Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2363

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Educational and Pedagogical Sciences]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2363 Arts-Informed Case Studies Revealing Migrant Women English Instructors’ Transformative Workplace Learning Experiences in Ontario and Implications for Migrant Instructor Support in Canada

Authors: Justine Jun

Abstract:

This study aims to reveal migrant women's English instructors' workplace learning experiences in Canadian post-secondary institutions in Ontario. Although many scholars have conducted research studies on internationally educated teachers and their professional and employment challenges, few studies have recorded migrant women's English language instructors’ professional learning and support experiences in post-secondary English language programs. This study employs a qualitative research paradigm. Mezirow’s Transformative Learning Theory is a critical lens for the researcher to explain, analyze, and interpret the research data. It is a collaborative research project. The researcher and participants cooperatively create photographic or other artwork data responding to the research questions. Photovoice and arts-informed data collection methodology are the main methods. Research participants engage in the study as co-researchers and inquire about their own workplace learning experiences, actively utilizing their critical self-reflective and dialogic skills. Co-researchers individually select the forms of artwork they prefer to engage with to represent their transformative workplace learning experiences about the Canadian workplace cultures that they underwent while working with colleagues and administrators. Once the co-researchers generate their cultural artifacts as research data, they share their artworks with the researcher and other co-researchers upon their consent. Co-researchers jointly investigate the themes emerging from the artifacts. They also interpret the meanings of their own and others’ workplace learning experiences collaboratively through multiple interactive one-on-one and group interviews. The following are the research questions that the co-researchers examine and answer: (1) How do migrant women English instructors transform their understanding of Canadian workplace culture?; (2) How do workplace encounters with colleagues and administrators affect their transformative workplace learning?; (3) What kind of on-the-job support do migrant women English instructors value?; (4) To what extent, if any, do they desire any changes in workplace support?; (5) What have been barriers to their professional growth in the workplace? The study findings implicate English language instructor support currently practiced in post-secondary English language programs in Ontario, Canada, especially for migrant women English instructors. This research is a doctoral empirical study in progress. This research has the urgency to address the research problem that few studies have investigated migrant English instructors’ professional learning and support issues in the workplace, precisely that of migrant women English instructors working with adult learners in Canada. While appropriate social and professional support for migrant English instructors is required throughout the country, present workplace realities that migrant women instructors experience in Ontario's English language programs need to be heard soon. The conceptualization of this study is crucial because it allows the investigation of the under-researched social phenomena of under-represented instructors’ workplace learning and support viable and rigorous. This paper provides the significance of theorizing migrant women instructors’ workplace learning phenomena within Mesirow’s Transformative Learning Theory and transferring adult education scholars’ lessons and academic efforts to the English language teacher education field.

Keywords: Transformative Learning Theory, Professional Learning, workplace learning, English teacher education

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2362 An Exploratory Study of E-Learning Stakeholders’ Experiences of Developing, Implementing and Enhancing E-Courses in One Saudi University

Authors: Zahra Alqahtani

Abstract:

The use of e-learning technologies is gaining momentum in all educational institutions of the world, including Saudi universities. In the e-learning context, there is a growing need and concern among Saudi universities to improve and enhance quality assurance for e-learning systems. Practicing quality assurance activities and applying quality standards in e-learning in Saudi universities is thought to reduce the negative viewpoints of some stakeholders and ensure stakeholders’ satisfaction and needs. As a contribution to improving the quality of e-learning method in Saudi universities, the main purpose of this study is to explore and investigate strategies for the development of quality assurance in e-learning in one university in Saudi Arabia, which is considered a good reference university using the best and ongoing practices in e-learning systems among Saudi universities. In order to ensure the quality of its e-learning methods, Saudi university has adopted Quality Matters Standards as a controlling guide for the quality of its blended and full e-course electronic courses. Furthermore, quality assurance can be further improved if a variety of perspectives are taken into consideration from the comprehensive viewpoints of faculty members, administrative staff, and students.This qualitative research involved the use of different types of interviews, as well as documents that contain data related to e-learning methods in the Saudi university environment. This exploratory case study was undertaken, from the perspectives of various participants, to understand the phenomenon of quality assurance using an inductive technique.The results revealed six main supportive factors that assist in ensuring the quality of e-learning in the Saudi university environment. Essentially, these factors are institutional support, faculty member support, evaluation of faculty, quality of e-course design, technology support, and student support, which together have a remarkable positive effect on quality, forming intrinsic columns connected by bricks leading to quality e-learning. Quality Matters standards are considered to have a strong impact on improving faculty members' skills and on the development of high-quality blended and full e-courses.

Keywords: e-Learning, Quality assurance, quality matters standards, KKU-supportive factors

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2361 Parental Monitoring of Learners’ Cell Phone Use in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Melikhaya Skhephe, Robert Mawuli Kwasi Boadzo, Zanoxolo Berington Gobingca

Abstract:

This research study sought to examine parental monitoring of learners’ cell phone use in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. To this end, the researchers employed a quantitative approach. Data were obtained through questionnaires, with a sample of 15 parents having been purposively selected. The findings revealed that parents are unaware that they have to monitor the learner’s cell phone. Another finding was that parents in the 21-century did not support the use of mobile phones in education. The researchers recommend that parent’s discussion forums be created to educate parents on how a cell phone can be used in education. Cellphone companies need to be encouraged to educate parents on how they monitor cell phones used by learners. Another recommendation was that network providers need to restrict access to searching on the internet according to age.

Keywords: cell phone, parental monitoring, app blocking services, learner’s cell phone use

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2360 Aiming High from Below: Early Steam Training and Educational Outcomes, Evidence from Colombia

Authors: Gustavo Canavire-bacarreza, Marianella Ortiz, Fabiola Saavedra, Cristian Urbano, Laura Gallon, Ana Maria Londono Rivera

Abstract:

This paper examines the effects of Children’s Universities programs, an informal science and humanities education program designed for children between the ages of 8 and 17, on participants’ academic achievement proxied through standardized test scores at the high school graduation level. Using a unique dataset, we exploit time variation over a matched sample of participants and nonparticipants to evaluate the impact of the program. We find positive and statistically significant effects of students’ participation in the program on the scores in the subjects of mathematics and language and also on the total score. This result is stronger for female students than for male students. Our results are consistent with those of previous studies of similar informal education and science engagement programs and contribute to the limited evidence of these in developing countries.

