Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2799

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Educational and Pedagogical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2799 Effect of Three Instructional Strategies on Pre-service Teachers’ Learning Outcomes in Practical Chemistry in Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: Akpokiere Ugbede Roseline

Abstract:

Chemistry is an activity oriented subject in which many students achievement over the years are not encouraging. Among the reasons found to be responsible for student’s poor performance in chemistry are ineffective teaching strategies. This study, therefore, sought to determine the effect of guided inquiry, guided inquiry with demonstration, and demonstration with conventional approach on pre-service teachers’ cognitive attainment and practical skills acquisition on stoichiometry and chemical reactions in practical chemistry, Two research questions and hypotheses were each answered and tested respectively. The study was a quasi-experimental research involving 50 students in each of the experimental groups and 50 students in the control group. Out of the five instruments used for the study, three were on stimulus and two on response (Test of Cognitive Attainment and Test of Practical Skills in Chemistry) instruments administered, and dataobtained were analyzed with t-test and Analysis of Variance. Findings revealed, among others, that there was a significant effect of treatments on students' cognitive attainment and on practical skills acquisition. Students exposed to guided inquiry (with/without demonstration) strategies achieved better than those exposed to demonstration with conventional strategy. It is therefore recommended, among others, that Lecturers in Colleges of Education should utilize the guided inquiry strategy for teaching concepts in chemistry.

Keywords: instructional strategy, practical chemistry, learning outcomes, pre-service teachers

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2798 Effectiveness of a Peer-Mediated Intervention on Writing Skills in Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Inclusive Classroom

Authors: Siddiq Ahmed

Abstract:

The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a Peer-Mediated Intervention (PMI) on writing skills for a student with autism spectrum disorders in inclusive classrooms. The participants in this study were two students, one as a tutor and another as a tutee who was diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The target participant struggled with writing skills and was paired with a student with high academic outcomes. The Tutor had a readiness to act as a tutor for his peer and was trained on how to assist his peer and how to identify and guide his peer’s writing mistakes. Multiple baseline design across behaviors was implemented to monitor the student’s progress in writing skills. The results of the present study showed that PMI yielded significant improvements in academic achievements for the target student. This study suggests that further studies should replicate the current study with an intensive focus on other academic skills such as reading comprehension, writing social stories, and math.

Keywords: peer tutoring, writing skills, autism, inclusion

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2797 The Political Economy of Adult Education and Development: A Review in European Union

Authors: Pantelis Sklias, Panagiota Chatzimichailidou

Abstract:

This study intents to clarify the nexus of adult education and economic development within the methodological framework of political economy within EU. The main logic behind this study is that economies with a higher level of adult education have higher levels of economic development. Despite the assumption that policy making in adult education will clearly be facilitated by any ‘proofs’ of efficiency, mainly monetary, this study acknowledges the limitations following the use of the narrow economic approaches embedded in the neoclassical framework and proposes that the methodological framework of political economy is the most relevant to explore the correlation between adult education and economic development. Focusing only on neoclassical economics to explore the financial impact of adult education, it will marginalize the consideration of its history, producing a short of historical amnesia, besides the social harm, namely the devaluation of its socio-cultural influences. On the other side the political economy perspective offers a wider perception of adult education’s profits from a quantitative and a qualitative perspective too. The understanding of adult education engages questions of political economy because it is identified mainly as means of transformation, either personal or societal, serving humanistic values, besides its accepted monetary attributes. The political economy elevates questions regarding how the three institutional arrangements -the state, the market, and the civil society, are engaged in promoting adult education and therefore how adult education could reinforce economic development. Here the economic substance is still considered but it is placed into a wider social spectrum, where politics, economy, and history interact with one another. This study restricts itself in EU and explores the role of the three institutional arrangements both in the formulation of policy planning, and in the mental transformational process of the individual learners, which opens the path to a deeper understanding of the interaction between the individual and the social action, and therefore between adult education and economic development. This study also elevates the idea that economic development can have a positive impact on the unification of Europe, which encompasses economic, political, and cultural components.

Keywords: adult education, economic development, EU, political economy, unification of Europe

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2796 ‘Obuntu Bulamu’: Parental Peer to Peer Support for Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in Central Uganda

Authors: Ruth Nalugya, Claire Nimusiima, Elizabeth Kawesa, Harriet Nambejja, Geert van Hove, Janet Seeley, Femke Bannink Mbazzi

Abstract:

Background: ‘Obuntu bulamu’, an intervention for children, parents, and teachers to improve the participation and inclusion of children with disabilities (CwD) through peer-to-peer support, was developed and tested in central Uganda between 2017 and 2019. The intervention consisted of children, parents, and teachers' training sessions and peer to peer support activities directed at disability inclusion using an African disability framework. In this paper, we discuss parent participation in and parent evaluation of the ‘Obuntu bulamu’ intervention. Methods: This qualitative Afrocentric intervention study was implemented in 10 communities in the Wakiso district in Central Uganda. We purposely selected children aged 8 to 14 years with different impairments, their peers, and parents, with different levels of household income and familial support, who were enrolled in primary schools in the ten communities with on average three children with disabilities per community. Sixty four parents (33 parents of CwDs and 31 peers) participating in the ‘Obuntu bulamu’ study were interviewed at baseline and endline. Two focus group discussions were held with parents at the midline. Parents also participated in a consultative meeting about the intervention design at baseline, and two evaluation workshops held at midline and endline. Thematic data analysis of the interview and focus group data was conducted. Results: Findings showed parents found the group-based activities inspiring and said they built hope and confidence. Parents felt the intervention was acceptable, culturally appropriate, and supportive as it built on values and practices from their own traditions. Parents reported the intervention enhanced a sense of togetherness and belonging through the group meetings and follow-up activities. Parents also mentioned that the training helped them develop more positive attitudes towards CwD and disability inclusion. Parents felt that the invention increased a child’s participation and inclusion at home, school, and in communities. Conclusion: The Obuntu bulamu peer to peer support intervention is an acceptable, culturally appropriate intervention that has the potential to improve the inclusion of CwD. A larger randomized control trial is needed to evaluate the impact of the intervention model.

