Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2153

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Educational and Pedagogical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2153 New Zealand Primary School Teachers’ Critical Reflections on a Pedagogical Model: One School’s Journey in Offering Mandarin

Authors: Christine Biebricher

Abstract:

The study is set in New Zealand, where the curriculum places an expectation on schools to establish additional languages programmes to enhance students’ communicative competence and intercultural capability, preparing students for a plurilingual world. A growing number of schools, therefore, introduce languages for younger learners, especially after the Ministry of Education launched a fund to support Asian languages in schools. However, many schools lack language expertise, and primary school teachers are not trained in teaching foreign languages. This unique context forms the backdrop of the two teachers in this study: they are at a primary school adopting a pedagogical model where all classroom teachers of nine to 12-year-olds teach Mandarin once a week, and they rely on self-study and native-speaker students for language learning. The two experienced female teachers in the study critically reflect on their school’s model and their own journeys of becoming teachers of Mandarin. They highlight the benefits of ongoing interaction with colleagues, collaborative content planning in teams, the provision of progression in year levels, and opportunities for professional development. The teachers report on their experience with various teaching approaches from total immersion to only teaching cultural aspects, a study abroad opportunity in China, and their commitment to learning a new language in their spare time. The study uses a qualitative approach based on the teachers’ individual reflective processes and semi-structured interviews. While both teachers perceive their school’s pedagogical model and their journeys as a success, particularly in the absence of a language policy, they emphasise the challenge of sustaining language teaching through a model that relies solely on teachers’ commitment to additional linguistic and pedagogical learning.

Keywords: critical reflection, Mandarin in New Zealand, pedagogical model, primary school language teaching, professional development, teacher education

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2152 Mindfulness in a Secular Age: Framing and Contextualising the Conversation in the Irish Context

Authors: Thomas P. Carroll

Abstract:

The phenomenon of mindfulness has become ever more popular in an increasingly pluralist Western society. Mindfulness practice has penetrated secular contexts that would otherwise be closed to religious influence, including state schools, hospitals, and commerce. The contemporary understanding of mindfulness has its origins in Buddhist meditation. However, since Jon Kabat-Zinn’s pioneering work in Mindfulness-Based Interventions, the concept has developed and sometimes mutated into various forms of practice which are disembedded from their original spiritual philosophy. This project will explore the spiritual climate within which mindfulness is currently flourishing through dialogue with three interlocutors. The first interlocutor is the Canadian philosopher Charles Taylor whose seminal work, ‘A Secular Age’, outlines three distinct modes of secularity. Taylor examines how the conditions of belief have changed and how the self seeks meaning in an age where belief in the divine is no longer axiomatic. The next interlocutor is Czech theologian and psychotherapist Tomáš Halík who offers a unique perspective of a Catholic who belongs to a section of society outnumbered by secular counterparts, with a theological hermeneutic best described as 'Den Fremden verstehen- understanding the stranger'. Finally, Irish theologian Michael Paul Gallagher offers a theological perspective on how the Christian faith can be translated into dialogue with Irish secular culture, as well as addressing the crisis of imagination and culture rather than the crisis of faith in Ireland. These interlocutors will illustrate that there are sometimes striking differences in how to interpret the religious signs of the times. However, these approaches also reveal significant similarities in how they address and explore the meaning of religious belief and experience today. In this way, themes will emerge that will help to frame the conversation about mindfulness in the West. These themes will include; the failure of the secularization thesis to pass, the growth of a diverse marketplace of religions and beliefs and the growth of a demographic who identify as spiritual but not religious. Such research is paramount in enabling a richer dialogue between Christian faith and mindfulness in a fragmented, postmodern Western context.

Keywords: culture, mindfulness, secularism, spirituality

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2151 Training Student Teachers to Work in Partnership with Parents of Students with Special Needs

Authors: Alicia Greenbank, Efrat Bengio

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to examine the efficacy of the first course in Israel, whose objective is to train student teachers in the special education department to work cooperatively with parents of children with special needs. Studies often highlight the importance of cooperation between teachers and parents of students with special needs. Israel’s Special Education Law defines parents as complete partners, and the Ministry of Education encourages and even requires that partnership be present. Yet this partnership is difficult to achieve many kindergarten teachers, and teachers have a lot of difficulties establishing and managing a pattern of cooperation with their students’ parents. Often we see different perspectives on the child's development and needs, distrust, lack of appreciation, and communication difficulties on both sides – parents & teachers. The course describes a method of instilling the need for cooperation at an early stage of teacher training-in the teacher training program. 22 students in the special education program for early childhood education in the fourth year of learning took part in the course. The fourth-year is the experiential training year and the first time that students have worked in a school. The course consisted of 14 sessions. Seven parents of students with different disabilities participated at 6 of the sessions. The changes in the students' attitudes towards partnership and their ability to manage this partnership were carried out by examining the reports written by the students before the meetings with the parents and the reflections they wrote after each meeting with the parents and at the end of the course. Three themes emerged from the narrative analysis, corresponding to the three preconditions for joint activities with parents — Approach, Attitude, Appropriate Atmosphere, according to the Four A’s Model. The findings showed that a course combining meetings with parents of children with special needs offers many benefits for teacher training. The course raised student awareness of the question partnership, changed students’ approaches and attitudes towards the parents, stressed the importance of partnership, and provided students with tools for working with parents through the school. Based on the findings of this study, courses in this format can be applied in order to cooperate between teachers and parents, for example, parents of gifted children with special needs.

