Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3267

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Educational and Pedagogical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

3267 Threat Analysis: A Technical Review on Risk Assessment and Management of National Testing Service (NTS)

Authors: Beenish Urooj, Ubaid Ullah, Sidra Riasat


National Testing Service-Pakistan (NTS) is an agency in Pakistan that conducts student success appraisal examinations. In this research paper, we must present a security model for the NTS organization. The security model will depict certain security countermeasures for a better defense against certain types of breaches and system malware. We will provide a security roadmap, which will help the company to execute its further goals to maintain security standards and policies. We also covered multiple aspects in securing the environment of the organization. We introduced the processes, architecture, data classification, auditing approaches, survey responses, data handling, and also training and awareness of risk for the company. The primary contribution is the Risk Survey, based on the maturity model meant to assess and examine employee training and knowledge of risks in the company's activities.

Keywords: NTS, risk assessment, threat factors, security, services

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3266 Evidence from the Ashanti Region in Ghana: A Correlation Between Principal Instructional Leadership and School Performance in Senior High Schools

Authors: Blessing Dwumah Manu, Dawn Wallin


This study aims to explore school principal instructional leadership capabilities (Robinson, 2010) that support school performance in senior high schools in Ghana’s Northern Region. It explores the ways in which leaders (a) use deep leadership content knowledge to (b) solve complex school-based problems while (c) building relational trust with staff, parents, and students as they engage in the following instructional leadership dimensions: establishing goals and expectations; resourcing strategically; ensuring quality teaching; leading teacher learning and development and ensuring an orderly and safe environment (Patuawa et al, 2013). The proposed research utilizes a constructivist approach to explore the experiences of 18 school representatives (including principals, deputy principals, department heads, teachers, parents, and students) through an interview method.

Keywords: instructional leadership, leadership content knowledge, solving complex problems, building relational trust and school performance

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3265 A Study of the Impact of "Inbreeding" on Scientific Output - A Comparative Analysis of Humanities and Social Sciences from the Perspective of International Scientific Collaboration

Authors: Jin Liu, Hui Wang, Obed Livingstone Banda Lazarus, Ying Hu, Yitian Yu, Tianyuan Wang


As researches in global innovation networks and transnational innovation ecosystems deepen, the intensity of debates on the positive and negative effects of “inbreeding" on scientific output and international scientific collaboration get more intricate in the scholarly community. At the same time, a horde of countries support international research cooperation but oppose “inbreeding” in higher education. Therefore, it is crucial to study the influence of “inbreeding” on the scientific output from transnational scientific cooperation. The study sought scientific truths about whether academic “inbreeding” affects scientific output, whether the impact is positive or negative, and the extent to which it affects the scientific output. The research compares papers of 67 groups of academic “inbreeding” with academic “non-inbreeding” from the same tutor in humanities and social sciences through the resume analysis method. Results confirm that academic “inbreeding” adversely impacts publication and international scientific collaboration. Our empirical conclusions show that international scientific cooperation in higher education should be carried out in depth, and academic "inbreeding" should be curbed, which provides a basis for scholars' career development.

Keywords: international scientific collaboration, academic “inbreeding”, quantity of paper, quality of paper, impact

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3264 On Relation between Cross-Border Academic Talents Mobility and Academic Output

Authors: Wenjing Lyu, Cheng Chen, Jin Liu, Lazarus Obed Livingstone Banda, Ying Hu, Yitian Yu, Tianyuan Wang


There is a great controversy between academic talents mobility and academic output in academia. This paper obtains the list of mobile academic talents (experimental group) from NSF, match them into the list of control group according to the indicators of an academic institution, department, research direction, entry time, age, NSF fund obtained in the near year, and carry out a seven-year follow-up survey on the quantity and quality of papers published by the experimental group and the control group, with the aid of "quasi-experimental research" method for the first time. The results show that, on the one hand, the academic output of Chinese academic talents is highly stable, and mobility is not the critical variable affecting the academic output, indicating that the academic output is more related to talents' research habits and research ability, which shows the highly stable academic quality of scholars; on the other hand, the study finds that scholars returning from overseas manifest the stability of academic output whose number and quality of academic papers remain highly stable even if the mobility happen again. This study reveals the objective relationship between academic talent mobility and academic output and has significant reference value for China in the next stage to attract talents from the international academic labor market.

