Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electrical and Information Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

73 Carbohydrate Intake Estimation in Type I Diabetic Patients Described by UVA/Padova Model

Authors: David A. Padilla, Rodolfo Villamizar


In recent years, closed loop control strategies have been developed in order to establish a healthy glucose profile in type 1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) patients. However, the controller itself is unable to define a suitable reference trajectory for glucose. In this paper, a control strategy Is proposed where the shape of the reference trajectory is generated bases in the amount of carbohydrates present during the digestive process, due to the effect of carbohydrate intake. Since there no exists a sensor to measure the amount of carbohydrates consumed, an estimator is proposed. Thus this paper presents the entire process of designing a carbohydrate estimator, which allows estimate disturbance for a predictive controller (MPC) in a T1MD patient, the estimation will be used to establish a profile of reference and improve the response of the controller by providing the estimated information of ingested carbohydrates. The dynamics of the diabetic model used are due to the equations described by the UVA/Padova model of the T1DMS simulator, the system was developed and simulated in Simulink, taking into account the noise and limitations of the glucose control system actuators.

Keywords: estimation, glucose control, predictive controller, MPC, UVA/Padova

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72 Rumour Containment Using Monitor Placement and Truth Propagation

Authors: Amrah Maryam


The emergence of online social networks (OSNs) has transformed the way we pursue and share information. On the one hand, OSNs provide great ease for the spreading of positive information while, on the other hand, they may also become a channel for the spreading of malicious rumors and misinformation throughout the social network. Thus, to assure the trustworthiness of OSNs to its users, it is of vital importance to detect the misinformation propagation in the network by placing network monitors. In this paper, we aim to place monitors near the suspected nodes with the intent to limit the diffusion of misinformation in the social network, and then we also detect the most significant nodes in the network for propagating true information in order to minimize the effect of already diffused misinformation. Thus, we initiate two heuristic monitor placement using articulation points and truth propagation using eigenvector centrality. Furthermore, to provide real-time workings of the system, we integrate both the monitor placement and truth propagation entities as well. To signify the effectiveness of the approaches, we have carried out the experiment and evaluation of Stanford datasets of online social networks.

Keywords: online social networks, monitor placement, independent cascade model, spread of misinformation

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71 Worst-Case Load Shedding in Electric Power Networks

Authors: Fu Lin


We consider the worst-case load-shedding problem in electric power networks where a number of transmission lines are to be taken out of service. The objective is to identify a prespecified number of line outages that lead to the maximum interruption of power generation and load at the transmission level, subject to the active power-flow model, the load and generation capacity of the buses, and the phase-angle limit across the transmission lines. For this nonlinear model with binary constraints, we show that all decision variables are separable except for the nonlinear power-flow equations. We develop an iterative decomposition algorithm, which converts the worst-case load shedding problem into a sequence of small subproblems. We show that the subproblems are either convex problems that can be solved efficiently or nonconvex problems that have closed-form solutions. Consequently, our approach is scalable for large networks. Furthermore, we prove the convergence of our algorithm to a critical point, and the objective value is guaranteed to decrease throughout the iterations. Numerical experiments with IEEE test cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed approach.

Keywords: load shedding, power system, proximal alternating linearization method, vulnerability analysis

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70 Least Squares Solution for Linear Quadratic Gaussian Problem with Stochastic Approximation Approach

Authors: Sie Long Kek, Wah June Leong, Kok Lay Teo


Linear quadratic Gaussian model is a standard mathematical model for the stochastic optimal control problem. The combination of the linear quadratic estimation and the linear quadratic regulator allows the state estimation and the optimal control policy to be designed separately. This is known as the separation principle. In this paper, an efficient computational method is proposed to solve the linear quadratic Gaussian problem. In our approach, the Hamiltonian function is defined, and the necessary conditions are derived. In addition to this, the output error is defined and the least-square optimization problem is introduced. By determining the first-order necessary condition, the gradient of the sum squares of output error is established. On this point of view, the stochastic approximation approach is employed such that the optimal control policy is updated. Within a given tolerance, the iteration procedure would be stopped and the optimal solution of the linear-quadratic Gaussian problem is obtained. For illustration, an example of the linear-quadratic Gaussian problem is studied. The result shows the efficiency of the approach proposed. In conclusion, the applicability of the approach proposed for solving the linear quadratic Gaussian problem is highly demonstrated.