Keywords: inclusion, participation, inclusive education, peer support, belonging, Ubuntu, ‘Obuntu bulamu’

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2795 Developing Problem Solving Skills through a Project-Based Course as a Lifelong Learning for Engineering Students

Authors: Robin Lok-Wang Ma

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to investigate how engineering students’ motivation and interests are maintained in their journeys. In recent years, different pedagogies of teaching, including entrepreneurship, experiential and lifelong learning, as well as dream builder, etc., have been widely used for education purposes. University advocates hands-on practice, learning by experiencing and experimenting throughout different courses. Students are not limited to gaining knowledge via traditional lectures, laboratory demonstrations, tutorials, and so on. The capability to identify both complex problems and their corresponding solutions in daily lives is one of the criteria/skillsets required for graduates to obtain their careers at professional organizations and companies. A project-based course, namely Mechatronic Design and Prototyping was developed for students to design and build a physical prototype for solving existing problems in their daily lives, thereby encouraging them as an entrepreneur to explore further possibilities to commercialize their designed prototypes and launch them to the market. Feedbacks from students show that they are keen to propose their own ideas freely with guidance from the instructor instead of using either suggested or assigned topics. Proposed ideas of the prototypes reflect that if students’ interests are maintained, they acquire the knowledge and skills they need, including essential communication, logical thinking, and more importantly, problem solving for their lifelong learning journey.

Keywords: problem solving, lifelong learning, entrepreneurship, engineering

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2794 Validation of the Career Motivation Scale among Chinese University and Vocational College Teachers

Authors: Wei Zhang, Lifen Zhao

Abstract:

The present study aims to translate and validate the Career Motivation Scale among Chinese university and vocational college teachers. Exploratory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure that was consistent with the original structure of career motivation: career insight, career identity, and career resilience. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a second-order three-factor model with correlated measurement errors best fit the data. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance models were tested, demonstrating that the Chinese version of the Career Motivation Scale did not differ across groups of school type, educational level, and working years in current institutions. The concurrent validity of the Chinese Career Motivation Scale was confirmed by its significant correlations with work engagement, career adaptability, career satisfaction, job crafting, and intention to quit. The results of the study indicated that the Chinese Career Motivation Scale was a valid and reliable measure of career motivation among university and vocational college teachers in China.

Keywords: career motivation scale, Chinese University, vocational college teachers, measurement invariance, validation

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2793 Vanuatu’s Typical Approach to Mathematics vs. the ‘Try-Understand-Apply-Master’ Approach to Mathematics

Authors: Kency Obed Sawah

Abstract:

There are multiple factors contributing to the low level of mathematics in Basic education in the Republic of Vanuatu. Results through the Vanuatu Standard Test of Achievement (VANSTA) in 2017 and 2019 revealed that there are gaps in the performance of mathematics, causing the overall achievement to stagnant below the expected minimum standard. This study investigated the current situation of the approach to teaching mathematics in the country recognized as the 'I Do, We Do, You Do' model of teaching. In comparison, the study also investigated the influence of the 'Try-Understand-Apply-Master' (TUAM) discovery learning process on students in Vanuatu. The study intended to compare these two teaching approaches through pre and post-test interventions among two grade five classes and two grade four classes, of which one grade four and one grade five were treated as control groups and so as the other two grades. The findings of the study revealed a possibility that the TUAM discovery learning process can be promising for the improvement of the level of mathematics in the basic education in the Republic of Vanuatu.

Keywords: I do–We do–You do, TUAM

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2792 Healing (in) Relationship: The Theory and Practice of Inner-Outer Peacebuilding in North-Western India

Authors: Josie Gardner

Abstract:

The overall intention of this research is to reimagine peacebuilding in both in theory and practical application in light of the shortcomings and unsustainability of the current peacebuilding paradigm. These limitations are identified here as an overly rational-material approach to peacebuilding that neglects the inner dimension of peace for a fragmented rather than holistic model, and that espouses a conflict and violence-centric approach to peacebuilding. In counter, this presentation is purposed to investigate the dynamics of inner and outer peace as a holistic, complex system towards ‘inner-outer’ peacebuilding. This paper draws from primary research in the protracted conflict context of north-western India (Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh) as a case study. This presentation has two central aims. First, to introduce the process of inner (psycho-spiritual) peacebuilding, which has thus far been neglected by mainstream and orthodox literature. Second, to examine why inner peacebuilding is essential for realising sustainable peace on a broader scale as outer (socio-political) peace and to better understand how the inner and outer dynamics of peace relate and affect one another. To these ends, Josephine (the researcher/author/presenter) partnered with Yakjah Reconciliation and Development Network to implement a series of action-oriented workshops and retreats centred around healing, reconciliation, leadership, and personal development for the dual purpose of collaboratively generating data, theory, and insights, as well as providing the youth leaders with an experiential, transformative experience. The research team created and used a novel methodological approach called Mapping Ritual Ecologies, which draws from Participatory Action Research and Digital Ethnography to form a collaborative research model with a group of 20 youth co-researchers who are emerging youth peace leaders in Kashmir, Jammu, and Ladakh. This research found significant intra- and inter-personal shifts towards an experience of inner peace through inner peacebuilding activities. Moreover, this process of inner peacebuilding affected their families and communities through interpersonal healing and peace leadership in an inside-out process of change. These insights have generated rich insights and have supported emerging theories about the dynamics between inner and outer peace, power, justice, and collective healing. This presentation argues that the largely neglected dimension of inner (psycho-spiritual) peacebuilding is imperative for broader socio-political (outer) change. Changing structures of oppression, injustice, and violence—i.e. structures of separation—requires individual, interpersonal, and collective healing. While this presentation primarily examines and advocates for inside-out peacebuilding and social justice, it will also touch upon the effect of systems of separation on the inner condition and human experience. This research reimagines peacebuilding as a holistic inner-outer approach. This offers an alternative path forward those weaves together self-actualisation and social justice. While contextualised within north-western India with a small case study population, the findings speak also to other conflict contexts as well as our global peacebuilding and social justice milieu.

Keywords: holistic, inner peacebuilding, psycho-spiritual, systems youth

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2791 Perceptions of Senior Academics in Teacher Education Colleges Regarding the Integration of Digital Games during the Pandemic

Authors: Merav Hayakac, Orit Avidov-Ungarab

Abstract:

The current study adopted an interpretive-constructivist approach to examine how senior academics from a large sample of Israeli teacher education colleges serving general or religious populations perceived the integration of digital games into their teacher instruction and what their policy and vision were in this regard in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Half the participants expressed a desire to integrate digital games into their teaching and learning but acknowledged that this practice was uncommon. Only a small minority believed they had achieved successful integration, with doubt and skepticism expressed by some religious colleges. Most colleges had policies encouraging technology integration supported by ongoing funding. Although a considerable gap between policy and implementation remained, the COVID-19 pandemic was viewed as having accelerated the integration of digital games into pre-service teacher instruction. The findings suggest that discussions around technology-related vision and policy and their translation into practice should relate to the specific cultural needs and academic preparedness of the population(s) served by the college.

Keywords: COVID-19, digital games, pedagogy, teacher education colleges

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2790 The Impact of the Atypical Crisis on Educational Migration: Economic and Policy Challenges

Authors: Manana Lobzhanidze, Marine Kobalava, Lali Chikviladze

Abstract:

The global pandemic crisis has had a significant impact on educational migration, substantially limiting young people’s access to education abroad. Therefore, it became necessary to study the economic, demographic, social, cultural and other factors associated with educational migration, to identify the economic and political challenges of educational migration and to develop recommendations. The aim of the research is to study the effects of the atypical crisis on educational migration and to make recommendations on effective migration opportunities based on the identification of economic and policy challenges in this area. Bibliographic research is used to assess the effects of the impact of the atypical crisis on educational migration presented in the papers of various scholars. Against the background of the restrictions imposed during the COVID19 pandemic, migration rates have been analyzed, endogenous and exogenous factors affecting educational migration have been identified. Quantitative and qualitative research of students and graduates of TSU Economics and Business Faculty is conducted, the results have been processed by SPSS program, the factors hindering educational migration and the challenges have been identified. The Internet and digital technologies have been shown to play a vital role in alleviating the challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic, however, lack of Internet access and limited financial resources have played a disruptive role in the educational migration process. The analysis of quantitative research materials revealed the problems of educational migration caused by the atypical crisis, while some issues were clarified during the focus group meetings. The following theoretical-methodological approaches were used during the research: a bibliographic research, analysis, synthesis, comparison, selection-grouping are used; Quantitative and qualitative research has been carried out, the results have been processed by SPSS program. The article presents the consequences of the atypical crisis for educational migration, identifies the main economic and policy challenges in the field of educational migration, and develops appropriate recommendations to overcome them.

Keywords: educational migration, atypical crisis, economic-political challenges, educational migration factors

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2789 Learning Environments in the Early Years: A Case Study of an Early Childhood Centre in Australia

Authors: Mingxi Xiao

Abstract:

Children’s experiences in the early years build and shape the brain. The early years learning environment plays a significantly important role in children’s development. A well-constructed environment will facilitate children’s physical and mental well-being. This case study used an early learning centre in Australia called SDN Hurstville as an example, describing the learning environment in the centre, as well as analyzing the functions of the affordances. In addition, this report talks about the sustainability of learning in the centre, and how the environment supports cultural diversity and indigenous learning. The early years for children are significant. Different elements in the early childhood centre should work together to help children develop better. This case study found that the natural environment and the artificial environment are both critical to children; only when they work together can children have better development in physical and mental well-being and have a sense of belonging when playing and learning in the centre.