Keywords: cross-border mobility, academic output, papers quantity, cited papers, H index, faculty mobility

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3263 Compliance To Compassion: How COVID-19 Changed The Way Educators Used Social Media To Collaborate With Families

Authors: Eloise Thomson


The COVID-19 global pandemic challenged our normative conceptualization of teaching across all age levels, requiring the transition to remote instruction, in some instances, literally overnight. Included in the rapidly changing education environment was the delivery of early childhood education. In Victoria, Australia, the capital city, Melbourne, became known as the most locked down city in the world. This presentation examines the ways educators used social media to collaborate with families before the COVID-19 pandemic and during the lockdown phase through the use of a Third Space conceptual framework and case study methodology. As a first step, the paper examines how social media may offer new opportunities for collaborative practice between educators and families. Second, the data is outlined and discussed with respect to collaborative practice and quality. Finally, a postscript then allows for insight into how educators’ practice of using social media to collaborate with families has been impacted by the COVID-19 global pandemic. Finally, the implications of the ways in which educators are using social media to collaborate with families are discussed. The use of social media in early-childhood education has the potential to provide a valuable platform for educators to connect with families and students. However, the use of social media by educators uncovered a dialogue of ‘quality’ and appeared to be dominated by evidence around compliance and attaining quality in a very specific, and perhaps narrow, way. The findings suggest a culture of compliance that is dominated by outcomes, standards and assessments and that this has changed the dynamics by which educators engage with families. Furthermore, findings highlighted the disparity between educators' and families' understanding of the intent of the collaborations themselves. This research was significant as it exposed the ways in which educators are engaging with social media, resulting in a discussion on the intent of collaborations, the questioning of imposed quality, and the notion that quality is measurable and exists in only one form.

Keywords: collaboration, compliance, early childhood, third space, pedagogy of caring, social media

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3262 Investigate the Effect and the Main Influencing Factors of the Accelerated Reader Programme on Chinese Primary School Students’ Reading Achievement

Authors: Fujia Yang


Alongside technological innovation, the current “double reduction” policy and English Curriculum Standards for Compulsory Education in China both emphasise and encourage appropriately integrating educational technologies into the classroom. Therefore, schools are increasingly using digital means to engage students in English reading, but the impact of such technologies on Chinese pupils’ reading achievement remains unclear. To serve as a reference for reforming English reading education in primary schools under the double reduction policy, this study investigates the effects and primary influencing factors of a specific reading programme, Accelerated Reader (AR), on Chinese primary school students’ reading achievement. A quantitative online survey was used to collect 37 valid questionnaires from teachers, and the results demonstrate that, from teachers’ perspectives, the AR program seemed to positively affect students’ reading achievement by recommending material at the appropriate reading levels and developing students’ reading habits. Although the reading enjoyment derived from the AR program does not directly influence students’ reading achievement, these factors are strongly correlated. This can be explained by the self-paced, independent learning AR format, its high accuracy in predicting reading level, the quiz format and external motivation, and the importance of examinations and resource limitations in China. The results of this study may support reforming English reading education in Chinese primary schools.

Keywords: educational technology, reading programme, primary students, accelerated reader, reading effects

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3261 Multimodal Pedagogy for Students’ Creative Expressions in Visual Literacy Education

Authors: Yi Meng, Yun Gao


Having spent significant periods studying and working in North America and Europe, we, as two Chinese art educators, have been profoundly shaped by both Eastern and Western cultures. Consequently, our ambition is to enrich students' learning experiences by delving into and merging both cultural perspectives for innovative, creative expressions. This exposition draws on our action research study on students' visual literacy practices in a visual literacy course at a prominent Chinese university. The central premise was to explore innovative art forms by cross-utilizing various aspects of diverse cultures. By examining distinct cultural elements, we encouraged students to break away from familiar approaches and forge new paths in their creative endeavors. In implementing our curriculum, we utilized a multimodal pedagogy that deviated from the predominant print-based presentations typically employed in our classroom settings. This pedagogical approach effectively encouraged students to critically analyze the artifact, imbue it with their understanding and perspectives, and then produce an original piece. This approach also motivated students to leverage the semiotic potential of various communicative modes to address diverse cultural issues through their multimodal designs. To demonstrate the potential for cultural amalgamation, we utilized the artwork of Hong Kong-based artist Tik Ka. His works epitomize the fusion of Chinese traditions with Western pop culture, which served as a visual and conceptual reference point for students. Seeing how these distinct cultural elements could coexist and enrich each other in Tik Ka's work was inspiring and motivating for the students. Taken together, these pedagogical strategies helped create a dialogical space where students could actively experience, analyze, and negotiate complex modes of expression. This environment fostered active learning, encouraging students to apply their knowledge, question their assumptions, and reconsider their perspectives. Overall, such a unique approach to visual literacy education has the potential to reshape students' understanding of both cultures. By encouraging them to critically engage with their multimodal designs, we promoted an in-depth, nuanced appreciation of these diverse cultural heritages. The students no longer just interpreted and replicated images—they actively contributed to a dynamic and ongoing conversation between cultures.

