Abstracts | Electrical and Information Engineering
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 211

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electrical and Information Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

211 Lean Philosophy towards the Enhancement of Maintenance Programs Efficiency with Particular Attention to Libyan Oil and Gas Scenario

Authors: Sulayman Adrees Mohammed, Ahmed Faraj Abd Alsameea


The ongoing hindrance for Libyan oil and gas companies is the persistent challenge of eradicating maintenance program failures that result in exorbitant costs and production setbacks. Accordingly, this research is prompted to introduce the concept of lean philosophy in maintenance, which aims to eliminate waste and enhance productivity in maintenance procedures through the identification and differentiation of value-adding (VA) and non-value-adding (NVA) activities. The purpose of this paper was to explore and describe the benefits that can be gained by adopting the Lean philosophy towards the enhancement of maintenance programs' efficiency from theoretical perspectives. The oil industry maintenance community in Libya now has an introduced tool by which they can effectively evaluate their maintenance program functionality and reduce the areas of non-value added activities within maintenance, thereby enhancing the availability of the equipment and the capacity of the oil and gas facilities.

Keywords: efficiency, lean philosophy, Libyan oil and gas scenario, maintenance programs

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210 Arabic Handwriting Recognition Using Local Approach

Authors: Mohammed Arif, Abdessalam Kifouche


Optical character recognition (OCR) has a main role in the present time. It's capable to solve many serious problems and simplify human activities. The OCR yields to 70's, since many solutions has been proposed, but unfortunately, it was supportive to nothing but Latin languages. This work proposes a system of recognition of an off-line Arabic handwriting. This system is based on a structural segmentation method and uses support vector machines (SVM) in the classification phase. We have presented a state of art of the characters segmentation methods, after that a view of the OCR area, also we will address the normalization problems we went through. After a comparison between the Arabic handwritten characters & the segmentation methods, we had introduced a contribution through a segmentation algorithm.

Keywords: OCR, segmentation, Arabic characters, PAW, post-processing, SVM

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209 Deep Learning to Improve the 5G NR Uplink Control Channel

Authors: Ahmed Krobba, Meriem Touzene, Mohamed Debeyche


The wireless communications system (5G) will provide more diverse applications and higher quality services for users compared to the long-term evolution 4G (LTE). 5G uses a higher carrier frequency, which suffers from information loss in 5G coverage. Most 5G users often cannot obtain high-quality communications due to transmission channel noise and channel complexity. Physical Uplink Control Channel (PUCCH-NR: Physical Uplink Control Channel New Radio) plays a crucial role in 5G NR telecommunication technology, which is mainly used to transmit link control information uplink (UCI: Uplink Control Information. This study based of evaluating the performance of channel physical uplink control PUCCH-NR under low Signal-to-Noise Ratios with various antenna numbers reception. We propose the artificial intelligence approach based on deep neural networks (Deep Learning) to estimate the PUCCH-NR channel in comparison with this approach with different conventional methods such as least-square (LS) and minimum-mean-square-error (MMSE). To evaluate the channel performance we use the block error rate (BLER) as an evaluation criterion of the communication system. The results show that the deep neural networks method gives best performance compared with MMSE and LS

Keywords: 5G network, uplink (Uplink), PUCCH channel, NR-PUCCH channel, deep learning

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208 Application of Vegetation Health Index for Drought Monitoring in the North-East Region of Nigeria

Authors: Abdulkadir I.


Scientists have come to terms with the fact that climate change has been and is expected to cause a significant increase in the severity and frequency of drought events. The northeast region of Nigeria is one of the most, if not the most, affected regions by drought in the country. Therefore, it is on this note that the present study applied ArcGIS and XLSTAT Software and explored drought and its trend in the northeast region of the country using the vegetation health index (VHI), Mann-Kendal, and Sen’s slope between 2001 and 2020. The study also explored the areas that remained under drought and no-drought conditions at intervals of five years for the period under review. The result of Mann-Kendal (-0.07) and Sen’s slope (-0.19) revealed that there was a decreasing trend in VHI over the period under review. The result further showed that the period between 2010 and 2015 had a minimum area of no-drought conditions of about 24%, with Gombe State accounting for the lowest percentage among the six States, about 0.9% of the total area of no-drought conditions. The result further showed the areas that were under drought conditions between 2010 and 2015 represented about 9.1%, with Borno State accounting for the highest percentage among the six States, about 2.5% of the total area under drought conditions. The masked-out areas stood at 66.8%, with Borno State accounting for the highest percentage among the six States, about 20.2% of the total area under drought conditions. Therefore, collective efforts are needed to put in place sustainable land management in the affected areas so as to mitigate the sprawl of desertification in the region.

