Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2440

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Educational and Pedagogical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2440 Presidential Interactions with Faculty Senates: Expectations and Practices

Authors: Michael T. Miller, G. David Gearhart

Abstract:

Shared governance is an important element in higher education decision making. Through the joint decision making process, faculty members are provided an opportunity to help shape the future of an institution while increasing support for decisions that are made. Presidents, those leaders who are legally bound to guide their institutions, must find ways to collaborate effectively with faculty members in making decisions, and the first step in this process is understanding when and how presidents and faculty leaders interact. In the current study, a national sample of college presidents reported their preparation for the presidency, their perceptions of the functions of a faculty senate, and ultimately, the locations for important interactions between presidents and faculty senates. Results indicated that presidents, regardless of their preparation, found official functions to be the most important for communicating, although those presidents with academic backgrounds were more likely to perceive faculty senates as having a role in all aspects of an institution's management.

Keywords: Leadership, college president, college faculty, faculty senate

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2439 An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study of the Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Performance-Related Injuries and Stress Amongst Collegiate Musicians

Authors: Francesca Leo, Lisa Martin

Abstract:

In this cross-sectional study, researchers examined the prevalence of performance-based pain and related musculoskeletal injuries among undergraduate and graduate music majors at a large, Midwestern university. Study participants also reported stress levels associated with their performance-related physiological challenges. Findings indicated a high incidence of performance-related pain and injury among study participants (88%, n = 38), and there was a significant, modest positive correlation between pain severity and performance-related stress (r =.40, p < 0.05). Implications for collegiate wellness programs and musician self-care are discussed.

Keywords:

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2438 Measuring Self-Regulation and Self-Direction in Flipped Classroom Learning

Authors: S. A. N. Danushka, T. A. Weerasinghe

Abstract:

The diverse necessities of instruction could be addressed effectively with the support of new dimensions of ICT integrated learning such as blended learning –which is a combination of face-to-face and online instruction which ensures greater flexibility in student learning and congruity of course delivery. As blended learning has been the ‘new normality' in education, many experimental and quasi-experimental research studies provide ample of evidence on its successful implementation in many fields of studies, but it is hard to justify whether blended learning could work similarly in the delivery of technology-teacher development programmes (TTDPs). The present study is bound with the particular research uncertainty, and having considered existing research approaches, the study methodology was set to decide the efficient instructional strategies for flipped classroom learning in TTDPs. In a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test design with a mix-method research approach, the major study objective was tested with two heterogeneous samples (N=135) identified in a virtual learning environment in a Sri Lankan university. Non-randomized informal ‘before-and-after without control group’ design was employed, and two data collection methods, identical pre-test and post-test and Likert-scale questionnaires were used in the study. Selected two instructional strategies, self-directed learning (SDL) and self-regulated learning (SRL), were tested in an appropriate instructional framework with two heterogeneous samples (pre-service and in-service teachers). Data were statistically analyzed, and an efficient instructional strategy was decided via t-test, ANOVA, ANCOVA. The effectiveness of the two instructional strategy implementation models was decided via multiple linear regression analysis. ANOVA (p < 0.05) shows that age, prior-educational qualifications, gender, and work-experiences do not impact on learning achievements of the two diverse groups of learners through the instructional strategy is changed. ANCOVA (p < 0.05) analysis shows that SDL is efficient for two diverse groups of technology-teachers than SRL. Multiple linear regression (p < 0.05) analysis shows that the staged self-directed learning (SSDL) model and four-phased model of motivated self-regulated learning (COPES Model) are efficient in the delivery of course content in flipped classroom learning.

Keywords: Self-Directed Learning, Self-regulated learning, COPES model, flipped classroom learning, SSDL model

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2437 The Role of Metacognitive Strategy Intervention through Dialogic Interaction on Listeners’ Level of Cognitive Load

Authors: Ali Babajanzade, Hossein Bozorgian

Abstract:

Cognitive load plays an important role in learning in general and L2 listening comprehension in particular. This study is an attempt to investigate the effect of metacognitive strategy intervention through dialogic interaction (MSIDI) on L2 listeners’ cognitive load. A mixed-method design with 50 participants of male and female Iranian lower-intermediate learners between 20 to 25 years of age was used. An experimental group (n=25) received weekly interventions based on metacognitive strategy intervention through dialogic interaction for ten sessions. The second group, which was control (n=25), had the same listening samples with the regular procedure without a metacognitive intervention program in each session. The study used three different instruments: a) a modified version of the cognitive load questionnaire, b) digit span tests, and c) focused group interviews to investigate listeners’ level of cognitive load throughout the process. Results testified not only improvements in listening comprehension in MSIDI but a radical shift of cognitive load rate within this group. In other words, listeners experienced a lower level of cognitive load in MSIDI in comparison with their peers in the control group.

Keywords: cognitive load theory, listening Comprehension, sociocultural theory, human mental functioning, metacognitive theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2436 Criterion-Referenced Test Reliability through Threshold Loss Agreement: Fuzzy Logic Analysis Approach

Authors: Mohammad Ali Alavidoost, Hossein Bozorgian

Abstract:

Criterion-referenced tests (CRTs) are designed to measure student performance against a fixed set of predetermined criteria or learning standards. The reliability of such tests cannot be based on internal reliability. Threshold loss agreement is one way to calculate the reliability of CRTs. However, the selection of master and non-master in such agreement is determined by the threshold point. The problem is if the threshold point witnesses a minute change, the selection of master and non-master may have a drastic change, leading to the change in reliability results. Therefore, in this study, the Fuzzy logic approach is employed as a remedial procedure for data analysis to obviate the threshold point problem. Forty-one Iranian students were selected; the participants were all between 20 and 30 years old. A quantitative approach was used to address the research questions. In doing so, a quasi-experimental design was utilized since the selection of the participants was not randomized. Based on the Fuzzy logic approach, the threshold point would be more stable during the analysis, resulting in rather constant reliability results and more precise assessment.

