their respective operations. As a result, the focus of this research will be on building advanced and complex contractual terms in supply chain smart contracts on blockchains to cover all unforeseen supply chain challenges.

Keywords: blockchain, supply chain, IoT, smart contract

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149 Collision Avoidance Based on Model Predictive Control for Nonlinear Octocopter Model

Authors: Doğan Yıldız, Aydan Müşerref Erkmen


The controller of the octocopter is mostly based on the PID controller. For complex maneuvers, PID controllers have limited performance capability like in collision avoidance. When an octocopter needs avoidance from an obstacle, it must instantly show an agile maneuver. Also, this kind of maneuver is affected severely by the nonlinear characteristic of octocopter. When these kinds of limitations are considered, the situation is highly challenging for the PID controller. In the proposed study, these challenges are tried to minimize by using the model predictive controller (MPC) for collision avoidance with a nonlinear octocopter model. The aim is to show that MPC-based collision avoidance has the capability to deal with fast varying conditions in case of obstacle detection and diminish the nonlinear effects of octocopter with varying disturbances.

Keywords: model predictive control, nonlinear octocopter model, collision avoidance, obstacle detection

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148 The Bernstein Expansion for Exponentials in Taylor Functions: Approximation of Fixed Points

Authors: Tareq Hamadneh, Jochen Merker, Hassan Al-Zoubi


Bernstein's expansion for exponentials in Taylor functions provides lower and upper optimization values for the range of its original function. these values converge to the original functions if the degree is elevated or the domain subdivided. Taylor polynomial can be applied so that the exponential is a polynomial of finite degree over a given domain. Bernstein's basis has two main properties: its sum equals 1, and positive for all x 2 (0; 1). In this work, we prove the existence of fixed points for exponential functions in a given domain using the optimization values of Bernstein. The Bernstein basis of finite degree T over a domain D is defined non-negatively. Any polynomial p of degree t can be expanded into the Bernstein form of maximum degree t ≤ T, where we only need to compute the coefficients of Bernstein in order to optimize the original polynomial. The main property is that p(x) is approximated by the minimum and maximum Bernstein coefficients (Bernstein bound). If the bound is contained in the given domain, then we say that p(x) has fixed points in the same domain.

Keywords: Bernstein polynomials, Stability of control functions, numerical optimization, Taylor function

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147 Application to Monitor the Citizens for Corona and Get Medical Aids or Assistance from Hospitals

Authors: Vathsala Kaluarachchi, Oshani Wimalarathna, Charith Vandebona, Gayani Chandrarathna, Lakmal Rupasinghe, Windhya Rankothge


It is the fundamental function of a monitoring system to allow users to collect and process data. A worldwide threat, the corona outbreak has wreaked havoc in Sri Lanka, and the situation has gotten out of hand. Since the epidemic, the Sri Lankan government has been unable to establish a systematic system for monitoring corona patients and providing emergency care in the event of an outbreak. Most patients have been held at home because of the high number of patients reported in the nation, but they do not yet have access to a functioning medical system. It has resulted in an increase in the number of patients who have been left untreated because of a lack of medical care. The absence of competent medical monitoring is the biggest cause of mortality for many people nowadays, according to our survey. As a result, a smartphone app for analyzing the patient's state and determining whether they should be hospitalized will be developed. Using the data supplied, we are aiming to send an alarm letter or SMS to the hospital once the system recognizes them. Since we know what those patients need and when they need it, we will put up a desktop program at the hospital to monitor their progress. Deep learning, image processing and application development, natural language processing, and blockchain management are some of the components of the research solution. The purpose of this research paper is to introduce a mechanism to connect hospitals and patients even when they are physically apart. Further data security and user-friendliness are enhanced through blockchain and NLP.