Keywords: iteration procedure, least squares solution, linear quadratic Gaussian, output error, stochastic approximation

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69 Dataset Quality Index:Development of Composite Indicator Based on Standard Data Quality Indicators

Authors: Sakda Loetpiparwanich, Preecha Vichitthamaros


Nowadays, poor data quality is considered one of the majority costs for a data project. The data project with data quality awareness almost as much time to data quality processes while data project without data quality awareness negatively impacts financial resources, efficiency, productivity, and credibility. One of the processes that take a long time is defining the expectations and measurements of data quality because the expectation is different up to the purpose of each data project. Especially, big data project that maybe involves with many datasets and stakeholders, that take a long time to discuss and define quality expectations and measurements. Therefore, this study aimed at developing meaningful indicators to describe overall data quality for each dataset to quick comparison and priority. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Develop a practical data quality indicators and measurements, (2) Develop data quality dimensions based on statistical characteristics and (3) Develop Composite Indicator that can describe overall data quality for each dataset. The sample consisted of more than 500 datasets from public sources obtained by random sampling. After datasets were collected, there are five steps to develop the Dataset Quality Index (SDQI). First, we define standard data quality expectations. Second, we find any indicators that can measure directly to data within datasets. Thirdly, each indicator aggregates to dimension using factor analysis. Next, the indicators and dimensions were weighted by an effort for data preparing process and usability. Finally, the dimensions aggregate to Composite Indicator. The results of these analyses showed that: (1) The developed useful indicators and measurements contained ten indicators. (2) the developed data quality dimension based on statistical characteristics, we found that ten indicators can be reduced to 4 dimensions. (3) The developed Composite Indicator, we found that the SDQI can describe overall datasets quality of each dataset and can separate into 3 Level as Good Quality, Acceptable Quality, and Poor Quality. The conclusion, the SDQI provide an overall description of data quality within datasets and meaningful composition. We can use SQDI to assess for all data in the data project, effort estimation, and priority. The SDQI also work well with Agile Method by using SDQI to assessment in the first sprint. After passing the initial evaluation, we can add more specific data quality indicators into the next sprint.

Keywords: data quality, dataset quality, data quality management, composite indicator, factor analysis, principal component analysis

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68 Real-Time Path Planning for Unmanned Air Vehicles Using Improved Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree and Iterative Trajectory Optimization

Authors: A. Ramalho, L. Romeiro, R. Ventura, A. Suleman


A real-time path planning framework for Unmanned Air Vehicles, and in particular multi-rotors is proposed. The framework is designed to provide feasible trajectories from the current UAV position to a goal state, taking into account constraints such as obstacle avoidance, problem kinematics, and vehicle limitations such as maximum speed and maximum acceleration. The framework computes feasible paths online, allowing to avoid new, unknown, dynamic obstacles without fully re-computing the trajectory. These features are achieved using an iterative process in which the robot computes and optimizes the trajectory while performing the mission objectives. A first trajectory is computed using a modified Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm, that provides trajectories that respect a maximum curvature constraint. The trajectory optimization is accomplished using the Interior Point Optimizer (IPOPT) as a solver. The framework has proven to be able to compute a trajectory and optimize to a locally optimal with computational efficiency making it feasible for real-time operations.

Keywords: interior point optimization, multi-rotors, online path planning, rapidly exploring random trees, trajectory optimization

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67 Investigating Safe Operation Condition for Iterative Learning Control under Load Disturbances Effect in Singular Values

Authors: Muhammad A. Alsubaie


An iterative learning control framework designed in state feedback structure suffers a lack in investigating load disturbance considerations. The presented work discusses the controller previously designed, highlights the disturbance problem, finds new conditions using singular value principle to assure safe operation conditions with error convergence and reference tracking under the influence of load disturbance. It is known that periodic disturbances can be represented by a delay model in a positive feedback loop acting on the system input. This model can be manipulated by isolating the delay model and finding a controller for the overall system around the delay model to remedy the periodic disturbances using the small signal theorem. The overall system is the base for control design and load disturbance investigation. The major finding of this work is the load disturbance condition found which clearly sets safe operation condition under the influence of load disturbances such that the error tends to nearly zero as the system keeps operating trial after trial.

Keywords: iterative learning control, singular values, state feedback, load disturbance

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66 Investigating the Regulation System of the Synchronous Motor Excitation Mode Serving as a Reactive Power Source

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka, Ulikyan Azatuhi


The efficient usage of the compensation abilities of the electrical drive synchronous motors used in production processes can essentially improve the technical and economic indices of the process.  Reducing the flows of the reactive electrical energy due to the compensation of reactive power allows to significantly reduce the load losses of power in the electrical networks. As a result of analyzing the scientific works devoted to the issues of regulating the excitation of the synchronous motors, the need for comprehensive investigation and estimation of the excitation mode has been substantiated. By means of the obtained transmission functions, in the Simulink environment of the software package MATLAB, the transition processes of the excitation mode have been studied. As a result of obtaining and estimating the graph of the Nyquist plot and the transient process, the necessity of developing the Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) regulator has been justified. The transient processes of the system of the PID regulator have been investigated, and the amplitude–phase characteristics of the system have been estimated. The analysis of the obtained results has shown that the regulation indices of the developed system have been improved. The developed system can be successfully applied for regulating the excitation voltage of different-power synchronous motors, operating with a changing load, ensuring a value of the power coefficient close to 1.