Keywords: Education, Matching, Academic Performance, standardized tests

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2359 Using Predictive Analytics to Identify First-Year Engineering Students at Risk of Failing

Authors: Beng Yew Low, Cher Liang Cha, Cheng Yong Teoh

Abstract:

Due to a lack of continual assessment or grade related data, identifying first-year engineering students in a polytechnic education at risk of failing is challenging. Our experience over the years tells us that there is no strong correlation between having good entry grades in Mathematics and the Sciences and excelling in hardcore engineering subjects. Hence, identifying students at risk of failure cannot be on the basis of entry grades in Mathematics and the Sciences alone. These factors compound the difficulty of early identification and intervention. This paper describes the development of a predictive analytics model in the early detection of students at risk of failing and evaluates its effectiveness. Data from continual assessments conducted in term one, supplemented by data of student psychological profiles such as interests and study habits, were used. Three classification techniques, namely Logistic Regression, K Nearest Neighbour, and Random Forest, were used in our predictive model. Based on our findings, Random Forest was determined to be the strongest predictor with an Area Under the Curve (AUC) value of 0.994. Correspondingly, the Accuracy, Precision, Recall, and F-Score were also highest among these three classifiers. Using this Random Forest Classification technique, students at risk of failure could be identified at the end of term one. They could then be assigned to a Learning Support Programme at the beginning of term two. This paper gathers the results of our findings. It also proposes further improvements that can be made to the model.

Keywords: Predictive analytics, random forest, continual assessment, student psychological profile

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2358 Open educational Resources' Metadata: Towards the First Star to Quality of Open Educational Resources

Authors: Audrey Romero-Pelaez, Juan Carlos Morocho-Yunga

Abstract:

The increasing amount of open educational resources (OER) published on the web for consumption in teaching and learning environments also generates a growing need to ensure the quality of these resources. The low level of OER discovery is one of the most significant drawbacks when faced with its reuse, and as a consequence, high-quality educational resources can go unnoticed. Metadata enables the discovery of resources on the web. The purpose of this study is to lay the foundations for open educational resources to achieve their first quality star within the Quality4OER Framework. In this study, we evaluate the quality of OER metadata and establish the main guidelines on metadata quality in this context.

Keywords: Open Educational Resources, OER quality, quality metadata

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2357 Using Short Learning Programmes to Develop Students’ Digital Literacies in Art and Design Education

Authors: B.J. Khoza, B. Kembo

Abstract:

Global socioeconomic developments and ever-growing technological advancements of the art and design industry indicate the pivotal importance of lifelong learning. There exists a discrepancy between competencies, personal ambition, and workplace requirements. There are few , if at all, institutions of higher learning in South Africa which offer Short Learning Programmes (SLP) in Art and Design Education. Traditionally, Art and Design education is delivered face to face via a hands-on approach. In this way the enduring perception among educators is that art and design education does not lend itself to online delivery. Short Learning programmes (SLP) are a concentrated approach to make revenue and lure potential prospective students to embark on further education study, this is often of weighted value to both students and employers. SLPs are used by Higher Education institutions to generate income in support of the core academic programmes. However, there is a gap in terms of the translation of art and design studio pedagogy into SLPs which provide quality education, are adaptable and delivered via a blended mode. In our paper, we propose a conceptual framework drawing on secondary research to analyse existing research to SLPs for arts and design education. We aim to indicate a new dimension to the process of using a design-based research approach for short learning programmes in art and design education. The study draws on a conceptual framework, a qualitative analysis through the lenses of Herrington, McKenney, Reeves and Oliver (2005) principles of the design-based research approach. The results of this study indicate that design-based research is not only an effective methodological approach for developing and deploying arts and design education curriculum for 1st years in Higher Education context but it also has the potential to guide future research. The findings of this study propose that the design-based research approach could bring theory and praxis together regarding a common purpose to design context-based solutions to educational problems.

Keywords: Multi-literacies, Design Education, Design-Based Research, digital literacies, short learning programme

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2356 Gamification as a Mechanism for Developing Global Citizens and 21st Century Skills

Authors: Stephanie Hollings

Abstract:

Games have been a steeple of education throughout the years as curriculum as changed and developed. These games have been used to teach the required skills and competencies, that schools have deemed of importance to students at that given time. The advent of the 21st century brought upon students the imperative of learning and developing a new set of competences and skills, hence forward known as 21st century skills. The list of such skills in this essay will not be an exhaustive one but will instead be focused on how gamification and to a lesser extent game-based learning and educational games has been used in the literature to help develop these skills in students, in particular this essay will focus on citizenship education, predominantly global citizenship, one of the most difficult competencies to teach but inclusive of most other 21st century skills and competencies. Through reviewing the literature it highlights that in terms of citizenship education, gamification provides many new avenues that allow students to build onto their many citizenship identities by gaining a deeper and more insightful understanding of citizenship while actively participating in it through the unique conception of gamification. The literature also focuses on the inclusivity of gamification and games in attracting students oft not engaged with the material in normal school settings. Both of these aspects, showcase that indeed gamification can be an important tool in developing global citizens. However, many questions still arise on not just the nature of the games, game-makers and skills being introduced but on the very nature of using gamification as a mechanism for creating global citizens.

