Abstracts | Educational and Pedagogical Sciences
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3645

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Educational and Pedagogical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

3645 Promoting Academic and Social-Emotional Growth of Students with Learning Differences Through Differentiated Instruction

Authors: Jolanta Jonak

Abstract:

Traditional classrooms are challenging for many students, but especially for students that learn differently due to cognitive makeup, learning preferences, or disability. These students often require different teaching approaches and learning opportunities to benefit from learning. Teachers frequently divert to using one teaching approach, the one that matches their own learning style. For instance, teachers that are auditory learners, likely default to providing auditory learning opportunities. However, if a student is a visual learner, he/she may not fully benefit from that teaching style. Based on research, students and their parents’ feedback, large numbers of students are not provided the type of education and types of supports they need in order to be successful in an academic environment. This eventually leads to not learning at an appropriate rate and ultimately leading to skill deficiencies and deficits. Providing varied learning approaches promote high academic and social-emotional growth of all students and it will prevent inaccurate Special Education referrals. Varied learning opportunities can be delivered for all students by providing Differentiated Instruction (DI). This type of instruction allows each student to learn in the most optimal way regardless of learning preferences and cognitive learning profiles. Using Differentiated Instruction will lead to a high level of student engagement and learning. In addition, experiencing success in the classroom, will contribute to increased social emotional wellbeing. Being cognizant of how teaching approaches impact student's learning, school staff can avoid inaccurate perceptions about the students’ learning abilities, unnecessary referrals for special education evaluations, and inaccurate decisions about the presence of a disability. This presentation will illustrate learning differences due to various factors, how to recognize them, and how to address them through Differentiated Instruction.

Keywords: special education, disability, differences, differentiated instruction, social emotional wellbeing

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3644 Framework for Explicit Social Justice Nursing Education and Practice: A Constructivist Grounded Theory Research

Authors: Victor Abu

Abstract:

Background: Social justice ideals are considered as the foundation of nursing practice. These ideals are not always clearly integrated into nursing professional standards or curricula. This hinders concerted global nursing agendas for becoming aware of social injustice or engaging in action for social justice to improve the health of individuals and groups. Aim and objectives: The aim was to create an educational framework for empowering nursing students for social justice awareness and action. This purpose was attained by understanding the meaning of social justice, the effect of social injustice, the visibility of social justice learning, and ways of integrating social justice in nursing education and practice. Methods: Critical interpretive methodologies and constructivist grounded theory research designs guided the processes of recruiting nursing students (n = 11) and nurse educators (n = 11) at a London nursing university to participate in interviews and focus groups, which were analysed by coding systems. Findings: Firstly, social justice was described as ethical practices that enable individuals and groups to have good access to health resources. Secondly, social injustice was understood as unfair practices that caused minimal access to resources, social deprivation, and poor health. Thirdly, social justice learning was considered to be invisible in nursing education due to a lack of explicit modules, educator knowledge, and organisational support. Lastly, explicit modules, educating educators, and attracting leaders’ support were suggested as approaches for the visible integration of social justice in nursing education and practice. Discussion: This research proposes approaches for nursing awareness and action for the development of critical active nurse-learner, critical conscious nurse-educator, and servant nurse leader. The framework on Awareness for Social Justice Action (ASJA) created in this research is an approach for empowering nursing students for social justice practices. Conclusion: This research contributes to and advocates for greater nursing scholarship to raise the spotlight on social justice in the profession.

Keywords: social justice, nursing practice, nursing education, nursing curriculum, social justice awareness, social justice action, constructivist grounded theory

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3643 Leadership Dynamics and Teacher Engagement in Greek Education

Authors: Vasileios Floros

Abstract:

This article delves into the intricate interplay between leadership styles and teacher satisfaction within the Greek educational framework, underscoring the pivotal role of school leadership in shaping educational success and fostering a conducive school culture. Through a comprehensive analysis, the study explores various leadership theories, the psychological contract between teachers and leaders, and the impact of leadership on teacher job satisfaction and group dynamics within educational institutions. It highlights how leadership efficacy can significantly influence the organizational climate, teacher motivation, and ultimately, the educational outcomes. The findings suggest that effective leadership, characterized by a deep understanding of teacher psychology, thoughtful engagement with the school culture, and strategic application of leadership styles, can lead to heightened teacher satisfaction and enhanced educational performance. This research offers valuable insights for educational policymakers, school leaders, and the broader academic community interested in optimizing leadership practices to foster an enriching educational environment in Greece.

Keywords: educational leadership, teacher satisfaction, school culture, leadership styles, Greek education

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3642 Cluster Analysis of Students’ Learning Satisfaction

Authors: Purevdolgor Luvsantseren, Ajnai Luvsan-Ish, Oyuntsetseg Sandag, Javzmaa Tsend, Akhit Tileubai, Baasandorj Chilhaasuren, Jargalbat Puntsagdash, Galbadrakh Chuluunbaatar

Abstract:

One of the indicators of the quality of university services is student satisfaction. Aim: We aimed to study the level of satisfaction of students in the first year of premedical courses in the course of Medical Physics using the cluster method. Materials and Methods: In the framework of this goal, a questionnaire was collected from a total of 324 students who studied the medical physics course of the 1st course of the premedical course at the Mongolian National University of Medical Sciences. When determining the level of satisfaction, the answers were obtained on five levels of satisfaction: "excellent", "good", "medium", "bad" and "very bad". A total of 39 questionnaires were collected from students: 8 for course evaluation, 19 for teacher evaluation, and 12 for student evaluation. From the research, a database with 39 fields and 324 records was created. Results: In this database, cluster analysis was performed in MATLAB and R programs using the k-means method of data mining. Calculated the Hopkins statistic in the created database, the values are 0.88, 0.87, and 0.97. This shows that cluster analysis methods can be used. The course evaluation sub-fund is divided into three clusters. Among them, cluster I has 150 objects with a "good" rating of 46.2%, cluster II has 119 objects with a "medium" rating of 36.7%, and Cluster III has 54 objects with a "good" rating of 16.6%. The teacher evaluation sub-base into three clusters, there are 179 objects with a "good" rating of 55.2% in cluster II, 108 objects with an "average" rating of 33.3% in cluster III, and 36 objects with an "excellent" rating in cluster I of 11.1%. The sub-base of student evaluations is divided into two clusters: cluster II has 215 objects with an "excellent" rating of 66.3%, and cluster I has 108 objects with an "excellent" rating of 33.3%. Evaluating the resulting clusters with the Silhouette coefficient, 0.32 for the course evaluation cluster, 0.31 for the teacher evaluation cluster, and 0.30 for student evaluation show statistical significance. Conclusion: Finally, to conclude, cluster analysis in the model of the medical physics lesson “good” - 46.2%, “middle” - 36.7%, “bad” - 16.6%; 55.2% - “good”, 33.3% - “middle”, 11.1% - “bad” in the teacher evaluation model; 66.3% - “good” and 33.3% of “bad” in the student evaluation model.