Keywords: transition process, synchronous motor, excitation mode, regulator, reactive power

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65 Study on Errors in Estimating the 3D Gaze Point for Different Pupil Sizes Using Eye Vergences

Authors: M. Pomianek, M. Piszczek, M. Maciejewski


The binocular eye tracking technology is increasingly being used in industry, entertainment and marketing analysis. In the case of virtual reality, eye tracking systems are already the basis for user interaction with the environment. In such systems, the high accuracy of determining the user's eye fixation point is very important due to the specificity of the virtual reality head-mounted display (HMD). Often, however, there are unknown errors occurring in the used eye tracking technology, as well as those resulting from the positioning of the devices in relation to the user's eyes. However, can the virtual environment itself influence estimation errors? The paper presents mathematical analyses and empirical studies of the determination of the fixation point and errors resulting from the change in the size of the pupil in response to the intensity of the displayed scene. The article contains both static laboratory tests as well as on the real user. Based on the research results, optimization solutions were proposed that would reduce the errors of gaze estimation errors. Studies show that errors in estimating the fixation point of vision can be minimized both by improving the pupil positioning algorithm in the video image and by using more precise methods to calibrate the eye tracking system in three-dimensional space.

Keywords: eye tracking, fixation point, pupil size, virtual reality

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64 Developing a Regulator for Improving the Operation Modes of the Electrical Drive Motor

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka


The operation modes of the synchronous motors used in the production processes are greatly conditioned by the accidentally changing technological and power indices.  As a result, the electrical drive synchronous motor may appear in irregular operation regimes. Although there are numerous works devoted to the development of the regulator for the synchronous motor operation modes, their application for the motors working in the irregular modes is not expedient. In this work, to estimate the issues concerning the stability of the synchronous electrical drive system, the transfer functions of the electrical drive synchronous motors operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained.  For that purpose, a model for investigating the frequency characteristics has been developed in the LabView environment. Frequency characteristics for assessing the transient process of the electrical drive system, operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained, and based on their assessment, a regulator for improving the operation modes of the motor has been proposed. The proposed regulator can be successfully used to prevent the irregular modes of the electrical drive synchronous motor, as well as to estimate the operation state of the drive motor of the mechanism with a changing load.

Keywords: electrical drive system, synchronous motor, regulator, stability, transition process

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63 Switched System Diagnosis Based on Intelligent State Filtering with Unknown Models

Authors: Nada Slimane, Foued Theljani, Faouzi Bouani


The paper addresses the problem of fault diagnosis for systems operating in several modes (normal or faulty) based on states assessment. We use, for this purpose, a methodology consisting of three main processes: 1) sequential data clustering, 2) linear model regression and 3) state filtering. Typically, Kalman Filter (KF) is an algorithm that provides estimation of unknown states using a sequence of I/O measurements. Inevitably, although it is an efficient technique for state estimation, it presents two main weaknesses. First, it merely predicts states without being able to isolate/classify them according to their different operating modes, whether normal or faulty modes. To deal with this dilemma, the KF is endowed with an extra clustering step based fully on sequential version of the k-means algorithm. Second, to provide state estimation, KF requires state space models, which can be unknown. A linear regularized regression is used to identify the required models. To prove its effectiveness, the proposed approach is assessed on a simulated benchmark.

Keywords: clustering, diagnosis, Kalman Filtering, k-means, regularized regression

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62 Potentiostatic Growth of Hazenite Mineral Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in 0.1 M K₂HPO₄/0.1 M Na₂HPO₄ Solution

Authors: Liping Wu, Durga Bhakta Pokharel, Junhua Dong, Changgang Wang, Lin Zhao, Wei Ke, Nan Chen