Keywords: Gamification, Citizenship Education, Global Citizenship

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2355 Low-Income African-American Fathers' Gendered Relationships with Their Children: A Study Examining the Impact of Child Gender on Father-Child Interactions

Authors: M. Lim Haslip

Abstract:

This quantitative study explores the correlation between child gender and father-child interactions. The author analyzes data from videotaped interactions between African-American fathers and their boy or girl toddler to explain how African-American fathers and toddlers interact with each other and whether these interactions differ by child gender. The purpose of this study is to investigate the research question: 'How, if at all, do fathers’ speech and gestures differ when interacting with their two-year-old sons versus daughters during free play?' The objectives of this study are to describe how child gender impacts African-American fathers’ verbal communication, examine how fathers gesture and speak to their toddler by gender, and to guide interventions for low-income African-American families and their children in early language development. This study involves a sample of 41 low-income African-American fathers and their 24-month-old toddlers. The videotape data will be used to observe 10-minute father-child interactions during free play. This study uses the already transcribed and coded data provided by Dr. Meredith Rowe, who did her study on the impact of African-American fathers’ verbal input on their children’s language development. The Child Language Data Exchange System (CHILDES program), created to study conversational interactions, was used for transcription and coding of the videotape data. The findings focus on the quantity of speech, diversity of speech, complexity of speech, and the quantity of gesture to inform the vocabulary usage, number of spoken words, length of speech, and the number of object pointings observed during father-toddler interactions in a free play setting. This study will help intervention and prevention scientists understand early language development in the African-American population. It will contribute to knowledge of the role of African-American fathers’ interactions on their children’s language development. It will guide interventions for the early language development of African-American children.

Keywords: parental engagement, early language development, African-American families, quantity of speech, diversity of speech, complexity of speech and the quantity of gesture

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2354 Design and Māori Values: A Rebrand Project for the Social Enterprise Sector

Authors: M. Kiarna, S. Junjira, S. Casey, M. Nolwazi, M. S. Marcos, A. T. Tatiana, L. Cassandra

Abstract:

This paper details a rebrand design project developed for a non-profitable organization called Te Roopu Waiora (TRW), which is currently located in Auckland, Aotearoa New Zealand. This social enterprise is dedicated to supporting the Māori community living with sensorial, physical and intellectual disabilities (whānau hauā). As part of a year three bachelor design brief, the rebrand project enabled students to reflect on Kaupapa Māori principles and appropriately address the values of the organisation. As such, the methodology used a pragmatic paradigm approach and mixed methods design practices involving a human-centred design to problem solving. As result, the student project culminated in the development in a range of cohesive design artefacts, aiming to improve the rentability and perception of the brand with the audience and stakeholders.

Keywords: branding, Design Education, Human-Centered Design, design in Aotearoa New Zealand, Kaupapa Māori

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2353 Reading Literacy, Storytelling and Cognitive Learning: an Effective Connection in Sustainability Education

Authors: Rosa Tiziana Bruno

Abstract:

The connection between education and sustainability has been posited to have benefit for realizing a social development compatible with environmental protection. However, an educational paradigm based on the passage of information or on the fear of a catastrophe might not favor the acquisition of eco-identity. To build a sustainable world, it is necessary to "become people" in harmony with other human beings, being aware of belonging to the same human community that is part of the natural world. This can only be achieved within an authentic educating community and the most effective tools for building educating communities are reading literacy and storytelling. This paper is the report of a research-action carried out in this direction, in agreement with the sociology department of the University of Salerno, which involved four hundred children and their teachers in a path based on the combination of reading literacy, storytelling, autobiographical writing and outdoor education. The goal of the research was to create an authentic educational community within the school, capable to encourage the acquisition of an eco-identity by the pupils, that is, personal and relational growth in the full realization of the Self, in harmony with the social and natural environment, with a view to an authentic education for sustainability. To ensure reasonable validity and reliability of findings, the inquiry started with participant observation and a process of triangulation has been used including: semi-structured interview, socio-semiotic analysis of the conversation and time budget. Basically, a multiple independent sources of data was used to answer the questions. Observing the phenomenon through multiple "windows" helped to comparing data through a variety of lenses. All teachers had the experience of implementing a socio-didactic strategy called "Fiabadiario" and they had the possibility to use it with approaches that fit their students. The data being collected come from the very students and teachers who are engaged with this strategy. The educational path tested during the research has produced sustainable relationships and conflict resolution within the school system and between school and families, creating an authentic and sustainable learning community.

Keywords: Social Relations, education for sustainability, educating community, literature in education

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2352 Employing Motivation, Enjoyment and Self-Regulation to Predict Aural Vocabulary Knowledge

Authors: Seyed Mohammad Reza Amirian, Seyedeh Khadije Amirian, Maryam Sabouri

Abstract:

The present study aimed to investigate second language (L2) motivation, enjoyment, and self-regulation as the main variables for explaining variance in the process, and to find out the outcome of L2 Aural Vocabulary Knowledge (AVK) development by focusing on the Iranian EFL students at Hakim Sabzevari University. To this end, 122 EFL students (86 females) and (36 males) participated in this study. The students filled out the Motivation Questionnaire, Foreign Language Enjoyment Questionnaire, and Self-Regulation Questionnaire and also took Aural Vocabulary Knowledge (AVK) Test. Using SPSS software, the data were analyzed through multiple regressions and path analysis. A preliminary Pearson correlation analysis revealed that 2 out of 3 independent variables were significantly linked to AVK. According to the obtained regression model, self-regulation was a significant predictor of aural vocabulary knowledge test. Finally, the results of the mediation analysis showed that the indirect effect of enjoyment on AVK through self- regulation was significant. These findings are discussed, and implications are offered.

