Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Electrical and Information Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

90 Developing an Advanced Algorithm Capable of Classifying News, Articles and Other Textual Documents Using Text Mining Techniques

Authors: Robert A. Alphinas, Rasmus B. Knudsen, Ole T. Rasmussen

Abstract:

The reason for conducting this research is to develop an algorithm that is capable of classifying news articles from the automobile industry, according to the competitive actions that they entail, with the use of Text Mining (TM) methods. It is needed to test how to properly preprocess the data for this research by preparing pipe-lines which fits each algorithm the best. The pipelines are tested along with nine different classification algorithms in the realm of regression, support vector machines, and neural networks. Preliminary testing for identifying the optimal pipelines and algorithms resulted in the selection of two algorithms with two different pipe-lines. The two algorithms are Logistic Regression (LR) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). These algorithms are optimized further, where several parameters of each algorithm are tested. The best result is achieved with the ANN. The final model yields an accuracy of 0,79, a precision of 0,80, a recall of 0,78, and an F1 score of 0,76. By removing three of the classes that created noise, the final algorithm is capable of reaching an accuracy of 94%.

Keywords: Text Mining, Logistic Regression, Artificial Neural Network, text classification, Competitive dynamics

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89 Predicting the Product Life Cycle of Songs on Radio - How Record Labels Can Manage Product Portfolio and Prioritise Artists by Using Machine Learning Techniques

Authors: Claus N. Holm, Oliver F. Grooss, Robert A. Alphinas

Abstract:

This research strives to predict the remaining product life cycle of a song on radio after it has been played for one or two months. The best results were achieved using a k-d tree to calculate the most similar songs to the test songs and use a Random Forest model to forecast radio plays. An 82.78% and 83.44% accuracy is achieved for the two time periods, respectively. This explorative research leads to over 4500 test metrics to find the best combination of models and pre-processing techniques. Other algorithms tested are KNN, MLP and CNN. The features only consist of daily radio plays and use no musical features.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Radio, Product life cycle, hit song science

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88 Mutiple Medical Landmark Detection on X-Ray Scan Using Reinforcement Learning

Authors: Vijaya Yuvaram Singh V M, Kameshwar Rao J V

Abstract:

The challenge with development of neural network based methods for medical is the availability of data. Anatomical landmark detection in the medical domain is a process to find points on the x-ray scan report of the patient. Most of the time this task is done manually by trained professionals as it requires precision and domain knowledge. Traditionally object detection based methods are used for landmark detection. Here, we utilize reinforcement learning and query based method to train a single agent capable of detecting multiple landmarks. A deep Q network agent is trained to detect single and multiple landmarks present on hip and shoulder from x-ray scan of a patient. Here a single agent is trained to find multiple landmark making it superior to having individual agents per landmark. For the initial study, five images of different patients are used as the environment and tested the agents performance on two unseen images.

Keywords: Reinforcement Learning, deep neural network, medical landmark detection, multi target detection

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87 Achieving Shear Wave Elastography by a Three-Element Probe for Wearable Human-Machine Interface

Authors: Xiaowei Zhou, Honghai Liu, Jipeng Yan, Xingchen Yang, Mengxing Tang

Abstract:

Human-machine interface (HMI) is a technique that can be used to control devices, such as prosthesis, by decoding human motions or intentions. Ultrasound-based HMI, which detects the morphological information of skeletal muscles, was proved to be able to sense joint angles and hand gestures with better performance than surface electromyography but did not match with the latter while sensing muscle forces. Shear wave elastography (SWE) can be used to measure the shear elastic modulus of soft tissues. The shear elastic modulus of skeletal muscles was found to be in high correlation with muscle force. However, SWE is currently implemented by array probes that usually consist of no less than 128 piezoelectric elements. Price and volumes of these probes and their driving equipment prevent SWE from being used in wearable HMI. And beamforming processing for array probes also reduces the real-time performance. To achieve SWE by wearable HMI, a customized three-element probe was adopted in this work, where one element for acoustic radiation force generation and the others for shear wave tracking, respectively. In-phase quadrature demodulation and 2D autocorrelation were adopted to estimate velocities of particles on the sound beams of the latter two elements. Shear wave speeds were calculated by phase shift between the tissue velocities. Three agar phantoms with different elasticities were made by adjusting the weights of agar. Values of the shear elastic modulus of the phantoms were measured as 8.98, 23.06, and 36.74 kPa at a depth of 7.5 mm, respectively. This work verified the feasibility of measuring shear elastic modulus by wearable HMI.