Hazenite conversion coating was deposited on AZ31 Mg alloy in a deaerated phosphate solution containing 0.1 M K₂HPO₄ and 0.1 M Na₂HPO₄ (Na₀.₁K0₀.₁) with pH 9 at −0.8 V. The coating mechanism of hazenite was elucidated by in situ potentiostatic current decay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The volume of H₂ evolved during potentiostatic polarization was measured by a gas collection apparatus. The degradation resistance of the hazenite coating was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37℃ by using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP). The results showed that amorphous Mg(OH)₂ was deposited first, followed by the transformation of Mg(OH)₂ to amorphous MgHPO₄, subsequently the conversion of MgHPO₄ to crystallized K-struvite (KMgPO₄·6H₂O), finally the crystallization of crystallized hazenite (NaKMg₂(PO₄)₂·14H₂O). The deposited coating was composed of four layers where the inner layer is comprised of Mg(OH)₂, the middle layer of Mg(OH)₂ and MgHPO₄, the top layer of Mg(OH)₂, MgHPO₄ and K-struvite, the topmost layer of Mg(OH)₂, MgHPO₄, K-struvite and hazenite (NaKMg₂(PO₄)₂·14H₂O). The PD results showed that the hazenite coating decreased the corrosion rate by two orders of magnitude.

Keywords: magnesium alloy, potentiostatic technique, hazenite, mineral conversion coating

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61 Technology Assessment: Exploring Possibilities to Encounter Problems Faced by Intellectual Property through Blockchain

Authors: M. Ismail, E. Grifell-Tatjé, A. Paz


A significant discussion on the topic of blockchain as a solution to the issues of intellectual property highlights the relevance that this topic holds. Some experts label this technology as destructive since it holds immense potential to change course of traditional practices. The extent and areas to which this technology can be of use are still being researched. This paper provides an in-depth review on the intellectual property and blockchain technology. Further it explores what makes blockchain suitable for intellectual property, the practical solutions available and the support different governments are offering. This paper further studies the framework of universities in context of its outputs and how can they be streamlined using blockchain technology. The paper concludes by discussing some limitations and future research question.

Keywords: blockchain, decentralization, open innovation, intellectual property, patents, university-industry relationship

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60 Fault-Tolerant Control Study and Classification: Case Study of a Hydraulic-Press Model Simulated in Real-Time

Authors: Jorge Rodriguez-Guerra, Carlos Calleja, Aron Pujana, Iker Elorza, Ana Maria Macarulla


Society demands more reliable manufacturing processes capable of producing high quality products in shorter production cycles. New control algorithms have been studied to satisfy this paradigm, in which Fault-Tolerant Control (FTC) plays a significant role. It is suitable to detect, isolate and adapt a system when a harmful or faulty situation appears. In this paper, a general overview about FTC characteristics are exposed; highlighting the properties a system must ensure to be considered faultless. In addition, a research to identify which are the main FTC techniques and a classification based on their characteristics is presented in two main groups: Active Fault-Tolerant Controllers (AFTCs) and Passive Fault-Tolerant Controllers (PFTCs). AFTC encompasses the techniques capable of re-configuring the process control algorithm after the fault has been detected, while PFTC comprehends the algorithms robust enough to bypass the fault without further modifications. The mentioned re-configuration requires two stages, one focused on detection, isolation and identification of the fault source and the other one in charge of re-designing the control algorithm by two approaches: fault accommodation and control re-design. From the algorithms studied, one has been selected and applied to a case study based on an industrial hydraulic-press. The developed model has been embedded under a real-time validation platform, which allows testing the FTC algorithms and analyse how the system will respond when a fault arises in similar conditions as a machine will have on factory. One AFTC approach has been picked up as the methodology the system will follow in the fault recovery process. In a first instance, the fault will be detected, isolated and identified by means of a neural network. In a second instance, the control algorithm will be re-configured to overcome the fault and continue working without human interaction.

Keywords: fault-tolerant control, electro-hydraulic actuator, fault detection and isolation, control re-design, real-time

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59 Setting Uncertainty Conditions Using Singular Values for Repetitive Control in State Feedback

Authors: Muhammad A. Alsubaie, Mubarak K. H. Alhajri, Tarek S. Altowaim


A repetitive controller designed to accommodate periodic disturbances via state feedback is discussed. Periodic disturbances can be represented by a time delay model in a positive feedback loop acting on system output. A direct use of the small gain theorem solves the periodic disturbances problem via 1) isolating the delay model, 2) finding the overall system representation around the delay model and 3) designing a feedback controller that assures overall system stability and tracking error convergence. This paper addresses uncertainty conditions for the repetitive controller designed in state feedback in either past error feedforward or current error feedback using singular values. The uncertainty investigation is based on the overall system found and the stability condition associated with it; depending on the scheme used, to set an upper/lower limit weighting parameter. This creates a region that should not be exceeded in selecting the weighting parameter which in turns assures performance improvement against system uncertainty. Repetitive control problem can be described in lifted form. This allows the usage of singular values principle in setting the range for the weighting parameter selection. The Simulation results obtained show a tracking error convergence against dynamic system perturbation if the weighting parameter chosen is within the range obtained. Simulation results also show the advantage of weighting parameter usage compared to the case where it is omitted.