Keywords: Partnership with parents in special education, parents of children with disabilities, parents of children with special needs, parents’ involvement in special education

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2150 Teaching Transformations on and off the Coordinate Plane

Authors: Lisa A. Kasmer, Reva G. McDowell

Abstract:

The decisions that teachers make as they plan and enact instruction hold considerable implications for their students’ opportunity to learn. In their role, the teacher makes a number of instructional decisions that shape the overall implementation of the lesson. These decisions are guided by a number of influences, ranging from the teacher’s beliefs regarding teaching and learning, their own knowledge as well as their instructional goals and the standards that influence the content of their lessons. Schoenfeld describes goals as the things that people consciously or unconsciously set out to achieve. But what guides these goals, that ultimately impact instruction and student learning. Goals are one factor that assists teachers in providing detail into all of the decisions that they make when planning and enacting their lessons. Researchers at four institutions situated across the United States, as part of a National Science Foundation funded project, are examining the decisions of grade 8 mathematics teachers as they plan and teach geometric transformations. In this paper, we share results from our study to answer the following research questions: What goals are evidenced when teachers make curricular decisions pertaining to teaching geometric transformations on or off the coordinate plane? Why do some teachers decide to use the coordinate plane, while others do not? Eight teachers were provided the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project (UCSMP) to plan and guide their lessons. They were instructed to use these materials as they saw fit along with any other supplementary materials they needed to teach a unit on geometric transformations. This curriculum does not make use of the coordinate plane initially. Students are introduced to reflections, translations, and rotations off the coordinate plane. Each teacher participated in a lesson cycle consisting of a pre-interview prior to the lesson being taught, an observation of the taught lesson, and a post-interview after the lesson. Teachers participated in 3-7 lesson cycles depending on the number of lessons they taught in the unit. After data collection, each interview was coded and analyzed for different aspects of curricular reasoning and goals. For the purpose of this paper, we report on goals as they pertain to the decision to teach geometric transformations on or off the coordinate plane. It is important to note that while the teachers were provided the geometry curriculum, teachers were given the leeway to make decisions based on their own goals, content knowledge, and beliefs. The goals teachers draw upon, and their curricular reasoning behind these instructional goals is an important paradigm to consider in both pre-service and in-service teacher education/professional development. Understanding the goals teachers draw from can inform the field in important ways. Teacher educators can direct their efforts to support teachers’ awareness and development of their reasoning of why they make the decisions they do with regards to the goals they use to plan and implement their lessons.

Keywords: coordinate plane, curricular-reasoning geometric transformations, instructional goals

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2149 A Peer-Produced Community of Learning: The Case of Second-Year Algerian Masters Students at a Distance

Authors: Nihad Alem

Abstract:

Nowadays, distance learning (DL) is widely perceived as a reformed type of education that takes advantage of technology to give more appealing opportunities especially for learners whose life conditions impede their attendance to regular classrooms however, creating interactional environment for students to expand their learning community and alleviate the feeling of loneliness and isolation should receive more attention when designing a distance learning course. This research aims to explore whether the audio/video peer learning can offer pedagogical add-ons to the Algerian distance learners and what are the pros and cons of its application as an educational experience in a synchronous environment mediated by Skype. Data were collected using video recordings of six sessions, reflective logs, and in-depth semi-structured interviews and will be analyzed by qualitatively identifying and measuring the three constitutional elements of the educational experience of peer learning namely the social presence, the cognitive presence, and the facilitation presence using a modified community of inquiry coding template. The findings from this study will provide recommendations for effective peer learning educational experience using the facilitation presence concept.

Keywords: audio/visual peer learning, community of inquiry, distance learning, facilitation presence

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2148 The Effectiveness of Homeschooling: A Stakeholder's Perception in East London Education District

Authors: N. M. Zukani, E. O. Adu

Abstract:

Homeschooling has been a primary method for parents to educate their children. It has become a growing educational phenomenon across the globe. However, homeschooling is, therefore, an alternative form of education in which children are instructed at home rather than in mainstream schools. This study evaluated the effectiveness of homeschooling in East London Education District, looking at the stakeholder’s perceptions, reviewing issues that impact on this as reflected in literature. This is a qualitative study done in selected homeschools. Semi structured interviews were used as a form of collecting data. Data was scrutinized and grouped into themes. The study revealed the importance of differentiation of instruction, and the need for flexibility in the process of homeschooling for children who faced difficulties, special needs in learning in mainstream schooling. It is therefore concluded that the participants in the study clearly showed that homeschooling is an educational choice for parents who have concerns about the quality of education of their children. Furthermore, homeschooling has the potential to be the most learner centered, nurturing educational approach. It was recommended that an effective homeschooling practice mainly, the practice should consider attention to children-parent’s goals and learning structure. Although homeschooling looks at how to overcome the drawbacks of mainstream schooling, there are also cases that reflected, the incompetency of parents or tutors conducting the homeschooling and also a need for the support material and other educational supports from the government.

Keywords: homeschooling, effectiveness, stakeholders, parents, perception

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2147 The Effects of Big 6+6 Skill Training on Daily Living Skills for an Adolescent with Intellectual Disability

Authors: Luca Vascelli, Silvia Iacomini, Giada Gueli, Francesca Cavallini, Carlo Cavallini, Federica Berardo

Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of training on Big 6 + 6 motor skills to promote daily living skills. Precision teaching (PT) suggests that improved speed of the component behaviors can lead to better performance of composite skills. This study assessed the effects of the repeated timed practice of component motor skills on speed and accuracy of composite skills related to daily living skills. An 18 years old adolescent with intellectual disability participated. A pre post probe single-subject design was used. The results suggest that the participant was able to perform the component skills at his individual aims (endurance was assessed). The speed and accuracy of composite skills were increased; stability and retention were also measured for the composite skill after the training.