Keywords: Ultrasound, skeletal muscle, shear elastic modulus, wearable human-machine interface

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86 Optical-Based Lane-Assist System for Rowing Boats

Authors: Stephen Tullis, M. David DiDonato, Hong Sung Park

Abstract:

Rowing boats (shells) are often steered by a small rudder operated by one of the backward-facing rowers; the attention required of that athlete then slightly decreases the power that that athlete can provide. Reducing the steering distraction would then increase the overall boat speed. Races are straight 2000 m courses with each boat in a 13.5 m wide lane marked by small (~15 cm) widely-spaced (~10 m) buoys, and the boat trajectory is affected by both cross-currents and winds. An optical buoy recognition and tracking system has been developed that provides the boat’s location and orientation with respect to the lane edges. This information is provided to the steering athlete as either: a simple overlay on a video display, or fed to a simplified autopilot system giving steering directions to the athlete or directly controlling the rudder. The system is then effectively a “lane-assist” device but with small, widely-spaced lane markers viewed from a very shallow angle due to constraints on camera height. The image is captured with a lightweight 1080p webcam, and most of the image analysis is done in OpenCV. The colour RGB-image is converted to a grayscale using the difference of the red and blue channels, which provides good contrast between the red/yellow buoys and the water, sky, land background and white reflections and noise. Buoy detection is done with thresholding within a tight mask applied to the image. Robust linear regression using Tukey’s biweight estimator of the previously detected buoy locations is used to develop the mask; this avoids the false detection of noise such as waves (reflections) and, in particular, buoys in other lanes. The robust regression also provides the current lane edges in the camera frame that are used to calculate the displacement of the boat from the lane centre (lane location), and its yaw angle. The interception of the detected lane edges provides a lane vanishing point, and yaw angle can be calculated simply based on the displacement of this vanishing point from the camera axis and the image plane distance. Lane location is simply based on the lateral displacement of the vanishing point from any horizontal cut through the lane edges. The boat lane position and yaw are currently fed what is essentially a stripped down marine auto-pilot system. Currently, only the lane location is used in a PID controller of a rudder actuator with integrator anti-windup to deal with saturation of the rudder angle. Low Kp and Kd values decrease unnecessarily fast return to lane centrelines and response to noise, and limiters can be used to avoid lane departure and disqualification. Yaw is not used as a control input, as cross-winds and currents can cause a straight course with considerable yaw or crab angle. Mapping of the controller with rudder angle “overall effectiveness” has not been finalized - very large rudder angles stall and have decreased turning moments, but at less extreme angles the increased rudder drag slows the boat and upsets boat balance. The full system has many features similar to automotive lane-assist systems, but with the added constraints of the lane markers, camera positioning, control response and noise increasing the challenge.

Keywords: Optical, Marine, Rowing, auto-pilot, lane-assist

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85 A Fuzzy Kernel K-Medoids Algorithm for Clustering Uncertain Data Objects

Authors: Behnam Tavakkol

Abstract:

Uncertain data mining algorithms use different ways to consider uncertainty in data such as by representing a data object as a sample of points or a probability distribution. Fuzzy methods have long been used for clustering traditional (certain) data objects. They are used to produce non-crisp cluster labels. For uncertain data, however, besides some uncertain fuzzy k-medoids algorithms, not many other fuzzy clustering methods have been developed. In this work, we develop a fuzzy kernel k-medoids algorithm for clustering uncertain data objects. The developed fuzzy kernel k-medoids algorithm is superior to existing fuzzy k-medoids algorithms in clustering data sets with non-linearly separable clusters.

Keywords: clustering algorithm, fuzzy methods, kernel k-medoids, uncertain data

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84 A Study on the Optimal Placement and Control Scheme for Multi Terminal HVDC in Korea

Authors: Chur Hee Lee, Seung Wan Kim, Ju Sik Kwak

Abstract:

This paper deals about economics and control of optimal placement of multi-terminal HVDC in Korea. Currently, No.1 and 2 HVDC are installed in Jeju and Mainland, Dangjin Godeok HVDC starts operation in 2020. Jeju No.3 HVDC also starts operation in 2022. HVDC systems in Korea are expanding. Also, super grid projects with China, Japan, and Russia are under consideration. In this situation, it is necessary to study how to install optimal HVDC in Korea and how to control it. After initializing the Optical Polwer Flow (OPF) procudure using lossless economic dispatch, grobal iteration will be set. And then, this will be formed as the Lagrangian function and linearizied. We will also analyze the advantages and disadvantages of each operation mode for optimal operating conditions of voltage and current complex HVDC in Korea.