Keywords: questionnaire, data mining, k-means method, silhouette coefficient

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3641 Teaching Young Children Social and Emotional Learning through Shared Book Reading: Project GROW

Authors: Stephanie Al Otaiba, Kyle Roberts

Abstract:

Background and Significance Globally far too many students read below grade level; thus improving literacy outcomes is vital. Research suggests that non-cognitive factors, including Social and Emotional Learning (SEL) are linked to success in literacy outcomes. Converging evidence exists that early interventions are more effective than later remediation; therefore teachers need strategies to support early literacy while developing students’ SEL and their vocabulary, or language, for learning. This presentation describe findings from a US federally-funded project that trained teachers to provide an evidence-based read-aloud program for young children, using commercially available books with multicultural characters and themes to help their students “GROW”. The five GROW SEL themes include: “I can name my feelings”, “I can learn from my mistakes”, “I can persist”, “I can be kind to myself and others”, and “I can work toward and achieve goals”. Examples of GROW vocabulary (from over 100 words taught across the 5 units) include: emotions, improve, resilient, cooperate, accomplish, responsible, compassion, adapt, achieve, analyze. Methodology This study used a mixed methods research design, with qualitative methods to describe data from teacher feedback surveys (regarding satisfaction, feasibility), observations of fidelity of implementation, and with quantitative methods to assess the effect sizes for student vocabulary growth. GROW Intervention and Teacher Training Procedures Researchers trained classroom teachers to implement GROW. Each thematic unit included four books, vocabulary cards with images of the vocabulary words, and scripted lessons. Teacher training included online and in-person training; researchers incorporated virtual reality videos of instructors with child avatars to model lessons. Classroom teachers provided 2-3 20 min lessons per week ranging from short-term (8 weeks) to longer-term trials for up to 16 weeks. Setting and Participants The setting for the study included two large urban charter schools in the South. Data was collected across two years; during the first year, participants included 7 kindergarten teachers and 108 and the second year involved an additional set of 5 kindergarten and first grade teachers and 65 students. Initial Findings The initial qualitative findings indicate teachers reported the lessons to be feasible to implement and they reported that students enjoyed the books. Teachers found the vocabulary words to be challenging and important. They were able to implement lessons with fidelity. Quantitative analyses of growth for each taught word suggest that students’ growth on taught words ranged from large (ES = .75) to small (<.20). Researchers will contrast the effects for more and less successful books within the GROW units. Discussion and Conclusion It is feasible for teachers of young students to effectively teach SEL vocabulary and themes during shared book reading. Teachers and students enjoyed the books and students demonstrated growth on taught vocabulary. Researchers will discuss implications of the study and about the GROW program for researchers in learning sciences, will describe some limitations about research designs that are inherent in school-based research partnerships, and will provide some suggested directions for future research and practice.

Keywords: early literacy, learning science, language and vocabulary, social and emotional learning, multi-cultural

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3640 English as a Medium of Instruction in Tunisian Higher Education Institutions: Exploring Attitudes, Challenges, and Opportunities

Authors: Karim Karmi

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To keep pace with the requirements of globalization, a lot of universities across the globe have started teaching various academic subjects in English. In Tunisia, two higher education institutions have embarked on the experience of teaching in English instead of French. The aim of the present study was threefold. First, it sought to explore the stakeholders’ attitudes toward this shift. By stakeholders, we mean students and teachers. Second, it aimed at probing the challenges that might arise in the classroom. By challenges, we mean the linguistic and pedagogical difficulties that students and teachers might face. Third, the study investigated the reasons that led teachers and students to opt for English as a medium of instruction instead of French. The participants were 335 students and 14 teachers selected from two Tunisian universities teaching in English. Data was collected by means of questionnaires, interviews, and classroom observations. The findings showed that there is a positive attitude towards English, in contrast to French. In other words, both students and teachers are enjoying the experience, and they hope that English will officially become the medium of instruction in Tunisia. Students and teachers reported a number of linguistic and pedagogical challenges, and they mainly ascribed them to the abrupt transition from French to English. The vast majority of the respondents, be they students or teachers, opted for English as a medium of instruction to maximise their chances of getting a job abroad. It is also worth noting that most teachers stated that teaching through English helps them when it comes to publishing academic articles.

Keywords: attitudes, challenges, English as a medium of instruction, opportunities

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3639 A Study on the Effectiveness of Translanguaging in EFL Classrooms: The Case of First-year Japanese University Students

Authors: Malainine Ebnou

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This study investigates the effectiveness of using translanguaging techniques in EFL classrooms. The interest in this topic stems from the lack of research on the effectiveness of translanguaging techniques in foreign language learning, both domestically in Japan and globally, as research has focused on translanguaging from a teaching perspective but not much on it from a learning perspective. The main question that the study departs from is whether students’ use of translanguaging techniques can produce better learning outcomes when used at the university level. The sample population of the study is first-year Japanese university students. The study takes an experimental approach where translanguaging is introduced to one group, the experimental group, and withheld from another group, the control group. Both groups will then be assessed and compared to see if the use of translanguaging has had a positive impact on learning. The impact of the research could be in three ways: challenging the prevailing argument that using learners' mother tongue in the classroom is detrimental to the learning process, challenging native speaker-centered approaches in the EFL field, and arguing that translanguaging in EFL classrooms can produce more meaningful learning outcomes. If the effectiveness of translanguaging is confirmed, it will be possible to promote the use of translanguaging in English learning at Japanese universities and contribute to the improvement of students' English, and even lay the foundations for extending the use of translanguaging to people of other ages/nationalities and other languages in the future.