Keywords: big 6+6, daily living skills, intellectual disability, precision teaching

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2146 Perceived Causes of Mathematics Phobia Amongst Senior Secondary School Students in Yenagoa Metropolis, Bayelsa State, Nigeria

Authors: Iniye Irene Wodi, Kennedy B. Gibson

Abstract:

Students’ poor performance in mathematics in both internal and external examinations has been a source of concern to researchers in Nigeria. The cause of this has been attributed to both teachers and students. To this end, this study sought to find out students’ perceptions of teachers’ attributes as a cause of mathematics phobia among secondary school students in Bayelsa State Nigeria. The population of the study comprised of all students of senior secondary schools in Yenagoa metropolis. A sample of 120 students was drawn from this population using clustering and simple random sampling techniques. The instrument for data collection was a researcher constructed questionnaire titled Mathematics Phobia Questionnaire (MPQ). Data were analysed, and the results revealed that students perceived teachers’ attributes such as methods and styles of teaching, difficulty in communication, etc. as causes of mathematics phobia among students in senior secondary schools in Bayelsa State. Based on the result, it was therefore recommended that mathematics teachers should be retrained periodically in order to learn new and innovative ways of teaching mathematics to prevent its phobia among students.

Keywords: mathematics phobia, teacher attributes, teaching method, teaching style

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2145 Curriculum Based Measurement and Precision Teaching in Writing Empowerment: Results from an Italian Learning Center

Authors: Iris Pelizzoni, Carlo Cavallini, Francesca Cavallini, Salvaderi

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We present the improvement in writing skills obtained by 94 participants (aged between six and ten) with Special Educational Needs through a writing enhancement program based on fluency principles. The study was planned and conducted with a single-subject experimental plan for each of the participants, in order to confirm the results in the literature.These results were obtained using Precision Teaching methodology as independent variable and measuring dependent variable is the number of written graphemes per minute in the pre and post-test, by Curriculum-Based Measurement obtained by calculating the average score of 3 writing under dictation tests aloud from three different pieces, never read before, taken from a textbook corresponding to the school grade attended by each student. Results indicated the increase in the number of written graphemes for all participants. The average overall duration of the intervention is 144 minutes, in 5 months of treatment. The efficiency and efficiency indices considered to refer to the scores given as a reference by school grade frequency. These considerations have been analyzed taking account of the complexity of the implementation of measurement systems in real operational contexts (Italian learning center) and important aspects of replicability and cost-effectiveness of such interventions.

Keywords: curriculum based measurement, precision teaching, writing skill, Italian learning center

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2144 Academic and Sociocultural Adaptation Experiences of International Students Studying in Kazakhstan

Authors: Tatyana Kim

Abstract:

This paper seeks to explore the academic and sociocultural adaptation experiences of international students studying in Kazakhstan. Using multiple case study design, the research will be undertaken at two private Kazakhstani universities having a relatively large and diverse body of international students. Thus, 20 full-time undergraduate international students from the sampled universities will be interviewed to identify factors that impede or, vice versa, facilitate their academic and sociocultural adaptation in Kazakhstan, as well as to reveal how universities support these students in the process of their adaptation. To investigate the issue more deeply, it was decided to explore the university administrators’ viewpoint of the issue. Thus, six university administrators who are in charge of recruiting and supporting international students and, thus, are particularly knowledgeable about their experiences, have been recruited for this study. Identification of both students’ and administrators’ perspectives on the matter may help reveal miscommunication, if any, and gain greater insight into the phenomenon. The data will be collected between November 5, 2019, and December 10, 2019. Preliminary findings will be presented at the conference. Lysgaard’s U-curve adjustment theory (1955) will be employed as a guiding framework to discuss and interpret the findings.

Keywords: academic adaptation, adaptation, higher education, international students, sociocultural adaptation

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2143 Instructional Leadership, Information and Communications Technology Competencies and Performance of Basic Education Teachers

Authors: Jay Martin L. Dionaldo

Abstract:

This study aimed to develop a causal model on the performance of the basic education teachers in the Division of Malaybalay City for the school year 2018-2019. This study used the responses of 300 randomly selected basic education teachers of Malaybalay City, Bukidnon. They responded to the three sets of questionnaires patterned from the National Education Association (2018) on instructional leadership of teachers, the questionnaire of Caluza et al., (2017) for information and communications technology competencies and the questionnaire on the teachers’ performance using the Individual Performance Commitment and Review Form (IPCRF) adopted by the Department of Education (DepEd). Descriptive statistics such as mean for the description, correlation for a relationship, regression for the extent influence, and path analysis for the model that best fits teachers’ performance were used. Result showed that basic education teachers have a very satisfactory level of performance. Also, the teachers highly practice instructional leadership practices in terms of coaching and mentoring, facilitating collaborative relationships, and community awareness and engagement. On the other hand, they are proficient users of ICT in terms of technology operations and concepts and basic users in terms of their pedagogical indicators. Furthermore, instructional leadership, coaching and mentoring, facilitating collaborative relationships and community awareness and engagement and information and communications technology competencies; technology operations and concept and pedagogy were significantly correlated toward teachers’ performance. Coaching and mentoring, community awareness and engagement, and technology operations and concept were the best predictors of teachers’ performance. The model that best fit teachers’ performance is anchored on coaching and mentoring of the teachers, embedded with facilitating collaborative relationships, community awareness, and engagement, technology operations, and concepts, and pedagogy.