Keywords: Motivation, Self-regulation, enjoyment, aural vocabulary knowledge

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2351 Using Smartphone Instant Messaging (IM) App for Academic Discussion in an Undergraduate Chemistry Course

Authors: Mei Xuan Tan, Eng Ying Bong

Abstract:

Academic discussion during and after instructional teaching is an integral part of learning. Such discussion between the instructor and student or peer-to-peer discussion can be in several different forms. It could be face-to-face discussion, via email and use of online discussion forum. In this study, the effectiveness of using WhatsApp for academic discussion for a first year half-credit Chemistry course was examined. This study was run over two years with two different batches of students. Participation in the study was voluntary and student volunteers were recruited within the first week of the term. The activity in the WhatsApp group was monitored by two instructors teaching the course. At the end of the course, the students participated in an online survey to evaluate their experience of using WhatsApp for academic discussion. There were a total of 26 questions. The survey had a total of 4 sections with regards to the use of WhatsApp for academic discussion: 1) Familiarity with WhatsApp, 2) Effectiveness of using WhatsApp for discussion, 3) Challenges and 4) Overall experience. The main purpose of using an IM platform for academic discussion was to encourage after-class discussion amongst the students. 32% of the participants had used other online platform, such as Piazza and forums in Learning Management System (LMS), for after-class academic discussion with their instructors and peers. This was a low percentage considering that some courses use such online platform as their main forum amongst instructors and students. At the end of our study, over 83% of the participants felt that WhatsApp was a more effective platform compared to other online forum. One interesting finding was the effect of WhatsApp discussion on face-to-face interaction with instructors. 28% of the students agreed that the use of WhatsApp as a discussion forum had encouraged them to approach their instructors during or after class. 51% of students answered neutral. This could be interpreted that the use of WhatsApp had not affected the frequent (or lack of) face-to-face interaction with their instructors. A second survey question, similar but phrased differently from the first, was also asked to evaluate the aspect of face-to-face interaction with instructors. 34% disagreed that the use of WhatsApp had reduced the frequency of face-to-face interaction. This could imply that the frequency remained the same or might have increased. The 38% who agreed to a decrease in face-to-face interaction have either asked the questions in WhatsApp or had their questions answered by a query from another student in the group chat. These outcomes suggested that the use of technology aided and complemented face-to-face interaction between instructors and students. The study also looked at the challenges of using WhatsApp for academic discussion. Some challenges included difficulty in referring back to previous discussion and students finding some discussions irrelevant to them. In conclusion, the use of IM platform for academic discussion was desirable for the students, but it should not be the only channel as face-to-face consultation and online forum for lengthy discussion are still important for after-class learning of students.

Keywords: Chemistry, undergraduate, pedogogy, technological tools

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2350 Exploring Program Directors’ and Faculty’s Perception and Factors Leading to Burnout in Higher Education Institutions in Azerbaijan

Authors: Gunay Imanguliyeva

Abstract:

Burnout is one of the concerning issues in education. The present paper aimed to explore the concept of burnout among program directors and faculty working in three higher education institutions (HEIs) in Azerbaijan and identify the factors contributing to burnout and the possible consequences of this syndrome on research participants’ professional and personal life. The researcher believed that if the concept of burnout was defined precisely and explored among more faculty, administration, and educational institutions, university leadership may have looked for the ways to support program directors and faculty, which would increase job satisfaction and decrease turnover. An exploratory qualitative research design was chosen for this study. The conceptual framework of this study was based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The instruments of the research were semi-structured interviews, observation, and document review. Three EFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language) instructors and three program directors of the English Language Department working in three higher educational institutions in Azerbaijan participated in this study. The major findings of this study showed that both program directors and faculty suffered from burnout. Though they were aware of the factors that caused burnout, they did not know how to deal with this feeling. While research participants had high feeling of Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization, they had a low feeling of Personal Accomplishment. The researcher suggests that further research is important to measure the level of burnout and to enable HEIs to increase the productivity of program directors’ and faculty’s work as well as decrease the rate of retention in future. Also, in order to help program directors and faculty to cope with burnout, the research recommends the university leadership to meet their psycho-social needs, emotional-physical needs, and personal-intellectual needs. Keywords: burnout, emotional exhaustion, factors, well-being, higher education

Keywords: Higher Education, Well-being, Burnout, factors

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2349 Modernization of Translation Studies Curriculum at Higher Education Level in Armenia

Authors: A. Vahanyan

Abstract:

The paper touches upon the problem of revision and modernization of the current curriculum on translation studies at the Armenian Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). In the contemporary world where quality and speed of services provided are mostly valued, certain higher education centers in Armenia though do not demonstrate enough flexibility in terms of the revision and amendment of courses taught. This issue is present for various curricula at the university level and Translation Studies related curriculum, in particular. Technological innovations that are of great help for translators have been long ago smoothly implemented into the global Translation Industry. According to the European Master's in Translation (EMT) framework, translation service provision comprises linguistic, intercultural, information mining, thematic, and technological competencies. Therefore, to form the competencies mentioned above, the curriculum should be seriously restructured to meet the modern education and job market requirements, relevant courses should be proposed. New courses, in particular, should focus on the formation of technological competences. These suggestions have been made upon the author’s research of the problem across various HEIs in Armenia. The updated curricula should include courses aimed at familiarization with various computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools (MemoQ, Trados, OmegaT, Wordfast, etc.) in the translation process, creation of glossaries and termbases compatible with different platforms), which will ensure consistency in translation of similar texts and speeding up the translation process itself. Another aspect that may be strengthened via curriculum modification is the introduction of interdisciplinary and Project-Based Learning courses, which will enable info mining and thematic competences, which are of great importance as well. Of course, the amendment of the existing curriculum with the mentioned courses will require corresponding faculty development via training, workshops, and seminars. Finally, the provision of extensive internship with translation agencies is strongly recommended as it will ensure the synthesis of theoretical background and practical skills highly required for the specific area. Summing up, restructuring and modernization of the existing curricula on Translation Studies should focus on three major aspects, i.e., introduction of new courses that meet the global quality standards of education, professional development for faculty, and integration of extensive internship supervised by experts in the field.