Keywords: multimodal pedagogy, creative expressions, visual literacy education, multimodal designs

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3260 Effectiveness of Self-Learning Module on the Academic Performance of Students in Statistics and Probability

Authors: Aneia Rajiel Busmente, Renato Gunio Jr., Jazin Mautante, Denise Joy Mendoza, Raymond Benedict Tagorio, Gabriel Uy, Natalie Quinn Valenzuela, Ma. Elayza Villa, Francine Yezha Vizcarra, Sofia Madelle Yapan, Eugene Kurt Yboa


COVID-19’s rapid spread caused a dramatic change in the nation, especially the educational system. The Department of Education was forced to adopt a practical learning platform without neglecting health, a printed modular distance learning. The Philippines' K–12 curriculum includes Statistics and Probability as one of the key courses as it offers students the knowledge to evaluate and comprehend data. Due to student’s difficulty and lack of understanding of the concepts of Statistics and Probability in Normal Distribution. The Self-Learning Module in Statistics and Probability about the Normal Distribution created by the Department of Education has several problems, including many activities, unclear illustrations, and insufficient examples of concepts which enables learners to have a difficulty accomplishing the module. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness of self-learning module on the academic performance of students in the subject Statistics and Probability, it will also explore students’ perception towards the quality of created Self-Learning Module in Statistics and Probability. Despite the availability of Self-Learning Modules in Statistics and Probability in the Philippines, there are still few literatures that discuss its effectiveness in improving the performance of Senior High School students in Statistics and Probability. In this study, a Self-Learning Module on Normal Distribution is evaluated using a quasi-experimental design. STEM students in Grade 11 from National University's Nazareth School will be the study's participants, chosen by purposive sampling. Google Forms will be utilized to find at least 100 STEM students in Grade 11. The research instrument consists of 20-item pre- and post-test to assess participants' knowledge and performance regarding Normal Distribution, and a Likert scale survey to evaluate how the students perceived the self-learning module. Pre-test, post-test, and Likert scale surveys will be utilized to gather data, with Jeffreys' Amazing Statistics Program (JASP) software being used for analysis.

Keywords: self-learning module, academic performance, statistics and probability, normal distribution

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3259 Enhancing Student Learning Outcomes Using Engineering Design Process: Case Study in Physics Course

Authors: Thien Van NGO


The engineering design process is a systematic approach to solving problems. It involves identifying a problem, brainstorming solutions, prototyping and testing solutions, and evaluating the results. The engineering design process can be used to teach students how to solve problems in a creative and innovative way. The research aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using the engineering design process to enhance student learning outcomes in a physics course. A mixed research method was used in this study. The quantitative data were collected using a pretest-posttest control group design. The qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews. The sample was 150 first-year students in the Department of Mechanical Engineering Technology at Cao Thang Technical College in Vietnam in the 2022-2023 school year. The quantitative data were collected using a pretest-posttest control group design. The pretest was administered to both groups at the beginning of the study. The posttest was administered to both groups at the end of the study. The qualitative data were collected using semi-structured interviews with a sample of eight students in the experimental group. The interviews were conducted after the posttest. The quantitative data were analyzed using independent sample T-tests. The qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The quantitative data showed that students in the experimental group, who were taught using the engineering design process, had significantly higher post-test scores on physics problem-solving than students in the control group, who were taught using the conventional method. The qualitative data showed that students in the experimental group were more motivated and engaged in the learning process than students in the control group. Students in the experimental group also reported that they found the engineering design process to be a more effective way of learning physics. The findings of this study suggest that the engineering design process can be an effective way of enhancing student learning outcomes in physics courses. The engineering design process engages students in the learning process and helps them to develop problem-solving skills.

Keywords: engineering design process;, problem-solving;, learning outcome of physics;, students’ physics competencies;, deep learning

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3258 Reflections on Children’s Participation in Demonstrations

Authors: Eran Gusacov


This article argues that, as a rule, having children and adolescents participate in adult public protests, in terms of educational thought, is ideological education, brainwashing or indoctrination, and not political education, as will be defined in the article. This is a modest argument in its scope: it does not declare categorically that from a perspective of educational thought, parents and teachers need to refrain from bringing children and teenagers to social protests. The perspective offered in this article neither automatically invalidates any indoctrination in educational activities nor does it oppose the legitimacy of protests initiated by adolescents. It does, however, argue that having children and teens participate in such protests is not political education – an argument that belongs to the educational field. Furthermore, the perspective offered here does not deal with the legal layer of the children’s rights to organize, to demonstrate and/or to protest or with issues of political thought. While the examples provided in the article mainly deal with the Israeli reality, it presents a general argument, which is relevant for wherever children participate in demonstrations.

Keywords: ideological education, indoctrination, political education, protest

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3257 Developing Speaking Confidence of Students through Communicative Activities

Authors: Yadab Giri


Confidence is considered a power of a good speaker, and it also can be taken as a tool for speaking. The paper entitled ‘Developing Speaking Confidence of Students through Communicative Activities’ has been written with the purpose of developing the speaking confidence of the students of the Seventh grade of our context in mind. The research is designed under the interpretive paradigm of action research. During my research, thirteen students from class seven were chosen for the study. It was seen a lot of improvement in their confidence while communicating with other speakers by the end of the eighth week. Though there is a positive result of the invention, some students still did not develop the level of confidence that they could have developed to get a satisfactory response. Therefore, the outcome of my action research is positive because students are eager and interested in speaking daily in the initiation of their English class, and they have improved in their speaking.