Keywords: fuzzy logic approach, criterion-referenced tests, threshold loss agreement, threshold point

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2435 Peer-Assisted Learning of Ebm in, a UK Medical School: Evaluation of the NICE Evidence Search Student Champion Scheme

Authors: Emily Jin, Harry Sharples, Anne Weist

Abstract:

Introduction: NICE Evidence Search Student Champion Scheme is a peer-assisted learning scheme that aims to improve the routine use of evidence-based information by future health and social care staff. The focus is on the NICE evidence search portal that provides selected information from more than 800 reliable health, social care, and medicines sources, including up-to-date guidelines and information for the public. This paper aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the scheme when implemented in Liverpool School of Medicine and to understand the experiences of those attending. Methods: Twelve student champions were recruited and trained in February 2020 as peer tutors during a workshop facilitated by NICE. Cascade sessions were then organised and delivered on an optional basis for students, in small groups of < 10 to approximately 70 attendees. Surveys were acquired immediately before and 8-12 weeks after cascade sessions (n=47 and 45 respectively). Data from these surveys facilitated the analysis of the scheme. Results: Surveys demonstrated 74% of all attendees frequently searched for health and social care information online as a part of their studies. However, only 15% of attendees reported having prior formal training on searching for health information, despite receiving such training earlier on in the curriculum. After attending cascade sessions, students reported a 58% increase in confidence when searching for information using evidence search, from a pre-session a baseline of 36%. Conclusion: NICE Evidence Search Student Champion Scheme provided clear benefits for attending students, increasing confidence in searching for peer-reviewed, mainly secondary sources of health information. The lack of reported training represents the unmet need that the champion scheme satisfies, and this likely benefits student champions as well as attendees. Increasing confidence in searching for healthcare information online may support future evidence-based decision-making.

Keywords: Medical Education, Evidence-Based Medicine, medical school, NICE, peer-assisted learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2434 Quality Tools for Shaping Quality of Learning and Teaching in Education and Training

Authors: Renga Rao Krishnamoorthy, Raihan Tahir

Abstract:

The quality of classroom learning and teaching delivery has been and will continue to be debated at various levels worldwide. The regional cooperation programme to improve the quality and labour market orientation of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (RECOTVET), ‘Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit’ (GIZ), in line with the sustainable development goals (SDG), has taken the initiative in the development of quality TVET in the ASEAN region by developing the Quality Toolbox for Better TVET Delivery (Quality Toolbox). This initiative aims to provide quick and practical materials to trainers, instructors, and personnel involved in education and training at an institute to shape the quality of classroom learning and teaching. The Quality Toolbox for Better TVET Delivery was developed in three stages: literature review and development, validation, and finalization. Thematic areas in the Quality Toolbox were derived from collective input of concerns and challenges raised from experts’ workshops through moderated sessions involving representatives of TVET institutes from 9 ASEAN Member States (AMS). The sessions were facilitated by professional moderators and international experts. TVET practitioners representing AMS further analysed and discussed the structure of the Quality Toolbox and content of thematic areas and outlined a set of specific requirements and recommendations. The application exercise of the Quality Toolbox was carried out by TVET institutes among ASM. Experience sharing sessions from participating ASEAN countries were conducted virtually. The findings revealed that TVET institutes use two types of approaches in shaping the quality of learning and teaching, which is ascribed to inductive or deductive, shaping of quality in learning and teaching is a non-linear process and finally, Q-tools can be adopted and adapted to shape the quality of learning and teaching at TVET institutes in the following: improvement of the institutional quality, improvement of teaching quality and improvement on the organisation of learning and teaching for students and trainers. The Quality Toolbox has good potential to be used at education and training institutes to shape quality in learning and teaching.

Keywords: quality tools, AMS, GIZ, RECOTVET

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2433 A Methodological Approach to Development of Mental Script for Mental Practice of Micro Suturing

Authors: Vaikunthan Rajaratnam

Abstract:

Intro: Motor imagery (MI) and mental practice (MP) can be an alternative to acquire mastery of surgical skills. One component of using this technique is the use of a mental script. The aim of this study was to design and develop a mental script for basic micro suturing training for skill acquisition using a low-fidelity rubber glove model and to describe the detailed methodology for this process. Methods: This study was based on a design and development research framework. The mental script was developed with 5 expert surgeons performing a cognitive walkthrough of the repair of a vertical opening in a rubber glove model using 8/0 nylon. This was followed by a hierarchal task analysis. A draft script was created, and face and content validity assessed with a checking-back process. The final script was validated with the recruitment of 28 participants, assessed using the Mental Imagery Questionnaire (MIQ). Results: The creation of the mental script is detailed in the full text. After assessment by the expert panel, the mental script had good face and content validity. The average overall MIQ score was 5.2 ± 1.1, demonstrating the validity of generating mental imagery from the mental script developed in this study for micro suturing in the rubber glove model. Conclusion: The methodological approach described in this study is based on an instructional design framework to teach surgical skills. This MP model is inexpensive and easily accessible, addressing the challenge of reduced opportunities to practice surgical skills. However, while motor skills are important, other non-technical expertise required by the surgeon is not addressed with this model. Thus, this model should act a surgical training augment, but not replace it.