Keywords: model mismatch, repetitive control, singular values, state feedback

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58 Map Matching Performance under Various Similarity Metrics for Heterogeneous Robot Teams

Authors: M. C. Akay, A. Aybakan, H. Temeltas


Aerial and ground robots have various advantages of usage in different missions. Aerial robots can move quickly and get a different sight of view of the area, but those vehicles cannot carry heavy payloads. On the other hand, unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are slow moving vehicles, since those can carry heavier payloads than unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In this context, we investigate the performances of various Similarity Metrics to provide a common map for Heterogeneous Robot Team (HRT) in complex environments. Within the usage of Lidar Odometry and Octree Mapping technique, the local 3D maps of the environment are gathered.  In order to obtain a common map for HRT, informative theoretic similarity metrics are exploited. All types of these similarity metrics gave adequate as allowable simulation time and accurate results that can be used in different types of applications. For the heterogeneous multi robot team, those methods can be used to match different types of maps.

Keywords: common maps, heterogeneous robot team, map matching, informative theoretic similarity metrics

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57 Analyzing the Practicality of Drawing Inferences in Automation of Commonsense Reasoning

Authors: Chandan Hegde, K. Ashwini


Commonsense reasoning is the simulation of human ability to make decisions during the situations that we encounter every day. It has been several decades since the introduction of this subfield of artificial intelligence, but it has barely made some significant progress. The modern computing aids also have remained impotent in this regard due to the absence of a strong methodology towards commonsense reasoning development. Among several accountable reasons for the lack of progress, drawing inference out of commonsense knowledge-base stands out. This review paper emphasizes on a detailed analysis of representation of reasoning uncertainties and feasible prospects of programming aids for drawing inferences. Also, the difficulties in deducing and systematizing commonsense reasoning and the substantial progress made in reasoning that influences the study have been discussed. Additionally, the paper discusses the possible impacts of an effective inference technique in commonsense reasoning.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, commonsense reasoning, knowledge base, uncertainty in reasoning

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56 Five-Phase Induction Motor Drive System Driven by Five-Phase Packed U Cell Inverter: Its Modeling and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Mohd Tariq


The three phase system drives produce the problem of more torque pulsations and harmonics. This issue prevents the smooth operation of the drives and it also induces the amount of heat generated thus resulting in an increase in power loss. Higher phase system offers smooth operation of the machines with greater power capacity. Five phase variable-speed induction motor drives are commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications like tractions, electrical vehicles, ship propulsions and conveyor belt drive system. In this work, a comparative analysis of the different modulation schemes applied on the five-level five-phase Packed U Cell (PUC) inverter fed induction motor drives is presented. The performance of the inverter is greatly affected with the modulation schemes applied. The system is modeled, designed, and implemented in MATLAB®/Simulink environment. Experimental validation is done for the prototype of single phase, whereas five phase experimental validation is proposed in the future works.

Keywords: Packed U-Cell (PUC) inverter, five-phase system, pulse width modulation (PWM), induction motor (IM)

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55 Improvement of Ride Comfort of Turning Electric Vehicle Using Optimal Speed Control

Authors: Yingyi Zhou, Tohru Kawabe


With the spread of EVs (electric Vehicles), the ride comfort has been gaining a lot of attention. The influence of the lateral acceleration is important for the improvement of ride comfort of EVs as well as the longitudinal acceleration, especially upon turning of the vehicle. Therefore, this paper proposes a practical optimal speed control method to greatly improve the ride comfort in the vehicle turning situation. For consturcting this method, effective criteria that can appropriately evaluate deterioration of ride comfort is derived. The method can reduce the influence of both the longitudinal and the lateral speed changes for providing a confortable ride. From several simulation results, we can see the fact that the method can prevent aggravation of the ride comfort by suppressing the influence of longitudinal speed change in the turning situation. Hence, the effectiveness of the method is recognized.