Keywords: translanguaging, EFL, language learning and teaching, applied linguistics

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3638 Assessing Conceptions of Climate Change: An Exploratory Study among Japanese Early-Adolescents

Authors: Kelvin Tang

Abstract:

As the world is approaching global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, more atrocious consequences of climate change are projected to occur in the future. Consequently, it is today’s adolescents who will encounter the grand consequences of climate change. Therefore, nurturing adolescents that are well-informed, emotionally engaged, and motivated to take actions for combating climate change may be pivotal. Climate change education has a role in not only raising awareness, but also promoting behaviour change for climate change mitigation and adaptation. However, what kind of climate change education is suitable for whom? Requiring a learner-centred approach, tailoring climate change education requires a comprehensive understanding of the audience and their preconditions. In Japan, where climate change education has yet to be recognised as a field of environmental education, understanding climate change conceptions possessed by early adolescents is critical for a better design and more impactful implementation of climate change education. This exploratory study aims to investigate climate change conceptions among Japanese early adolescents from the perspective of cognition, affective, and conative dimensions. Questionnaire surveys were conducted targeting 423 students aged 12–14 in three public junior high schools located in Kashiwa City and Oita City. Findings suggest that the majority of Japanese early adolescents belong to groups that exhibit lower levels of cognition, affect, and conation in relation to climate change. The relationships among those dimensions were found to be positive and bidirectional. Moreover, several misconceptions about climate change and the effectiveness of its solutions were identified among the sample.

Keywords: climate change conceptions, climate change education, environmental education, adolescents, three learning dimensions, Japan

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3637 The Struggle to teach/learn English as a Foreign Language in Turkiye: A Critical Report

Authors: Gizem Yilmazel

Abstract:

Turkiye has been facing failure in English language teaching despite long years of English studies during mandatory education. A body of research studying the reasons of the failure in the literature exists yet the problem has not been solved and English language education is still a phenomenon in Turkiye. The failure is mostly attributed to the methods used in English education (Grammar Translation Method), lack of exposure to the language, inability to practice the language, financial difficulties, the belief of abroad experience necessity, national examinations, and conservative institutional policies. The findings are evident and tangible yet the problem persists. This paper aims to bring the issue a critical perspective and discuss the reasons of the failure.

Keywords: EFL, failure, critical perspective, language education

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3636 Comparing Student Performance on Standardized Tests at Test Center versus through Online-Proctored Delivery

Authors: Jin Koo

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The main purpose of this study is to investigate the comparability of student scores obtained from Test Center (TC) vs. Online-Proctored (OP) Delivery in the three subject areas of Verbal, Reading, and Mathematics for each level (Middle and Upper). Also, this study examines whether there is an interaction effect between test deliveries (TC vs. OP) and gender/ethnicity/ability level in each subject area. The test used in this study is a multiple-choice standardized test for students in grades 5-11. For this study, data were collected during the 2022-23 test administration. This research used a one-factor between-subjects ANOVA and Cohen’s d to compare the TC and OP groups’ test means for each level and each subject area. Also, 2-factor between-subjects ANOVAs were conducted to investigate examinee characteristics: gender (male and female), ethnicity (African-American, Asian, Hispanic, Multi-racial, and White), and ability level (low, average, and high-ability groups). The author found that students’ test scores in some subject areas varied between TC and OP test deliveries by gender, ethnicity, and ability level, meaning that gender, ethnicity, and ability level were related to the score difference. These results will be discussed according to the current testing systems.

Keywords: ability level, ethnicity, gender, online-proctored delivery, standardized test, test center

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3635 A Critical-Quantitative Approach to Examine the Effects of Systemic Factors on Education Outcomes

Authors: Sireen Irsheid

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Despite concerted efforts to improve education attainment with progress in recent years, student achievement and attainment remain among the most significant challenges for school districts across the United States. Many scholars have argued that students who do not complete high school do not drop out of school voluntarily but are ‘pushed out’ of schools through multiple mechanisms related to structural and socioeconomic barriers, behavioral health challenges, pedagogical practices, and administrative procedures. Extant literature has shown that living in historically disadvantaged neighborhoods or attending under-resourced schools exacerbates student-level risk factors for grade retention and school pushout. Most efforts to respond to the school pushout phenomenon have focused on individual characteristics of students, with relatively little attention to addressing these multiple system-level characteristics related to perpetuating inequities. This study is built on a growing body of social justice-oriented research concerned with the systemic influences that shape the experiences and mental health challenges of young people. Specifically, this study examined how young people who have been experiencing education inequities make meaning and navigate the structural factors related to neighborhood and school disinvestment and access to resources and supports, and their risk for school pushout. Furthermore, schools as political, cultural, and ideologically reproductive spaces often serve as sites of resistance and can support students who are impacted by educational inequity. Study findings provide education, neighborhood, school psychology, social work practice, and policy considerations.

Keywords: education policy, mental health, school prison nexus, school pushout, structural trauma

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3634 Implications of Internationalization for Management and Practice in Higher Education