Keywords: Motor imagery, hierarchical task analysis, cognitive walkthrough, mental script, verbal protocol analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2432 The Role of Student Culture in Beginning Music Teachers’ Instruction in Urban School Settings

Authors: Kiana Williams

Abstract:

The purpose of this case study was to examine beginning music teachers’ perspectives of cultural relevance in relation to music instruction in urban school settings within a large Southwestern city. Research questions focused on the role of student culture in beginning music teachers’ instruction. Data were collected based on Seidman’s (2013) three interview series, consisting of audio recordings from two semi-structured individual interviews for each participant, a 15-20-minute video recording from each participant teaching in their classroom, and an audio recording of one focus group interview. Participants included three beginning music teachers currently employed in urban schools in a major metropolitan city in the Southern United States. In this study, a teacher was considered a beginning teacher if they had zero to three years of experience teaching music in urban school settings. The results revealed three broad themes related to connectivity and relatability, concerts, and differentiated instruction. Implications for current music educators as well as music teacher educators in higher education are included in this study. Further research should consider examining the effect of culturally relevant pedagogy on student retention in urban school music programs.

Keywords: Music, pedagogy, Culture, Urban, Instruction, Teacher

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2431 The Agency of Black Women Professors in Higher Education: A Critical Consciousness Perspective

Authors: Ncamisile T. Zulu, Nicholas Munro

Abstract:

Black women academics in higher education institutions are predominantly portrayed by literature as individuals who usually lack a sense of belonging, progression, and workload management. The oversaturation of this literature can (overtime) perpetuate a stereotypical idea that Black women academics are incapable of coping and succeeding in higher education institutions. The current article explores the agency, motivated by critical consciousness that Black women professors have and utilise in higher education institutions. In order to provide an understanding of how Black women academics can progress, manage their workloads and succeed in higher education institutions, the article considers how these women can take responsibility for their self-development, adaptation, and self-renewal in academic endeavours. As a result, the article presents a line of thought which could help in challenging the stereotype about Black women academics. The study was conducted at two higher education institutions involving Black women professors from different disciplines. A combination of purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit nine women participants, while data were collected through interviews. A critical consciousness perspective was adopted to formulate an understanding of the agency of Black women professors in higher education institutions, while thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The results challenge the widely disseminated view that portrays Black women academics as incapable of coping and succeeding in higher education institutions. The findings highlight Black women professors as proactive, flexible, and self-regulating in their academic endeavours. These findings contribute to the literature by adding a more constructive narrative of Black women academics in higher education.

Keywords: Agency, higher education institutions, Black women academics, critical consciousness

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2430 SHIFT: Examining Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions on Digital Citizenship Education

Authors: Cachanda K. Orellana

Abstract:

This study examined preservice teachers’ perceptions of their role in digital citizenship education. Data was gathered via surveys and coursework from the preservice teachers’ instructional technology course. Pre-service teachers were asked about their role in digital citizenship education during a unit on digital dilemmas. Findings suggest that teacher education programs should consider digital citizenship education as more than the acquisition of a set of skills and behaviors and prepare preservice teachers to support students’ ability to engage in ethical decision-making in digital spaces.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Digital Citizenship, pre-service teachers, digital dilemmas

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2429 Constructivism and Situational Analysis as Background for Researching Complex Phenomena: Example of Inclusion

Authors: Radim Sip, Denisa Denglerova

Abstract:

It’s impossible to capture complex phenomena, such as inclusion, with reductionism. The most common form of reductionism is the objectivist approach, where processes and relationships are reduced to entities and clearly outlined phases, with a consequent search for relationships between them. Constructivism as a paradigm and situational analysis as a methodological research portfolio represent a way to avoid the dominant objectivist approach. They work with a situation, i.e. with the essential blending of actors and their environment. Primary transactions are taking place between actors and their surroundings. Researchers create constructs based on their need to solve a problem. Concepts therefore do not describe reality, but rather a complex of real needs in relation to the available options how such needs can be met. For examination of a complex problem, corresponding methodological tools and overall design of the research are necessary. Using an original research on inclusion in the Czech Republic as an example, this contribution demonstrates that inclusion is not a substance easily described, but rather a relationship field changing its forms in response to its actors’ behaviour and current circumstances. Inclusion consists of dynamic relationship between an ideal, real circumstances and ways to achieve such ideal under the given circumstances. Such achievement has many shapes and thus cannot be captured by description of objects. It can be expressed in relationships in the situation defined by time and space. Situational analysis offers tools to examine such phenomena. It understands a situation as a complex of dynamically changing aspects and prefers relationships and positions in the given situation over a clear and final definition of actors, entities, etc. Situational analysis assumes creation of constructs as a tool for solving a problem at hand. It emphasizes the meanings that arise in the process of coordinating human actions, and the discourses through which these meanings are negotiated. Finally, it offers “cartographic tools” (situational maps, socials worlds / arenas maps, positional maps) that are able to capture the complexity in other than linear-analytical ways. This approach allows for inclusion to be described as a complex of phenomena taking place with a certain historical preference, a complex that can be overlooked if analyzed with a more traditional approach.