Keywords: confidence, speaking skills, action research, reflection with feedback and observation, finally endeavour

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3256 Students’ Motivation, Self-Determination, Test Anxiety and Academic Engagement

Authors: Shakirat Abimbola Adesola, Shuaib Akintunde Asifat, Jelili Olalekan Amoo


This paper presented the impact of students’ emotions on learning when receiving lectures and when taking tests. It was observed that students experience different types of emotions during the study, and this was found to have a significant effect on their academic performance. A total of one thousand six hundred and seventy-five (1675) students from the department of Computer Science in two Colleges of Education in South-West Nigeria took part in this study. The students were randomly selected for the research. Sample comprises of 968 males representing 58%, and 707 females representing 42%. A structured questionnaire, of Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) was distributed to the participants to obtain their opinions. Data gathered were analyzed using the IBM SPSS 20 to obtain ANOVA, descriptive analysis, stepwise regression, and reliability tests. The results revealed that emotion moderately shape students’ motivation and engagement in learning; and that self-regulation and self-determination do have significant impact on academic performance. It was further revealed that test anxiety has a significant correlation with academic performance.

Keywords: motivation, self-determination, test anxiety, academic performance, and academic engagement

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3255 Human Capital Discourse and Higher Education Policy

Authors: Tien-Hui Chiang


Human capital discourse encourages many countries to expand the capacity of HEIs. Along with this expansion, the higher education system is redefined as a free market and in turn it is privatized and commercialized. However, the state’s role in education is to balance social justice and capital accumulation. This role is further regulated by a specific form of neoliberalism constituted by social contexts. These correlations call for exploring the influence of human capital discourse on interwoven issues, such as the state’s role in education, higher education policy, and employability. Method: According to the perspective of neoliberal governmentality, answers to the above four research questions are likely to be embedded within discourses in documents related to higher education policies. Consequently, this study adopts a qualitative approach by analyzing official documents, including government reports, official statistics, circulars and official statements. Documents were collected and subjected to content analysis, with a particular focus on the period from 2005 to 2021. The technique of content analysis was applied to decode keywords and core concepts of these documents. Findings: Neoliberalism is exerted through human capital discourse in China particularly in the changes in higher education policies moving from quantitative expansion to quality control via employment or employability. Such changes highlight that the principle of “n”eoliberalism is more suitable for illustrating the practice of free market logic in different social contexts. The modifications of neoliberalism adopted by the Chinese government reflect that the state’s mission is to secure social security or the common good, so that public managerialism - in the form of programs for employment, internship and entrepreneurship - is adopted in the name of the public interest and the collective mission. Public managerialism now is not only targeted towards social institutions but the population more generally, incarnated here by college graduates. Its practice is not only to renovate organizational cultures but to activate people’s commitment to national development.

Keywords: employability, higher education expansion, neoliberalism, human capital discourse

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3254 Gamification Teacher Professional Development: Engaging Language Learners in STEMS through Game-Based Learning

Authors: Karen Guerrero


Kindergarten-12th grade teachers engaged in teacher professional development (PD) on game-based learning techniques and strategies to support teaching STEMSS (STEM + Social Studies with an emphasis on geography across the curriculum) to language learners. Ten effective strategies have supported teaching content and language in tandem. To provide exiting teacher PD on summer and spring breaks, gamification has integrated these strategies to engage linguistically diverse student populations to provide informal language practice while students engage in the content. Teachers brought a STEMSS lesson to the PD, engaged in a wide variety of games (dice, cards, board, physical, digital, etc.), critiqued the games based on gaming elements, then developed, brainstormed, presented, piloted, and published their game-based STEMSS lessons to share with their colleagues. Pre and post-surveys and focus groups were conducted to demonstrate an increase in knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy in using gamification to teach content in the classroom. Provide an engaging strategy (gamification) to support teaching content and language to linguistically diverse students in the K-12 classroom. Game-based learning supports informal language practice while developing academic vocabulary utilized in the game elements/content focus, building both content knowledge through play and language development through practice. The study also investigated teacher's increase in knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy in using games to teach language learners. Mixed methods were used to investigate knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy prior to and after the gamification teacher training (pre/post) and to understand the content and application of developing and utilizing game-based learning to teach. This study will contribute to the body of knowledge in applying game-based learning theories to the K-12 classroom to support English learners in developing English skills and STEMSS content knowledge.

Keywords: gamification, teacher professional development, STEM, English learners, game-based learning

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3253 Investigating the Neural Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia

Authors: Fengjuan Wang, Azilawati Jamaludin


Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) is defined as a particular learning difficulty with continuous challenges in learning requisite math skills that cannot be explained by intellectual disability or educational deprivation. Recent studies have increasingly recognized that DD is a heterogeneous, instead of monolithic, learning disorder with not only cognitive and behavioral deficits but so too neural dysfunction. In recent years, neuroimaging studies employed group comparison to explore the neural underpinnings of DD, which contradicted the heterogenous nature of DD and may obfuscate critical individual differences. This research aimed to investigate the neural heterogeneity of DD using case studies with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). A total of 54 aged 6-7 years old of children participated in this study, comprising two comprehensive cognitive assessments, an 8-minute resting state, and an 8-minute one-digit addition task. Nine children met the criteria of DD and scored at or below 85 (i.e., the 16th percentile) on the Mathematics or Math Fluency subtest of the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test, Third Edition (WIAT-III) (both subtest scores were 90 and below). The remaining 45 children formed the typically developing (TD) group. Resting-state data and brain activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), superior frontal gyrus (SFG), and intraparietal sulcus (IPS) were collected for comparison between each case and the TD group. Graph theory was used to analyze the brain network under the resting state. This theory represents the brain network as a set of nodes--brain regions—and edges—pairwise interactions across areas to reveal the architectural organizations of the nervous network. Next, a single-case methodology developed by Crawford et al. in 2010 was used to compare each case’s brain network indicators and brain activation against 45 TD children’s average data. Results showed that three out of the nine DD children displayed significant deviation from TD children’s brain indicators. Case 1 had inefficient nodal network properties. Case 2 showed inefficient brain network properties and weaker activation in the IFG and IPS areas. Case 3 displayed inefficient brain network properties with no differences in activation patterns. As a rise above, the present study was able to distill differences in architectural organizations and brain activation of DD vis-à-vis TD children using fNIRS and single-case methodology. Although DD is regarded as a heterogeneous learning difficulty, it is noted that all three cases showed lower nodal efficiency in the brain network, which may be one of the neural sources of DD. Importantly, although the current “brain norm” established for the 45 children is tentative, the results from this study provide insights not only for future work in “developmental brain norm” with reliable brain indicators but so too the viability of single-case methodology, which could be used to detect differential brain indicators of DD children for early detection and interventions.

Keywords: brain activation, brain network, case study, developmental dyscalculia, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, graph theory, neural heterogeneity

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3252 Artificial Intelligence in Vietnamese Higher Education: Benefits, Challenges and Ethics

Authors: Duong Van Thanh


Artificial Intelligence (AI) has been recently a new trend in Higher Education systems globally as well as in the Vietnamese Higher Education. This study explores the benefits and challenges in applications of AI in 02 selected universities, ie. Vietnam National Universities in Hanoi Capital and the University of Economics in Ho Chi Minh City. Particularly, this paper focuses on how the ethics of Artificial Intelligence have been addressed among faculty members at these two universities. The AI ethical issues include the access and inclusion, privacy and security, transparency and accountability. AI-powered educational technology has the potential to improve access and inclusion for students with disabilities or other learning needs. However, there is a risk that AI-based systems may not be accessible to all students and may even exacerbate existing inequalities. AI applications can be opaque and difficult to understand, making it challenging to hold them accountable for their decisions and actions. It is important to consider the benefits that adopting AI-systems bring to the institutions, teaching, and learning. And it is equally important to recognize the drawbacks of using AI in education and to take the necessary steps to mitigate any negative impact. The results of this study present a critical concern in higher education in Vietnam, where AI systems may be used to make important decisions about students’ learning and academic progress. The authors of this study attempt to make some recommendation that the AI-system in higher education system is frequently checked by a human in charge to verify that everything is working as it should or if the system needs some retraining or adjustments.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, ethics, challenges, vietnam

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3251 Effects of Practical Activities on Performance among Biology Students in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State Nigeria

Authors: Abdullahi Garba


The study investigated the effects of practical activities on performance among biology students in Zaria education zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The population consists of 18 public schools in the Zaria Education Zone with a total number of 4,763 students. A random sample of 115 students was selected from the population in the study area. The study design was quasi-experimental, which adopted the pre-test, post-test experimental, and control group design. The experimental group was exposed to practical activities, while the control group was taught with the lecture method. A validated instrument, a biology performance test (BPT) with a reliability coefficient of 0.82, was used to gather data which were analyzed using a t-test and paired sample t-test. Two research questions and hypotheses guided the study. The hypotheses were tested at p≤0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that: there was a significant difference in the academic performance of students exposed to practical activities compared to their counterparts; there was no significant difference in performance between male and female Biology students exposed to practical activities. The recommendation given was that practical activities should be encouraged in the teaching and learning of Biology for better understanding. The Federal and State Ministry of Education should sponsor biology teachers for training and retraining of teachers to improve the academic performance of students in the subject.

Keywords: biology, practical, activity, performance

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3250 Interrogating Student-Teachers’ Transformative Learning Role, Resources and Journey Considering Pedagogical Reform in Teacher Education Continuums

Authors: Nji Clement Bang, Rosemary Shafack M., Kum Henry Asei, Yaro Loveline Y


Scholars perceive learner-centered teaching-learning reform as roles and resources in teacher education (TE) and professional outcome with transformative learning (TL) continuum dimensions. But, teaching-learning reform is fast proliferating amidst debilitating stakeholder systemic dichotomies, resources, commitment, resistance and poor quality outcome that necessitate stronger TE and professional continuums. Scholars keep seeking greater understanding of themes in teaching-learning reform, TE and professional outcome as continuums and how policymakers, student-teachers, teacher trainers and local communities concerned with initial TE can promote continuous holistic quality performance. To sustain the debate continuum and answer the overarching question, we use mixed-methods research-design with diverse literature and 409 sample-data. Onset text, interview and questionnaire analyses reveal debilitating teaching-learning reform in TE continuums that need TL revival. Follow-up focus group discussion and teaching considering TL insights reinforce holistic teaching-learning in TE. Therefore, significant increase in diverse prior-experience articulation1; critical reflection-discourse engagement2; teaching-practice interaction3; complex-activity constrain control4 and formative outcome- reintegration5 reinforce teaching-learning in learning-to-teach role-resource pathways and outcomes. Themes reiterate complex teaching-learning in TE programs that suits TL journeys and student-teachers and students cum teachers, workers/citizens become akin, transformative-learners who evolve personal and collective roles-resources towards holistic-lifelong-learning outcomes. The article could assist debate about quality teaching-learning reform through TL dimensions as TE and professional role-resource continuums.