Authors: Naziema Begum Jappie

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The internationalization of higher education has become a focal point for academic institutions worldwide, including those in South Africa. This paper explores the multifaceted implications of internationalization on management and practice within the South African higher education landscape. Universities all over the world are increasingly recognizing the challenges of globalization and the pressures towards internationalization. Internationalization in higher education encompasses a range of activities, including academic exchange programs, research collaborations, joint degree programs, and the recruitment of international students and faculty. In South Africa, this process is driven by various factors, including the quest for global competitiveness, the pursuit of academic excellence, and the promotion of cultural diversity. However, while internationalization presents numerous opportunities, it also brings forth significant challenges that require careful consideration by management and practitioners in higher education institutions. Furthermore, the internationalization of higher education in South Africa has significant implications for teaching and learning practices. With an increasingly diverse student body, educators must employ innovative pedagogical approaches that cater to the needs and preferences of a multicultural cohort. This may involve the integration of global perspectives into the curriculum, the use of technology-enhanced learning platforms, and the promotion of intercultural competence among students and faculty. Additionally, the exchange of knowledge and ideas with international partners can enrich research activities and contribute to the advancement of knowledge in various fields. The internationalization of higher education in South Africa has profound implications for management and practice within academic institutions. While it offers opportunities for enhancing academic quality, promoting cultural exchange, and advancing research agendas, it also presents challenges that require strategic planning, resource allocation, and stakeholder engagement. By addressing these challenges proactively and leveraging the opportunities presented by internationalization, South African universities can position themselves as global leaders in higher education while contributing to the socio-economic development of the country and the continent at large. This paper draws together the international experience in South Africa to explore the emerging patterns of strategy and practice in internationalizing Higher Education and will highlight some critical notions of how the concepts of internationalization and globalization in the context of higher education are understood by those who lead universities and what new challenges are being created as universities seek to become more international. Institutions cannot simply have bullet points in the strategic plan for the recruitment of international students; there has to be a complete commitment to a national strategy of inclusivity. This paper will further examine the leadership styles that ensure transformation together with the goals set out for internationalization. Discussions around adding the international relations dimension to the curriculum. Addressing the issues relevant to cross-border delivery of higher education.

Keywords: challenges, higher education, internationalization, strategic focus

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3633 Adopting a Systematically Planned Humour Pedagogical Approach to Increase Student Engagement in Higher Education

Authors: Rita Gill Singh, Alex Chun Koon, Cindy Sing Bik Ngai, Joanna Wen Ying Ho, Mei Li Khong, Enoch Chan, Terrence Lau

Abstract:

Although humour is viewed as a beneficial element in teaching, there has been little attempt to systematize humour in teaching, possibly because it is difficult to teach someone to be humorous. This study integrated planned humour pedagogical approach into teaching and learning activities and examined the effect of systematically planned humour on students’ engagement and learning in different courses. Specifically, appropriate types of humour (i.e. analogy, absurdity and wordplay) and incorporation methods and frequency were systematically integrated into the lessons of courses at some higher education institutions in Hong Kong. The results showed that the planned humour pedagogical approach increased student engagement, as well as enhanced learning and motivation while reducing students’ stress. The pedagogical implications of this study will be useful for researchers, practitioners, and educators.

Keywords: higher education, pedagogy, humour, student engagement, learning, motivation

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3632 Bridging the Gap between Teaching and Learning: A 3-S (Strength, Stamina, Speed) Model for Medical Education

Authors: Mangala. Sadasivan, Mary Hughes, Bryan Kelly

Abstract:

Medical Education must focus on bridging the gap between teaching and learning when training pre-clinical year students in skills needed to keep up with medical knowledge and to meet the demands of health care in the future. The authors were interested in showing that a 3-S Model (building strength, developing stamina, and increasing speed) using a bridged curriculum design helps connect teaching and learning and improves students’ retention of basic science and clinical knowledge. The authors designed three learning modules using the 3-S Model within a systems course in a pre-clerkship medical curriculum. Each module focused on a bridge (concept map) designed by the instructor for specific content delivered to students in the course. This with-in-subjects design study included 304 registered MSU osteopathic medical students (3 campuses) ranked by quintile based on previous coursework. The instructors used the bridge to create self-directed learning exercises (building strength) to help students master basic science content. Students were video coached on how to complete assignments, and given pre-tests and post-tests designed to give them control to assess and identify gaps in learning and strengthen connections. The instructor who designed the modules also used video lectures to help students master clinical concepts and link them (building stamina) to previously learned material connected to the bridge. Boardstyle practice questions relevant to the modules were used to help students improve access (increasing speed) to stored content. Unit Examinations covering the content within modules and materials covered by other instructors teaching within the units served as outcome measures in this study. This data was then compared to each student’s performance on a final comprehensive exam and their COMLEX medical board examinations taken some time after the course. The authors used mean comparisons to evaluate students’ performances on module items (using 3-S Model) to non-module items on unit exams, final course exam and COMLEX medical board examination. The data shows that on average, students performed significantly better on module items compared to non-module items on exams 1 and 2. The module 3 exam was canceled due to a university shut down. The difference in mean scores (module verses non-module) items disappeared on the final comprehensive exam which was rescheduled once the university resumed session. Based on Quintile designation, the mean scores were higher for module items than non-module items and the difference in scores between items for Quintiles 1 and 2 were significantly better on exam 1 and the gap widened for all Quintile groups on exam 2 and disappeared in exam 3. Based on COMLEX performance, all students on average as a group, whether they Passed or Failed, performed better on Module items than non-module items in all three exams. The gap between scores of module items for students who passed COMLEX to those who failed was greater on Exam 1 (14.3) than on Exam 2 (7.5) and Exam 3 (10.2). Data shows the 3-S Model using a bridge effectively connects teaching and learning

Keywords: bridging gap, medical education, teaching and learning, model of learning

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3631 A Sociolinguistic Investigation of Code-Switching Practices of ESL Students Outside EFL Classrooms

Authors: Shehroz Mukhtar, Maqsood Ahmed, Abdullah Mukhtar, Choudhry Shahid, Waqar Javaid

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Code switching is a common phenomenon, generally observed in multilingual communities across the globe. A critical look at code switching literature reveals that mostly code switching has been studied in classroom in learning and teaching context while code switching outside classroom in settings such as café, hostel and so on have been the least explored areas. Current research investigated the reasons for code switching in the interactive practices of students and their perceptions regarding the same outside the classroom settings. This paper is the study of the common practice that prevails in the Universities of Sialkot that bilinguals mix two languages when they speak in different class room situations. In Pakistani classrooms where Multilingual are in abundance i.e. they can speak two or more than two languages at the same time, the code switching or language combination is very common. The teachers of Sialkot switch from one language to another consciously or unconsciously while teaching English in the class rooms. This phenomenon has not been explored in the Sialkot’s teaching context. In Sialkot private educational institutes does not encourage code-switching whereas the public or government institutes use it frequently. The crux of this research is to investigate and identify the importance of code switching by taking its users in consideration. Survey research method and survey questionnaire will be used to get exact data from teachers and students. We will try to highlight the functions and importance of code switching in foreign language classrooms of Sialkot and will explore why this trend is emerging in Sialkot.