Keywords: climate change, drought, Mann Kendal, sustainable land management, vegetation health index

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207 Assessing Prescribed Burn Severity in the Wetlands of the Paraná River -Argentina

Authors: Virginia Venturini, Elisabet Walker, Aylen Carrasco-Millan


Latin America stands at the front of climate change impacts, with forecasts projecting accelerated temperature and sea level rises compared to the global average. These changes are set to trigger a cascade of effects, including coastal retreat, intensified droughts in some nations, and heightened flood risks in others. In Argentina, wildfires historically affected forests, but since 2004, wetland fires have emerged as a pressing concern. By 2021, the wetlands of the Paraná River faced a dangerous situation. In fact, during the year 2021, a high-risk scenario was naturally formed in the wetlands of the Paraná River, in Argentina. Very low water levels in the rivers, and excessive standing dead plant material (fuel), triggered most of the fires recorded in the vast wetland region of the Paraná during 2020-2021. During 2008 fire events devastated nearly 15% of the Paraná Delta, and by late 2021 new fires burned more than 300,000 ha of these same wetlands. Therefore, the goal of this work is to explore remote sensing tools to monitor environmental conditions and the severity of prescribed burns in the Paraná River wetlands. Thus, two prescribed burning experiments were carried out in the study area (31°40’ 05’’ S, 60° 34’ 40’’ W) during September 2023. The first experiment was carried out on Sept. 13th, in a plot of 0.5 ha which dominant vegetation were Echinochloa sp., and Thalia, while the second trial was done on Sept 29th in a plot of 0.7 ha, next to the first burned parcel; here the dominant vegetation species were Echinochloa sp. and Solanum glaucophyllum. Field campaigns were conducted between September 8th and November 8th to assess the severity of the prescribed burns. Flight surveys were conducted utilizing a DJI® Inspire II drone equipped with a Sentera® NDVI camera. Then, burn severity was quantified by analyzing images captured by the Sentera camera along with data from the Sentinel 2 satellite mission. This involved subtracting the NDVI images obtained before and after the burn experiments. The results from both data sources demonstrate a highly heterogeneous impact of fire within the patch. Mean severity values obtained with drone NDVI images of the first experience were about 0.16 and 0.18 with Sentinel images. For the second experiment, mean values obtained with the drone were approximately 0.17 and 0.16 with Sentinel images. Thus, most of the pixels showed low fire severity and only a few pixels presented moderated burn severity, based on the wildfire scale. The undisturbed plots maintained consistent mean NDVI values throughout the experiments. Moreover, the severity assessment of each experiment revealed that the vegetation was not completely dry, despite experiencing extreme drought conditions.

Keywords: prescribed-burn, severity, NDVI, wetlands

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206 Strategic Cyber Sentinel: A Paradigm Shift in Enhancing Cybersecurity Resilience

Authors: Ayomide Oyedele


In the dynamic landscape of cybersecurity, "Strategic Cyber Sentinel" emerges as a revolutionary framework, transcending traditional approaches. This paper pioneers a holistic strategy, weaving together threat intelligence, machine learning, and adaptive defenses. Through meticulous real-world simulations, we demonstrate the unprecedented resilience of our framework against evolving cyber threats. "Strategic Cyber Sentinel" redefines proactive threat mitigation, offering a robust defense architecture poised for the challenges of tomorrow.

Keywords: cybersecurity, resilience, threat intelligence, machine learning, adaptive defenses

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205 Deep Reinforcement Learning for Advanced Pressure Management in Water Distribution Networks

Authors: Ahmed Negm, George Aggidis, Xiandong Ma


With the diverse nature of urban cities, customer demand patterns, landscape topologies or even seasonal weather trends; managing our water distribution networks (WDNs) has proved a complex task. These unpredictable circumstances manifest as pipe failures, intermittent supply and burst events thus adding to water loss, energy waste and increased carbon emissions. Whilst these events are unavoidable, advanced pressure management has proved an effective tool to control and mitigate them. Henceforth, water utilities have struggled with developing a real-time control method that is resilient when confronting the challenges of water distribution. In this paper we use deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithms as a novel pressure control strategy to minimise pressure violations and leakage under both burst and background leakage conditions. Agents based on asynchronous actor critic (A2C) and recurrent proximal policy optimisation (Recurrent PPO) were trained and compared to benchmarked optimisation algorithms (differential evolution, particle swarm optimisation. A2C manages to minimise leakage by 32.48% under burst conditions and 67.17% under background conditions which was the highest performance in the DRL algorithms. A2C and Recurrent PPO performed well in comparison to the benchmarks with higher processing speed and lower computational effort.

Keywords: deep reinforcement learning, pressure management, water distribution networks, leakage management

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204 Advancements in Smart Home Systems: A Comprehensive Exploration in Electronic Engineering

Authors: Chukwuka E. V., Rowling J. K., Rushdie Salman


The field of electronic engineering encompasses the study and application of electrical systems, circuits, and devices. Engineers in this discipline design, analyze and optimize electronic components to develop innovative solutions for various industries. This abstract provides a brief overview of the diverse areas within electronic engineering, including analog and digital electronics, signal processing, communication systems, and embedded systems. It highlights the importance of staying abreast of advancements in technology and fostering interdisciplinary collaboration to address contemporary challenges in this rapidly evolving field.