Keywords: early childhood center, early childhood education, learning environment, Australia

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2788 Educating For Gender And Sexual Diversity And Inclusion: Leadership And Teacher Education

Authors: Wendy Carr, Blye Frank

Abstract:

As educators and teacher educators, we think it is our responsibility to teach inclusively about human rights, particularly those relating to sexual and gender diversity. Faculties of education must prepare pre-service teachers to support diverse students by integrating content and practices into their programs and cultures. The presenters will outline some of the work undertaken in their Canadian faculty of education to enhance its language, curriculum and practices regarding sexual orientation and gender identity (SOGI) inclusion and some of the lessons learned. Implementation of an ambitious campaign in recent years has raised awareness and built capacity and culture related to SOGI inclusion for students, faculty and staff. The work came about in part because of significant changes to federal and provincial human rights legislation, in part because recent Canadian studies show that many teachers feel their university education did not prepare them for the SOGI diversity they encountered in schools, and in part because it was simply the right thing to do. Knowledgeable, inclusive and socially responsible educators are needed to ensure that all students feel seen, safe and supported because the research shows that homophobia, biphobia and transphobia continue to be rampant in Canadian schools. Presenters will outline how clear leadership and vision set the stage and how education and support were provided for preservice teachers and how faculty and staff engaged in professional learning. They will also share some of the lessons learned from a three-year research study tracking preservice teachers’ perspectives on preparedness for the classroom. We believe that in order to create socially equitable environments for students and educators at all levels, educational faculties, teacher regulators, and other education stakeholders must incorporate inclusive language and practices related to gender and sexual diversity. Our hope is that our faculty's work will both inspire and enlighten what's going on on other campuses throughout the world.

Keywords: gender and sexuality, human rights, inclusive education, teacher education

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2787 To Gamify Learning English Academic Vocabulary Through Interactive Web-Based E-Books: International Students

Authors: Rabea Alfahad

Abstract:

Learning English academic vocabulary poses a challenge on learning English.In this study, we harnessed interactive web-based e-books, and usedgamification and collaborative responsive writingto teach English academic vocabulary. We recruited 50 international students to investigate the impact of gamification on the participants’ learning gains. In so doing, the participants were randomly assigned to two groups: one group learned English academic vocabulary with gamification, and the second group learnedthem with traditional instructional methods. We used a pre/posttest to gauge the students’ cognitive attainment. We then administered independent samples t-test to find out the impact of gamification on learning academic vocabulary. We also employed an IMMS to collect data regarding the motivational level of the students. We administered a MANOVA test to measure the motivational level of the students in both groups. The results of this study suggested that …

Keywords: english language learners, technologhy integration, teaching, gamification

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2786 Engaging Students in Learning through Visual Demonstration Models in Engineering Education

Authors: Afsha Shaikh, Mohammed Azizur Rahman, Ibrahim Hassan, Mayur Pal

Abstract:

Student engagement in learning is instantly affected by the sources of learning methods available for them, such as videos showing the applications of the concept or showing a practical demonstration. Specific to the engineering discipline, there exist enormous challenging concepts that can be simplified when they are connected to real-world scenarios. For this study, the concept of heat exchangers was used as it is a part of multidisciplinary engineering fields. To make the learning experience enjoyable and impactful, 3-D printed heat exchanger models were created for students to use while working on in-class activities and assignments. Students were encouraged to use the 3-D printed heat exchanger models to enhance their understanding of theoretical concepts associated with its applications. To assess the effectiveness of the method, feedback was received by students pursuing undergraduate engineering via an anonymous electronic survey. To make the feedback more realistic, unbiased, and genuine, students spent nearly two to three weeks using the models in their in-class assignments. The impact of these tools on their learning was assessed through their performance in their ungraded assignments as well as their interactive discussions with peers. ‘Having to apply the theory learned in class whilst discussing with peers on a class assignment creates a relaxed and stress-free learning environment in classrooms’; this feedback was received by more than half the students who took the survey and found 3-D models of heat exchanger very easy to use. Amongst many ways to enhance learning and make students more engaged through interactive models, this study sheds light on the importance of physical tools that help create a lasting mental representation in the minds of students. Moreover, in this technologically enhanced era, the concept of augmented reality was considered in this research. E-drawings application was recommended to enhance the vision of engineering students so they can see multiple views of the detailed 3-D models and cut through its different sides and angles to visualize it properly. E-drawings could be the next tool to implement in classrooms to enhance students’ understanding of engineering concepts.

Keywords: student engagement, life-long-learning, visual demonstration, 3-D printed models, engineering education

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2785 Solving of Types Mathematical Routine and Non-Routine Problems in Algebra

Authors: Verónica Díaz Quezada

Abstract:

The importance given to the development of the problem solving skill and the requirement to solve problems framed in mathematical or real life contexts, in practice, they are not evidence in relation to the teaching of proportional variations. This qualitative and descriptive study aims to (1) to improve problem solving ability of high school students in Chile, (ii) to elaborate and describe a didactic intervention strategy based on learning situations in proportional variations, focused on solving types of routine problems of various contexts and non-routine problems. For this purpose, participant observation was conducted, test of mathematics problems and an opinion questionnaire to thirty-six high school students. Through the results, the highest academic performance is evidenced in the routine problems of purely mathematical context, realistic, fantasy context, and non-routine problems, except in the routine problems of real context and compound proportionality problems. The results highlight the need to consider in the curriculum different types of problems in the teaching of mathematics that relate the discipline to everyday life situations

Keywords: algebra, high school, proportion variations, nonroutine problem solving, routine problem solving

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2784 Distance Learning and Modern Challenges of Education Management in Georgia