Keywords: code switching, bilingual context, L1, L2

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3630 Navigating Urban Childcare Challenges: Perspectives of Dhaka City Parents

Authors: Md. Shafiullah

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This study delves into the evolving landscape of urban childcare in Bangladesh, focusing on the experiences and challenges faced by parents in Dhaka city. This paper argues that the traditional childcare arrangement of city families is inadequate to meet the development needs of children. The study aims to explore the childcare challenges faced by urban parents as they transition from traditional family-based childcare networks to alternative caregiving arrangements amidst urbanization, economic shifts, and social transformations. Utilizing a mixed-method research approach, combining quantitative surveys (n = 200) and four qualitative interviews, the research examines the parental viewpoints on childcare practices and the role of societal norms and values. The study finds childcare crises in both the family and daycare settings. In family care, caregiving suffers from the less availability of grandparents, a lack of skills of caregivers, and a lack of child interaction. As for the daycare, it is affected by the absence of appropriate policies, a lack of quality, health and safety concerns, affordability issues, and cultural concerns. Additionally, the study highlights inadequacies in childcare policies and regulatory frameworks, calling for comprehensive reforms to address the childcare vacuum in urban areas. By shifting the focus from developed to developing countries, this study contributes to the literature and suggests policy implications for Bangladesh and beyond.

Keywords: childcare, child development, childcare policy, daycare, Bangladesh

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3629 The Practice and Research of Computer-Aided Language Learning in China

Authors: Huang Yajing

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Context: Computer-aided language learning (CALL) in China has undergone significant development over the past few decades, with distinct stages marking its evolution. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the practice and research in this field in China, tracing its journey from the early stages of audio-visual education to the current multimedia network integration stage. Research Aim: The study aims to analyze the historical progression of CALL in China, identify key developments in the field, and provide recommendations for enhancing CALL practices in the future. Methodology: The research employs document analysis and literature review to synthesize existing knowledge on CALL in China, drawing on a range of sources to construct a detailed overview of the evolution of CALL practices and research in the country. Findings: The review highlights the significant advancements in CALL in China, showcasing the transition from traditional audio-visual educational approaches to the current integrated multimedia network stage. The study identifies key milestones, technological advancements, and theoretical influences that have shaped CALL practices in China. Theoretical Importance: The evolution of CALL in China reflects not only technological progress but also shifts in educational paradigms and theories. The study underscores the significance of cognitive psychology as a theoretical underpinning for CALL practices, emphasizing the learner's active role in the learning process. Data Collection and Analysis Procedures: Data collection involved extensive review and analysis of documents and literature related to CALL in China. The analysis was carried out systematically to identify trends, developments, and challenges in the field. Questions Addressed: The study addresses the historical development of CALL in China, the impact of technological advancements on teaching practices, the role of cognitive psychology in shaping CALL methodologies, and the future outlook for CALL in the country. Conclusion: The review provides a comprehensive overview of the evolution of CALL in China, highlighting key stages of development and emerging trends. The study concludes by offering recommendations to further enhance CALL practices in the Chinese context.

Keywords: English education, educational technology, computer-aided language teaching, applied linguistics

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3628 Practice Patterns of Physiotherapists for Learners with Disabilities at Special Schools: A Scoping Review

Authors: Lubisi L. V., Madumo M. B., Mudau N. P., Makhuvele L., Sibuyi M. M.

Abstract:

Background and Aims: Learners with disabilities can be integrated into mainstream schools, whereas there are those learners that are accommodated in special schools based on the support needs they require. These needs, among others, pertain to access to high-intensity therapeutic support by physiotherapists, occupational therapists, and speech therapists. However, access to physiotherapists in low- and middle-income countries is limited, and this creates a knowledge gap in identifying, to the best of our knowledge, best practice patterns aligned with physiotherapy at special schools. This gap compromises the quality of support to be rendered towards strengthening rehabilitation and optimising the participation of learners with disabilities in special schools. The aim of the scoping review was to map the evidence on practice patterns employed by physiotherapists at special schools for learners with disabilities. Methods: The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed. Key terms regarding physiotherapy practice patterns for learners with disabilities at special schools were used to search the literature on the databases. Literature was sourced from Google Scholar, EBSCO, PEDro, PubMed, and Research Gate from 2013 to 2023. A total of 28 articles were initially retrieved and after a process of screening and exclusion, nine articles were included. All the researchers reviewed the articles for eligibility. Articles were initially screened based on the titles, followed by full text. Articles written in English or translated into English mentioned physical / physiotherapy interventions in special schools, both published and unpublished, were included. A qualitative data extraction template was developed and an inductive approach to thematic data analysis was used for included articles to see which themes emerged. Results: Three themes emerged after inductive thematic data analysis. 1. Collaboration with educators, parents, and therapists 2. Family Centred Approach 3. Telehealth. Conclusion: Collaboration is key in delivering therapeutic support to learners with disabilities at special schools. Physiotherapists need to be collaborators at the level of interprofessional and transprofessional. In addition, they need to explore technology to work remotely, especially when learners become absent physically from school.