Keywords: information and communications technology, instructional leadership, coaching and mentoring, collaborative relationship

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2142 Exploring the Effect of Using Lesh Model in Enhancing Prospective Mathematics Teachers’ Number Sense

Authors: Areej Isam Barham

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Developing students’ number sense is an essential element in the learning of mathematics. Number sense is one of the foundational ideas in mathematics where students need to understand numbers, representing them in different ways, and realize the relationships among numbers. Number sense also reflects students’ understanding of the meaning of operations, how they related to one another, how to compute fluently and make reasonable estimates. Developing students’ number sense in the mathematics classroom requires good preparation for mathematics teachers, those who will direct their students towards the real understanding of numbers and its implementation in the learning of mathematics. This study describes the development of elementary prospective mathematics teachers’ number sense through a mathematics teaching methods course at Qatar University. The study examined the effect of using the Lesh model in enhancing mathematics prospective teachers’ number sense. Thirty-nine elementary prospective mathematics teachers involved in the current study. The study followed an experimental research approach, and quantitative research methods were used to answer the research questions. Pre-post number sense test was constructed and implemented before and after teaching by using the Lesh model. Data were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive data analysis and t-test were used to examine the impact of using the Lesh model in enhancing prospective teachers’ number sense. Finding of the study indicated poor number sense and limited numeracy skills before implementing the use of the Lesh model, which highly demonstrate the importance of the study. The results of the study also revealed a positive impact on the use of the Lesh model in enhancing prospective teachers’ number sense with statistically significant differences. The discussion of the study addresses different features and issues related to the participants’ number sense. In light of the study, the research presents recommendations and suggestions for the future development of mathematics prospective teachers’ number sense.

Keywords: number sense, Lesh model, prospective mathematics teachers, development of number sense

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2141 Girls’ Education Policy and Practices in Three Selected Countries of Africa: Feminism, Educational Reform and Cultural Inflections in View

Authors: Endalew Fufa Kufi

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One of the major concerns in educational provision and success determination is access to available opportunities. In that, girls’ access to education has been a point of concern, and more emphasis has come to be at the forefront regarding success. Researches have mostly been held on extremes such as equal access and success, but only a few works deal with process issues related to home and school interplay, issues of progress from lower to higher levels, and spatial conditions related to girls’ education. Hence, this survey assessed experiences in three countries of Africa: Ethiopia, Ghana, and Botswana regarding girls’ education in policy and practice as related to contextual matters in girls’ education. Contextual discourse analysis of qualitative design was used to materialize the study. From each country, five research works held 2010 onwards were purposively selected through criterion-sampling. On the policy aspect, workable documents were looked into. The findings denoted that educational access was of more stretch and generic nature, and the narration was dominated by institutional expectations, not identifying which group should benefit what. The researches largely dealt with either subject-specific dealings or access alone at large. Success studies, by far, dealt with a comparison of girls with boys rather than determinant-related projections. Moreover, the cultural representation of girls’ education had a very minimal part in both policy and researches. From that, it could be found that in-depth scrutiny on the individual, institutional, and leadership determinants of girls’ education would be necessary.

Keywords: determinants, girls, education, feminism

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2140 The University-Industry Relationships in Sweden and Iran: A Critical Comparative Study

Authors: Sepideh Nikounejad, Mostafa Ghaderi, Nematollah Azizi, Per-Olof Thang, Mohamad Reza Neyestani

Abstract:

From an educational perspective, an effective and efficient relationship between university and industry can be considered as an important means by which not only both sides are improved but also it brings many advantages and benefits for both parties. It means more specifically, mutual collaboration between universities and industry can not only reduce youth unemployment, but it can improve the quality of teaching and learning in higher education settings while providing more qualified people to industrial enterprises. Indeed the lack of effective interaction between Iranian universities and industry has confronted the country and created many challenges include in increasing number of unskillful and unemployed graduates. However, in order to suggest appropriate practical strategies, it is very important to see how this issue has been tackled by Swedish universities, which have had a good background in this collaboration and how they are connected to the industry in particular and labour market in general. The research aims to study and compare the mechanisms, processes, and policies of the current model in the relationships between university and industry in Iran and Sweden. As a qualitative study, grounded theory was applied. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews. Participants were selected purposefully and by the snowball sampling method. The findings indicate that despite reported needs from both sides for close collaborations between universities and industries in Iran, current policies and practices, including internship, laboratory, and financial support, need to be revised critically. However, in light of our findings on the Swedish policies and practices for linking universities and industries, some practical strategies will be suggested for the Iranian higher education context. In conclusion, cooperation models between universities and industries in Iran and Sweden will be described.

Keywords: cooperation, higher education, industry, comparative

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2139 Public-Private Partnership for Community Empowerment and Sustainability: Exploring Save the Children’s 'School Me' Project in West Africa