Keywords: Translation Studies, Curriculum, modernization, Competencies, technical literacy

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2348 The Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on the Armenian Higher Education System: Challenges аnd Perspectives

Authors: Armine Vahanyan

Abstract:

Humanity has been still coping with the new COVID-19 pandemic. Healthcare providers, economists, psychologists, and other specialists speak about the impact of the virus on different spheres of our life. In the list of similar discussions, the impact of pandemics on global education is of utmost importance. Ideally, providing quality education services should be crucial, and the ways education programs are being adapted will determine the success or failure of the service providers. The paper aims to summarize the research touching upon the current situation of higher education in Armenia. The research includes data from official reports, surveys among education leads, faculty, and students, as well as personal observations and consideration. Through descriptive analysis, the findings of the research are being presented from various aspects. Interim results of the research unveiled two major issues in the sector of higher education in Armenia. On the one hand, the entire compulsory digitization of instruction, assessment, and grading has evoked serious gaps related to the lack of technical competencies. There is an urgent need for professional development programs that will address most of the concerns due to the shift to the online instruction mode. On the other hand, online teaching and learning require revision and adaptation of the existing curricula. Given that the content of certain programs may not be compromised, the teaching methods, the assignments, and evaluation require profound transformation, which will still be in line with course learning outcomes and student learning outcomes. The given paper focuses on the ways the mentioned issues are being addressed in Armenia. The extent of commitment for changes and adaptability to the new situation varies from the government-funded and private universities. In particular, the paper compares and contrasts activities and measures taken at the Armenian State Pedagogical University and the American University of Armenia. Thus, the Pedagogical University focused on the use of Google Classroom as the only means for teaching and learning as well as adopted the compulsory synchronous instruction mode. The American University, on the contrary, kept practicing the academic freedom, enabling both synchronous and asynchronous instruction modes, ensuring alignment of the course learning outcomes and student learning outcomes. The State University utilized the assignments and assessment, which would work for the on-campus instruction mode, while the American university employed a variety of assignments applicable for online teaching mode. The latter has suggested the utilization of multiple apps, internet sources, and online library access for a better online instant. Discussions with faculty through online forums and/or professional development workshops also facilitate restructuring and adaptation of the courses. Finally, the paper will synthesize the results of the undertaken research and will outline the e-learning perspectives and opportunities boosted by the known devastating healthcare issue.

Keywords: Assessment, Program Restructuring, online teaching, compulsory digitization of education services, instruction mode

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2347 The Influence of English Learning on Ethnic Kazakh Minority Students’ Identity (Re)Construction at Chinese Universities

Authors: Sharapat Sharapat

Abstract:

English language is perceived as cultural capital in many non-native English-speaking countries, and minority groups in these social contexts seem to invest in the language to be empowered and reposition themselves from the imbalanced power relation with the dominant group. This study is devoted to explore how English learning influence minority Kazakh students’ identity (re)construction at Chinese universities from the scope of ‘imagined community, investment, and identity’ theory of Norton (2013). To this end the three research questions were designed as follows: 1) Kazakh minority students’ English learning experiences at Chinese universities; 2) Kazakh minority students’ views about benefits and opportunities of English learning; 3) the influence of English learning on Kazakh minority students’ identity (re)construction. The study employs an interview-based qualitative research method by interviewing nine Kazakh minority students in universities in Xinjiang and other inland cities in China. The findings suggest that through English learning, some students have reconstructed multiple identities as multicultural and global identities, which created ‘a third space’ to break limits of their ethnic and national identities and confused identity as someone in-between. Meanwhile, most minority students were empowered by the English language to resist inferior or marginalized positions and reconstruct imagined elite identity. However, English learning disempowered students who have little previous English education in school and placed them on unequal footing with other students, which further escalated the educational inequities.

Keywords: multilingual education, identity construction, minority in China, language empowerment

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2346 Analyzing the Use of Augmented and Virtual Reality to Teach Social Skills to Students with Autism

Authors: Maggie Mosher, Adam Carreon, Sean Smith

Abstract:

A systematic literature review was conducted to explore the evidence base on the use of augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR), mixed reality (MR), and extended reality (XR) to present social skill instruction to school-age students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, the systematic review focus was on a. the participants and intervention agents using AR, VR, MR, and XR for social skill acquisition b. the social skills taught through these mediums and c. the social validity measures (i.e., goals, procedures, and outcomes) reported in these studies. Forty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. Researchers in six studies taught social skills to students through AR, in 27 studies through non-immersive VR, and in 10 studies through immersive VR. No studies used MR or XR. The primary targeted social skills were relationship skills, emotion recognition, social awareness, cooperation, and executive functioning. An intervention to improve many social skills was implemented by 73% of researchers, 17% taught a single skill, and 10% did not clearly state the targeted skill. The intervention was considered effective in 26 of the 41 studies (63%), not effective in four studies (10%), and 11 studies (27%) reported mixed results. No researchers reported information for all 17 social validity indicators. The social validity indicators reported by researchers ranged from two to 14. Social validity measures on the feelings toward and use of the technology were provided in 22 studies (54%). Findings indicated both AR and VR are promising platforms for providing social skill instruction to students with ASD. Studies utilizing this technology show a number of social validity indicators. However, the limited information provided on the various interventions, participant characteristics, and validity measures, offers insufficient evidence of the impact of these technologies in teaching social skills to students with ASD. Future research should develop a protocol for training treatment agents to assess the role of different variables (i.e., whether agents are customizing content, monitoring student learning, using intervention specific vocabulary in their day to day instruction). Sustainability may be increased by providing training in the technology to both treatment agents and participants. Providing scripts of instruction occurring within the intervention would provide the needed information to determine the primary method of teaching within the intervention. These variables play a role in maintenance and generalization of the social skills. Understanding the type of feedback provided would help researchers determine if students were able to feel rewarded for progressing through the scenarios or if students require rewarding aspects within the intervention (i.e., badges, trophies). AR has the potential to generalize instruction and VR has the potential for providing a practice environment for performance deficits. Combining these two technologies into a mixed reality intervention may provide a more cohesive and effective intervention.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, autism, Social Skills, social and emotional learning

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2345 A Constructivist Approach and Tool for Autonomous Agent Bottom-up Sequential Learning

Authors: Salima Hassas, Jianyong Xue, Olivier L. Georgeon

Abstract:

During the initial phase of cognitive development, infants exhibit amazing abilities to generate novel behaviors in unfamiliar situations, and explore actively to learn the best while lacking extrinsic rewards from the environment. These abilities set them apart from even the most advanced autonomous robots. This work seeks to contribute to understand and replicate some of these abilities. We propose the Bottom-up hiErarchical sequential Learning algorithm with Constructivist pAradigm (BEL-CA) to design agents capable of learning autonomously and continuously through interactions. The algorithm implements no assumption about the semantics of input and output data. It does not rely upon a model of the world given a priori in the form of a set of states and transitions as well. Besides, we propose a toolkit to analyze the learning process at run time called GAIT (Generating and Analyzing Interaction Traces). We use GAIT to report and explain the detailed learning process and the structured behaviors that the agent has learned on each decision making. We report an experiment in which the agent learned to successfully interact with its environment and to avoid unfavorable interactions using regularities discovered through interaction.