Keywords:

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2428 Promoting Self-Regulated Learning in Primary School: An Ethnographic Study

Authors: P. Menzolini

Abstract:

To shape life-long learning skills in students, Self-Regulated Learning (SRL) has emerged as one of the main empowerment tools. In a Self-Regulated Learning process, students plan, monitor, evaluate and adapt their cognitive, behavioral and emotional actions to the attainment of their own goals. Given that it is in primary school that students build-up and shape their learning habits and attitudes, recent literature is trying to address SRL in that educational context. The aim of this paper is to provide preliminary evidence and insights into actual dynamics occurring within a traditional primary school classroom in terms of SRL promotion acted by teachers. A traditional classroom is here defined as a setting where teachers are not instructed in SRL-related strategies, so that the promotion of SRL is largely the outcome of unintentional practices. Within an ethnographic approach and according to the principles of Grounded Theory, data are collected and analyzed by using participant observations and semi-structured interviews. The challenge of this study consists therefore in empirically approaching SRL promotion through insights deeply grounded in data. The field work is conducted in an Italian second-grade classroom in a primary school. Given the teacher’s commitment to innovative teaching practices, the hypothesis is that within this setting he will be able to effectively drive children to learn through self-regulation. The field work will cover Mathematics, Sciences, English and Gym lessons from September 2020 to June 2021, for around six hours weekly. The preliminary results of this study portray a classroom context characterized, on the one hand, by the central role of agency and the acknowledgment of its value and, on the other one, by a ubiquitous and thick texture of SRL-fostering events, also covering informal situations not strictly related to the school performance. Moreover, we find that SRL models, when applied to data, turn out to be fundamental in unveiling actual SRL processes.

Keywords: ethnography, Grounded theory, Self-regulated learning, primary school

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2427 A Case Study of Latinx Parents’ Perceptions of Gifted Education

Authors: Yelba Maria Carrillo

Abstract:

The focus of this research study was to explore barriers, if any, faced by parents or legal guardians who are of Latinx background and speak Spanish as a primary language or are bilingual speakers of Spanish and English; barriers that limit their understanding of and involvement in their gifted child’s academic life. This study was guided by a qualitative case study design. The primary investigator hosted focus group interviews at a Magnet Middle School in Southern California. The groups consisted of 25 parents, or legal guardians of bilingual (English/Spanish) or former English learner students enrolled in a school serving 6th-8th grades. The primary investigator interviewed Latinx Spanish-speaking parents or legal guardians of gifted students regarding their perception of their child’s giftedness, parental involvement in schools, and fostering their child’s exceptional abilities. Parents and legal guardians described children as creative, intellectual, and highly intelligent. Key themes such as student performance, language proficiency, socio-emotional, and general intellectual ability were strong indicators of giftedness. Barriers such as language and education inhibited parent and legal guardian ability to understand their child’s giftedness, which resulted in their inability to adequately contribute to the development of their children’s talents and advocate for the appropriate services for their children. However, they recognized the importance of being involved in their child’s academic life and the importance of nurturing their ‘dón’ or ‘gift.’ La Familia is the foundation and core of Latinx culture; and, without a strong foundation, children lack guidance, confidence, and awareness to tap into their gifted abilities. Providing Latinx parents with the proper tools and resources to appropriately identify gifted characteristics and traits could lead to early identification and intervention for students in schools and at home.

Keywords: Gifted education, gifted Latino students, Latino parent involvement, high ability students

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2426 Challenges of the Implementation of Real Time Online Learning in a South African Context

Authors: Thifhuriwi Emmanuel Madzunye, Patricia Harpur, Ephias Ruhode

Abstract:

A review of the pertinent literature identified a gap concerning the hindrances and opportunities accompanying the implementation of real-time online learning systems (RTOLs) in rural areas. Whilst RTOLs present a possible solution to teaching and learning issues in rural areas, little is known about the implementation of digital strategies among schools in isolated communities. This study explores associated guidelines that have the potential to inform decision-making where Internet-based education could improve educational opportunities. A systematic literature review has the potential to consolidate and focus on disparate literature served to collect interlinked data from specific sources in a structured manner. During qualitative data analysis (QDA) of selected publications via the application of a QDA tool - ATLAS.ti, the following overarching themes emerged: digital divide, educational strategy, human factors, and support. Furthermore, findings from data collection and literature review suggest that signiant factors include a lack of digital knowledge, infrastructure shortcomings such as a lack of computers, poor internet connectivity, and handicapped real-time online may limit students’ progress. The study recommends that timeous consideration should be given to the influence of the digital divide. Additionally, the evolution of educational strategy that adopts digital approaches, a focus on training of role-players and stakeholders concerning human factors, and the seeking of governmental funding and support are essential to the implementation and success of RTOLs.

Keywords: Digital Divide, Communication, Government, Real-time, Network, Distance, infrastructures, Teachers, ICT, resources, School, Online Learning Systems, learners, rural area, support, Limpopo, digital skills, educational strategy, lukalo, political-unrest, real-time online learning, real-time online learning system, pass-rate, teaching and learning and training

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2425 Creative Mathematically Modelling Videos Developed by Engineering Students

Authors: Esther Cabezas-Rivas

Abstract:

Ordinary differential equations (ODE) are a fundamental part of the curriculum for most engineering degrees, and students typically have difficulties in the subsequent abstract mathematical calculations. To enhance their motivation and profit that they are digital natives, we propose a teamwork project that includes the creation of a video. It should explain how to model mathematically a real-world problem transforming it into an ODE, which should then be solved using the tools learned in the lectures. This idea was indeed implemented with first-year students of a BSc in Engineering and Management during the period of online learning caused by the outbreak of COVID-19 in Spain. Each group of 4 students was assigned a different topic: model a hot water heater, search for the shortest path, design the quickest route for delivery, cooling a computer chip, the shape of the hanging cables of the Golden Gate, detecting land mines, rocket trajectories, etc. These topics should be worked out through two complementary channels: a written report describing the problem and a 10-15 min video on the subject. The report includes the following items: description of the problem to be modeled, detailed obtention of the ODE that models the problem, its complete solution, and interpretation in the context of the original problem. We report the outcomes of this teaching in context and active learning experience, including the feedback received by the students. They highlighted the encouragement of creativity and originality, which are skills that they do not typically relate to mathematics. Additionally, the video format (unlike a common presentation) has the advantage of allowing them to critically review and self-assess the recording, repeating some parts until the result is satisfactory. As a side effect, they felt more confident about their oral abilities. In short, students agreed that they had fun preparing the video. They recognized that it was tricky to combine deep mathematical contents with entertainment since, without the latter, it is impossible to engage people to view the video till the end. Despite this difficulty, after the activity, they claimed to understand better the material, and they enjoyed showing the videos to family and friends during and after the project.