Keywords: electric vehicle, speed control, ride comfort, optimal control theory, driving support system

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54 A Relative Entropy Regularization Approach for Fuzzy C-Means Clustering Problem

Authors: Ouafa Amira, Jiangshe Zhang


Clustering is an unsupervised machine learning technique; its aim is to extract the data structures, in which similar data objects are grouped in the same cluster, whereas dissimilar objects are grouped in different clusters. Clustering methods are widely utilized in different fields, such as: image processing, computer vision , and pattern recognition, etc. Fuzzy c-means clustering (fcm) is one of the most well known fuzzy clustering methods. It is based on solving an optimization problem, in which a minimization of a given cost function has been studied. This minimization aims to decrease the dissimilarity inside clusters, where the dissimilarity here is measured by the distances between data objects and cluster centers. The degree of belonging of a data point in a cluster is measured by a membership function which is included in the interval [0, 1]. In fcm clustering, the membership degree is constrained with the condition that the sum of a data object’s memberships in all clusters must be equal to one. This constraint can cause several problems, specially when our data objects are included in a noisy space. Regularization approach took a part in fuzzy c-means clustering technique. This process introduces an additional information in order to solve an ill-posed optimization problem. In this study, we focus on regularization by relative entropy approach, where in our optimization problem we aim to minimize the dissimilarity inside clusters. Finding an appropriate membership degree to each data object is our objective, because an appropriate membership degree leads to an accurate clustering result. Our clustering results in synthetic data sets, gaussian based data sets, and real world data sets show that our proposed model achieves a good accuracy.

Keywords: clustering, fuzzy c-means, regularization, relative entropy

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53 Evolving Digital Circuits for Early Stage Breast Cancer Detection Using Cartesian Genetic Programming

Authors: Zahra Khalid, Gul Muhammad Khan, Arbab Masood Ahmad


Cartesian Genetic Programming (CGP) is explored to design an optimal circuit capable of early stage breast cancer detection. CGP is used to evolve simple multiplexer circuits for detection of malignancy in the Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) samples of breast. The data set used is extracted from Wisconsins Breast Cancer Database (WBCD). A range of experiments were performed, each with different set of network parameters. The best evolved network detected malignancy with an accuracy of 99.14%, which is higher than that produced with most of the contemporary non-linear techniques that are computational expensive than the proposed system. The evolved network comprises of simple multiplexers and can be implemented easily in hardware without any further complications or inaccuracy, being the digital circuit.

Keywords: breast cancer detection, cartesian genetic programming, evolvable hardware, fine needle aspiration

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52 Using Structured Analysis and Design Technique Method for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Components

Authors: Najeh Lakhoua


Introduction: Scientific developments and techniques for the systemic approach generate several names to the systemic approach: systems analysis, systems analysis, structural analysis. The main purpose of these reflections is to find a multi-disciplinary approach which organizes knowledge, creates universal language design and controls complex sets. In fact, system analysis is structured sequentially by steps: the observation of the system by various observers in various aspects, the analysis of interactions and regulatory chains, the modeling that takes into account the evolution of the system, the simulation and the real tests in order to obtain the consensus. Thus the system approach allows two types of analysis according to the structure and the function of the system. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of system analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) components in order to represent the architecture of this system. Method: There are various analysis methods which are proposed, in the literature, in to carry out actions of global analysis and different points of view as SADT method (Structured Analysis and Design Technique), Petri Network. The methodology adopted in order to contribute to the system analysis of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle has been proposed in this paper and it is based on the use of SADT. In fact, we present a functional analysis based on the SADT method of UAV components Body, power supply and platform, computing, sensors, actuators, software, loop principles, flight controls and communications). Results: In this part, we present the application of SADT method for the functional analysis of the UAV components. This SADT model will be composed exclusively of actigrams. It starts with the main function ‘To analysis of the UAV components’. Then, this function is broken into sub-functions and this process is developed until the last decomposition level has been reached (levels A1, A2, A3 and A4). Recall that SADT techniques are semi-formal; however, for the same subject, different correct models can be built without having to know with certitude which model is the good or, at least, the best. In fact, this kind of model allows users a sufficient freedom in its construction and so the subjective factor introduces a supplementary dimension for its validation. That is why the validation step on the whole necessitates the confrontation of different points of views. Conclusion: In this paper, we presented an application of system analysis of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle components. In fact, this application of system analysis is based on SADT method (Structured Analysis Design Technique). This functional analysis proved the useful use of SADT method and its ability of describing complex dynamic systems.