Keywords: self-adaptation, Cognitive development, Constructivist Learning, hierarchical sequential learning

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2344 SolarSPELL Case Study: Pedagogical Quality Indicators to Evaluate Digital Library Resources

Authors: Marcela Georgina Gómez-Zermeño, Lorena Aleman De La Garza

Abstract:

This paper presents the SolarSPELL case study that aims to generate information on the use of indicators that help evaluate the pedagogical quality of a digital library resources. SolarSPELL is a solar-powered digital library with WiFi connectivity. It offers a variety of open educational resources selected for their potential for the digital transformation of educational practices and the achievement of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals agenda. The case study employed a quantitative methodology, and the research instrument was applied to 55 teachers, directors, and librarians. The results indicate that it is possible to strengthen the pedagogical quality of open educational resources through actions focused on improving temporal and technological parameters. They also reveal that users believe that SolarSPELL improves the teaching-learning processes and motivates the teacher to improve his or her development. This study provides valuable information on a tool that supports teaching-learning processes and facilitates connectivity with renewable energies that improve teacher training in active methodologies for ecosystem learning.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Solar energy, Digital Library, Teacher Training, Educational Innovation, pedagogical quality

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2343 Transitioning Classroom Students to Working Learners: Lived Experiences of Senior High School Work Immersion Students

Authors: Rico Herrero

Abstract:

The study looked into the different lived experiences of senior high school to work immersion and how they were able to cope up in the transition stage from being classroom students into immersion students in work immersion site. The participants of the study were the ten senior high school students from Punta Integrated School. Using interview guide questions, the researchers motivated the participants to reveal their thoughts, feelings, and experiences in the interviews via video recording. The researchers utilized the qualitative research design, but the approach used was grounded theory. The findings revealed the participants’ lived experiences on how to cope or overcome the transition stage during the work immersion program. They unanimously responded to the interview questions. And based on the themes that emerged from the testimonies of the Senior High School students, the classroom learners benefited a lot from authentic learning opportunity of immersion program. Work immersion provides the students the opportunity to learn and develop their skills/ competencies related to the field of specialization. The hands-on training provides them simulation of work. They realized that theoretical learning in school is not enough to be equipped to work. Immersion program also provides venue for values and standard transformation. Senior High School students felt a high demand of self-confidence at the beginning of their race. Good thing, self-esteem of an individual helps bring out one’s potential at its best. Students find it challenging to get along with people in all ages. But, the endeavour absolutely helps them to grow maturely. Participants also realized that it’s not easy to deal with time pressure. Hence, the immersion program taught them to learn about time management. Part of the best training is to expose the learners to the harsh reality. Despite of the things that the school had taught them, still, students realized that they are not yet ready to deal with the demands of work. Furthermore, they also found out that they need to develop an interpersonal skill to improve their human relationships.

Keywords: Grounded theory, lived experiences, senior high school, work immersion

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2342 Engineering Design of a Chemical Launcher: An Interdisciplinary Design Activity

Authors: Mei Xuan Tan, Gim-Yang Maggie Pee, Mei Chee Tan

Abstract:

Academic performance, in the form of scoring high grades in enrolled subjects, is not the only significant trait in achieving success. Engineering graduates with experience in working on hands-on projects in a team setting are highly sought after in industry upon graduation. Such projects are typically real world problems that require the integration and application of knowledge and skills from several disciplines. In a traditional university setting, subjects are taught in a silo manner with no cross participation from other departments or disciplines. This may lead to knowledge compartmentalization and students are unable to understand and connect the relevance and applicability of the subject. University instructors thus see this integration across disciplines as a challenging task as they aim to better prepare students in understanding and solving problems for work or future studies. To improve students’ academic performance and to cultivate various skills such as critical thinking, there has been a gradual uptake in the use of an active learning approach in introductory science and engineering courses, where lecturing is traditionally the main mode of instruction. This study aims to discuss the implementation and experience of a hands-on, interdisciplinary project that involves all the four core subjects taught during the term at the Singapore University of Technology Design (SUTD). At SUTD, an interdisciplinary design activity, named 2D, is integrated into the curriculum to help students reinforce the concepts learnt. A student enrolled in SUTD experiences his or her first 2D in Term 1. This activity. which spans over one week in Week 10 of Term 1, highlights the application of chemistry, physics, mathematics, humanities, arts and social sciences (HASS) in designing an engineering product solution. The activity theme for Term 1 2D revolved around “work and play”. Students, in teams of 4 or 5, used a scaled-down model of a chemical launcher to launch a projectile across the room. It involved the use of a small chemical combustion reaction between ethanol (a highly volatile fuel) and oxygen. This reaction generated a sudden and large increase in gas pressure built up in a closed chamber, resulting in rapid gas expansion and ejection of the projectile out of the launcher. Students discussed and explored the meaning of play in their lives in HASS class while the engineering aspects of a combustion system to launch an object using underlying principles of energy conversion and projectile motion were revisited during the chemistry and physics classes, respectively. Numerical solutions on the distance travelled by the projectile launched by the chemical launcher, taking into account drag forces, was developed during the mathematics classes. At the end of the activity, students developed skills in report writing, data collection and analysis. Specific to this 2D activity, students gained an understanding and appreciation on the application and interdisciplinary nature of science, engineering and HASS. More importantly, students were exposed to design and problem solving, where human interaction and discussion are important yet challenging in a team setting.