Authors: Giorgi Gaganidze, Eter Kharaishvili

Abstract:

The atypical crisis has created new challenges in the education system. Globally, including in Georgia, traditional methods of managing the education system have appeared particularly vulnerable. In addition, new opportunities for the introduction of innovative management of learning processes have emerged. The aim of the research is to identify the main challenges in the field of education management in the distance learning process in Georgia and to develop recommendations on the opportunities for the introduction of innovative management. The paper substantiates the relevance of the research, in particular, it notes that in Georgia, as in many countries, distance learning in higher education institutions became particularly crucial during the Covid-19 pandemic. What is more, theoretical and practical aspects of distance learning are less proven, and a number of problems have been identified in the field of education management in Georgia. The article justifies the need to study the challenges of distance learning for the formation of a sustainable education management system. Within the bibliographic research, there are grouped the opinions of researchers on the modern problems of distance learning and education management in the article. Based on scientific papers, the expectations formed about distance learning are studied, and the main focus is on the existing problems of education management during the atypical crisis. The article discusses the forms and opportunities of distance learning in different countries, evaluates different approaches and challenges to distance learning, and justifies the role of education management in effective distance learning. The paper uses various theoretical-methodological tools of research, including desk research on the research topic; Data selection-grouping, problem identification is carried out by analysis, synthesis, sampling, induction, and other methods;SWOT analysis is used to assess the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of distance education and management; The level of student satisfaction with distance learning is determined through the Population-based / Census-based approach; The results of the research are processed by SPSS program. Quantitative research and semi-structured interviews with relevant focus groups were conducted to identify working directions for innovative management of distance learning and education. Research has shown that the demand for distance education is growing in Georgia, but the need to introduce innovative education management remains a particular challenge. Conclusions have been made on the introduction of innovative education management, and the relevant recommendations have been developed.

Keywords: distance learning, management challenges, education management, innovative management

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2783 Linguistic Politeness in Higher Education Teaching Chinese as an Additional Language

Authors: Leei Wong

Abstract:

Changes in globalized contexts precipitate changing perceptions concerning linguistic politeness practices. Within these changing contexts, misunderstanding or stereotypification of politeness norms may lead to negative consequences such as hostility or even communication breakdown. With China’s rising influence, the country is offering a vast potential market for global economic development and diplomatic relations and opportunities for intercultural interaction, and many outside China are subsequently learning Chinese. These trends bring both opportunities and pitfalls for intercultural communication, including within the important field of politeness awareness. One internationally recognized benchmark for the study and classification of languages – the updated 2018 CEFR (Common European Framework of Reference for Language) Companion Volume New Descriptors (CEFR/CV) – classifies politeness as a B1 (or intermediate) level descriptor on the scale of Politeness Conventions. This provides some indication of the relevance of politeness awareness within new globalized contexts for fostering better intercultural communication. This study specifically examines Bald on record politeness strategies presented in current beginner TCAL textbooks used in Australian tertiary education through content-analysis. The investigation in this study involves the purposive sampling of commercial textbooks published in America and China followed by interpretive content analysis. The philosophical position of this study is therefore located within an interpretivist ontology, with a subjectivist epistemological perspective. It sets out with the aim to illuminate the characteristics of Chinese Bald on record strategies that are deemed significant in the present-world context through Chinese textbook writers and curriculum designers. The data reveals significant findings concerning politeness strategies in beginner stage curriculum, and also opens the way for further research on politeness strategies in intermediate and advanced level textbooks for additional language learners. This study will be useful for language teachers, and language teachers-in-training, by generating awareness and providing insights and advice into the teaching and learning of Bald on record politeness strategies. Authors of textbooks may also benefit from the findings of this study, as awareness is raised of the need to include reference to understanding politeness in language, and how this might be approached.

Keywords: linguistic politeness, higher education, Chinese language, additional language

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2782 Understanding Student Engagement through Sentiment Analytics of Response Times to Electronically Shared Feedback

Authors: Yaxin Bi, Peter Nicholl

Abstract:

The rapid advancement of Information and communication technologies (ICT) is extremely influencing every aspect of Higher Education. It has transformed traditional teaching, learning, assessment and feedback into a new era of Digital Education. This also introduces many challenges in capturing and understanding student engagement with their studies in Higher Education. The School of Computing at Ulster University has developed a Feedback And Notification (FAN) Online tool that has been used to send students links to personalized feedback on their submitted assessments and record students’ frequency of review of the shared feedback as well as the speed of collection. The feedback that the students initially receive is via a personal email directing them through to the feedback via a URL link that maps to the feedback created by the academic marker. This feedback is typically a Word or PDF report including comments and the final mark for the work submitted approximately three weeks before. When the student clicks on the link, the student’s personal feedback is viewable in the browser and they can view the contents. The FAN tool provides the academic marker with a report that includes when and how often a student viewed the feedback via the link. This paper presents an investigation into student engagement through analyzing the interaction timestamps and frequency of review by the student. We have proposed an approach to modeling interaction timestamps and use sentiment classification techniques to analyze the data collected over the last five years for a set of modules. The data studied is across a number of final years and second-year modules in the School of Computing. The paper presents the details of quantitative analysis methods and describes further their interactions with the feedback overtime on each module studied. We have projected the students into different groups of engagement based on sentiment analysis results and then provide a suggestion of early targeted intervention for the set of students seen to be under-performing via our proposed model.