Keywords: smart home engineering, energy efficiency, user-centric design, security frameworks

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203 A High Linear and Low Power with 71dB 35.1MHz/4.38GHz Variable Gain Amplifier in 180nm CMOS Technology

Authors: Sina Mahdavi, Faeze Noruzpur, Aysuda Noruzpur


This paper proposes a high linear, low power and wideband Variable Gain Amplifier (VGA) with a direct current (DC) gain range of -10.2dB to 60.7dB. By applying the proposed idea to the folded cascade amplifier, it is possible to achieve a 71dB DC gain, 35MHz (-3dB) bandwidth, accompanied by high linearity and low sensitivity as well. It is noteworthy that the proposed idea can be able to apply on every differential amplifier, too. Moreover, the total power consumption and unity gain bandwidth of the proposed VGA is 1.41mW with a power supply of 1.8 volts and 4.37GHz, respectively, and 0.8pF capacitor load is applied at the output nodes of the amplifier. Furthermore, the proposed structure is simulated in whole process corners and different temperatures in the region of -60 to +90 ºC. Simulations are performed for all corner conditions by HSPICE using the BSIM3 model of the 180nm CMOS technology and MATLAB software.

Keywords: variable gain amplifier, low power, low voltage, folded cascade, amplifier, DC gain

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202 The Future Control Rooms for Sustainable Power Systems: Current Landscape and Operational Challenges

Authors: Signe Svensson, Remy Rey, Anna-Lisa Osvalder, Henrik Artman, Lars Nordström


The electric power system is undergoing significant changes. Thereby, the operation and control are becoming partly modified, more multifaceted and automated, and thereby supplementary operator skills might be required. This paper discusses developing operational challenges in future power system control rooms, posed by the evolving landscape of sustainable power systems, driven in turn by the shift towards electrification and renewable energy sources. A literature review followed by interviews and a comparison to other related domains with similar characteristics, a descriptive analysis was performed from a human factors perspective. Analysis is meant to identify trends, relationships, and challenges. A power control domain taxonomy includes a temporal domain (planning and real-time operation) and three operational domains within the power system (generation, switching and balancing). Within each operational domain, there are different control actions, either in the planning stage or in the real-time operation, that affect the overall operation of the power system. In addition to the temporal dimension, the control domains are divided in space between a multitude of different actors distributed across many different locations. A control room is a central location where different types of information are monitored and controlled, alarms are responded to, and deviations are handled by the control room operators. The operators’ competencies, teamwork skills, team shift patterns as well as control system designs are all important factors in ensuring efficient and safe electricity grid management. As the power system evolves with sustainable energy technologies, challenges are found. Questions are raised regarding whether the operators’ tacit knowledge, experience and operation skills of today are sufficient to make constructive decisions to solve modified and new control tasks, especially during disturbed operations or abnormalities. Which new skills need to be developed in planning and real-time operation to provide efficient generation and delivery of energy through the system? How should the user interfaces be developed to assist operators in processing the increasing amount of information? Are some skills at risk of being lost when the systems change? How should the physical environment and collaborations between different stakeholders within and outside the control room develop to support operator control? To conclude, the system change will provide many benefits related to electrification and renewable energy sources, but it is important to address the operators’ challenges with increasing complexity. The control tasks will be modified, and additional operator skills are needed to perform efficient and safe operations. Also, the whole human-technology-organization system needs to be considered, including the physical environment, the technical aids and the information systems, the operators’ physical and mental well-being, as well as the social and organizational systems.

Keywords: operator, process control, energy system, sustainability, future control room, skill

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201 Model Observability – A Monitoring Solution for Machine Learning Models

Authors: Amreth Chandrasehar


Machine Learning (ML) Models are developed and run in production to solve various use cases that help organizations to be more efficient and help drive the business. But this comes at a massive development cost and lost business opportunities. According to the Gartner report, 85% of data science projects fail, and one of the factors impacting this is not paying attention to Model Observability. Model Observability helps the developers and operators to pinpoint the model performance issues data drift and help identify root cause of issues. This paper focuses on providing insights into incorporating model observability in model development and operationalizing it in production.

Keywords: model observability, monitoring, drift detection, ML observability platform

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200 Presenting a Model Based on Artificial Neural Networks to Predict the Execution Time of Design Projects

Authors: Hamed Zolfaghari, Mojtaba Kord


After feasibility study the design phase is started and the rest of other phases are highly dependent on this phase. forecasting the duration of design phase could do a miracle and would save a lot of time. This study provides a fast and accurate Machine learning (ML) and optimization framework, which allows a quick duration estimation of project design phase, hence improving operational efficiency and competitiveness of a design construction company. 3 data sets of three years composed of daily time spent for different design projects are used to train and validate the ML models to perform multiple projects. Our study concluded that Artificial Neural Network (ANN) performed an accuracy of 0.94.