Keywords: Active Learning, contextual teaching, models in differential equations, student-produced videos

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2424 Inclusion of Transgender in Mainstream Secondary Schools of Bangladesh: Perceptions and Issues

Authors: Shanaj Parvin Jonaki

Abstract:

After the first wave of the feminist movement, gender has become one of the most important issues to be researched in social science. Many gender theories have been invented and opened a new window to look at. These works showed how gender is a social construct, how gender has been used to oppress, how to rule. While it's the education system’s duty to guide students to understand the concept of gender, it sometimes shows gender-based discrimination. Transgenders exclusion from educational institutes of Bangladesh justifies this very statement. This study aims to figure out how people perceive transgenders’ identity, their inclusion in secondary schools, as well as the underlying barriers in the pathway of inclusion in the context of Bangladesh. A qualitative approach was taken to explore different perspectives towards transgender inclusion from several stakeholders such as students, parents, and teachers of secondary schools and transgenders as well. Data were collected through focus group discussion and interview by convenient sampling. 15 students, 10 parents, and 5 teachers were selected from Bangla Medium school as well as from Madrasha. Collected data were analyzed thematically and were run by experts of gender, education, and psychology to identify the core barriers of inclusion. The study revealed that most of the students, teachers, and parents lacked the knowledge of non-binary gender identities, and they showed unwillingness towards the inclusion of transgender in schools because of the cultural context of Bangladesh. Moreover, this study suggests future initiatives to be taken to ensure the inclusion of transgenders in a secondary school in our country and analyzes it through the lens of feminist theories.

Keywords: Education, Gender, Inclusion, Transgender

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2423 Engineering Education for Sustainable Development in China: Perceptions Bias between Experienced Engineers and Engineering Students

Authors: Liang Wang, Wei Zhang

Abstract:

Nowadays, sustainable development has increasingly become an important research topic of engineering education. Existing research on Engineering Education for Sustainable Development (EESD) has highlighted the importance of perceptions for ethical responsibility to address sustainable development in practice. However, whether and how the professional engineering experience affects those perceptions has not been proved, especially in a Chinese context. Our study fills this gap by investigating the perceptions bias of EESD between experienced engineers and engineering students. We specifically examined what EESD means for experienced engineers and engineering students using a triple-dimensional model to understand if there are obvious differences between the two groups. Our goal is to make the benefits of these experiences more accessible in school context. The data (n=438) came from a questionnaire created and adapted from previously published studies containing 288 students from mechanical or civil engineering and 150 civil engineers with rich working experience, and the questionnaire was distributed during Fall 2020. T-test was used to find the difference in different dimensions between the two groups. The statistical results show that there is a significant difference in the perceptions of EESD between experienced engineers and inexperienced engineering students in China. Experienced engineers tend to consider sustainable development from ecological, economic, and social perspectives, while engineering students' answers focus more on ecology and ignore economic and social dimensions to some extend. The findings provide empirical evidence that professional experience is helpful to cultivate the cognition and ability of sustainable development in engineering education. The results of this work indicate that more practical content should be added to engineering education to promote sustainable development. In addition, for the design of engineering courses and professional practice systems for sustainable development, we should not only pay attention to the ecological aspects but also emphasize the coordination of ecological, economic, and socially sustainable development (e.g., engineer's ethical responsibility).

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Engineering Education, engineering students, experienced engineers

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2422 Barriers and Opportunities in Apprenticeship Training: How to Complete a Vocational Upper Secondary Qualification with Intermediate Finnish Language Skills

Authors: Inkeri Jaaskelainen

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to shed light on what is it like to study in apprenticeship training using intermediate (or even lower level) Finnish. The aim is to find out and describe these students' experiences and feelings while acquiring a profession in Finnish as it is important to understand how immigrant background adult learners learn and how their needs could be better taken into account. Many students choose apprenticeships and start vocational training while their language skills in Finnish are still very weak. At work, students should be able to simultaneously learn Finnish and do vocational studies in a noisy, demanding, and stressful environment. Learning and understanding new things is very challenging under these circumstances, and sometimes students get exhausted and experience a lot of stress - which makes learning even more difficult. Students are different from each other, and so are their ways to learn. Both duties at work and school assignments require reasonably good general language skills, and, especially at work, language skills are also a safety issue. The empirical target of this study is a group of students with an immigrant background who studied in various fields with intensive L2 support in 2016–2018 and who by now have completed a vocational upper secondary qualification. The interview material for this narrative study was collected from those who completed apprenticeship training in 2019–2020. The data collection methods used are a structured thematic interview, a questionnaire, and observational data. Interviewees with an immigrant background have an inconsistent cultural and educational background - some have completed an academic degree in their country of origin while others have learned to read and write only in Finland. The analysis of the material utilizes thematic analysis, which is used to examine learning and related experiences. Learning a language at work is very different from traditional classroom teaching. With evolving language skills, at an intermediate level at best, rushing and stressing makes it even more difficult to understand and increases the fear of failure. Constant noise, rapidly changing situations, and uncertainty undermine the learning and well-being of apprentices. According to preliminary results, apprenticeship training is well suited to the needs of an adult immigrant student. In apprenticeship training, students need a lot of support for learning and understanding a new communication and working culture. Stress can result in, e.g., fatigue, frustration, and difficulties in remembering and understanding. Apprenticeship training can be seen as a good path to working life. However, L2 support is a very important part of apprenticeship training, and it indeed helps students to believe that one day they will graduate and even get employed in their new country.