Keywords: Interdisciplinary, Active Learning, Collaborative Learning, steam, first year undergraduate

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2341 The Reality of the Digital Inequality and Its Negative Impact on Virtual Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The South African Perspective

Authors: Jacob Medupe

Abstract:

Life as we know it has changed since the global outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and business as usual will not continue. The human impact of the COVID-19 crisis is already immeasurable. Moreover, COVID-19 has already negatively impacted economies, livelihoods and disrupted food systems around the world. The disruptive nature of the Corona virus has affected every sphere of life including the culture and teaching and learning. Right now the majority of education research is based around classroom management techniques that are no longer necessary with digital delivery. Instead there is a great need for new data about how to make the best use of the one-on-one attention that is now becoming possible (Diamandis & Kotler, 2014). The COVID-19 pandemic has necessitated an environment where the South African learners are focused to adhere to social distancing in order to minimise the wild spread of the Corona virus. This arrangement forces the student to utilise the online classroom technologies to continue with the lessons. The historical reality is that the country has not made much strides on the closing of the digital divide and this is particularly a common status quo in the deep rural areas. This will prove to be a toll order for most of the learners affected by the Corona Virus to be able to have a seamless access to the online learning facilities. The paper will seek to look deeply into this reality and how the Corona virus has brought us to the reality that South Africa remains a deeply unequal society in every sphere of life. The study will also explore the state of readiness for education system around the online classroom environment.

Keywords: e-Learning, pedagogy, Distance Education, Online Learning, Virtual learning, Blended Learning, Virtual Classroom, Self-regulated learning, digital literacy, COVID-19, Corona virus, internet connectivity

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2340 Experimental Architectural Pedagogy: Discipline Space and Its Role in the Modern Teaching Identity

Authors: Matthew Armitt

Abstract:

The revolutionary school of architectural teaching – VKhUTEAMAS (1923-1926) was a new approach for a new society bringing architectural education to the masses and masses to the growing industrial production. The school's pedagogical contribution of the 1920s made it an important school of the modernist movement, engaging pedagogy as a mode of experimentation. The teachers and students saw design education not just as a process of knowledge transfer but as a vehicle for design innovation developing an approach without precedent. This process of teaching and learning served as a vehicle for venturing into the unknown through a discipline of architectural teaching called “Space” developed by the Soviet architect Nikolai Ladovskii (1881-1941). The creation of “Space” was paramount not only for its innovative pedagogy but also as an experimental laboratory for developing new architectural language. This paper discusses whether the historical teaching of “Space” can function in the construction of the modern teaching identity today to promote value, richness, quality, and diversity inherent in architectural design education. The history of “Space” teaching remains unknown within academic circles and separate from the current architectural teaching debate. Using VKhUTEMAS and the teaching of “Space” as a pedagogical lens and drawing upon research carried out in the Russian Federation, America, Canada, Germany, and the UK, this paper discusses how historically different models of teaching and learning can intersect through examining historical based educational research by exploring different design studio initiatives; pedagogical methodologies; teaching and learning theories and problem-based projects. There are strong arguments and desire for pedagogical change and this paper will promote new historical and educational research to widen the current academic debate by exposing new approaches to architectural teaching today.

Keywords: VKhUTEMAS, discipline space, modernist pedagogy, teaching identity

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2339 Use of Technology to Improve Students’ Attitude in Learning Mathematics of Non- Mathematics Undergraduate Students

Authors: Asia Majeed

Abstract:

The learning of mathematics in science, engineering and social science programs can be enhanced through practical problem-solving techniques. The instructors can design their lessons with some strategies to improve students’ educational needs and accomplishments in mathematics classrooms. The use of technology in class problem solving and application sessions can enhance deep understanding of mathematics among students. As mathematician, we believe in subject specific and content-driven teaching methods. Through technology the relationship between the physical problems and the mathematical models can be analyzed. This paper is about selective use of technology in mathematics classrooms and helpful to others mathematics instructors who wishes to improve their traditional teaching techniques to improve students’ attitude in learning mathematics. These techniques corpus can be used in teaching large mathematics classes in science, technology, engineering, and social science.

Keywords: Mathematics, Technology, attitude in learning mathematics, non-mathematics undergraduate students

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2338 Investigating the Impact of Factors Associated with Student Academic Achievement and Expectations through the Ecosystemic Perspective in the Greek Context: The Role of the Individual, Family, School and of the Community

Authors: Olga Giovani

Abstract:

In this research, Bronfenbrenner's theory will be used to investigate the individual, microsystemic, and exosystemic factors that may affect adolescents' academic achievement as well as their expectations in Greece. First, the topic of academic achievement in an adolescent developmental context will be set as the target of the proposed study while focusing on the aspects of community influences on adolescents. More specifically, the effect of available resources and the perceived sense of safety and support will be further investigated. Then the issue of family factors will be analyzed, as they are subjectively perceived by the adolescents, focusing on the perceived parental style, parental monitor, and involvement as a mesosystemic factor. In turn, the school will also be discussed with emphasis on the perceived school climate and support as well as the academic aspects of student achievement. Finally, the adolescent's individual perspective will be taken into consideration in developmental terms, examining their perceptions regarding their community/neighborhood, their family, their school, as well as their sense of self-concept and self-esteem as these are expressed through their academic performance and prosocial behavior. The aim of the proposed research is to study these associations through the prism of the systemic perspective, the relationship between aspects of educational achievement and socioeconomic background, with an emphasis on the role of the community, which has not been adequately researched in the Greek context. Community will be defined by the available community resources (recreational activities, public library, local orchestras, free entrance museums, etc.), adolescents' own perception of social support, safety, and support inside that community. These perceptions need to be investigated since they may serve as possible predictors of a child's current cognitive, developmental, and psycho-social outcomes, such as their perceived self-concept and self-esteem, as well as on their future expectations related to the entrance to university and job expectations.