Keywords: time estimation, machine learning, Artificial neural network, project design phase

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199 Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Biodiesel Production via Transesterification

Authors: Juliette Harper, Yu Yang


Biofuels have gained significant attention recently due to the new regulations and agreements regarding fossil fuels and greenhouse gases being made by countries around the globe. One of the most common types of biofuels is biodiesel, primarily made via the transesterification reaction. We model this nonlinear process in MATLAB using the standard kinetic equations. Then, a nonlinear Model predictive control (NMPC) was developed to regulate this process due to its capability to handle process constraints. The feeding flow uncertainty and kinetic disturbances are further incorporated in the model to capture the real-world operating conditions. The simulation results will show that the proposed NMPC can guarantee the final composition of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) above the target threshold with a high chance by adjusting the process temperature and flowrate. This research will allow further understanding of NMPC under uncertainties and how to design the computational strategy for larger process with more variables.

Keywords: NMPC, biodiesel, uncertainties, nonlinear, MATLAB

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198 Short-Term Load Forecasting Based on Variational Mode Decomposition and Least Square Support Vector Machine

Authors: Jiangyong Liu, Xiangxiang Xu, Bote Luo, Xiaoxue Luo, Jiang Zhu, Lingzhi Yi


To address the problems of non-linearity and high randomness of the original power load sequence causing the degradation of power load forecasting accuracy, a short-term load forecasting method is proposed. The method is based on the Least Square Support Vector Machine optimized by an Improved Sparrow Search Algorithm combined with the Variational Mode Decomposition proposed in this paper. The application of the variational mode decomposition technique decomposes the raw power load data into a series of Intrinsic Mode Functions components, which can reduce the complexity and instability of the raw data while overcoming modal confounding; the proposed improved sparrow search algorithm can solve the problem of difficult selection of learning parameters in the least Square Support Vector Machine. Finally, through comparison experiments, the results show that the method can effectively improve prediction accuracy.

Keywords: load forecasting, variational mode decomposition, improved sparrow search algorithm, least square support vector machine

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197 A Multi-criteria Decision Method For The Recruitment Of Academic Personnel Based On The Analytical Hierarchy Process And The Delphi Method In A Neutrosophic Environment (Full Text)

Authors: Antonios Paraskevas, Michael Madas


For a university to maintain its international competitiveness in education, it is essential to recruit qualitative academic staff as it constitutes its most valuable asset. This selection demonstrates a significant role in achieving strategic objectives, particularly by emphasizing a firm commitment to exceptional student experience and innovative teaching and learning practices of high quality. In this vein, the appropriate selection of academic staff establishes a very important factor of competitiveness, efficiency and reputation of an academic institute. Within this framework, our work demonstrates a comprehensive methodological concept that emphasizes on the multi-criteria nature of the problem and on how decision makers could utilize our approach in order to proceed to the appropriate judgment. The conceptual framework introduced in this paper is built upon a hybrid neutrosophic method based on the Neutrosophic Analytical Hierarchy Process (N-AHP), which uses the theory of neutrosophy sets and is considered suitable in terms of significant degree of ambiguity and indeterminacy observed in decision-making process. To this end, our framework extends the N-AHP by incorporating the Neutrosophic Delphi Method (N-DM). By applying the N-DM, we can take into consideration the importance of each decision-maker and their preferences per evaluation criterion. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed model is the first which applies Neutrosophic Delphi Method in the selection of academic staff. As a case study, it was decided to use our method to a real problem of academic personnel selection, having as main goal to enhance the algorithm proposed in previous scholars’ work, and thus taking care of the inherit ineffectiveness which becomes apparent in traditional multi-criteria decision-making methods when dealing with situations alike. As a further result, we prove that our method demonstrates greater applicability and reliability when compared to other decision models.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, delphi method, multi-criteria decision maiking method, neutrosophic set theory, personnel recruitment

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196 Microbial Diversity Assessment in Household Point-of-Use Water Sources Using Spectroscopic Approach

Authors: Syahidah N. Zulkifli, Herlina A. Rahim, Nurul A. M. Subha


Sustaining water quality is critical in order to avoid any harmful health consequences for end-user consumers. The detection of microbial impurities at the household level is the foundation of water security. Water quality is now monitored only at water utilities or infrastructure, such as water treatment facilities or reservoirs. This research provides a first-hand scientific understanding of microbial composition presence in Malaysia’s household point-of-use (POUs) water supply influenced by seasonal fluctuations, standstill periods, and flow dynamics by using the NIR-Raman spectroscopic technique. According to the findings, 20% of water samples were contaminated by pathogenic bacteria, which are Legionella and Salmonella cells. A comparison of the spectra reveals significant signature peaks (420 cm⁻¹ to 1800 cm⁻¹), including species-specific bands. This demonstrates the importance of regularly monitoring POUs water quality to provide a safe and clean water supply to homeowners. Conventional Raman spectroscopy, up-to-date, is no longer suited for real-time monitoring. Therefore, this study introduced an alternative micro-spectrometer to give a rapid and sustainable way of monitoring POUs water quality. Assessing microbiological threats in water supply becomes more reliable and efficient by leveraging IoT protocol.