Keywords: Economics, Optimal, HVDC, multi terminal

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83 Failure Analysis Using Rtds for a Power System Equipped with Thyristor-Controlled Series Capacitor in Korea

Authors: Chur Hee Lee, Jae in Lee, Minh Chau Diah, Jong Su Yoon, Seung Wan Kim

Abstract:

This paper deals with Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) analysis about effects of transmission lines failure in power system equipped with Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitance (TCSC) in Korea. The TCSC is firstly applied in Korea to compensate real power in case of 765 kV line faults. Therefore, It is important to analyze with TCSC replica using RTDS. In this test, all systems in Korea, other than those near TCSC, were abbreviated to Thevenin equivalent. The replica was tested in the case of a line failure near the TCSC, a generator failure, and a 765-kV line failure. The effects of conventional operated STATCOM, SVC and TCSC were also analyzed. The test results will be used for the actual TCSC operational impact analysis.

Keywords: Power System, Failure analysis, TCSC, RTDS

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82 Development of a Feedback Control System for the Lab-Scale Biomass Combustion System Using Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: Samuel O. Alamu, Seong W. Lee, Blaise Kalmia, Marc J. Louise Caballes, Xuejun Qian

Abstract:

The application of combustion technologies for thermal conversion of biomass and solid wastes to energy has been a major solution to the effective handling of wastes over a long period of time. Lab-scale biomass combustion systems have been observed to be economically viable and socially acceptable, but major concerns are the environmental impacts of the process and deviation of temperature distribution within the combustion chamber. Both high and low combustion chamber temperature may affect the overall combustion efficiency and gaseous emissions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a control system which measures the deviations of chamber temperature from set target values, sends these deviations (which generates disturbances in the system) in the form of feedback signal (as input), and control operating conditions for correcting the errors. In this research study, major components of the feedback control system were determined, assembled, and tested. In addition, control algorithms were developed to actuate operating conditions (e.g., air velocity, fuel feeding rate) using ladder logic functions embedded in the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The developed control algorithm having chamber temperature as a feedback signal is integrated into the lab-scale swirling fluidized bed combustor (SFBC) to investigate the temperature distribution at different heights of the combustion chamber based on various operating conditions. The air blower rates and the fuel feeding rates obtained from automatic control operations were correlated with manual inputs. There was no observable difference in the correlated results, thus indicating that the written PLC program functions were adequate in designing the experimental study of the lab-scale SFBC. The experimental results were analyzed to study the effect of air velocity operating at 222-273 ft/min and fuel feeding rate of 60-90 rpm on the chamber temperature. The developed temperature-based feedback control system was shown to be adequate in controlling the airflow and the fuel feeding rate for the overall biomass combustion process as it helps to minimize the steady-state error.

Keywords: temperature, Air Flow, Programmable Logic Controller, Biomass Combustion, feedback control signal, fuel feeding, ladder logic

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81 Association Rules Mining Task Using Metaheuristics: Review

Authors: Abir Derouiche, Abdesslem Layeb

Abstract:

Association Rule Mining (ARM) is one of the most popular data mining tasks and it is widely used in various areas. The search for association rules is an NP-complete problem that is why metaheuristics have been widely used to solve it. The present paper presents the ARM as an optimization problem and surveys the proposed approaches in the literature based on metaheuristics.

Keywords: Data Mining, Optimization, Metaheuristics, Association rules Mining

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80 Robust Stabilization of Rotational Motion of Underwater Robots against Parameter Uncertainties

Authors: Tomoaki Hashimoto, Riku Hayashida

Abstract:

This paper provides a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. Underwater robots are expected to be used for various work assignments. The large variety of applications of underwater robots motivates researchers to develop control systems and technologies for underwater robots. Several control methods have been proposed so far for the stabilization of nominal system model of underwater robots with no parameter uncertainty. Parameter uncertainties are considered to be obstacles in implementation of such nominal control methods for underwater robots. The objective of this study is to establish a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: Robust Control, underwater robot, stabilization method, parameter uncertainty

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79 Security Report Profiling for Mobile Banking Applications in Indonesia Based on OWASP Mobile Top 10-2016

Authors: Bambang Novianto, Rizal Aditya Herdianto, Raphael Bianco Huwae, Afifah, Alfonso Brolin Sihite, Rudi Lumanto

Abstract:

The mobile banking application is a type of mobile application that is growing rapidly. This is caused by the ease of service and time savings in making transactions. On the other hand, this certainly provides a challenge in security issues. The use of mobile banking can not be separated from cyberattacks that may occur which can result the theft of sensitive information or financial loss. The financial loss and the theft of sensitive information is the most avoided thing because besides harming the user, it can also cause a loss of customer trust in a bank. Cyberattacks that are often carried out against mobile applications are phishing, hacking, theft, misuse of data, etc. Cyberattack can occur when a vulnerability is successfully exploited. OWASP mobile Top 10 has recorded as many as 10 vulnerabilities that are most commonly found in mobile applications. In the others, android permissions also have the potential to cause vulnerabilities. Therefore, an overview of the profile of the mobile banking application becomes an urgency that needs to be known. So that it is expected to be a consideration of the parties involved for improving security. In this study, an experiment has been conducted to capture the profile of the mobile banking applications in Indonesia based on android permission and OWASP mobile top 10 2016. The results show that there are six basic vulnerabilities based on OWASP Mobile Top 10 that are most commonly found in mobile banking applications in Indonesia, i.e. M1:Improper Platform Usage, M2:Insecure Data Storage, M3:Insecure Communication, M5:Insufficient Cryptography, M7:Client Code Quality, and M9:Reverse Engineering. The most permitted android permissions are the internet, status network access, and telephone read status.