Keywords: system analysis, unmanned aerial vehicle, functional analysis, architecture

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51 A Posterior Predictive Model-Based Control Chart for Monitoring Healthcare

Authors: Yi-Fan Lin, Peter P. Howley, Frank A. Tuyl


Quality measurement and reporting systems are used in healthcare internationally. In Australia, the Australian Council on Healthcare Standards records and reports hundreds of clinical indicators (CIs) nationally across the healthcare system. These CIs are measures of performance in the clinical setting, and are used as a screening tool to help assess whether a standard of care is being met. Existing analysis and reporting of these CIs incorporate Bayesian methods to address sampling variation; however, such assessments are retrospective in nature, reporting upon the previous six or twelve months of data. The use of Bayesian methods within statistical process control for monitoring systems is an important pursuit to support more timely decision-making. Our research has developed and assessed a new graphical monitoring tool, similar to a control chart, based on the beta-binomial posterior predictive (BBPP) distribution to facilitate the real-time assessment of health care organizational performance via CIs. The BBPP charts have been compared with the traditional Bernoulli CUSUM (BC) chart by simulation. The more traditional “central” and “highest posterior density” (HPD) interval approaches were each considered to define the limits, and the multiple charts were compared via in-control and out-of-control average run lengths (ARLs), assuming that the parameter representing the underlying CI rate (proportion of cases with an event of interest) required estimation. Preliminary results have identified that the BBPP chart with HPD-based control limits provides better out-of-control run length performance than the central interval-based and BC charts. Further, the BC chart’s performance may be improved by using Bayesian parameter estimation of the underlying CI rate.

Keywords: average run length (ARL), bernoulli cusum (BC) chart, beta binomial posterior predictive (BBPP) distribution, clinical indicator (CI), healthcare organization (HCO), highest posterior density (HPD) interval

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50 Virtual Conciliation in Colombia: Evaluation of Maturity Level within the Framework of E-Government

Authors: Jenny Paola Forero Pachón, Sonia Cristina Gamboa Sarmiento, Luis Carlos Gómez Flórez


The Colombian government has defined an e-government strategy to take advantage of Information Technologies (IT) in order to contribute to the building of a more efficient, transparent and participative State that provides better services to citizens and businesses. In this regard, the Justice sector is one of the government sectors where IT has generated more expectation considering that the country has a judicial processes backlog. This situation has led to the search for alternative forms of access to justice that speed up the process while providing a low cost for citizens. To this end, the Colombian government has authorized the use of Alternative Dispute Resolution methods (ADR), a remedy where disputes can be resolved more quickly compared to judicial processes while facilitating greater communication between the parties, without recourse to judicial authority. One of these methods is conciliation, which includes a special modality that takes advantage of IT for the development of itself known as virtual conciliation. With this option the conciliation is supported by information systems, applications or platforms and communications are provided through it. This paper evaluates the level of maturity in how the service of virtual conciliation is under the framework of this strategy. This evaluation is carried out considering Shahkooh's 5-phase model for e-government. As a result, it is evident that in the context of conciliation, maturity does not reach the necessary level in the model so that it can be considered as virtual conciliation; therefore, it is necessary to define strategies to maximize the potential of IT in this context.

Keywords: alternative dispute resolution, e-government, evaluation of maturity, Shahkooh model, virtual conciliation

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49 All Solution-Processed Organic Light Emitting Diode with Low Melting Point Alloy Encapsulation

Authors: Geon Bae, Cheol Hee Moon


Organic Light Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) are being developed rapidly as next-generation displays due to their self-luminous and flexible characteristics. OLEDs are highly susceptible to moisture and oxygen due to their structural properties. Thus, requiring a high level of encapsulation technology. Recently, encapsulation technology such as Thin Film Encapsulation (TFE) has been developed for OLED, but it is not perfect to prevent moisture permeation on the side. In this study, we propose OLED encapsulation method using Low melting Point Alloy (LMPA). The LMPA line was designed in square box shape on the outer edge of the device and was formed by screen printing method. To determine if LMPA has an effect on OLED, we fabricated solution processed OLEDs with a square-shaped LMPA line and evaluate the I-V-L characteristics of the OLEDs. Also, the resistance characteristic of the LMPA line was observed by repeatedly bending the LMPA line. It is expected that LMPA encapsulation will have a great advantage in shortening the process time and cost reduction.

Keywords: OLED, encapsulation, LMPA, solution process

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48 Process for Analyzing Information Security Risks Associated with the Incorporation of Online Dispute Resolution Systems in the Context of Conciliation in Colombia

Authors: Jefferson Camacho Mejia, Jenny Paola Forero Pachon, Luis Carlos Gomez Florez


The innumerable possibilities offered by the use of Information Technology (IT) in the development of different socio-economic activities has made a change in the social paradigm and the emergence of the so-called information and knowledge society. The Colombian government, aware of this reality, has been promoting the use of IT as part of the E-government strategy adopted in the country. However, it is well known that the use of IT implies the existence of certain threats that put the security of information in the digital environment at risk. One of the priorities of the Colombian government is to improve access to alternative justice through IT, in particular, access to Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR): conciliation, arbitration and friendly composition; by means of which it is sought that the citizens directly resolve their differences. To this end, a trend has been identified in the use of Online Dispute Resolution (ODR) systems, which extend the benefits of ADR to the digital environment through the use of IT. This article presents a process for the analysis of information security risks associated with the incorporation of ODR systems in the context of conciliation in Colombia, based on four fundamental stages identified in the literature: (I) Identification of assets, (II) Identification of threats and vulnerabilities (III) Estimation of the impact and 4) Estimation of risk levels. The methodological design adopted for this research was the grounded theory, since it involves interactions that are applied to a specific context and from the perspective of diverse participants. As a result of this investigation, the activities to be followed are defined to carry out an analysis of information security risks, in the context of the conciliation in Colombia supported by ODR systems, thus contributing to the estimation of the risks to make possible its subsequent treatment.