Keywords: blockchain, deep learning, NLP, monitoring system

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146 Application of Federated Learning in the Health Care Sector for Malware Detection and Mitigation Using Software-Defined Networking Approach

Authors: A. Dinelka Panagoda, Bathiya Bandara, Chamod Wijetunga, Chathura Malinda, Lakmal Rupasinghe, Chethana Liyanapathirana


This research takes us forward with the concepts of Federated Learning and Software-Defined Networking (SDN) to introduce an efficient malware detection technique and provide a mitigation mechanism to give birth to a resilient and automated healthcare sector network system by also adding the feature of extended privacy preservation. Due to the daily transformation of new malware attacks on hospital Integrated Clinical Environment (ICEs), the healthcare industry is at an undefinable peak of never knowing its continuity direction. The state of blindness by the array of indispensable opportunities that new medical device inventions and their connected coordination offer daily, a factor that should be focused driven is not yet entirely understood by most healthcare operators and patients. This solution has the involvement of four clients in the form of hospital networks to build up the federated learning experimentation architectural structure with different geographical participation to reach the most reasonable accuracy rate with privacy preservation. While the logistic regression with cross-entropy conveys the detection, SDN comes in handy in the second half of the research to stack up the initial development phases of the system with malware mitigation based on policy implementation. The overall evaluation sums up with a system that proves the accuracy with the added privacy. It is no longer needed to continue with traditional centralized systems that offer almost everything but not privacy.

Keywords: software-defined network, federated learning, privacy, integrated clinical environment, decentralized learning, malware detection, malware mitigation

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145 Analyze and Visualize Eye-Tracking Data

Authors: Aymen Sekhri, Emmanuel Kwabena Frimpong, Bolaji Mubarak Ayeyemi, Aleksi Hirvonen, Matias Hirvonen, Tedros Tesfay Andemichael


Fixation identification, which involves isolating and identifying fixations and saccades in eye-tracking protocols, is an important aspect of eye-movement data processing that can have a big impact on higher-level analyses. However, fixation identification techniques are frequently discussed informally and rarely compared in any meaningful way. With two state-of-the-art algorithms, we will implement fixation detection and analysis in this work. The velocity threshold fixation algorithm is the first algorithm, and it identifies fixation based on a threshold value. For eye movement detection, the second approach is U'n' Eye, a deep neural network algorithm. The goal of this project is to analyze and visualize eye-tracking data from an eye gaze dataset that has been provided. The data was collected in a scenario in which individuals were shown photos and asked whether or not they recognized them. The results of the two-fixation detection approach are contrasted and visualized in this paper.

Keywords: human-computer interaction, eye-tracking, CNN, fixations, saccades

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144 Using Q-Learning to Auto-Tune PID Controller Gains for Online Quadcopter Altitude Stabilization

Authors: Y. Alrubyli


Unmanned Arial Vehicles (UAVs), and more specifically, quadcopters need to be stable during their flights. Altitude stability is usually achieved by using a PID controller that is built into the flight controller software. Furthermore, the PID controller has gains that need to be tuned to reach optimal altitude stabilization during the quadcopter’s flight. For that, control system engineers need to tune those gains by using extensive modeling of the environment, which might change from one environment and condition to another. As quadcopters penetrate more sectors, from the military to the consumer sectors, they have been put into complex and challenging environments more than ever before. Hence, intelligent self-stabilizing quadcopters are needed to maneuver through those complex environments and situations. Here we show that by using online reinforcement learning with minimal background knowledge, the altitude stability of the quadcopter can be achieved using a model-free approach. We found that by using background knowledge instead of letting the online reinforcement learning algorithm wander for a while to tune the PID gains, altitude stabilization can be achieved faster. In addition, using this approach will accelerate development by avoiding extensive simulations before applying the PID gains to the real-world quadcopter. Our results demonstrate the possibility of using the trial and error approach of reinforcement learning combined with background knowledge to achieve faster quadcopter altitude stabilization in different environments and conditions.

Keywords: reinforcement learning, Q-leanring, online learning, PID tuning, unmanned aerial vehicle, quadcopter

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