Keywords: sensitive information, mobile banking application, OWASP mobile top 10 2016, android permission, financial loss

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78 Multi-Agent Searching Adaptation Using Levy Flight and Inferential Reasoning

Authors: Sagir Muhammad Yusuf, Chris Baber

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe how agents adapt to different environments using Bayesian inferential reasoning and learning. Bayesian belief network was used to monitor agents’ knowledge about their environment, and cases are recorded for the network training using expectation-maximization or gradient descent algorithm (performance seems to be the same). We model the problem as distributed constraint optimization (DCOP) and use multi-agent searching as a use case. Experiment results prove the use of average or little data to obtain accurate predictions. We change the environment and monitor agents’ adaptability by recording their prediction accuracy rate, logarithm loss, and Brier score. Our learning algorithms can also handle environment dynamism, uncertainties, and missing data, which are the most significant challenge in the DCOP community. Future works focus on determining the minimum number of a sample that can yield proper network training.

Keywords: Swarm Intelligence, multi-robot coordination, multi-agent system, autonomous system, distributed constraint optimization problem, Levy flight

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77 Inferential Reasoning for Heterogeneous Multi-Agent Mission

Authors: Sagir Muhammad Yusuf, Chris Baber

Abstract:

We describe issues bedeviling the coordination of heterogeneous multi-agent missions. We explain both Bayesian and agents' presumptions inferential reasoning and the possibility of their extension to cope with heterogeneous multi-agent belief variation. Bayesian Belief Network was used in modelling the agents' belief conflict due to sensor variations. Simulation experiments were designed, and cases were used in training the network using gradient descent and expectation-maximization algorithms. The output network is a well-train Bayesian Belief Network for making optimal inferences for both agents and human experts. We claim that the Bayesian learning algorithm prediction capacity improves by the number of training data and argue that it enhances multi-agents robustness. Future work will investigate the possibility of heterogeneous agents' belief fusion.

Keywords: Swarm Intelligence, multi-robot coordination, multi-agent system, autonomous system, distributed constraint optimization problem

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76 Probabilistic Approach of Dealing with Uncertainties in Distributed Constraint Optimization

Authors: Sagir Muhammad Yusuf, Chris Baber

Abstract:

In this paper, we describe how Bayesian inferential reasoning contributes to obtaining an optimal prediction for distributed constraint optimization problems (DCOP) with uncertainties. The DCOP functions were merged with Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) in the form of situation, awareness, and utility nodes. We describe how the uncertainties can be represented to the BBN and make an optimal prediction using the expectation-maximization algorithm or conjugate gradient descent algorithm. Experiment results proved that the BBN perform compelling predictions with samples containing uncertainties than the perfect samples. That is, Bayesian inference can help in handling uncertainties and dynamism of DCOP, which is the current issue in the DCOP community. We show Bayesian inference formalise distributed situation-awareness (DSA) with uncertainties and missing data for multi-agent mission. Future work focuses on augmenting existing dynamic DCOP algorithms for multi-agent information merging.

Keywords: Swarm Intelligence, Multi-Agent Reasoning, Bayesian Reasoning, DCOP

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75 Carbohydrate Intake Estimation in Type I Diabetic Patients Described by UVA/Padova Model

Authors: David A. Padilla, Rodolfo Villamizar

Abstract:

In recent years, closed loop control strategies have been developed in order to establish a healthy glucose profile in type 1 diabetic mellitus (T1DM) patients. However, the controller itself is unable to define a suitable reference trajectory for glucose. In this paper, a control strategy Is proposed where the shape of the reference trajectory is generated bases in the amount of carbohydrates present during the digestive process, due to the effect of carbohydrate intake. Since there no exists a sensor to measure the amount of carbohydrates consumed, an estimator is proposed. Thus this paper presents the entire process of designing a carbohydrate estimator, which allows estimate disturbance for a predictive controller (MPC) in a T1MD patient, the estimation will be used to establish a profile of reference and improve the response of the controller by providing the estimated information of ingested carbohydrates. The dynamics of the diabetic model used are due to the equations described by the UVA/Padova model of the T1DMS simulator, the system was developed and simulated in Simulink, taking into account the noise and limitations of the glucose control system actuators.