Keywords: Developmental Psychology, Student Achievement, bioecological model, ecosystemic approach, microsystemic factors, mesosystemic factors, individual perceptions

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2337 Vocational Projects for the Autistic and Developmentally Delayed That Are Sustainable and Eco-Friendly

Authors: Saima Haq

Abstract:

This paper presents the contribution of the Sunflowers Vocational Center, Karachi, Pakistan, by providing a platform for the students of special needs to work with recycled materials and express themselves in a more extravagant form. The concept was to create products that would generate enough income to sustain the program while keeping the students cognitively engaged through arts and crafts and tactile instructions due to their severe intellectual disabilities. Papier-mâché is an art form that is hands-on, repetitive, economical as well as beneficial for the environment. The process of tearing paper into long strips then covering them with paste and laying the strips atop the mold provides constant sensory input for our autistic students as well as the rest of our student population. Given the marginalized stance the society has on special needs, we have marketed the paper-mâché products on social media platforms and have set up booths in carnivals, festivities, open markets that are aimed towards a cause to sell. Our students in the vocational center have also made bins, baskets, and trays that are used in all classrooms. This has cut our costs on classroom materials considerably and has added a sense of accomplishment and furthered the teamwork skills in our sunflowers. The other achievement is our long clientele; orders have been placed from several persons for birthdays, parties, events, and the like. This exposure has raised awareness of the capabilities of persons of special needs and has started a conversation on the topic. And additional achievement is that we have made our teachers, their families, our students, and their families conscientious of the environment and incorporated reusing newspapers into classrooms. Situations where plastic would be bought, for example, bin, dustbins, containers, basket, trays, the paper-mâché products made by our students have been used instead. Due to the low cost of materials, this project is easily replicable and very easy to start. Piñatas are a very popular item for children’s parties everywhere and are gaining popularity through social media. This is also easily replicable in any environment and can have a great impact on the use of plastic in any work or home environment.

Keywords: Teamwork, Vocational training, cognitive skills, special needs

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2336 Connecting Students and Faculty Research Efforts through the Research and Projects Portal

Authors: Havish Nalapareddy, Mark V. Albert, Ranak Bansal, Avi Udash, Lin Lin

Abstract:

Students engage in many course projects during their degree programs. However, impactful projects often need a time frame longer than a single semester. Ideally, projects are documented and structured to be readily accessible to future students who may choose to continue the project, with features that emphasize the local community, university, or course structure. The Research and Project Portal (RAPP) is a place where students can post both their completed and ongoing projects with all the resources and tools used. This portal allows students to see what other students have done in the past, in the same university environment, related to their domain of interest. Computer science instructors or students selecting projects can use this portal to assign or choose an incomplete project. Additionally, this portal allows non-computer science faculty and industry collaborators to document their project ideas for students in courses to prototype directly, rather than directly soliciting the help of instructors in engaging students. RAPP serves as a platform linking students across classes and faculty both in and out of computer science courses on joint projects to encourage long-term project efforts across semesters or years.

Keywords: Education, Research, Technology, academic portal

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2335 Deploying a Transformative Learning Model in Technological University Dublin to Assess Transversal Skills

Authors: Sandra Thompson, Paul Dervan

Abstract:

Ireland’s first Technological University (TU Dublin) was established on 1st January 2019, and its creation is an exciting new milestone in Irish Higher Education. TU Dublin is now Ireland’s biggest University supporting 29,000 students across three campuses with 3,500 staff. The University aspires to create work-ready graduates who are socially responsible, open-minded global thinkers who are ambitious to change the world for the better. As graduates, they will be enterprising and daring in all their endeavors, ready to play their part in transforming the future. Feedback from Irish employers and students coupled with evidence from other authoritative sources such as the World Economic Forum points to a need for greater focus on the development of students’ employability skills as they prepare for today’s work environment. Moreover, with an increased focus on Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and inclusiveness, there is recognition that students are more than a numeric grade value. Robust grading systems have been developed to track a student’s performance around discipline knowledge but there is little or no global consensus on a definition of transversal skills nor on a unified framework to assess transversal skills. Education and industry sectors are often assessing one or two skills, and some are developing their own frameworks to capture the learner’s achievement in this area. Technological University Dublin (TU Dublin) have discovered and implemented a framework to allow students to develop, assess and record their transversal skills using transformative learning theory. The model implemented is an adaptation of Student Transformative Learning Record - STLR which originated in the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO). The purpose of this paper therefore, is to examine the views of students, staff and employers in the context of deploying a Transformative Learning model within the University to assess transversal skills. It will examine the initial impact the transformative learning model is having socially, personally and on the University as an organization. Crucially also, to identify lessons learned from the deployment in order to assist other Universities and Higher Education Institutes who may be considering a focused adoption of Transformative Learning to meet the challenge of preparing students for today’s work environment.

Keywords: Higher Education, transformative learning, students, assessing transversal skills

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2334 Physics Recitations for College Physics Courses Using Breakout Rooms during COVID Pandemic

Authors: Pratheesh Jakkala

Abstract:

This paper addresses the use of breakout sessions to conduct successful weekly physics recitations for College Physics I and II at a large University in remote teaching method during COVID-19 pandemic. All breakout sessions are synchronous, conducted live, and handled by teaching assistants. A two-prong approach is used to maintain the integrity of recitations. Three different conference platforms WebEx, Zoom, and Canvas conferences, were tested, and BigBlue button using Canvas was adopted. The results and experiences of all three learning platforms are presented in this paper. Recitation questions were assigned on WebAssign learning platform and a standard five-question template developed by the instructor was used for group discussions and active peer-peer engagement. Breakout sessions feature of BigBlueButton in Canvas conferences was successfully implemented. Each breakout session consists of a team of 4 students. An online whiteboard, chat window options were used for live teamwork. Student peer-peer interactions, Teaching Assistants’ interaction with students were video and audio recorded. A total of 72 students in College Physics II and 55 students in College Physics I was enrolled. 82% of students agreed that method under study is better than previous methods. The study addressed the quality of student teamwork, student attitude towards problem-solving, and student performance in the exams.

Keywords: online learning platforms, Covid pandemic, recitations, breakout rooms

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