Keywords: feedback, engagement, interaction modelling, sentiment analysis

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2781 Access to the Community and Needed Supports among People with Physical Disabilities Receiving Long-Term Services and Supports in the United States

Authors: Stephanie Giordano, Eric Lam, Rosa Plasencia

Abstract:

An important piece of active aging is ensuring people have the right support to meet individual needs. Using NCI-AD data, we will look at measures of satisfaction with community access and needed services among people with physical disabilities receiving LTSS in the US. National Core Indicators—Aging and Disabilities (NCI-AD) is a voluntary effort by State Medicaid, aging, and disability agencies across the US to measure and track their own performance. NCI-AD uses a standardized survey – the Adult Consumer Survey (ACS), to hear directly from people receiving services about the quality of services and supports they receive. Data from the 2018-19 ACS found that compared to people without a physical disability, those with a physical disability were more likely to make choices about the services they receive, including when and how often they receive those services. Yet people with a physical disability were less likely to report they get enough assistance with everyday activities (e.g., shopping, housework, and taking medications) and self-care (e.g., dressing or bathing) and more likely to report that services and supports do not fully meet their needs and goals. A further breakdown by age shows that people 40-65 years old with a physical disability experienced even greater barriers to being as active in the community as they would like to be, indicating a need to better support people as they age with or into a disability. We will explore how these and other outcomes were affected by COVID-19, take a closer look at outcomes by demographics (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender, and mental health diagnoses) and discuss implications on the future needs of service systems.

Keywords: quality-of-life, long-term services and supports, person-centered, community

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2780 Creating a Senior-Friendly Workplaces: With Respect to Empowerment

Authors: Liu Yi Hui, Lin Yu Fang, Chiu Fan Yun

Abstract:

In preparation for the coming super-aged society in Taiwan, the Ministry of Labor announced the Middle-aged and Elderly Employment Promotion Act in 2019, dedicating a chapter to expressly prohibiting age discrimination. This study aimed to enhance understanding of workplace ageism by collecting data through in-depth interviews. The findings can be summarized as follows: (1) Elderly employment in Taiwan and its three underlying motivations: economic, social, and psychological needs. Economically, elders opt to continue working beyond the traditional retirement age because of financial shocks, a lack of financial planning, and being the breadwinner of the family. Socially and psychologically, they continue working to have a more diversified retirement life and find a new purpose in life. (2) Ageism and its impact on the re-employment of elders: On the ground, senior workers may face the age-based stereotype that their work performance is inferior and a broader social environment that is ostensibly friendly but essentially hostile. (3) Possible ways to facilitate elderly employment in terms of empowerment: By developing and empowering seniors with new skills or abilities for re-employment and strengthening their problem-solving skills in the face of new things through training programs, we can not only build the confidence and substantial abilities of senior workers in the workplace, but also flip the social stereotype about age.

Keywords: elderly employment, empowerment, ageism, elderly employment

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2779 A Meta-Analysis of Handwriting and Visual-Motor Integration (VMI): The Moderating Effect of Handwriting Dimensions

Authors: Hong Lu, Xin Chen, Zhengcheng Fan

Abstract:

Prior research has claimed a close association between handwriting and mathematics attainment with the help of spatial cognition. However, the exact mechanism behind this relationship remains un-investigated. Focusing on visual-motor integration (VMI), one critical spatial skill, this meta-analysis aims to estimate the size of the handwriting- visual-motor integration relationship and examine the moderating effect of handwriting dimensions on the link. With a random effect model, a medium relation (r=.26, 95%CI [.22, .30]) between handwriting and VMI was summarized in 38 studies with 55 unique samples and 141 effect sizes. Findings suggested handwriting dimensions significantly moderated the handwriting- VMI relationship, with handwriting legibility showing a substantial correlation with VMI, but neither handwriting speed nor pressure. Identifying the essential relationship between handwriting legibility and VMI, this study adds to the literature about the key cognitive processing needs underlying handwriting, and spatial cognition thus highlights the cognitive mechanism regarding handwriting, spatial cognition, and mathematics performances.

Keywords: handwriting, visual-motor integration, legibility, meta-analysis

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2778 Maternal Parenting Style and Moral Development of Primary School Students: Evidence from Pakistan

Authors: Ghulam Zahra

Abstract:

Parenting style affects the morality of their children. There is plenty of evidence to support the effect of parenting styles on the morality of their children. Therefore, this research is considered essential and suitable. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the correlation between the parenting style of mothers and the moral development of primary school students. The population consisted of all primary school students enrolled in the province of Punjab. The sample was comprised of twelve hundred thirty-nine primary school students. One questionnaire was adapted to explore the parenting styles of mothers and to assess the level of students’ level of morality; a moral development scale was adopted. The conclusions showed that there was a significant correlation exist among authoritarian parenting style, permissive parenting, and moral developments. Based on findings, it is recommended that parents should follow a warm style of parenting for the sake of the moral development of their children.