Keywords: estimation, glucose control, MPC, predictive controller, UVA/Padova

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74 Model Reference Adaptive Approach for Power System Stabilizer for Damping of Power Oscillations

Authors: Jozef Ritonja, Bojan Grcar, Boštjan Polajžer

Abstract:

In recent years, electricity trade between neighboring countries has become increasingly intense. Increasing power transmission over long distances has resulted in an increase in the oscillations of the transmitted power. The damping of the oscillations can be carried out with the reconfiguration of the network or the replacement of generators, but such solution is not economically reasonable. The only cost-effective solution to improve the damping of power oscillations is to use power system stabilizers. Power system stabilizer represents a part of synchronous generator control system. It utilizes semiconductor’s excitation system connected to the rotor field excitation winding to increase the damping of the power system. The majority of the synchronous generators are equipped with the conventional power system stabilizers with fixed parameters. The control structure of the conventional power system stabilizers and the tuning procedure are based on the linear control theory. Conventional power system stabilizers are simple to realize, but they show non-sufficient damping improvement in the entire operating conditions. This is the reason that advanced control theories are used for development of better power system stabilizers. In this paper, the adaptive control theory for power system stabilizers design and synthesis is studied. The presented work is focused on the use of model reference adaptive control approach. Control signal, which assures that the controlled plant output will follow the reference model output, is generated by the adaptive algorithm. Adaptive gains are obtained as a combination of the "proportional" term and with the σ-term extended "integral" term. The σ-term is introduced to avoid divergence of the integral gains. The necessary condition for asymptotic tracking is derived by means of hyperstability theory. The benefits of the proposed model reference adaptive power system stabilizer were evaluated as objectively as possible by means of a theoretical analysis, numerical simulations and laboratory realizations. Damping of the synchronous generator oscillations in the entire operating range was investigated. Obtained results show the improved damping in the entire operating area and the increase of the power system stability. The results of the presented work will help by the development of the model reference power system stabilizer which should be able to replace the conventional stabilizers in power systems.

Keywords: Power System, Stability, power system stabilizer, model reference adaptive control, oscillations

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73 Modelling and Control of Milk Fermentation Process in Biochemical Reactor

Authors: Jozef Ritonja

Abstract:

The biochemical industry is one of the most important modern industries. Biochemical reactors are crucial devices of the biochemical industry. The essential bioprocess carried out in bioreactors is the fermentation process. A thorough insight into the fermentation process and the knowledge how to control it are essential for effective use of bioreactors to produce high quality and quantitatively enough products. The development of the control system starts with the determination of a mathematical model that describes the steady state and dynamic properties of the controlled plant satisfactorily, and is suitable for the development of the control system. The paper analyses the fermentation process in bioreactors thoroughly, using existing mathematical models. Most existing mathematical models do not allow the design of a control system for controlling the fermentation process in batch bioreactors. Due to this, a mathematical model was developed and presented that allows the development of a control system for batch bioreactors. Based on the developed mathematical model, a control system was designed to ensure optimal response of the biochemical quantities in the fermentation process. Due to the time-varying and non-linear nature of the controlled plant, the conventional control system with a proportional-integral-differential controller with constant parameters does not provide the desired transient response. The improved adaptive control system was proposed to improve the dynamics of the fermentation. The use of the adaptive control is suggested because the parameters’ variations of the fermentation process are very slow. The developed control system was tested to produce dairy products in the laboratory bioreactor. A carbon dioxide concentration was chosen as the controlled variable. The carbon dioxide concentration correlates well with the other, for the quality of the fermentation process in significant quantities. The level of the carbon dioxide concentration gives important information about the fermentation process. The obtained results showed that the designed control system provides minimum error between reference and actual values of carbon dioxide concentration during a transient response and in a steady state. The recommended control system makes reference signal tracking much more efficient than the currently used conventional control systems which are based on linear control theory. The proposed control system represents a very effective solution for the improvement of the milk fermentation process.

Keywords: Modelling, Adaptive Control, Fermentation Process, biochemical reactor

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72 Rumour Containment Using Monitor Placement and Truth Propagation

Authors: Amrah Maryam

Abstract:

The emergence of online social networks (OSNs) has transformed the way we pursue and share information. On the one hand, OSNs provide great ease for the spreading of positive information while, on the other hand, they may also become a channel for the spreading of malicious rumors and misinformation throughout the social network. Thus, to assure the trustworthiness of OSNs to its users, it is of vital importance to detect the misinformation propagation in the network by placing network monitors. In this paper, we aim to place monitors near the suspected nodes with the intent to limit the diffusion of misinformation in the social network, and then we also detect the most significant nodes in the network for propagating true information in order to minimize the effect of already diffused misinformation. Thus, we initiate two heuristic monitor placement using articulation points and truth propagation using eigenvector centrality. Furthermore, to provide real-time workings of the system, we integrate both the monitor placement and truth propagation entities as well. To signify the effectiveness of the approaches, we have carried out the experiment and evaluation of Stanford datasets of online social networks.