Keywords: microbial contaminants, water quality, water monitoring, Raman spectroscopy

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195 Predictive Maintenance of Electrical Induction Motors Using Machine Learning

Authors: Muhammad Bilal, Adil Ahmed


This study proposes an approach for electrical induction motor predictive maintenance utilizing machine learning algorithms. On the basis of a study of temperature data obtained from sensors put on the motor, the goal is to predict motor failures. The proposed models are trained to identify whether a motor is defective or not by utilizing machine learning algorithms like Support Vector Machines (SVM) and K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN). According to a thorough study of the literature, earlier research has used motor current signature analysis (MCSA) and vibration data to forecast motor failures. The temperature signal methodology, which has clear advantages over the conventional MCSA and vibration analysis methods in terms of cost-effectiveness, is the main subject of this research. The acquired results emphasize the applicability and effectiveness of the temperature-based predictive maintenance strategy by demonstrating the successful categorization of defective motors using the suggested machine learning models.

Keywords: predictive maintenance, electrical induction motors, machine learning, temperature signal methodology, motor failures

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194 Amazon and Its AI Features

Authors: Leen Sulaimani, Maryam Hafiz, Naba Ali, Roba Alsharif


One of Amazon’s most crucial online systems is artificial intelligence. Amazon would not have a worldwide successful online store, an easy and secure way of payment, and other services if it weren’t for artificial intelligence and machine learning. Amazon uses AI to expand its operations and enhance them by upgrading the website daily; having a strong base of artificial intelligence in a worldwide successful business can improve marketing, decision-making, feedback, and more qualities. Aiming to have a rational AI system in one’s business should be the start of any process; that is why Amazon is fortunate that they keep taking care of the base of their business by using modern artificial intelligence, making sure that it is stable, reaching their organizational goals, and will continue to thrive more each and every day. Artificial intelligence is used daily in our current world and is still being amplified more each day to reach consumer satisfaction and company short and long-term goals.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, Amazon, business, customer, decision making

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193 Smart Defect Detection in XLPE Cables Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Tesfaye Mengistu


Power cables play a crucial role in the transmission and distribution of electrical energy. As the electricity generation, transmission, distribution, and storage systems become smarter, there is a growing emphasis on incorporating intelligent approaches to ensure the reliability of power cables. Various types of electrical cables are employed for transmitting and distributing electrical energy, with cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) cables being widely utilized due to their exceptional electrical and mechanical properties. However, insulation defects can occur in XLPE cables due to subpar manufacturing techniques during production and cable joint installation. To address this issue, experts have proposed different methods for monitoring XLPE cables. Some suggest the use of interdigital capacitive (IDC) technology for online monitoring, while others propose employing continuous wave (CW) terahertz (THz) imaging systems to detect internal defects in XLPE plates used for power cable insulation. In this study, we have developed models that employ a custom dataset collected locally to classify the physical safety status of individual power cables. Our models aim to replace physical inspections with computer vision and image processing techniques to classify defective power cables from non-defective ones. The implementation of our project utilized the Python programming language along with the TensorFlow package and a convolutional neural network (CNN). The CNN-based algorithm was specifically chosen for power cable defect classification. The results of our project demonstrate the effectiveness of CNNs in accurately classifying power cable defects. We recommend the utilization of similar or additional datasets to further enhance and refine our models. Additionally, we believe that our models could be used to develop methodologies for detecting power cable defects from live video feeds. We firmly believe that our work makes a significant contribution to the field of power cable inspection and maintenance. Our models offer a more efficient and cost-effective approach to detecting power cable defects, thereby improving the reliability and safety of power grids.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, computer vision, defect detection, convolutional neural net

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192 Data Quality on Regular Childhood Immunization Programme at Degehabur District: Somali Region, Ethiopia