Keywords: maternal parenting style, moral development, authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, permissive parenting

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2777 Academic Success, Problem-Based Learning and the Middleman: The Community Voice

Authors: Isabel Medina, Mario Duran

Abstract:

Although Problem-based learning provides students with multiple opportunities for rigorous instructional experiences in which students are challenged to address problems in the community; there are still gaps in connecting community leaders to the PBL process. At a south Texas high school, community participation serves as an integral component of the PBL process. Problem-based learning (PBL) has recently gained momentum due to the increase in global communities that value collaboration and critical thinking. As an instructional approach, PBL engages high school students in meaningful learning experiences. Furthermore, PBL focuses on providing students with a connection to real-world situations that require effective peer collaboration. For PBL leaders, providing students with a meaningful process is as important as the final PBL outcome. To achieve this goal, STEM high school strategically created a space for community involvement to be woven within the PBL fabric. This study examines the impact community members had on PBL students attending a STEM high school in South Texas. At STEM High School, community members represent a support system that works through the PBL process to ensure students receive real-life mentoring from business and industry leaders situated in the community. A phenomenological study using a semi-structured approach was used to collect data about students’ perception of community involvement within the PBL process for one South Texas high school. In our proposed presentation, we will discuss how community involvement in the PBL process academically impacted the educational experience of high school students at STEM high school. We address the instructional concerns PBL critics have with the lack of direct instruction, by providing a representation of how STEM high school utilizes community members to assist in impacting the academic experience of students.

Keywords: phenomenological, STEM education, student engagement, community involvement

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2776 The Use of Authentic Videos to Change Learners’ Negative Attitudes and Perceptions toward Grammar Learning

Authors: Khaldi Youcef

Abstract:

This investigation seeks to inquire into the effectiveness of using authentic videos for grammar teaching purposes. In this investigation, an English animated situation, Hercules, was used as a type of authentic multimedia to teach a particular grammatical structure, namely conditional sentences. This study also aims at investigating the EFL learners’ attitudes toward grammar learning after being exposed to such an authentic video. To reach that purpose, 56 EFL learners were required ultimately to respond to a questionnaire with an aim to reveal their attitudes towards grammar as a language entity and as a subject for being learned. Then, as a second stage of the investigation, the EFL learners were divided into a control group and an experimental group with 28 learners in each. The first group was taught grammar -conditional sentences- using a deductive-inductive approach, while the second group was exposed to an authentic video to learn conditional sentences. There was a post-lesson stage that included a questionnaire to be answered by learners of each group. The aim of this stage is to capture any change in learners' attitudes shown in the pre-lesson questionnaire. The findings of the first stage revealed learners' negative attitudes towards grammar learning. And the third stage results showed the effectiveness of authentic videos in entirely turning learners' attitudes toward grammar learning to be significantly positive. Also, the utility of authentic videos in highly motivating EFL learners can be deduced. The findings of this survey asserted the need for incorporation and integration of authentic videos in EFL classrooms as they resulted in rising effectively learners’ awareness of grammar and looking at it from a communicative perspective.

Keywords: multimedia, authentic videos, negative attitudes, grammar learning, EFL learners

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2775 Exploring Long-Term Care Support Networks and Social Capital for Family Caregivers

Authors: Liu Yi-Hui, Chiu Fan-Yun

Abstract:

The demand for care support has been rising with the aging of society and the advancement of medical science and technology. To meet rising demand, the Taiwanese government was promoting the “Long Term Care Ten-Year Plan 2.0” in 2017. However, this policy and its related services failed to be fully implemented because of the ignorance of the public, and their lack of desire, fear, or discomfort in using them, which is a major obstacle to the promotion of long-term care services. Given the above context, this research objectives included the following: (1) to understand the current situation and predicament of family caregivers; (2) to reveal the actual use and assistance of government’s long-term care resources for family caregivers; and (3) to explore the support and impact of social capital on family caregivers. A semi-structured in-depth interview was conducted with five family caregivers, leading to the following findings, conclusions, and recommendations. 1. The current situation and predicament of family caregivers were addressed from four aspects: psychological stress, financial burden, social life circle, and caregiving-associated risk. 2. Suggestions were made to address the service quality of the three types of long-term care workers with whom family caregivers mostly interact (i.e., house attendants, personal supervisors, and foreign caregivers) in view of the current utilization status of government’s long-term care resources. 3. The support and influence of social capital for family caregivers were addressed in terms of its dual effect, namely a positive effect and a negative effect and take on a new form in various online communities that emerge from information technology. As a result, family caregivers can build new connections to enhance social capital through participation in physical or online professional groups.

Keywords: family caregivers, long-term care, social capital, social networks

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2774 Impact of Social Distancing on the Correlation Between Adults’ Participation in Learning and Acceptance of Technology

Authors: Liu Yi Hui

Abstract:

The COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has globally affected all aspects of life, with social distancing and quarantine orders causing turmoil and learning in community colleges being temporarily paused. In fact, this is the first time that adult education has faced such a severe challenge. It forces researchers to reflect on the impact of pandemics on adult education and ways to respond. Distance learning appears to be one of the pedagogical tools capable of dealing with interpersonal isolation and social distancing caused by the pandemic. This research aims to examine whether the impact of social distancing during COVID-19 will lead to increased acceptance of technology and, subsequently, an increase in adults ’ willingness to participate in distance learning. The hypothesis that social distancing and the desire to participate in distance learning affects learners’ tendency to accept technology is investigated. Teachers ’ participation in distance education and acceptance of technology are used as adjustment variables with the relationship to “social distancing,” “participation in distance learning,” and “acceptance of technology” of learners. A questionnaire survey was conducted over a period of twelve months for teachers and learners at all community colleges in Taiwan who enrolled in a basic unit course. Community colleges were separated using multi-stage cluster sampling, with their locations being metropolitan, non-urban, south, and east as criteria. Using the G*power software, 660 samples were selected and analyzed. The results show that through appropriate pedagogical strategies or teachers ’ own acceptance of technology, adult learners’ willingness to participate in distance learning could be influenced. A diverse model of participation can be developed, improving adult education institutions’ ability to plan curricula to be flexible to avoid the risk associated with epidemic diseases.