Keywords: online social networks, monitor placement, independent cascade model, spread of misinformation

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71 Worst-Case Load Shedding in Electric Power Networks

Authors: Fu Lin

Abstract:

We consider the worst-case load-shedding problem in electric power networks where a number of transmission lines are to be taken out of service. The objective is to identify a prespecified number of line outages that lead to the maximum interruption of power generation and load at the transmission level, subject to the active power-flow model, the load and generation capacity of the buses, and the phase-angle limit across the transmission lines. For this nonlinear model with binary constraints, we show that all decision variables are separable except for the nonlinear power-flow equations. We develop an iterative decomposition algorithm, which converts the worst-case load shedding problem into a sequence of small subproblems. We show that the subproblems are either convex problems that can be solved efficiently or nonconvex problems that have closed-form solutions. Consequently, our approach is scalable for large networks. Furthermore, we prove the convergence of our algorithm to a critical point, and the objective value is guaranteed to decrease throughout the iterations. Numerical experiments with IEEE test cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed approach.

Keywords: Power System, vulnerability analysis, load shedding, proximal alternating linearization method

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70 Least Squares Solution for Linear Quadratic Gaussian Problem with Stochastic Approximation Approach

Authors: Sie Long Kek, Wah June Leong, Kok Lay Teo

Abstract:

Linear quadratic Gaussian model is a standard mathematical model for the stochastic optimal control problem. The combination of the linear quadratic estimation and the linear quadratic regulator allows the state estimation and the optimal control policy to be designed separately. This is known as the separation principle. In this paper, an efficient computational method is proposed to solve the linear quadratic Gaussian problem. In our approach, the Hamiltonian function is defined, and the necessary conditions are derived. In addition to this, the output error is defined and the least-square optimization problem is introduced. By determining the first-order necessary condition, the gradient of the sum squares of output error is established. On this point of view, the stochastic approximation approach is employed such that the optimal control policy is updated. Within a given tolerance, the iteration procedure would be stopped and the optimal solution of the linear-quadratic Gaussian problem is obtained. For illustration, an example of the linear-quadratic Gaussian problem is studied. The result shows the efficiency of the approach proposed. In conclusion, the applicability of the approach proposed for solving the linear quadratic Gaussian problem is highly demonstrated.

Keywords: Stochastic Approximation, output error, iteration procedure, least squares solution, linear quadratic Gaussian

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69 Dataset Quality Index:Development of Composite Indicator Based on Standard Data Quality Indicators

Authors: Preecha Vichitthamaros, Sakda Loetpiparwanich

Abstract:

Nowadays, poor data quality is considered one of the majority costs for a data project. The data project with data quality awareness almost as much time to data quality processes while data project without data quality awareness negatively impacts financial resources, efficiency, productivity, and credibility. One of the processes that take a long time is defining the expectations and measurements of data quality because the expectation is different up to the purpose of each data project. Especially, big data project that maybe involves with many datasets and stakeholders, that take a long time to discuss and define quality expectations and measurements. Therefore, this study aimed at developing meaningful indicators to describe overall data quality for each dataset to quick comparison and priority. The objectives of this study were to: (1) Develop a practical data quality indicators and measurements, (2) Develop data quality dimensions based on statistical characteristics and (3) Develop Composite Indicator that can describe overall data quality for each dataset. The sample consisted of more than 500 datasets from public sources obtained by random sampling. After datasets were collected, there are five steps to develop the Dataset Quality Index (SDQI). First, we define standard data quality expectations. Second, we find any indicators that can measure directly to data within datasets. Thirdly, each indicator aggregates to dimension using factor analysis. Next, the indicators and dimensions were weighted by an effort for data preparing process and usability. Finally, the dimensions aggregate to Composite Indicator. The results of these analyses showed that: (1) The developed useful indicators and measurements contained ten indicators. (2) the developed data quality dimension based on statistical characteristics, we found that ten indicators can be reduced to 4 dimensions. (3) The developed Composite Indicator, we found that the SDQI can describe overall datasets quality of each dataset and can separate into 3 Level as Good Quality, Acceptable Quality, and Poor Quality. The conclusion, the SDQI provide an overall description of data quality within datasets and meaningful composition. We can use SQDI to assess for all data in the data project, effort estimation, and priority. The SDQI also work well with Agile Method by using SDQI to assessment in the first sprint. After passing the initial evaluation, we can add more specific data quality indicators into the next sprint.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, Data Quality, Factor Analysis, composite indicator, data quality management, dataset quality