Authors: Eyob Seife


Immunization is a life-saving intervention which prevents needless suffering through sickness, disability, and death. Emphasis on data quality and use will become even stronger with the development of the immunization agenda 2030 (IA2030). Quality of data is a key factor in generating reliable health information that enables monitoring progress, financial planning, vaccine forecasting capacities, and making decisions for continuous improvement of the national immunization program. However, ensuring data of sufficient quality and promoting an information-use culture at the point of the collection remains critical and challenging, especially in hard-to-reach and pastoralist areas where Degehabur district is selected based on a hypothesis of ‘there is no difference in reported and recounted immunization data consistency. Data quality is dependent on different factors where organizational, behavioral, technical, and contextual factors are the mentioned ones. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted on September 2022 in the Degehabur district. The study used the world health organization (WHO) recommended data quality self-assessment (DQS) tools. Immunization tally sheets, registers, and reporting documents were reviewed at 5 health facilities (2 health centers and 3 health posts) of primary health care units for one fiscal year (12 months) to determine the accuracy ratio. The data was collected by trained DQS assessors to explore the quality of monitoring systems at health posts, health centers, and the district health office. A quality index (QI) was assessed, and the accuracy ratio formulated were: the first and third doses of pentavalent vaccines, fully immunized (FI), and the first dose of measles-containing vaccines (MCV). In this study, facility-level results showed both over-reporting and under-reporting were observed at health posts when computing the accuracy ratio of the tally sheet to health post reports found at health centers for almost all antigens verified where pentavalent 1 was 88.3%, 60.4%, and 125.6% for Health posts A, B, and C respectively. For first-dose measles-containing vaccines (MCV), similarly, the accuracy ratio was found to be 126.6%, 42.6%, and 140.9% for Health posts A, B, and C, respectively. The accuracy ratio for fully immunized children also showed 0% for health posts A and B and 100% for health post-C. A relatively better accuracy ratio was seen at health centers where the first pentavalent dose was 97.4% and 103.3% for health centers A and B, while a first dose of measles-containing vaccines (MCV) was 89.2% and 100.9% for health centers A and B, respectively. A quality index (QI) of all facilities also showed results between the maximum of 33.33% and a minimum of 0%. Most of the verified immunization data accuracy ratios were found to be relatively better at the health center level. However, the quality of the monitoring system is poor at all levels, besides poor data accuracy at all health posts. So attention should be given to improving the capacity of staff and quality of monitoring system components, namely recording, reporting, archiving, data analysis, and using information for decision at all levels, especially in pastoralist areas where such kinds of study findings need to be improved beside to improving the data quality at root and health posts level.

Keywords: accuracy ratio, Degehabur District, regular childhood immunization program, quality of monitoring system, Somali Region-Ethiopia

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191 DeepNIC a Method to Transform Each Tabular Variable into an Independant Image Analyzable by Basic CNNs

Authors: Nguyen J. M., Lucas G., Ruan S., Digonnet H., Antonioli D.


Introduction: Deep Learning (DL) is a very powerful tool for analyzing image data. But for tabular data, it cannot compete with machine learning methods like XGBoost. The research question becomes: can tabular data be transformed into images that can be analyzed by simple CNNs (Convolutional Neuron Networks)? Will DL be the absolute tool for data classification? All current solutions consist in repositioning the variables in a 2x2 matrix using their correlation proximity. In doing so, it obtains an image whose pixels are the variables. We implement a technology, DeepNIC, that offers the possibility of obtaining an image for each variable, which can be analyzed by simple CNNs. Material and method: The 'ROP' (Regression OPtimized) model is a binary and atypical decision tree whose nodes are managed by a new artificial neuron, the Neurop. By positioning an artificial neuron in each node of the decision trees, it is possible to make an adjustment on a theoretically infinite number of variables at each node. From this new decision tree whose nodes are artificial neurons, we created the concept of a 'Random Forest of Perfect Trees' (RFPT), which disobeys Breiman's concepts by assembling very large numbers of small trees with no classification errors. From the results of the RFPT, we developed a family of 10 statistical information criteria, Nguyen Information Criterion (NICs), which evaluates in 3 dimensions the predictive quality of a variable: Performance, Complexity and Multiplicity of solution. A NIC is a probability that can be transformed into a grey level. The value of a NIC depends essentially on 2 super parameters used in Neurops. By varying these 2 super parameters, we obtain a 2x2 matrix of probabilities for each NIC. We can combine these 10 NICs with the functions AND, OR, and XOR. The total number of combinations is greater than 100,000. In total, we obtain for each variable an image of at least 1166x1167 pixels. The intensity of the pixels is proportional to the probability of the associated NIC. The color depends on the associated NIC. This image actually contains considerable information about the ability of the variable to make the prediction of Y, depending on the presence or absence of other variables. A basic CNNs model was trained for supervised classification. Results: The first results are impressive. Using the GSE22513 public data (Omic data set of markers of Taxane Sensitivity in Breast Cancer), DEEPNic outperformed other statistical methods, including XGBoost. We still need to generalize the comparison on several databases. Conclusion: The ability to transform any tabular variable into an image offers the possibility of merging image and tabular information in the same format. This opens up great perspectives in the analysis of metadata.

Keywords: tabular data, CNNs, NICs, DeepNICs, random forest of perfect trees, classification

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190 Warfield Spying Robot Using LoRa

Authors: Madhavi T., Sireesha Sakhamuri, Hema Sri A., Harika K.


Today as technological advancements are taking place, these advancements are being used by the armed forces to reduce the risk of their losses and to defeat their enemies. The development of sophisticated technology relies mostly on the use of high- tech weapons or machinery. Robotics is one of the hot spheres of the modern age in which nations concentrate on the state of war and peace for military purposes. They have been in use for demining and rescue operations for some time now but are being propelled by using them for combat and spy missions. This project focuses on creating a LoRa-based spying robot with a wireless IP camera attached to it that can rising the human target. This robot transmits the signal via an IP camera to the base station. One of this project’s major applications can be analyzed using a PC that can be used to control the robot’s movement. The robot sends the signal through the LoRa transceiver at the base station to the LoRa transceiver mounted on the robot. With this function, the, robot can relay videos in real- time along with anti-collision capabilities and the enemies in the war zone cannot recognize them. More importantly, this project focuses on increasing communication using LoRa.