Keywords: transformative learning perspectives, teacher education, initial teacher education, learner-centered pedagogical reform, life-long learning

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3249 Education, Learning and Management: Empowering Individuals for the Future

Authors: Ngong Eugene Ekia


Education is the foundation for the success of any society as its impact transcends across all sectors, including economics, politics, and social welfare. It is through education that individuals acquire the necessary knowledge and skills to succeed in life and contribute meaningfully to society. However, the world is changing rapidly, and it is vital for education systems to adapt to these changes to remain relevant. In this paper, we will discuss the current trends and challenges in education and management and propose solutions that can enable individuals to thrive in an ever-evolving world.

Keywords: access to education, effective teaching and learning, strong management practices, and empowering and personal development

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3248 Infographics to Identify, Diagnose, and Review Medically Important Microbes and Microbial Diseases: A Tool to Ignite Minds of Undergraduate Medical Students

Authors: Mohan Bilikallahalli Sannathimmappa, Vinod Nambiar, Rajeev Aravindakshan


Background: Image-based teaching-learning module is innovative student-centered andragogy. The objective of our study was to explore medical students’ perception of effectiveness of image-based learning strategy in promoting their lifelong learning skills and evaluate its impact on improving students’ exam grades. Methods: A prospective single-cohort study was conducted on undergraduate medical students of the academic year 2021-22. The image-based teaching-learning module was assessed through pretest, posttest, and exam grades. Students’ feedback was collected through a predesigned questionnaire on a 3-point Likert Scale. The reliability of the questionnaire was assessed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient test. In-Course Exam-4 results were compared with In-Course Exams 1, 2, and 3. Correlation coefficients were worked out wherever relevant to find the impact of the exercise on grades. Data were collected, entered into Microsoft Excel, and statistically analyzed using SPSS version 22. Results: In total, 127 students were included in the study. The posttest scores of the students were significantly high (24.75±) as compared to pretest scores (8.25±). Students’ opinion towards the effectiveness of image-based learning in promoting their lifelong learning skills was overwhelmingly positive (Cronbach’s alpha for all items was 0.756). More than 80% of the students indicated image-based learning was interesting, encouraged peer discussion, and helped them to identify, explore, and revise key information and knowledge improvement. Nearly 70% expressed image-based learning enhanced their critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Nine out of ten students recommended image-based learning module for future topics. Conclusion: Overall, Image-based learning was found to be effective in achieving undergraduate medical students learning outcomes. The results of the study are in favor of the implementation of Image-based learning in Microbiology courses. However, multicentric studies are required to authenticate our study findings.

Keywords: active learning, knowledge, medical education, microbes, problem solving

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3247 The Barriers That ESOL Learners Face Accessing Further Education

Authors: Jamie David Hopkin


This study aims to contribute uniquely to help colleges and community learning and development institutes to help aid progression within ESOL learning. The study investigates the barriers that migrant and displaced learners face accessing further education in Scotland. The study also includes a set of recommendations both for colleges and CLD institutes to help ESOL learners in their journey to further education. The research found that integration into Scottish society is one of the biggest motivators for ESOL students to learn English. It also found that the place of gender and “gender roles” contribute to the barriers that learners face in terms of progression and learning. The study also reviews all literature related to ESOL learning in Scotland and found that there are only two main policies that support ESOL learning, and both are slightly outdated in terms of supporting progression. This study aims to help bridge the gap in knowledge around the progression from informal learning to formal education. The recommendations that are made in this study are aimed to help institutes and learners on their journey to a positive destination. The main beneficiaries of this research are current and future ESOL learners in Scotland, ESOL institutes, and TESOL professionals.