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68 Real-Time Path Planning for Unmanned Air Vehicles Using Improved Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree and Iterative Trajectory Optimization

Authors: A. Suleman, A. Ramalho, L. Romeiro, R. Ventura

Abstract:

A real-time path planning framework for Unmanned Air Vehicles, and in particular multi-rotors is proposed. The framework is designed to provide feasible trajectories from the current UAV position to a goal state, taking into account constraints such as obstacle avoidance, problem kinematics, and vehicle limitations such as maximum speed and maximum acceleration. The framework computes feasible paths online, allowing to avoid new, unknown, dynamic obstacles without fully re-computing the trajectory. These features are achieved using an iterative process in which the robot computes and optimizes the trajectory while performing the mission objectives. A first trajectory is computed using a modified Rapidly-Exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm, that provides trajectories that respect a maximum curvature constraint. The trajectory optimization is accomplished using the Interior Point Optimizer (IPOPT) as a solver. The framework has proven to be able to compute a trajectory and optimize to a locally optimal with computational efficiency making it feasible for real-time operations.

Keywords: Trajectory Optimization, interior point optimization, multi-rotors, online path planning, rapidly exploring random trees

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67 Investigating Safe Operation Condition for Iterative Learning Control under Load Disturbances Effect in Singular Values

Authors: Muhammad A. Alsubaie

Abstract:

An iterative learning control framework designed in state feedback structure suffers a lack in investigating load disturbance considerations. The presented work discusses the controller previously designed, highlights the disturbance problem, finds new conditions using singular value principle to assure safe operation conditions with error convergence and reference tracking under the influence of load disturbance. It is known that periodic disturbances can be represented by a delay model in a positive feedback loop acting on the system input. This model can be manipulated by isolating the delay model and finding a controller for the overall system around the delay model to remedy the periodic disturbances using the small signal theorem. The overall system is the base for control design and load disturbance investigation. The major finding of this work is the load disturbance condition found which clearly sets safe operation condition under the influence of load disturbances such that the error tends to nearly zero as the system keeps operating trial after trial.

Keywords: state feedback, load disturbance, iterative learning control, singular values

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66 Investigating the Regulation System of the Synchronous Motor Excitation Mode Serving as a Reactive Power Source

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka, Ulikyan Azatuhi

Abstract:

The efficient usage of the compensation abilities of the electrical drive synchronous motors used in production processes can essentially improve the technical and economic indices of the process.  Reducing the flows of the reactive electrical energy due to the compensation of reactive power allows to significantly reduce the load losses of power in the electrical networks. As a result of analyzing the scientific works devoted to the issues of regulating the excitation of the synchronous motors, the need for comprehensive investigation and estimation of the excitation mode has been substantiated. By means of the obtained transmission functions, in the Simulink environment of the software package MATLAB, the transition processes of the excitation mode have been studied. As a result of obtaining and estimating the graph of the Nyquist plot and the transient process, the necessity of developing the Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) regulator has been justified. The transient processes of the system of the PID regulator have been investigated, and the amplitude–phase characteristics of the system have been estimated. The analysis of the obtained results has shown that the regulation indices of the developed system have been improved. The developed system can be successfully applied for regulating the excitation voltage of different-power synchronous motors, operating with a changing load, ensuring a value of the power coefficient close to 1.

Keywords: Synchronous Motor, reactive power, regulator, transition process, excitation mode

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65 Study on Errors in Estimating the 3D Gaze Point for Different Pupil Sizes Using Eye Vergences

Authors: M. Pomianek, M. Piszczek, M. Maciejewski

Abstract:

The binocular eye tracking technology is increasingly being used in industry, entertainment and marketing analysis. In the case of virtual reality, eye tracking systems are already the basis for user interaction with the environment. In such systems, the high accuracy of determining the user's eye fixation point is very important due to the specificity of the virtual reality head-mounted display (HMD). Often, however, there are unknown errors occurring in the used eye tracking technology, as well as those resulting from the positioning of the devices in relation to the user's eyes. However, can the virtual environment itself influence estimation errors? The paper presents mathematical analyses and empirical studies of the determination of the fixation point and errors resulting from the change in the size of the pupil in response to the intensity of the displayed scene. The article contains both static laboratory tests as well as on the real user. Based on the research results, optimization solutions were proposed that would reduce the errors of gaze estimation errors. Studies show that errors in estimating the fixation point of vision can be minimized both by improving the pupil positioning algorithm in the video image and by using more precise methods to calibrate the eye tracking system in three-dimensional space.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, eye tracking, fixation point, pupil size