Keywords: lora, IP cam, metal detector, laser shoot

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189 Safe and Efficient Deep Reinforcement Learning Control Model: A Hydroponics Case Study

Authors: Almutasim Billa A. Alanazi, Hal S. Tharp


Safe performance and efficient energy consumption are essential factors for designing a control system. This paper presents a reinforcement learning (RL) model that can be applied to control applications to improve safety and reduce energy consumption. As hardware constraints and environmental disturbances are imprecise and unpredictable, conventional control methods may not always be effective in optimizing control designs. However, RL has demonstrated its value in several artificial intelligence (AI) applications, especially in the field of control systems. The proposed model intelligently monitors a system's success by observing the rewards from the environment, with positive rewards counting as a success when the controlled reference is within the desired operating zone. Thus, the model can determine whether the system is safe to continue operating based on the designer/user specifications, which can be adjusted as needed. Additionally, the controller keeps track of energy consumption to improve energy efficiency by enabling the idle mode when the controlled reference is within the desired operating zone, thus reducing the system energy consumption during the controlling operation. Water temperature control for a hydroponic system is taken as a case study for the RL model, adjusting the variance of disturbances to show the model’s robustness and efficiency. On average, the model showed safety improvement by up to 15% and energy efficiency improvements by 35%- 40% compared to a traditional RL model.

Keywords: control system, hydroponics, machine learning, reinforcement learning

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188 DQN for Navigation in Gazebo Simulator

Authors: Xabier Olaz Moratinos


Drone navigation is critical, particularly during the initial phases, such as the initial ascension, where pilots may fail due to strong external interferences that could potentially lead to a crash. In this ongoing work, a drone has been successfully trained to perform an ascent of up to 6 meters at speeds with external disturbances pushing it up to 24 mph, with the DQN algorithm managing external forces affecting the system. It has been demonstrated that the system can control its height, position, and stability in all three axes (roll, pitch, and yaw) throughout the process. The learning process is carried out in the Gazebo simulator, which emulates interferences, while ROS is used to communicate with the agent.

Keywords: machine learning, DQN, gazebo, navigation

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187 Cybersecurity Assessment of Decentralized Autonomous Organizations in Smart Cities

Authors: Claire Biasco, Thaier Hayajneh


A smart city is the integration of digital technologies in urban environments to enhance the quality of life. Smart cities capture real-time information from devices, sensors, and network data to analyze and improve city functions such as traffic analysis, public safety, and environmental impacts. Current smart cities face controversy due to their reliance on real-time data tracking and surveillance. Internet of Things (IoT) devices and blockchain technology are converging to reshape smart city infrastructure away from its centralized model. Connecting IoT data to blockchain applications would create a peer-to-peer, decentralized model. Furthermore, blockchain technology powers the ability for IoT device data to shift from the ownership and control of centralized entities to individuals or communities with Decentralized Autonomous Organizations (DAOs). In the context of smart cities, DAOs can govern cyber-physical systems to have a greater influence over how urban services are being provided. This paper will explore how the core components of a smart city now apply to DAOs. We will also analyze different definitions of DAOs to determine their most important aspects in relation to smart cities. Both categorizations will provide a solid foundation to conduct a cybersecurity assessment of DAOs in smart cities. It will identify the benefits and risks of adopting DAOs as they currently operate. The paper will then provide several mitigation methods to combat cybersecurity risks of DAO integrations. Finally, we will give several insights into what challenges will be faced by DAO and blockchain spaces in the coming years before achieving a higher level of maturity.

Keywords: blockchain, IoT, smart city, DAO

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186 Development of a New Device for Bending Fatigue Testing

Authors: B. Mokhtarnia, M. Layeghi


This work presented an original bending fatigue-testing setup for fatigue characterization of composite materials. A three-point quasi-static setup was introduced that was capable of applying stress control load in different loading waveforms, frequencies, and stress ratios. This setup was equipped with computerized measuring instruments to evaluate fatigue damage mechanisms. A detailed description of its different parts and working features was given, and dynamic analysis was done to verify the functional accuracy of the device. Feasibility was validated successfully by conducting experimental fatigue tests.