Authors: Gae Hee Song

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This paper aims to address the evolution of public-private partnerships for mainstreaming an evaluation approach in the community-based education project. It examines the distinctive features of Save the Children’s School Me project in terms of empowerment evaluation principles introduced by David M. Fetterman, especially community ownership, capacity building, and organizational learning. School Me is a Save the Children Korea funded-project, having been implemented in Cote d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone since 2016. The objective of this project is to reduce gender-based disparities in school completion and learning outcomes by creating an empowering learning environment for girls and boys. Both quasi-experimental and experimental methods for impact evaluation have been used to explore changes in learning outcomes, gender attitudes, and learning environments. To locate School Me in the public-private partnership framework for community empowerment and sustainability, the data have been collected from School Me progress/final reports, baseline, and endline reports, fieldwork observations, inter-rater reliability of baseline and endline data collected from a total of 75 schools in Cote d’Ivoire and Sierra Leone. The findings of this study show that School Me project has a significant evaluation component, including qualitative exploratory research, participatory monitoring, and impact evaluation. It strongly encourages key actors, girls, boys, parents, teachers, community leaders, and local education authorities, to participate in the collection and interpretation of data. For example, 45 community volunteers collected baseline data in Cote d’Ivoire; on the other hand, three local government officers and fourteen enumerators participated in the follow-up data collection of Sierra Leone. Not only does this public-private partnership improve local government and community members’ knowledge and skills of monitoring and evaluation, but the evaluative findings also help them find their own problems and solutions with a strong sense of community ownership. Such community empowerment enables Save the Children country offices and member offices to gain invaluable experiences and lessons learned. As a result, empowerment evaluation leads to community-oriented governance and the sustainability of the School Me project.

Keywords: community empowerment, Cote d’Ivoire, empowerment evaluation, public-private partnership, save the children, school me, Sierra Leone, sustainability

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2138 Avatar Customization and the Identity of Adolescents: Pilot Study on the Relationship between Virtual Representation in a Computer Game and Berzonsky's Style of Identity

Authors: Monika Paleczna, Barbara Szmigielska

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Adolescence is a developmental period, covering the period from 10 to 20 years of age, in which young people face many challenges. One of the most important tasks of the adolescence period is getting a structured identity. The development of identity is possible by undertaking various activities. Nowadays, virtual activities are very common among young people. One of the main adolescents’ activities in the online environment is playing computer games. An important element of the games that influences the joy of playing is avatar – a virtual player representation. Nevertheless, not much research concerns the psychological aspects associated with creating one’s character in the game. One of the most important issues is the question about the relationship between identity in the real world and its representation in the world of computer games. The concept of identity created by Berzonsky is considered as one of the best defined concepts of identity. He defines identity as both a structure and a process and distinguishes three styles of identity: informational, normative, and diffuse/avoidant. Considering how much time adolescents spend playing computer games, the question about the relationship between their identity and the virtual representation in the game seems to be extremely interesting. 30 high school students will participate in the pilot study. In the first part of the study, they will create their own avatar. Then they will play a computer game using their own created characters. The computer game was designed and programmed specifically for this project. Finally, subjects will complete Identity Style Inventory. The purpose of the poster is to present the results of the pilot study. So far, the development of identity in adolescents has been studied primarily in the context of the real world. Research on teen identity in the virtual world mainly focused on chat behaviors and blogs. Still, little research has focused on computer games and those that have been conducted concern mostly the identity of adults.

Keywords: adolescence, avatar, computer game, identity

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2137 A Case Study on Improving Language Skills of Preschoolers by Parent-Child Reading

Authors: Hoi Yan Lau

Abstract:

In Hong Kong, most families have working parents, and the primary caregivers of young children are helpers. This leads to a lack of interaction and language expression in children’s home environment, which affects their language development. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of parent-child reading in improving young children’s language skills. A 4-year-old girl and her mother are recruited to a 3 months’ parent-child reading program. There is a total of 26 reading sessions which target to enhance the parent’s skill of parent-child reading and to assess the child’s language ability. At the same time, the child’s use of language in normal classroom settings is analyzed by anecdotal records. It is shown that the parent is able to use more and better guiding questions during parent-child reading after this program, which in turn leads to more and longer response of the child during the reading sessions. The child also has an increase in Mean Length of Utterance and has a higher frequency of using complete sentences when interacting with other classmates in the classroom. It is worthwhile to further investigate the inclusion of promoting parent-child reading to enhance children’s language development in preschool curriculum planning.

Keywords: Hong Kong, language skills, parent-child reading, preschoolers

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2136 Education Delivery in Youth Justice Centers: Inside-out Prison Exchange Program Pedagogy in an Australian Context

Authors: Tarmi A'Vard

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This paper discusses the transformative learning experience for students participating in the Inside-Out Prison Exchange Program (Inside-out) and explores the value this pedagogical approach may have in youth justice centers. Inside-Out is a semester-long university course which is unique as it takes 15 university students, with their textbook and theory-based knowledge, behind the walls to study alongside 15 incarcerated students, who have the lived experience of the criminal justice system. Inside-out is currently offered in three Victorian prisons, expanding to five in 2020. The Inside-out pedagogy which is based on transformative dialogic learning is reliant upon the participants sharing knowledge and experiences to develop an understanding and appreciation of the diversity and uniqueness of one another. Inside-out offers the class an opportunity to create its own guidelines for dialogue, which can lead to the student’s sense of equality, which is fundamental in the success of this program. Dialogue allows active participation by all parties in reconciling differences, collaborating ideas, critiquing and developing hypotheses and public policies, and encouraging self-reflection and exploration. The structure of the program incorporates the implementation of circular seating (where the students alternate between inside and outside), activities, individual reflective tasks, group work, and theory analysis. In this circle everyone is equal, this includes the educator, who serves as a facilitator more so than the traditional teacher role. A significant function of the circle is to develop a group consciousness, allowing the whole class to see itself as a collective, and no one person holds a superior role. This also encourages participants to be responsible and accountable for their behavior and contributions. Research indicates completing academic courses, like Inside-Out, contributes positively to reducing recidivism. Inside-Out’s benefits and success in many adult correctional institutions have been outlined in evaluation reports and scholarly articles. The key findings incorporate the learning experiences for the students in both an academic capability and professional practice and development. Furthermore, stereotypes and pre-determined ideas are challenged, and there is a promotion of critical thinking and evidence of self-discovery and growth. There is empirical data supporting positive outcomes of education in youth justice centers in reducing recidivism and increasing the likelihood of returning to education upon release. Hence, this research could provide the opportunity to increase young people’s engagement in education which is a known protective factor for assisting young people to move away from criminal behavior. In 2016, Tarmi completed the Inside-Out educator training in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and has developed an interest in exploring the pedagogy of Inside-Out, specifically targeting young offenders in a Youth Justice Centre.