Keywords: community learning and development, English for speakers of other languages, further education, higher education TESOL, teaching English as a second language

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3246 The Function of the Internet and YouTube in Early Childhood Education as conducted by Expert Teachers

Authors: Wassim Samwail Ayyad Moussa


The Family Cohesion Inventory was applied to 233 preschool children (108 girls and 125 boys) in Turkey. In the data collection phase, the Family Coherence Inventory was developed to determine the family cohesion of preschool children. Independent t-tests are used in data analysis. According to the research, there were significant differences in the direction of family cohesiveness within approximately demographic variables. The aim of the study is to examine the perception of educators on the role and use of information and communication technologies in early childhood education. The main aim of the work is to investigate the role of information and communication technologies in early childhood education as perceived by early childhood education teachers. The aim of the study was to determine the role of today's early years and the impact of information and communication technologies on early education. This study aims to find out how useful it will be for teachers to use this technique to develop their students' skills. It is a quantitative study in which a survey was conducted. The studied population consisted of primary school teachers in public and non-public primary schools in Lahore. Using a random sampling method, the sample consisted of 300 teachers, but only 260 of Lahore's 52 primary schools responded. As part of this research, a questionnaire for primary school teachers was developed. The questionnaires were based on a Likert scale ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree". The data was organized and then fed into a computer running a social science software package. The aim of this study is to find out how teachers benefit from the application of this technique in the development of their students' skills.

Keywords: changing role of teachers, constructivist grounded theory, lessons learned, early childhood education, relationships, family sense of coherence, early childhood education students, pedagogy

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3245 Overcoming Student Apathy towards English: How Japanese Universities can Prepare Their Students for an Increasingly Diverse Workplace

Authors: Jane O`Halloran


Japanese university students have traditionally shown antipathy towards English due to a generally unsatisfactory language-learning experience at the secondary level with a focus on grammar and translation rather than communication. The situation has become urgent, however, due to the rapid decline in the Japanese population, which will present both difficulties and opportunities as employees will increasingly be forced to use English in the workplace. For university lecturers, the challenge is to overcome the students` apathy and convince them of the need for English in the increasingly diverse workplaces they will be entering. This paper will explain how English teachers and content teachers at a private science university came together to tackle this quandary. In the second decade of the twenty-first century, university students in Japan find themselves in great demand by a domestic economy hungry for workers. The population of young people is declining at a rapid pace, and universities that once could pick and choose the best applicants are now in strong competition with each other to attract students. Those graduating from university can be fairly well assured of finding a job in their third or fourth year. The objectives of this paper are to present the findings of research into motivating the unmotivated and supporting content teachers who are at a loss as to how to teach the technical English their students will require. As the challenge is created by the mismatch of content teachers who are unqualified to teach English and English teachers who are unqualified to teach content, the paper will focus on CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) as a method to overcome the disparity. The content teachers were surveyed about what English they feel the students will need to know in the future workplace and how qualified they feel about teaching this in a language in which they have no professional qualifications. The English teachers, in turn, were surveyed about how they felt about teaching content in language classes. The research was mined for findings that might be of benefit to the ongoing process of teaching English in Japan. It is intended that this paper will be a contribution to research on motivation - both for students and educators.

Keywords: teaching English as a foreign language, student motivation, 21ˢᵗ century skills, CLIL

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3244 Deep Learning to Enhance Mathematics Education for Secondary Students in Sri Lanka

Authors: Selvavinayagan Babiharan


This research aims to develop a deep learning platform to enhance mathematics education for secondary students in Sri Lanka. The platform will be designed to incorporate interactive and user-friendly features to engage students in active learning and promote their mathematical skills. The proposed platform will be developed using TensorFlow and Keras, two widely used deep learning frameworks. The system will be trained on a large dataset of math problems, which will be collected from Sri Lankan school curricula. The results of this research will contribute to the improvement of mathematics education in Sri Lanka and provide a valuable tool for teachers to enhance the learning experience of their students.

Keywords: information technology, education, machine learning, mathematics

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3243 The Effects of Multiple Levels of Intelligence in an Algebra 1 Classroom

Authors: Abigail Gragg


The goal of this research study was to adjudicate if implementing Howard Gardner’s multiple levels of intelligence would enhance student achievement levels in an Algebra 1 College Preparatory class. This was conducted within every class by incorporating one level of the eight levels of intelligence into small group work in stations. Every class was conducted utilizing small-group instruction. Achievement levels were measured through various forms of collected data that expressed student understandings in class through formative assessments versus student understandings on summative assessments. The data samples included: assessments (i.e. summative and formative assessments), observable data, video recordings, a daily log book, student surveys, and checklists kept during the observation periods. Formative assessments were analyzed during each class period to measure in-class understanding. Summative assessments were dissected per question per accuracy to review the effects of each intelligence implemented. The data was collated into a coding workbook for further analysis to conclude the resulting themes of the research. These themes include 1) there was no correlation to multiple levels of intelligence enhancing student achievement, 2) bodily-kinesthetic intelligence showed to be the intelligence that had the most improvement on test questions and 3) out of all of the bits of intelligence, interpersonal intelligence enhanced student understanding in class.