Keywords: bending fatigue, quasi-static testing setup, experimental fatigue testing, composites

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185 Data Quality as a Pillar of Data-Driven Organizations: Exploring the Benefits of Data Mesh

Authors: Marc Bachelet, Abhijit Kumar Chatterjee, José Manuel Avila


Data quality is a key component of any data-driven organization. Without data quality, organizations cannot effectively make data-driven decisions, which often leads to poor business performance. Therefore, it is important for an organization to ensure that the data they use is of high quality. This is where the concept of data mesh comes in. Data mesh is an organizational and architectural decentralized approach to data management that can help organizations improve the quality of data. The concept of data mesh was first introduced in 2020. Its purpose is to decentralize data ownership, making it easier for domain experts to manage the data. This can help organizations improve data quality by reducing the reliance on centralized data teams and allowing domain experts to take charge of their data. This paper intends to discuss how a set of elements, including data mesh, are tools capable of increasing data quality. One of the key benefits of data mesh is improved metadata management. In a traditional data architecture, metadata management is typically centralized, which can lead to data silos and poor data quality. With data mesh, metadata is managed in a decentralized manner, ensuring accurate and up-to-date metadata, thereby improving data quality. Another benefit of data mesh is the clarification of roles and responsibilities. In a traditional data architecture, data teams are responsible for managing all aspects of data, which can lead to confusion and ambiguity in responsibilities. With data mesh, domain experts are responsible for managing their own data, which can help provide clarity in roles and responsibilities and improve data quality. Additionally, data mesh can also contribute to a new form of organization that is more agile and adaptable. By decentralizing data ownership, organizations can respond more quickly to changes in their business environment, which in turn can help improve overall performance by allowing better insights into business as an effect of better reports and visualization tools. Monitoring and analytics are also important aspects of data quality. With data mesh, monitoring, and analytics are decentralized, allowing domain experts to monitor and analyze their own data. This will help in identifying and addressing data quality problems in quick time, leading to improved data quality. Data culture is another major aspect of data quality. With data mesh, domain experts are encouraged to take ownership of their data, which can help create a data-driven culture within the organization. This can lead to improved data quality and better business outcomes. Finally, the paper explores the contribution of AI in the coming years. AI can help enhance data quality by automating many data-related tasks, like data cleaning and data validation. By integrating AI into data mesh, organizations can further enhance the quality of their data. The concepts mentioned above are illustrated by AEKIDEN experience feedback. AEKIDEN is an international data-driven consultancy that has successfully implemented a data mesh approach. By sharing their experience, AEKIDEN can help other organizations understand the benefits and challenges of implementing data mesh and improving data quality.

Keywords: data culture, data-driven organization, data mesh, data quality for business success

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184 Drug-Drug Interaction Prediction in Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Rashini Maduka, C. R. Wijesinghe, A. R. Weerasinghe


Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) can happen when two or more drugs are taken together. Today DDIs have become a serious health issue due to adverse drug effects. In vivo and in vitro methods for identifying DDIs are time-consuming and costly. Therefore, in-silico-based approaches are preferred in DDI identification. Most machine learning models for DDI prediction are used chemical and biological drug properties as features. However, some drug features are not available and costly to extract. Therefore, it is better to make automatic feature engineering. Furthermore, people who have diabetes already suffer from other diseases and take more than one medicine together. Then adverse drug effects may happen to diabetic patients and cause unpleasant reactions in the body. In this study, we present a model with a graph convolutional autoencoder and a graph decoder using a dataset from DrugBank version 5.1.3. The main objective of the model is to identify unknown interactions between antidiabetic drugs and the drugs taken by diabetic patients for other diseases. We considered automatic feature engineering and used Known DDIs only as the input for the model. Our model has achieved 0.86 in AUC and 0.86 in AP.

Keywords: drug-drug interaction prediction, graph embedding, graph convolutional networks, adverse drug effects

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183 Development of Application Architecture for RFID Based Indoor Tracking Using Passive RFID Tag

Authors: Sumaya Ismail, Aijaz Ahmad Rehi


Abstract The location tracking and positioning systems have technologically grown exponentially in recent decade. In particular, Global Position system (GPS) has become a universal norm to be a part of almost every software application directly or indirectly for the location based modules. However major drawback of GPS based system is their inability of working in indoor environments. Researchers are thus focused on the alternative technologies which can be used in indoor environments for a vast range of application domains which require indoor location tracking. One of the most popular technology used for indoor tracking is radio frequency identification (RFID). Due to its numerous advantages, including its cost effectiveness, it is considered as a technology of choice in indoor location tracking systems. To contribute to the emerging trend of the research, this paper proposes an application architecture of passive RFID tag based indoor location tracking system. For the proof of concept, a test bed will be developed to in this study. In addition, various indoor location tracking algorithms will be used to assess their appropriateness in the proposed application architecture.

Keywords: RFID, GPS, indoor location tracking, application architecture, passive RFID tag

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182 Hate Speech Detection Using Deep Learning and Machine Learning Models

Authors: Nabil Shawkat, Jamil Saquer


Social media has accelerated our ability to engage with others and eliminated many communication barriers. On the other hand, the widespread use of social media resulted in an increase in online hate speech. This has drastic impacts on vulnerable individuals and societies. Therefore, it is critical to detect hate speech to prevent innocent users and vulnerable communities from becoming victims of hate speech. We investigate the performance of different deep learning and machine learning algorithms on three different datasets. Our results show that the BERT model gives the best performance among all the models by achieving an F1-score of 90.6% on one of the datasets and F1-scores of 89.7% and 88.2% on the other two datasets.

Keywords: hate speech, machine learning, deep learning, abusive words, social media, text classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 95