Keywords: dialogic transformative learning, inside-out prison exchange program, prison education, youth justice

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2135 Overcoming Usability Challenges of Educational Math Apps: Designing and Testing a Mobile Graphing Calculator

Authors: M. Tomaschko

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The integration of technology in educational settings has gained a lot of interest. Especially the use of mobile devices and accompanying mobile applications can offer great potentials to complement traditional education with new technologies and enrich students’ learning in various ways. Nevertheless, the usability of the deployed mathematics application is an indicative factor to exploit the full potential of technology enhanced learning because directing cognitive load toward using an application will likely inhibit effective learning. For this reason, the purpose of this research study is the identification of possible usability issues of the mobile GeoGebra Graphing Calculator application. Therefore, eye tracking in combination with task scenarios, think aloud method, and a SUS questionnaire were used. Based on the revealed usability issues, the mobile application was iteratively redesigned and assessed in order to verify the success of the usability improvements. In this paper, the identified usability issues are presented, and recommendations on how to overcome these concerns are provided. The main findings relate to the conception of a mathematics keyboard and the interaction design in relation to an equation editor, as well as the representation of geometrical construction tools. In total, 12 recommendations were formed to improve the usability of a mobile graphing calculator application. The benefit to be gained from this research study is not only the improvement of the usability of the existing GeoGebra Graphing Calculator application but also to provide helpful hints that could be considered from designers and developers of mobile math applications.

Keywords: GeoGebra, graphing calculator, math education, smartphone, usability

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2134 An Integrated Approach to Child Care Earthquake Preparedness through 'Telemachus' Project

Authors: Asimina Kourou, Spilios Kyriakopoulos, Natalia Anyfanti

Abstract:

A lot of children under the age of five spend their daytime hours away from their home, in a kindergarten. Caring for children is a serious subject, and their safety in the case of an earthquake is the first one priority. Being aware of earthquakes helps to prioritize the needs and take the appropriate actions to limit the effects. Earthquakes occurring anywhere at any time require emergency planning. Earthquake planning is a cooperative effort, and childcare providers have unique roles and responsibilities. Greece is a country with high seismicity, and the Ionian Islands Region has the highest seismic activity in the country. The last five years Earthquake Planning and Protection Organization (EPPO), which is a National Organization, has analyzed the needs and requirements of kindergartens on earthquake protection issues. In this framework, it has been noticed that although the State requires childcare centers to hold drills, the standards for emergency preparedness in these centers are varied, and a lot of them had not written plans for emergencies. For these reasons, EPPO supports the development of emergency planning guidance and familiarizes the daycare centers’ staff being prepared for earthquakes. Furthermore, the handbook on daycare earthquake planning that has been developed by EPPO in 2017 helps the providers to understand that emergency planning is essential to risk reduction. Preparedness and training should be ongoing processes; thus EPPO implements every year dozens of specific seminars on children’s disaster-related needs. This paper presents the results of a survey that detects the level of earthquake preparedness of kindergartens all over the country and the Ionian Islands too. A closed-form questionnaire of 20 main questions was developed for the survey in order to detect the aspects of participants concerning the earthquake preparedness actions at individual, family, and daycare environment level. 2668 questionnaires were gathered from March 2014 to May 2019, and analyzed by EPPO’s department of education. Moreover, this paper presents the EPPO’s educational activities targeted to the Ionian Islands Region that implemented in the framework of 'Telemachus' Project. Providing a safe environment for children to learn and staff to work is the foremost goal of any state, community, and kindergarten. This project is funded under the Priority Axis 'Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development' of Operational Plan 'Ionian Islands 2014-2020'. It is increasingly accepted that emergency preparedness should be thought of as an ongoing process rather than a one-time activity. Creating an earthquake-safe daycare environment that facilitates learning is a challenging task. Training, drills, and update of the emergency plan should take place throughout the year at kindergartens to identify any gaps and to ensure the emergency procedures. EPPO will continue to work closely with regional and local authorities to actively address the needs of children and kindergartens before, during, and after earthquakes.

Keywords: childcare centers, education on earthquake issues, emergency planning, Ionian Islands Region of Greece, kindergartens, preparedness

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2133 An Evaluation of a Psychotherapeutic Service for Engineering Students: The Role of Race, Gender and Language

Authors: Nazeema Ahmed

Abstract:

Mental health in higher education has received increasing attention over the past few decades. The high academic demands of the engineering degree, coupled with students’ mental health challenges, have led to higher education institutions offering psychotherapeutic services to students. This paper discusses an evaluation of the psychotherapy service at the University of Cape Town. The aim was to determine (i) the efficacy of the service; and (ii) the impact of race, gender, and language of the therapist on the students’ therapeutic process. An online survey was sent to 109 students who attended psychotherapy. The majority expressed favorable experiences of psychotherapy, with reports of increased capacity to engage with their academic work. Most students did not experience the gender, race, or language of the psychologists to be barriers to their therapy. The findings point to a need for ongoing psychological support for students.