Keywords: social distancing, adult learning, community colleges, technology acceptance model

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2773 An Assessment of the Writing Skills of Reflective Essay of Grade 10 Students in Selected Secondary Schools in Valenzuela City

Authors: Reynald Contreras, Shaina Marie Bho, Kate Roan Dela Cruz, Marvin Dela Cruz

Abstract:

This study was conducted with the aim of determining the skill level of grade ten (Grade 10) students in writing a reflective essay in selected secondary schools of Valenzuela. This research used descriptive and qualitative-quantitative research methods to systematically and accurately describe the level of writing skills of students and used a convenient sampling technique in selecting forty (40) students in grade ten. (Grade 10) at Polo, Wawang Pulo, and Arkong Batong high schools with a total of one hundred and twenty (120) students to assess the written reflective essay using modified rubrics developed based on 6+1 writing traits by Ruth Culham. According to the findings of the study, students at Polo and Wawang Pulo National high schools have low levels of writing skills that need to be developed or are not proficient. Meanwhile, Arkong Bato National High School has achieved a high degree of writing proficiency. Based on the study's findings, the researchers devised a suggested curriculum mapping for the suggested activity or intervention activity that would aid in the development and cultivation of the writing skills of children in grade ten (Grade 10).

Keywords: writing skills, reflective essay, intervention activity, 6+1 writing traits, modified rubrics

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2772 Students’ Participation in Higher Education Governance in Mainland China

Authors: Rurui Liu

Abstract:

Universities have been one of the most important institutions in society. They shoulder the responsibility to do research and teach further generations. Therefore, the governance of universities has been a heated topic and has been learned for years. Recently, it witnessed great changes, for example, the massification of Higher Education, marketization, and privatization. As a result, more stakeholders are involved in the governance of Higher Education, among which students’ participation in HE becomes more important. However, the research about students’ participation in HE governance in China is not sufficient, and the situation requires improvement. The paper aims to not only fill in the research gap but also put forward practical suggestions to follow the world’s trend of HE governance. The methodology of this paper is literature analysis with comparative studies between China and western countries. The research points out that the current situation of students’ participation in HE governance is unideal due to problems in three fields, values and concepts, mechanisms and systems, as well as student unions. Then, the policy implications are based on these reasons: universities should highlight students’ status, respect their subjectivity and adhere to the service awareness; the government requires to build a sound legal system while universities should establish complete mechanisms and systems; student unions should be encouraged by universities to take part in HE governance affairs with sufficient funds, and autonomy. On the one hand, this paper is a further application of four rationales (consumerism, political-realism, communitarian, democracy, and consequentialism) created by Luescher‐Mamashela for the inevitable trend of students’ participation in HE governance. On the other hand, the suggestions it made benefit the students, universities, and society in practical ways.

Keywords: students’ participation, higher education governance, Chinese higher education, university power

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2771 Transformational Leadership and Departmental Performance: The Intervening Role of Internal Communication and Citizen/Customer Participation

Authors: Derrick Boakye Boadu, Zahra Fakhri

Abstract:

Transformational leaders are the catalyst of change and focus more importantly on members or followers. Involvement of transformational leadership style in organizational structures can provide interesting nuances to the implementation and enhancement of citizen and customer participation mechanisms in an organization regardless of the time consuming, cost, and delaying process of analyzing the feedback of workers and citizens/customers which stifles good outcome of organization’s department performance. It posits that transformational leadership has a positive direct effect on organization-departmental performance and the intervening role of citizen and customer participation and internal communication. Using the NASP-IV 2007 data, the article finds support for the five hypotheses in a structural equation model, and the findings show that transformational leadership does have a direct impact on organizational-departmental performance a partial mediation effect of the relationship through the role of internal communication and citizen and customer participation.  

Keywords: transformational leaders, departmental performance, internal communication, citizen/customer participation

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2770 Kiddo: Design and Prototype of a Useable Mobile Application for Kids to Learn under Parental Control

Authors: Albandary Alamer, Noura Alaskar, Sana Bukhamseen, Jawaher Alkhamis, Enas Alghamdi, Almaha Almulhim, Hina Gull, Rachid Zagrouba, Madeeha Saqib

Abstract:

A good and healthy seed will always produce a nice fruit, whereas an infected seed will produce an infected fruit. The same concept applies to the children, and the healthier the environment in which the kids grow, the more likely they become valuable members of society. Kiddo project introduces us to a mobile application that focuses on enhancing the sense of responsibility from a young age and makes raising kids fun and easy. The application aims to enhance the communication between parents and their children and to enrich the good habits of the kid. Kiddo Application enables kids to share their accomplishments with their peers in an interactive environment full of enjoyment, followed by parental monitoring to handle what their kids are posting and friends following. Kiddo provides the kids' and parents’ society with a safe platform free of cyberbullying and inappropriate content with parents' fun engagement.

Keywords: kids social media, educational app, child-raising, parental control, cyberbullying, parent-child relationship, good habits

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