Keywords: learners with disabilities, special school, physiotherapists, therapeutic support

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3627 Determine Causal Factors Affecting the Responsiveness and Productivity of Non-Governmental Universities

Authors: Davoud Maleki

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Today, education and investment in human capital is a long-term investment without which the economy will be stagnant Stayed. Higher education represents a type of investment in human resources by providing and improving knowledge, skills and Attitudes help economic development. Providing efficient human resources by increasing the efficiency and productivity of people and on the other hand with Expanding the boundaries of knowledge and technology and promoting technology such as the responsibility of training human resources and increasing productivity and efficiency in High specialized levels are the responsibility of universities. Therefore, the university plays an infrastructural role in economic development and growth because education by creating skills and expertise in people and improving their ability.In recent decades, Iran's higher education system has been faced with many problems, therefore, scholars have looked for it is to identify and validate the causal factors affecting the responsiveness and productivity of non-governmental universities. The data in the qualitative part is the result of semi-structured interviews with 25 senior and middle managers working in the units It was Islamic Azad University of Tehran province, which was selected by theoretical sampling method. In data analysis, stepwise method and Analytical techniques of Strauss and Corbin (1992) were used. After determining the central category (answering for the sake of the beneficiaries) and using it in order to bring the categories, expressions and ideas that express the relationships between the main categories and In the end, six main categories were identified as causal factors affecting the university's responsiveness and productivity.They are: 1- Scientism 2- Human resources 3- Creating motivation in the university 4- Development based on needs assessment 5- Teaching process and Learning 6- University quality evaluation. In order to validate the response model obtained from the qualitative stage, a questionnaire The questionnaire was prepared and the answers of 146 students of Master's degree and Doctorate of Islamic Azad University located in Tehran province were received. Quantitative data in the form of descriptive data analysis, first and second stage factor analysis using SPSS and Amos23 software were analyzed. The findings of the research indicated the relationship between the central category and the causal factors affecting the response The results of the model test in the quantitative stage confirmed the generality of the conceptual model.

Keywords: accountability, productivity, non-governmental, universities, foundation data theory

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3626 Investigating the Factors Leading to Utilization of Facebook and Twitter/X Sites by Youths at Elections Evening in Nigeria: A Case Study of 2023 General Elections

Authors: Abdullahi Garba Abu, Muhammad Bello Sada, Aminu Abubakar

Abstract:

Facebook and Twitter/X platforms are preferred and largely patronized by Youths in Nigeria. The simplicity and popularity of Facebook and Twitter/X have made them preferred social networking sites for Youths to handle or execute different political activities in favor of their chosen candidates or political parties. This is largely related to their interest in using the platform for the purposes of participation in 2023 political activities and general elections. The two Social Networking Sites were used to vigorously pursue party activities on the eve of the 2023 general elections. Youths engaged the two platforms in campaigning for their candidates and political parties and succeeded in reaching a wide audience, shared the policies and manifestos of their parties, engaged with supporters and even posted advertising campaigns for specific demographics. However, the utilization of Facebook and Twitter /X platforms during the 2023 elections was largely seen in two lights: positive and negative lights/intentions. Therefore, this research investigates the motivating factors for which largely Nigerian Youths engage Facebook and Twitter platforms in political activities, with reference to the 2023 general elections. The research uses a survey method through which it reaches out to respondents from all six geo-politial zones. The research found that Nigerian Youths utilize the two social media sites to campaign for politicians voluntarily based on their belief in the capabilities of the candidates. It also found out that Youths were lured into using Facebook and Twitter/X sites to campaign through tribal, religious, and ethnic factors. More so, the research found out that eagerness to share political materials in support of candidates made Youths in Nigeria share unverifiable content on Facebook and Twitter sites.

Keywords: Facebook, Twitter/X, Nigerian youths, 2023 elections

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3625 Characteristics of the entrepreneurial professor: Educational Leadership and Higher Education

Authors: Ana Verde

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Higher education is now a source of new paradigms, advanced research in various fields of knowledge and an essential element in providing solutions to the major problems it faces today. In the education sector, more and more attention is being paid to the importance of entrepreneurship and the need for students to acquire skills in the classroom in order to be successful in their future careers. In the field of education, the term "teacherpreneur" has been coined in recent years to describe a teacher who is committed to educational change, passionate about his or her work, charismatic, self-confident, flexible, responsible, able to dare to break the established rules and take risks, and whose work is student-centred and action oriented. This research analyses the characteristics of the entrepreneurial professor and educational leader, and how their practice can be directed towards educational improvement.

Keywords: higher education, entrepreneurial, skills, leadership

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3624 EECS: Reimagining the Future of Technology Education through Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Integration

Authors: Yousef Sharrab, Dimah Al-Fraihat, Monther Tarawneh, Aysh Alhroob, Ala’ Khalifeh, Nabil Sarhan

Abstract:

This paper explores the evolution of Electrical Engineering (EE) and Computer Science (CS) education in higher learning, examining the feasibility of unifying them into Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS) for the technology industry. It delves into the historical reasons for their separation and underscores the need for integration. Emerging technologies such as AI, Virtual Reality, IoT, Cloud Computing, and Cybersecurity demand an integrated EE and CS program to enhance students' understanding. The study evaluates curriculum integration models, drawing from prior research and case studies, demonstrating how integration can provide students with a comprehensive knowledge base for industry demands. Successful integration necessitates addressing administrative and pedagogical challenges. For academic institutions considering merging EE and CS programs, the paper offers guidance, advocating for a flexible curriculum encompassing foundational courses and specialized tracks in computer engineering, software engineering, bioinformatics, information systems, data science, AI, robotics, IoT, virtual reality, cybersecurity, and cloud computing. Elective courses are emphasized to keep pace with technological advancements. Implementing this integrated approach can prepare students for success in the technology industry, addressing the challenges of a technologically advanced society reliant on both EE and CS principles. Integrating EE and CS curricula is crucial for preparing students for the future.

Keywords: electrical engineering, computer science, EECS, curriculum integration of EE and CS

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3623 Exploring the Contribution of Higher Education to Sustainable Development: A Bibliometric Analysis of Research on Social Sustainability

Authors: Mestawot Beyene Tafese, Erika Kopp

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Sustainable development, aimed at meeting current needs while safeguarding the needs of future generations, is a global imperative. Higher education stands as a pivotal force in fostering sustainable values and behaviors. However, most scholars and governments primarily focus on environmental and economic aspects. Consequently, this study examines the distribution patterns of higher education for social sustainability. The study highlights overall annual scientific production trends, leading journals and countries in scientific publication, most researched topics, and frequently used keywords. The study utilized a bibliometric method with the aid of the R Studio program. The analysis reveals Sustainability (Switzerland) as the leading journal, with 292 articles published, followed by the International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, which published 186 articles. Additionally, the USA is identified as the leading country, with Spain ranking second in producing research related to higher education for socially sustainable development. Among the 54 African countries, only South Africa ranks 13th, contributing fifty-nine scientific articles. Furthermore, higher education for sustainability, sustainable education, sustainable development goals, etc., emerge as the most researched topics, while the term "higher education" is prevalent in 29% and "sustainability" in 28% of the documents. Notably, according to the analysis, social sustainability is the focus of only 3% of articles. This suggests that academics researching sustainable development and higher education have overlooked social sustainability, a crucial human component of sustainable development. Consequently, the researchers concluded that social academics who are interested in studying sustainable development and higher education should give priority to social sustainability.