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64 Developing a Regulator for Improving the Operation Modes of the Electrical Drive Motor

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka

Abstract:

The operation modes of the synchronous motors used in the production processes are greatly conditioned by the accidentally changing technological and power indices.  As a result, the electrical drive synchronous motor may appear in irregular operation regimes. Although there are numerous works devoted to the development of the regulator for the synchronous motor operation modes, their application for the motors working in the irregular modes is not expedient. In this work, to estimate the issues concerning the stability of the synchronous electrical drive system, the transfer functions of the electrical drive synchronous motors operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained.  For that purpose, a model for investigating the frequency characteristics has been developed in the LabView environment. Frequency characteristics for assessing the transient process of the electrical drive system, operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained, and based on their assessment, a regulator for improving the operation modes of the motor has been proposed. The proposed regulator can be successfully used to prevent the irregular modes of the electrical drive synchronous motor, as well as to estimate the operation state of the drive motor of the mechanism with a changing load.

Keywords: Stability, Synchronous Motor, regulator, electrical drive system, transition process

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63 Switched System Diagnosis Based on Intelligent State Filtering with Unknown Models

Authors: Faouzi Bouani, Nada Slimane, Foued Theljani

Abstract:

The paper addresses the problem of fault diagnosis for systems operating in several modes (normal or faulty) based on states assessment. We use, for this purpose, a methodology consisting of three main processes: 1) sequential data clustering, 2) linear model regression and 3) state filtering. Typically, Kalman Filter (KF) is an algorithm that provides estimation of unknown states using a sequence of I/O measurements. Inevitably, although it is an efficient technique for state estimation, it presents two main weaknesses. First, it merely predicts states without being able to isolate/classify them according to their different operating modes, whether normal or faulty modes. To deal with this dilemma, the KF is endowed with an extra clustering step based fully on sequential version of the k-means algorithm. Second, to provide state estimation, KF requires state space models, which can be unknown. A linear regularized regression is used to identify the required models. To prove its effectiveness, the proposed approach is assessed on a simulated benchmark.

Keywords: Diagnosis, Clustering, k-means, Kalman filtering, regularized regression

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62 Potentiostatic Growth of Hazenite Mineral Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in 0.1 M K₂HPO₄/0.1 M Na₂HPO₄ Solution

Authors: Lin Zhao, Nan Chen, Junhua Dong, Wei Ke, Liping Wu, Durga Bhakta Pokharel, Changgang Wang

Abstract:

Hazenite conversion coating was deposited on AZ31 Mg alloy in a deaerated phosphate solution containing 0.1 M K₂HPO₄ and 0.1 M Na₂HPO₄ (Na₀.₁K0₀.₁) with pH 9 at −0.8 V. The coating mechanism of hazenite was elucidated by in situ potentiostatic current decay, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The volume of H₂ evolved during potentiostatic polarization was measured by a gas collection apparatus. The degradation resistance of the hazenite coating was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37℃ by using potentiodynamic polarization (PDP). The results showed that amorphous Mg(OH)₂ was deposited first, followed by the transformation of Mg(OH)₂ to amorphous MgHPO₄, subsequently the conversion of MgHPO₄ to crystallized K-struvite (KMgPO₄·6H₂O), finally the crystallization of crystallized hazenite (NaKMg₂(PO₄)₂·14H₂O). The deposited coating was composed of four layers where the inner layer is comprised of Mg(OH)₂, the middle layer of Mg(OH)₂ and MgHPO₄, the top layer of Mg(OH)₂, MgHPO₄ and K-struvite, the topmost layer of Mg(OH)₂, MgHPO₄, K-struvite and hazenite (NaKMg₂(PO₄)₂·14H₂O). The PD results showed that the hazenite coating decreased the corrosion rate by two orders of magnitude.

Keywords: Magnesium Alloy, potentiostatic technique, hazenite, mineral conversion coating

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61 Technology Assessment: Exploring Possibilities to Encounter Problems Faced by Intellectual Property through Blockchain

Authors: M. Ismail, A. Paz, E. Grifell-Tatjé

Abstract:

A significant discussion on the topic of blockchain as a solution to the issues of intellectual property highlights the relevance that this topic holds. Some experts label this technology as destructive since it holds immense potential to change course of traditional practices. The extent and areas to which this technology can be of use are still being researched. This paper provides an in-depth review on the intellectual property and blockchain technology. Further it explores what makes blockchain suitable for intellectual property, the practical solutions available and the support different governments are offering. This paper further studies the framework of universities in context of its outputs and how can they be streamlined using blockchain technology. The paper concludes by discussing some limitations and future research question.

Keywords: Intellectual Property, Patents, open innovation, Decentralization, Blockchain, university-industry relationship

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