Keywords: psychotherapy, efficacy, engineering, education

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2132 Using 'Know, Want to Know, Learned' Strategy to Enhance the Seventh C Grade Students' Reading Comprehension Achievement at SMPN 1 Mumbulsari

Authors: Abdul Rofiq Badril Rizal M. Z.

Abstract:

Reading becomes one of the most important skills in teaching and learning English. The purpose of this research was to improve the students' active participation, and reading comprehension achievement by using Know, Want to Know, Learned (KWL) strategy. The research design was Classroom Action Research. The area and participants of this research were chosen by using purposive method. The data were collected by observation, a reading comprehension test, interview, and documentation. The results showed that there was significant improvement in Cycle 1 to Cycle 2 of the research. In cycle 1, the students’ active participation increased 49.77% from 28% to 77.77. In addition, in cycle 2, the students’ active participation also increased by 14.17% from 77.77% to 81.94%. The students’ reading comprehension achievement also increased by 52.14% from 25% to 77.14% in Cycle 1 and increased by 5.71% from 77.14% to 82.85% in cycle 2. It indicated that using Know, Want to Know, Learned (KWL) strategy could enhance the Seventh C grade students’ descriptive text reading comprehension achievement, and active participation.

Keywords: active participation, reading comprehension, classroom action research, Indonesian folktales

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2131 A Case Study: Beginning Teacher's Experiences of Mentoring in Secondary Education

Authors: Abdul Rofiq Badril Rizal M. Z.

Abstract:

This case study examines the experiences of four beginning teachers currently working in New South Wales secondary schools. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews conducted one on one over the period of one month. The data were coded with findings reported through key areas of discovery, which linked to the research presented in the literature review. The participants involved in the case study all reported positive experiences with mentoring, though none were given the opportunity to take part in a formal mentoring program, and all the mentors offered their time voluntarily. The mentoring took different forms, but the support most valued by the participants was the emotional and curriculum related supported received. All participants wished they had greater access to mentoring and felt it would have benefits for most beginning teachers. The study highlights ongoing issues around the lack of access to mentoring, which could be due to factors such as funding, time and training.

Keywords: mentor, mentee, pre-service teacher, beginning teacher

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2130 Incorporating Popular Nigerian Music into the School Curriculum: A Potential for National Development

Authors: David O. A. Ogunrinade

Abstract:

The significance of education to the growth and development of man is imperative. The Nigerian education philosophy and national objectives are geared towards self-realization, social, cultural, and economic, just to mention a few. The acquisition of skills and abilities, both mental and physical, for individual to live and contribute to the development of society should be of major importance to a functional education curriculum. This study specifically set out to examine the momentous potentials of popular music as a veritable tool to be properly incorporated into the curriculum of music education in Nigeria. This will equip the learners to be self-reliant and contribute to the national economy. Interviews with exponents of Nigerian popular music and the stakeholders in the music industry, as well as audio-visual materials were employed to elicit information. Findings reveal that there are lots of potentials and dexterities in popular music that can enable Nigerian music graduates to contribute their own quota to the national development of the nation, as well as being useful to themselves. If the Nigerian society is not to be plagued by a breed of unemployable youths who could not raise the economic productivity of the country, it is deemed pertinent that the music curriculum as one of the vocational education needs to be reviewed to incorporate popular music, as well as to reflect more of the Nigerian cultural heritage.

Keywords: popular music, music curriculum, music in schools, popular music prospect

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2129 Training Undergraduate Engineering Students in Robotics and Automation Through Problem-Based Learning: A Case Study at Assumption University of Thailand

Authors: Sajed Ahmed Habib

Abstract:

Problem-based learning (PBL) is a student-centered pedagogy that originated in the medical field and has also been used extensively in other knowledge disciplines with recognized advantages and limitations. PBL has been used in various undergraduate engineering programs with mixed outcomes. The current fourth industrial revolution (digital era or Industry 4.0) has made it essential for many science and engineering students to receive effective training in advanced courses such as industrial automation and robotics. This paper presents a case study at the Assumption University of Thailand, where a PBL-like approach was used to teach some aspects of automation and robotics to selected groups of undergraduate engineering students. These students were given some basic level training in automation prior to participating in a subsequent training session in order to solve technical problems with increased complexity. The participating students’ evaluation of the training sessions in terms of learning effectiveness, skills enhancement, and incremental knowledge following the problem-solving session was captured through a follow-up survey consisting of 14 questions and a 5-point scoring system. From the most recent training event, an overall 70% of the respondents indicated that their skill levels were enhanced to a much greater level than they had before the training, whereas 60.4% of the respondents from the same event indicated that their incremental knowledge following the session was much greater than what they had prior to the training. The instructor-facilitator involved in the training events suggested that this method of learning was more suitable for senior/advanced level students than those at the freshmen level as certain skills to effectively participate in such problem-solving sessions are acquired over a period of time, and not instantly.

Keywords: automation, industry 4.0, problem-based learning, robotics

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2128 Gender Differences in Emotional Adjustment of Fresh Students in Kwara State University Malete, Kwara State, Nigeria

Authors: Usman Tunde Saadu

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The study examined gender differences in emotional adjustment of fresh students in Kwara State University, Malete. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study, and 300 fresh students were randomly selected across the six colleges in the University. An adapted Questionnaire from Nadia (2012) was used to collect data from respondents on emotional adjustment. One research question was answered with a descriptive statistic of frequency count and percentage, and one hypothesis was tested with t-test statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance. Findings of the study revealed that fresh students have a low level of emotional adjustment, and male students were found to have more emotional adjustment than female. Based on these findings, the researcher, therefore, concluded that fresh students have a low level of emotional adjustment. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended among others that emotional adjustment skills should be introduced into the secondary school curriculum to give students the opportunity to learn about these skills before they are being admitted into University.