Keywords: higher education, bibliometric analysis, social sustainability, sustainable development

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3622 Social Support and Self-Regulation on Changes in Exercise Behavior Among Infertile Women: A Cross-Sectional Study to Comparison of External and Internal Factors

Authors: Babak Nemat

Abstract:

Background: Exercise behavior (EB) has a significant impact on infertility, but the magnitude of the effect is not easily determined. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of social support and self-regulation, as external and internal factors, on changes in exercise behavior among infertile women. Methods: For a cross-sectional study conducted in Sanandaj (Iran) in 2023, we recruited infertile women (n=483) from 35 comprehensive healthcare centers by means of convenience sampling. Standardized face-to-face interviews were conducted using established and reliable instruments for the assessment of EB, social support, and self-regulation. Logistic regression models were applied to assess the association between EB, social support and self-regulation. Results: The majority of the participants (56.7%) had secondary infertility, while 70.8% of them did not perform any exercise. Self-regulation and social support were significantly higher in women with secondary infertility than in those with primary infertility (p < 0.01). Self-regulation was significantly lower in women whose height was below 160 centimeters (cm) (p<0.05). Social support was significantly higher among participants aged ≥ 35 years and weighing ≥ 60 kilograms (kg) (p < 0.01). The odds of EB adoption increased with self-regulation and social support (OR=1.05, 95% CI=1.02-1.09, p <0.01), (OR=1.06, 95% CI=1.02-1.11, p <0.01). Conclusion: Social support and self-regulation almost equally influenced EB in infertile women. Designing support and consultation programs can be considered in encouraging infertile women to exercise in future research.

Keywords: social support, regulation, infertility, women

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3621 Preventive Behaviors of Exposure to ‎Secondhand Smoke among Women: A Study Based on the Health Belief Model

Authors: Arezoo Fallahi

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Introduction: Exposure to second-hand smoke is an important global health problem and threatens the health of people, especially children and women. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of education based on the Health Belief Model on preventive behaviors of exposure to secondhand smoke in women. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed in 2023in Sanandaj, west of Iran. Seventy-four people were selected by simple random sampling and divided into an intervention group (37 people) and a control group (37 people). Data collection tools included demographic characteristics and a second-hand smoke exposure questionnaire based on the Health Beliefs Model. The training in the intervention group was conducted in three one-hour sessions in the comprehensive health service centers in the form of lectures, pamphlets, and group discussions. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21 and statistical tests such as correlation, paired t-test, and independent t-test. Results: The intervention and control groups were homogeneous before education. They were similar in terms of mean scores of the Health Belief Model. However, after an educational intervention, some of the scores increased, including the mean perceived sensitivity score (from 17.62±2.86 to 19.75±1.23), perceived severity score (28.40±4.45 to 31.64±2), perceived benefits score (27.27±4.89 to 31.94±2.17), practice score (32.64±4.68 to 36.91±2.32) perceived barriers from 26.62±5.16 to 31.29±3.34, guide for external action (from 17.70±3.99 to 22/89 ±1.67), guide for internal action from (16.59±2.95 to 1.03±18.75), and self-efficacy (from 19.83 ±3.99 to 23.37±1.43) (P <0.05). Conclusion: The educational intervention designed based on the Health Belief Model in women was effective in performing preventive behaviors against exposure to secondhand smoke.

Keywords: women, health behaviour, smoke, belive

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3620 An Educational Program Based on Health Belief Model to Prevent Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Iranian Women

Authors: Babak Nemat

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Background and Purpose: Non-alcoholic fatty liver is one of the most common liver disorders, which, as the most important cause of death from liver disease, has unpleasant consequences and complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an educational intervention based on a health belief model to prevent non-alcoholic fatty liver among women. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed among 110 women referring to comprehensive health service centers in Malayer City, west of Iran, in 2023. Using the available sampling method, 110 participants were divided into experimental and control groups. The data collection tool included demographic characteristics and a questionnaire based on the health belief model. In the experimental group, three one-hour training sessions were conducted in the form of pamphlets, lectures, and group discussions. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 21, by correlation tests, paired t-tests, and independent t-tests. Results: The mean age of participants was 38.07±6.28 years, and most of the participants were middle-aged, married, housewives with academic education, middle-income, and overweight. After the educational intervention, the mean scores of the constructs include perceived sensitivity (p=0.01), perceived severity (p=0.01), perceived benefits (p=0.01), guidance for internal (p=0.01), and external action (p=0.01), and perceived self-efficacy (p=0.01) in the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group. The score of perceived barriers in the experimental group decreased after training. The perceived obstacles score in the test group decreased after the training (15.2 ± 3.9 v.s 11.2 ± 3.3, (p<0.01). Conclusion: The findings of the study showed that the design and implementation of educational programs based on the constructs of the health belief model can be effective in preventing women from developing higher levels of non-alcoholic fatty liver.