Keywords: alternative dispute resolution, conciliation, information security, online dispute resolution systems, process, risk analysis

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47 Multi Antenna Systems for 5G Mobile Phones

Authors: Muhammad N. Khan, Syed O. Gillani, Mohsin Jamil, Tarbia Iftikhar


With the increasing demand of bandwidth and data rate, there is a dire need to implement antenna systems in mobile phones which are able to fulfill user requirements. A monopole antenna system with multi-antennas configurations is proposed considering the feasibility and user demand. The multi-antenna structure is referred to as multi-input multi-output (MIMO) antenna system. The multi-antenna system comprises of 4 antennas operating below 6 GHz frequency bands for 4G/LTE and 4 antenna for 5G applications at 28 GHz and the dimension of board is 120 × 70 × 0.8mm3. The suggested designs is feasible with a structure of low-profile planar-antenna and is adaptable to smart cell phones and handheld devices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first design compared to the literature by having integrated antenna system for two standards, i.e., 4G and 5G. All MIMO antenna systems are simulated on commercially available software, which is high frequency structures simulator (HFSS).

Keywords: high frequency structures simulator (HFSS), mutli-input multi-output (MIMO), monopole antenna, slot antenna

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46 Estimating Occupancy in Residential Context Using Bayesian Networks for Energy Management

Authors: Manar Amayri, Hussain Kazimi, Quoc-Dung Ngo, Stephane Ploix


A general approach is proposed to determine occupant behavior (occupancy and activity) in residential buildings and to use these estimates for improved energy management. Occupant behaviour is modelled with a Bayesian Network in an unsupervised manner. This algorithm makes use of domain knowledge gathered via questionnaires and recorded sensor data for motion detection, power, and hot water consumption as well as indoor CO₂ concentration. Two case studies are presented which show the real world applicability of estimating occupant behaviour in this way. Furthermore, experiments integrating occupancy estimation and hot water production control show that energy efficiency can be increased by roughly 5% over known optimal control techniques and more than 25% over rule-based control while maintaining the same occupant comfort standards. The efficiency gains are strongly correlated with occupant behaviour and accuracy of the occupancy estimates.

Keywords: energy, management, control, optimization, Bayesian methods, learning theory, sensor networks, knowledge modelling and knowledge based systems, artificial intelligence, buildings

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45 A Combined High Gain-Higher Order Sliding Mode Controller for a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Systems

Authors: Abderraouf Gaaloul, Faouzi Msahli


The use of standard sliding mode controller, usually, leads to the appearing of an undesirable chattering phenomenon affecting the control signal. Such problem can be overcome using a higher-order sliding mode controller (HOSMC) which preserves the main properties of the standard sliding mode and deliberately increases the control smoothness. In this paper, we propose a new HOSMC for a class of uncertain multi-input multi-output nonlinear systems. Based on high gain and integral sliding mode paradigms, the established control scheme removes theoretically the chattering phenomenon and provides the stability of the control system. Numerical simulations are developed to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller when applied to solve a control problem of two water levels into a quadruple-tank process.

Keywords: nonlinear systems, sliding mode control, high gain, higher order

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44 Multivariate Statistical Process Monitoring of Base Metal Flotation Plant Using Dissimilarity Scale-Based Singular Spectrum Analysis

Authors: Syamala Krishnannair


A multivariate statistical process monitoring methodology using dissimilarity scale-based singular spectrum analysis (SSA) is proposed for the detection and diagnosis of process faults in the base metal flotation plant. Process faults are detected based on the multi-level decomposition of process signals by SSA using the dissimilarity structure of the process data and the subsequent monitoring of the multiscale signals using the unified monitoring index which combines T² with SPE. Contribution plots are used to identify the root causes of the process faults. The overall results indicated that the proposed technique outperformed the conventional multivariate techniques in the detection and diagnosis of the process faults in the flotation plant.

Keywords: fault detection, fault diagnosis, process monitoring, dissimilarity scale

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