Keywords: apprenticeship training, vocational basic degree, Finnish learning, wee-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 2
2421 A Mixed Method Study Investigating Dyslexia and Students Experiences of Anxiety and Coping

Authors: Amanda Abbott-Jones

Abstract:

Adult students with dyslexia can receive support for cognitive needs but may also experience anxiety, which is less understood. This study aims to test the hypothesis that dyslexic learners in higher education have a higher prevalence of academic and social anxiety than their non-dyslexic peers and explores wider emotional consequences of studying with dyslexia and the ways that adults with dyslexia cope cognitively and emotionally. A mixed-method approach was used in two stages. Stage one compared survey responses from students with dyslexia (N = 102) and students without dyslexia (N = 72) after completion of an anxiety inventory. Stage two explored the emotional consequences of studying with dyslexia and the types of coping strategies used through semi-structured interviews with 20 dyslexic students. Results revealed a statistically significant effect for academic anxiety but not for social anxiety. Findings for stage two showed that: (1) students’ emotional consequences were characterised by a mixture of negative and positive responses, yet negative responses were more frequent in response to questions about academic tasks than positive responses; (2) participants had less to say on coping emotionally, than coping cognitively.

Keywords: Higher Education, Anxiety, emotion, Dyslexia

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2420 Efficient Subgoal Discovery for Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning Using Local Computations

Authors: Adrian Millea

Abstract:

In hierarchical reinforcement learning, one of the main issues encountered is the discovery of subgoal states or options (which are policies reaching subgoal states) by partitioning the environment in a meaningful way. This partitioning usually requires an expensive global clustering operation or eigendecomposition of the Laplacian of the states graph. We propose a local solution to this issue, much more efficient than algorithms using global information, which successfully discovers subgoal states by computing a simple function, which we call heterogeneity for each state as a function of its neighbors. Moreover, we construct a value function using the difference in heterogeneity from one step to the next, as reward, such that we are able to explore the state space much more efficiently than say epsilon-greedy. The same principle can then be applied to higher level of the hierarchy, where now states are subgoals discovered at the level below.

Keywords: Exploration, Options, Hierarchical Reinforcement Learning, locality, value functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2419 Factors Associated with Rural-Urban Migration and Its Associated Health Hazards on the Female Adolescents in Kumasi Metropolis

Authors: Freda Adomaa, Samuel Oppong Boampong, Charles Gyamfi Rahman

Abstract:

The living and working environment of migrants and their access to healthcare services induce good or poor health. This study was conducted to assess the factors associated with rural-urban migration and its associated health hazards among female adolescents. A sample size of two hundred (200) was chosen in which all responded to questionnaires comprising closed-ended questions, which were distributed to gather data from the respondents, after which it was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The utilized three causes of rural-urban migration thus political, economic and socio-cultural. The study revealed that political situations such as regional inequality (65.4%) and ethnic conflicts (78.2%) whereas economic factors such as lack of amenities (82.3%), lack of employment in rural communities (77.4%), lack of education (74%), and poverty (85.3%) as well as socio-cultural factors such as divorced parents (65.6%), media influence (79.1%), family conflicts (59.4%) and appealing urban informal sector (65.2%) are major causes of migration. Respondents’ encountered challenges such as poor remuneration for services (87.2%), being maltreated by a colleague or worker (69%), sleeping in open space (73.3%), and harassment by the task force (71.4%) and teenage pregnancies (58.5%). The study concluded that the three variables play a key role in adolescent migration and when they travel they end up getting involved in serious health hazardous behaviors such as rapes as well as physical and psychological harassments’. The study, therefore, recommends that vocational training of the rural people on small scale industries (non-farm) activities that could generate an income for the rural household should be introduced.

Keywords: Migration, Rural, Urban, female health hazards

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2418 A Dynamic Curriculum as a Platform for Continuous Competence Development

Authors: Niina Jallinoja, Anu Moisio

Abstract:

Focus on adult learning is vital to overcome economic challenges as well as to respond to the demand for new competencies and sustained productivity in the digitalized world economy. Employees of all ages must be able to carry on continuous professional development to remain competitive in the labor market. According to EU policies, countries should offer more flexible opportunities for adult learners who study online and in so-called ‘second chance’ qualification programmes. Traditionally, adult education in Finland has comprised of not only liberal adult education but also the government funding to study for Bachelor, Master's, and Ph.D. degrees in Finnish Universities and Universities of Applied Sciences (UAS). From the beginning of 2021, public funding is allocated not only to degrees but also to courses to achieve new competencies for adult learners in Finland. Consequently, there will be degree students (often younger of age) and adult learners studying in the same evening, online and blended courses. The question is thus: How are combined studies meeting the different needs of degree students and adult learners? Haaga-Helia University of Applied Sciences (UAS), located in the metropolitan area of Finland, is taking up the challenge of continuous learning for adult learners. Haaga-Helia has been reforming the bachelor level education and respective shorter courses from 2019 in the biggest project in its history. By the end of 2023, Haaga-Helia will have a flexible, modular curriculum for the bachelor's degrees of hospitality management, business administration, business information technology, journalism and sports management. Building on the shared key competencies, degree students will have the possibility to build individual study paths more flexibly, thanks to the new modular structure of the curriculum. They will be able to choose courses across all degrees, and thus, build their own unique competence combinations. All modules can also be offered as separate courses or learning paths to non-degree students, both publicly funded and as commercial services for employers. Consequently, there will be shared course implementations for degree studies and adult learners with various competence requirements. The newly designed courses are piloted in parallel of the designing of the curriculum in Haaga-Helia during 2020 and 2021. Semi-structured online surveys are composed among the participants for the key competence courses. The focus of the research is to understand how students in the bachelor programme and adult learners from Open UAE perceive the learning experience in such a diverse learning group. A comparison is also executed between learning methods of in-site teaching, online implementation, blended learning and virtual self-learning courses to understand how the pedagogy is meeting the learning objectives of these two different groups. The new flexible curricula and the study modules are to be designed to fill the most important competence gaps that exist in the Finnish labor markets. The new curriculum will be dynamic and constantly evolving over time according to the future competence needs in the labor market. This type of approach requires constant dialogue between Haaga-Helia and workplaces during and after designing of the shared curriculum.

Keywords: Higher Education, Curriculum, ccompetence development, continuous learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2417 Using Indigenous Games to Demystify Probability Theorem in Ghanaian Classrooms: Mathematical Analysis of Ampe

Authors: Peter Akayuure, Michael Johnson Nabie

Abstract:

Similar to many colonized nations in the world, one indelible mark left by colonial masters after Ghana’s independence in 1957 has been the fact that many contexts used to teach statistics and probability concepts are often alien and do not resonate with the social domain of our indigenous Ghanaian child. This has seriously limited the understanding, discoveries, and applications of mathematics for national developments. With the recent curriculum demands of making the Ghanaian child mathematically literate, this qualitative study involved video recordings and mathematical analysis of play sessions of an indigenous girl game called Ampe with the aim to demystify the concepts in probability theorem, which is applied in mathematics related fields of study. The mathematical analysis shows that the game of Ampe, which is widely played by school girls in Ghana, is suitable for learning concepts of the probability theorems. It was also revealed that as a girl game, the use of Ampe provides good lessons to educators, textbook writers, and teachers to rethink about the selection of mathematics tasks and learning contexts that are sensitive to gender. As we undertake to transform teacher education and student learning, the use of indigenous games should be critically revisited.

Keywords: Mathematical Analysis, Ampe, probability theorem, Ghanaian girl game

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2416 Examining Geometric Thinking Behaviours of Undergraduates in Online Geometry Course

Authors: Peter Akayuure

Abstract:

Geometry is considered an important strand in mathematics due to its wide-ranging utilitarian value and because it serves as a building block for understanding other aspects of undergraduate mathematics, including algebra and calculus. Matters regarding students’ geometric thinking have therefore long been pursued by mathematics researchers and educators globally via different theoretical lenses, curriculum reform efforts, and innovative instructional practices. However, so far, studies remain inconclusive about the instructional platforms that effectively promote geometric thinking. At the University of Education, Winneba, an undergraduate geometry course was designed and delivered on UEW Learning Management System (LMS) using Moodle platform. This study utilizes van Hiele’s theoretical lens to examine the entry and exit’s geometric thinking behaviours of prospective teachers who took the undergraduate geometry course in the LMS platform. The study was a descriptive survey that involved an intact class of 280 first-year students enrolled to pursue a bachelor's in mathematics education at the university. The van Hiele’s Geometric thinking test was used to assess participants’ entry and exit behaviours, while semi-structured interviews were used to obtain data for triangulation. Data were analysed descriptively and displayed in tables and charts. An Independent t-test was used to test for significant differences in geometric thinking behaviours between those who entered the university with a diploma certificate and with senior high certificate. The results show that on entry, more than 70% of the prospective teachers operated within the visualization level of van Hiele’s geometric thinking. Less than 20% reached analysis and abstraction levels, and no participant reached deduction and rigor levels. On exit, participants’ geometric thinking levels increased markedly across levels, but the difference from entry was not significant and might have occurred by chance. The geometric thinking behaviours of those enrolled with diploma certificates did not differ significant from those enrolled directly from senior high school. The study recommends that the design principles and delivery of undergraduate geometry course via LMS should be structured and tackled using van Hiele’s geometric thinking levels to serve as means of bridging the existing learning gaps of undergraduate students.

Keywords: geometric thinking, van Hiele’s, UEW learning management system, undergraduate geometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2415 Perceptions of Chinese Top-up Students Transitioning through a Regional UK University: A Longitudinal Study Using the U-Curve Model

Authors: Xianghan O'Dea

Abstract:

This article argues an urgent need to better understand the personal experiences of Chinese top-up students studying in the UK since the number of Chinese students taking year-long top-up programmes in the UK has risen rapidly in recent years. This lack of knowledge could potentially have implications for the reputation of some UK institutions and also the attractiveness of the UK higher education sector to future international students. This longitudinal study explored the academic and social experiences of twelve Chinese top-up students in a UK institution in-depth and revealed that the students felt their experiences were influenced significantly by their surrounding contexts at the macro and meso levels, which, however, have been largely overlooked in existing research. This article suggests the importance of improving the communications between the partner institutions in China and the UK, and also providing sufficient pre-departure and after arrival support to Chinese top-up students at the institutional level.