Keywords: non-alcoholic fatty liver, health belief model, education, women

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3619 Tiaki Moemoeā: The Dream Keeper’s Role Within the Learning Journey of Cook Island Nursing Students

Authors: Yvonne Kainuku, Wendy Trimmer

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A critical element in closing the gaps in health disparities is the presence of a culturally appropriate health workforce. This study presents one of the findings from a qualitative study that explored the lived experiences of Cook Islands peoples during their three-year nursing training within a Bachelor of Nursing Pacific (BNP) programme in Aotearoa NZ. The study utilized both qualitative and context-specific methods; these included the Tivaevae Research Model and Qualitative Inquiry. The aim of the research was to collect stories from registered nurses about their experiences of culturally responsive pedagogy and their connection to content relating to Pacific world views and Pacific ways of knowing while they were students. Further to this, the researcher sought to recognize factors that supported the participant's successful completion of becoming a registered nurse. This study will introduce the theme of Tiaki moemoeā (dream keeper), identifying essential elements that engage learners along their journey. The various features that define the theme Tiaki moemoeā (dream keeper) have the potential to contribute to transformational change in nursing education training in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

Keywords: education, nursing, pacific, pedagogy

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3618 ChatGPT as a “Foreign Language Teacher”: Attitudes of Tunisian English Language Learners

Authors: Leila Najeh Bel'Kiry

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Artificial intelligence (AI) brought about many language robots, with ChatGPT being the most sophisticated thanks to its human-like linguistic capabilities. This aspect raises the idea of using ChatGPT in learning foreign languages. Starting from the premise that positions ChatGPT as a mediator between the language and the leaner, functioning as a “ghost teacher" offering a peaceful and secure learning space, this study aims to explore the attitudes of Tunisian students of English towards ChatGPT as a “Foreign Language Teacher” . Forty-five students, in their third year of fundamental English at Tunisian universities and high institutes, completed a Likert scale questionnaire consisting of thirty-two items and covering various aspects of language (phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics). A scale ranging from 'Strongly Disagree,' 'Disagree,' 'Undecided,' 'Agree,' to 'Strongly Agree.' is used to assess the attitudes of the participants towards the integration of ChaGPTin learning a foreign language. Results indicate generally positive attitudes towards the reliance on ChatGPT in learning foreign languages, particularly some compounds of language like syntax, phonology, and morphology. However, learners show insecurity towards ChatGPT when it comes to pragmatics and semantics, where the artificial model may fail when dealing with deeper contextual and nuanced language levels.

Keywords: artificial language model, attitudes, foreign language learning, ChatGPT, linguistic capabilities, Tunisian English language learners

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3617 Gamification Beyond Competition: the Case of DPG Lab Collaborative Learning Program for High-School Girls by GameLab KBTU and UNICEF in Kazakhstan

Authors: Nazym Zhumabayeva, Aleksandr Mezin, Alexandra Knysheva

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Women's underrepresentation in STEM is critical, worsened by ineffective engagement in educational practices. UNICEF Kazakhstan and GameLab KBTU's collaborative initiatives aim to enhance female STEM participation by fostering an inclusive environment. Learning from LEVEL UP's 2023 program, which featured a hackathon, the 2024 strategy pivots towards non-competitive gamification. Although the data from last year's project showed higher than average student engagement, observations and in-depth interviews with participants showed that the format was stressful for the girls, making them focus on points rather than on other values. This study presents a gamified educational system, DPG Lab, aimed at incentivizing young women's participation in STEM through the development of digital public goods (DPGs). By prioritizing collaborative gamification elements, the project seeks to create an inclusive learning environment that increases engagement and interest in STEM among young women. The DPG Lab aims to find a solution to minimize competition and support collaboration. The project is designed to motivate female participants towards the development of digital solutions through an introduction to the concept of DPGs. It consists of a short online course, a simulation videogame, and a real-time online quest with an offline finale at the KBTU campus. The online course offers short video lectures on open-source development and DPG standards. The game facilitates the practical application of theoretical knowledge, enriching the learning experience. Learners can also participate in a quest that encourages participants to develop DPG ideas in teams by choosing missions throughout the quest path. At the offline quest finale, the participants will meet in person to exchange experiences and accomplishments without engaging in comparative assessments: the quest ensures that each team’s trajectory is distinct by design. This marks a shift from competitive hackathons to a collaborative format, recognizing the unique contributions and achievements of each participant. The pilot batch of students is scheduled to commence in April 2024, with the finale anticipated in June. It is projected that this group will comprise 50 female high-school students from various regions across Kazakhstan. Expected outcomes include increased engagement and interest in STEM fields among young female participants, positive emotional and psychological impact through an emphasis on collaborative learning environments, and improved understanding and skills in DPG development. GameLab KBTU intends to undertake a hypothesis evaluation, employing a methodology similar to that utilized in the preceding LEVEL UP project. This approach will encompass the compilation of quantitative metrics (conversion funnels, test results, and surveys) and qualitative data from in-depth interviews and observational studies. For comparative analysis, a select group of participants from the previous year's project will be recruited to engage in the DPG Lab. By developing and implementing a gamified framework that emphasizes inclusion, engagement, and collaboration, the study seeks to provide practical knowledge about effective gamification strategies for promoting gender diversity in STEM. The expected outcomes of this initiative can contribute to the broader discussion on gamification in education and gender equality in STEM by offering a replicable and scalable model for similar interventions around the world.

Keywords: collaborative learning, competitive learning, digital public goods, educational gamification, emerging regions, STEM, underprivileged groups

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3616 Revolutionizing Higher Education: AI-Powered Gamification for Enhanced Learning

Authors: Gina L. Solano

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This project endeavors to enhance learning experiences for undergraduate pre-service teachers and graduate K-12 educators by leveraging artificial intelligence (AI). Firstly, the initiative delves into integrating AI within undergraduate education courses, fostering traditional literacy skills essential for academic success and extending their applicability beyond the classroom. Education students will explore AI tools to design literacy-focused activities aligned with their curriculum. Secondly, the project investigates the utilization of AI to craft instructional materials employing gamification strategies (e.g., digital and classic games, badges, quests) to amplify student engagement and motivation in mastering course content. Lastly, it aims to create a professional repertoire that can be applied by pre-service and current teachers in P-12 classrooms, promoting seamless integration for those already in teaching positions. The project's impact extends to benefiting college students, including pre-service and graduate teachers, as they enhance literacy and digital skills through AI. It also benefits current P-12 educators who can integrate AI into their classrooms, fostering innovative teaching practices. Moreover, the project contributes to faculty development, allowing them to cultivate low-risk and engaging classroom environments, ultimately enriching the learning journey. The insights gained from this project can be shared within and beyond the discipline to advance the broader field of study.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, gamification, learning experiences, literacy skills, engagement

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