Keywords: emotional adjustment, fresh students, gender differences, students

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2127 The Family Sense of Coherence of Early Childhood Education Students

Authors: M. Demir, A. Demir

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students. The Family Sense of Coherence Inventory has applied to 233 (108 girls and 125 boys) early childhood education students in Turkey. At the stage of data collection, with the aim of determining the family sense of coherence of early childhood education students, Family Sense of Coherence Inventory which was developed by Çeçen (2007) was used. In the process of the analysis of data, independent samples t-test, and one-way ANOVA were used. According to the results of the study, there were significant differences between some demographic variables in terms of the family sense of coherence.

Keywords: family sense of coherence, early childhood education students

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2126 From Proficiency to High Accomplishment: Transformative Inquiry and Institutionalization of Mentoring Practices in Teacher Education in South-Western Nigeria

Authors: Michael A. Ifarajimi

Abstract:

The transition from being a graduate teacher to a highly accomplished teacher has been widely portrayed in literature as challenging. Pre-service teachers are troubled with complex issues such as implementing, assessment, meeting prescribed learning outcomes, taking risks, supporting eco sustainability, etc. This list is not exhaustive as they are further complicated when the concerns extend beyond the classroom into the broader school setting and community. Meanwhile, the pre-service teacher education programme as is currently run in Nigeria, cannot adequately prepare newly trained teachers for the realities of classroom teaching. And there appears to be no formal structure in place for mentoring such teachers by the more seasoned teachers in schools. The central research question of the study, therefore, is which institutional framework can be distinguished for enactment in mentoring practices in teacher education? The study was conducted in five colleges of education in South-West Nigeria, and a sample of 1000 pre-service teachers on their final year practicum was randomly selected from the colleges of education. A pre-service teacher mentorship programme (PTMP) framework was designed and implemented, with a focus on the impact of transformative inquiry on the pre-service teacher support system. The study discovered a significant impact of mentoring on pre-service teacher’s professional transformation. The study concluded that institutionalizing mentorship through transformative inquiry is a means to sustainable teacher education, professional growth, and effective classroom practice. The study recommended that the government should enact policies that will promote mentoring in teacher education and establish a framework for the implementation of mentoring practices in the colleges of education in Nigeria.

Keywords: institutionalization, mentoring, pre-service teachers teacher education, transformative inquiry

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2125 Motivation and Inquiry-Oriented Lab Design

Authors: John M. Basey, Clinton D. Francis, Maxwell B. Joseph

Abstract:

After gathering data from experimental procedures, inquiry-oriented-science labs often allow students the freedom to stay and complete the write up in class or leave lab early and complete the write up later. Teachers must decide whether to allow students this freedom to self-regulate this time. Student interviews have indicated four time-target strategies that may influence how students utilize this time: grade-target-A, grade-target-C, time-target, and proficiency-target. The hypothesis tested was that variability in class composition relative to the four grade-target strategies has an impact on when students leave class, which in turn may influence their overall learning as exemplified by grades. Students were divided into four indicated groups with a survey. Class composition and the GTA teaching the class had significant impacts on how long students stayed in class with a class composition having the greatest impact. A factor analysis identified two factors. Factor 1 included classes with percentages of grade-target students opposite time/proficiency-target students and explained 43% of the variance. Factor 2 included classes with percentages of grade-target-A/proficiency-target students opposite grade-target-C students and explained 33% of the variance. Students who stayed longer received significantly higher grades (P = 0.008) with no significant relationships between grade and Factor 1 or Factor 2 (p > 0.05). The time students stayed in class was significantly positively related to Factor 1 (p = 0.006) and significantly negatively related to Factor 2 (p = 0.008). These results support the hypothesis and indicate that teachers may want to know the composition of student-target strategies before deciding on how to have students allocate study time at the end of inquiry-oriented labs. According to these results, ideal classes for self-regulation have a high proportion of proficiency and time-target students and a low proportion of grade-target students or a high proportion of grade-target-A and proficiency-target students and a low proportion of grade-target-C students. Non-ideal classes for self-regulation were comprised of the inverse proportions.

Keywords: grades, inquiry lab design, synergism in student motivation, class composition

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2124 The Use of YouTube and Its Relation to Changing the Kuwaiti Children’s Social Values from Parents’ Perspectives: Field Study

Authors: Laila Alkhayat

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In this study, the researcher explored the positive and negative effects of children watching YouTube on changing social values from the perspective of parents in Kuwait. This study also explored whether any correlation exists between changed values from watching YouTube and the following variables: relationship with a child, social situation, school level, gender, and age. The researcher collected data from 286 questionnaires distributed randomly to parents in Kuwait. The results of the study show that parents face many disadvantages when dealing with children watching YouTube, such as children spending too much time in front of screens, inability to organize bedtime, and children’s social isolation. However, the researcher found some positives come from watching YouTube, such as learning new information, enabling children to search for new information, and introducing children to the culture of their society and other cultures around them. Moreover, this study found that boys are more likely to have negative viewing habits than girls. Given the results, this study shows that the biggest impact on social values from children watching YouTube is that they are preoccupied with watching YouTube and they waste time, which makes them feel disturbed, and this affects the value of time management and delays children’s sleeping times. This study concludes that watching YouTube simultaneously has negative and positive effects on changing social values, but it plays a negative role in changing social values of children from the parents’ perspective.

Keywords: YouTube, children, social value, social media effects

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