Keywords: stations, small group instruction, multiple levels of intelligence, Mathematics, Algebra 1, student achievement, secondary school, instructional Pedagogies

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3242 Students’ Perception of Effort and Emotional Costs in Chemistry Courses

Authors: Guizella Rocabado, Cassidy Wilkes


It is well known that chemistry is one of the most feared courses in college. Although many students enjoy learning about science, most of them perceive that chemistry is “too difficult”. These perceptions of chemistry result in many students not considering Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) majors because they require chemistry courses. Ultimately, these perceptions are also thought to be related to high attrition rates of students who begin STEM majors but do not persist. Students perceived costs of a chemistry class can be many, such as task effort, loss of valued alternatives, emotional, and others. These costs might be overcome by students’ interests and goals, yet the level of perceived costs might have a lasting impact on the students’ overall perception of chemistry and their desire to pursue chemistry and other STEM careers in the future. In this mixed methods study, we investigated task effort and emotional cost, as well as a mastery or performance goal orientation, and the impact these constructs may have on achievement in general chemistry classrooms. Utilizing cluster analysis as well as student interviews, we investigated students’ profiles of perceived cost and goal orientation as it relates to their final grades. Our results show that students who are well prepared for general chemistry, such as those who have taken chemistry in high school, display less negative perceived costs and thus believe they can master the material more fully. Other interesting results have also emerged from this research, which has the potential to have an impact on future instruction of these courses.

Keywords: chemistry education, motivation, affect, perceived costs, goal orientations

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3241 Investigating Factors Impacting Student Motivation in Classroom Use of Digital Games

Authors: Max Neu


A large variety of studies on the utilization of games in classroom settings promote positive effects on students motivation for learning. Still, most of those studies rarely can give any specifics about the factors that might lead to changes in students motivation. The undertaken study has been conducted in tandem with the development of a highly classroom-optimized serious game, with the intent of providing a subjectively positive initial contact with the subject of political participation and to enable the development of personal motivation towards further engagement with the topic. The goal of this explorative study was to Identify the factors that influence students motivation towards the subject when serious games are being used in classroom education. Therefor, students that have been exposed to a set of classes in which a classroom optimized serious game has been used. Afterwards, a selection of those have been questioned in guided interviews that have been evaluated through Qualitative Content Analysis. The study indicates that at least 23 factors in the categories, mechanics, content and context potentially influence students motivation to engage with the classes subject. The conclusions are of great value for the further production of classroom games as well as curricula involving digital games in general.

Keywords: formal education, games in classroom, motivation, political education

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3240 Authentic Engagement for Institutional Leadership: Implications for Educational Policy and Planning

Authors: Simeon Adebayo Oladipo


Institutional administrators are currently facing pressure and challenges in their daily operations. Reasons for this may include the increasing multiplicity, uncertainty and tension that permeate institutional leadership. Authentic engagement for institutional leadership is premised on the ethical foundation that the leaders in the schools are engaged. The institutional effectiveness is dependent on the relationship that exists between the leaders and employees in the workplace. Leader’s self-awareness, relational transparency, emotional control, strong moral code and accountability have a positive influence on authentic engagement which variably determines leadership effectiveness. This study therefore examined the role of authentic engagement in effective school leadership; explored the interrelationship of authentic engagement indices in school leadership. The study adopted the descriptive research of the survey type using a quantitative method to gather data through a questionnaire among school leaders in Lagos State Tertiary Institutions. The population for the study consisted of all Heads of Departments, Deans and Principal Officers in Lagos State Tertiary Institutions. A sample size of 255 Heads of Departments, Deans and Principal Officers participated in the study. The data gathered were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The findings indicated that authentic engagement plays a crucial role in increasing leadership effectiveness amongst Heads of Departments, Deans and Principal Officers. The study recommended among others that there is a need for effective measures to enhance authentic engagement of institutional leadership practices through relevant educational support systems and effective quality control.

Keywords: authentic engagement, self-awareness, relational transparency, emotional control

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3239 The Interplay of Communication and Critical Thinking in the Mathematics Classroom

Authors: Sharon K. O'Kelley, PhD


At the heart of mathematics education is the concept of communication which many teachers envision as the influential dialogue they conduct with their students. However, communication in the mathematics classroom operates in different forms at different levels, both externally and internally. Specifically, it can be a central component in the building of critical thinking skills that requires students not only to know how to communicate their solutions to others but that they also be able to navigate their own thought processes in search of those solutions. This paper provides a review of research on the role of communication in the building of critical thinking skills in mathematics with a focus on the problem-solving process and the implications this interplay has for the teaching and learning of mathematics.

Keywords: communication in mathematics, critical thinking skills, mathematics education, problem-solving process

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3238 Kids Science Labs as a Way to Foster Independent Thinking of Children of Preschool and Elementary School Age

Authors: Aliya Kamilyevna Salahova


In this longitudinal study, a research is conducted that examines whether the designed intervention program Kids Science Labs based on STEM can be beneficial for children of preschool and elementary school age to foster independent thinking through inquiring, designing, solving and reflecting various physical phenomena such as air and water pressure, chromatography, and gravity. My research findings indicate that STEM activities had a permanent positive effect to foster independent thinking of children of preschool and elementary school age. By researching the relationship of program Kids Science Labs to academic achievement, it becomes clear that children who have learned to ask questions, build hypotheses and seek solutions to problems in STEM classes have shown better results in mathematics and science in school learning, they have higher learning motivation, the ability to doubt the uniqueness of problem solving and search for the best solution.

Keywords: STEM in preschool, STEM in elementary school, kids science labs, independent thinking, STEM activities in early childhood education

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