Keywords: articulation agreements, Chinese top-up students, top-up programmes, U-curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2414 Migrant Women English Instructors' Transformative Workplace Learning Experiences in Post-Secondary English Language Programs in Ontario, Canada

Authors: Justine Jun

Abstract:

This study aims to reveal migrant women English instructors' workplace learning experiences in Canadian post-secondary institutions in Ontario. Although many scholars have conducted research studies on internationally educated teachers and their professional and employment challenges, few studies have recorded migrant women English language instructors’ professional learning and support experiences in post-secondary English language programs in Canada. This study employs a qualitative research paradigm. Mezirow’s Transformative Learning Theory is an essential lens for the researcher to explain, analyze, and interpret the research data. It is a collaborative research project. The researcher and participants cooperatively create photographic or other artwork data responding to the research questions. Photovoice and arts-informed data collection methodology are the main methods. Research participants engage in the study as co-researchers and inquire about their own workplace learning experiences, actively utilizing their critical self-reflective and dialogic skills. Co-researchers individually select the forms of artwork they prefer to engage with to represent their transformative workplace learning experiences about the Canadian workplace cultures that they underwent while working with colleagues and administrators in the workplace. Once the co-researchers generate their cultural artifacts as research data, they collaboratively interpret their artworks with the researcher and other volunteer co-researchers. Co-researchers jointly investigate the themes emerging from the artworks. They also interpret the meanings of their own and others’ workplace learning experiences embedded in the artworks through interactive one-on-one or group interviews. The following are the research questions that the migrant women English instructor participants examine and answer: (1) What have they learned about their workplace culture and how do they explain their learning experiences?; (2) How transformative have their learning experiences been at work?; (3) How have their colleagues and administrators influenced their transformative learning?; (4) What kind of support have they received? What supports have been valuable to them and what changes would they like to see?; (5) What have their learning experiences transformed?; (6) What has this arts-informed research process transformed? The study findings implicate English language instructor support currently practiced in post-secondary English language programs in Ontario, Canada, especially for migrant women English instructors. This research is a doctoral empirical study in progress. This research has the urgency to address the research problem that few studies have investigated migrant English instructors’ professional learning and support issues in the workplace, precisely that of English instructors working with adult learners in Canada. While appropriate social and professional support for migrant English instructors is required throughout the country, the present workplace realities in Ontario's English language programs need to be heard soon. For that purpose, the conceptualization of this study is crucial. It makes the investigation of under-represented instructors’ under-researched social phenomena, workplace learning and support, viable and rigorous. This paper demonstrates the robust theorization of English instructors’ workplace experiences using Mezirow’s Transformative Learning Theory in the English language teacher education field.

Keywords: Transformative Learning Theory, Professional Learning, workplace learning, English teacher education

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2413 Advances on the Understanding of Sequence Convergence Seen from the Perspective of Mathematical Working Spaces

Authors: Aula Verdugo-Hernandez, Patricio Cumsille

Abstract:

We analyze a first-class on the convergence of real number sequences, named hereafter sequences, to foster exploration and discovery of concepts through graphical representations before engaging students in proving. The main goal was to differentiate between sequences and continuous functions-of-a-real-variable and better understand concepts at an initial stage. We applied the analytic frame of mathematical working spaces, which we expect to contribute to extending to sequences since, as far as we know, it has only developed for other objects, and which is relevant to analyze how mathematical work is built systematically by connecting the epistemological and cognitive perspectives, and involving the semiotic, instrumental, and discursive dimensions.

Keywords: Convergence, graphical representations, mathematical working spaces, paradigms of real analysis, real number sequences

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2412 A Case Study of Mobile Game Based Learning Design for Gender Responsive STEM Education

Authors: Raluca Ionela Maxim

Abstract:

Designing a gender responsive Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) mobile game based learning solution (mGBL) is a challenge in terms of content, gamification level and equal engagement of girls and boys. The goal of this case study was to research and create a high-fidelity prototype design of a mobile game that contains role-models as avatars that guide and expose girls and boys to STEM learning content. For this research purpose it was applied the methodology of design sprint with five-phase process that combines design thinking principles. The technique of this methodology comprises smart interviews with STEM experts, mind-map creation, sketching, prototyping and usability testing of the interactive prototype of the gender responsive STEM mGBL. The results have shown that the effect of the avatar/role model had a positive impact. Therefore, by exposing students (boys and girls) to STEM role models in an mGBL tool is helpful for the decreasing of the gender inequalities in STEM fields.

Keywords: Design Thinking, design sprint, gender-responsive STEM education, mobile game based learning, role-models

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2411 The Role of Self-Confidence, Adversity Quotient, and Self-Efficacy Critical Thinking: Path Model

Authors: Bayu Dwi Cahyo, Ekohariadi, Theodorus Wiyanto Wibowo, I. G. P. Asto Budithahjanto, Eppy Yundra

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the effects of self-confidence, adversity quotient, and self-efficacy variables on critical thinking. This research's participants are 137 cadets of Aviation Polytechnics of Surabaya with the sampling technique that was purposive sampling. In this study, the data collection method used a questionnaire with Linkert-scale and distributed or given to respondents by the specified number of samples. The SPSS AMOS v23 was used to test a number of a priori multivariate growth curve models and examining relationships between the variables via path analysis. The result of path analysis was (χ² = 88.463, df= 71, χ² /df= 1.246, GFI= .914, CFI= .988, P= .079, AGFI= .873, TLI= .985, RMSEA= .043). According to the analysis, there is a positive and significant relationship between self-confidence, adversity quotient, and self-efficacy variables on critical thinking.

Keywords: Critical thinking, self-confidence, adversity quotient, self-efficacy variables

Procedia PDF Downloads 1