Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 185

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Computer and Systems Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

185 An Application for Risk of Crime Prediction Using Machine Learning

Authors: Luis Fonseca, Filipe Cabral Pinto, Susana Sargento


The increase of the world population, especially in large urban centers, has resulted in new challenges particularly with the control and optimization of public safety. Thus, in the present work, a solution is proposed for the prediction of criminal occurrences in a city based on historical data of incidents and demographic information. The entire research and implementation will be presented since the data collection from its original source, the treatment and transformations applied to them, choice, evaluation and implementation of the Machine Learning model up to the application layer. Classification models will be implemented to predict criminal risk for a given time interval and location. Machine Learning algorithms such as Random Forest, Neural Networks, K-Nearest Neighbors and Logistic Regression will be used to predict occurrences and their performance will be compared according to the data processing and transformation used. The results show that the use of Machine Learning techniques helps to anticipate criminal occurrences, which contributed to the reinforcement of public security. Finally, the models were implemented on a platform that will provide an API to enable other entities to make requests for predictions in real-time. An application will also be presented where it is possible to show criminal predictions visually.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Smart City, Public Safety, crime prediction

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184 Dynamic Control Theory: A Behavioral Modeling Approach to Demand Forecasting amongst Office Workers Engaged in a Competition on Energy Shifting

Authors: Akaash Tawade, Manan Khattar, Lucas Spangher, Costas J. Spanos


Many grids are increasing the share of renewable energy in their generation mix, which is causing the energy generation to become less controllable. Buildings, which consume nearly 33% of all energy, are a key target for demand response: i.e., mechanisms for demand to meet supply. Understanding the behavior of office workers is a start towards developing demand response for one sector of building technology. The literature notes that dynamic computational modeling can be predictive of individual action, especially given that occupant behavior is traditionally abstracted from demand forecasting. Recent work founded on Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) has provided a promising conceptual basis for modeling behavior, personal states, and environment using control theoretic principles. Here, an adapted linear dynamical system of latent states and exogenous inputs is proposed to simulate energy demand amongst office workers engaged in a social energy shifting game. The energy shifting competition is implemented in an office in Singapore that is connected to a minigrid of buildings with a consistent 'price signal.' This signal is translated into a 'points signal' by a reinforcement learning (RL) algorithm to influence participant energy use. The dynamic model functions at the intersection of the points signals, baseline energy consumption trends, and SCT behavioral inputs to simulate future outcomes. This study endeavors to analyze how the dynamic model trains an RL agent and, subsequently, the degree of accuracy to which load deferability can be simulated. The results offer a generalizable behavioral model for energy competitions that provides the framework for further research on transfer learning for RL, and more broadly— transactive control.

Keywords: Transfer Learning, Social Game, energy demand forecasting, social cognitive behavioral modeling

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183 Methodologies, Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) and Modeling Languages in Agile Software Development

Authors: Ivan Dario Arroyo Chaves


This article seeks to integrate different concepts of contemporary software engineering with an agile development approach, making clarity in the definitions and uses, beginning to separate and differentiate the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) from the Methodologies and their type frameworks as methodological, philosophical and behavioral, standards and documentation, to then define relationships based on the documentation of the development process through formal and ad hoc models, finding value in DevOps and Agile Modeling as integrative methodologies of principles and good practices.

Keywords: UML, methodologies, modeling languages, agile modeling

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182 Applications of AI, Machine Learning, and Deep Learning in Cyber Security

Authors: Hailyie Tekleselase


Deep learning is increasingly used as a building block of security systems. However, neural networks are hard to interpret and typically solid to the practitioner. This paper presents a detail survey of computing methods in cyber security, and analyzes the prospects of enhancing the cyber security capabilities by suggests that of accelerating the intelligence of the security systems. There are many AI-based applications used in industrial scenarios such as Internet of Things (IoT), smart grids, and edge computing. Machine learning technologies require a training process which introduces the protection problems in the training data and algorithms. We present machine learning techniques currently applied to the detection of intrusion, malware, and spam. Our conclusions are based on an extensive review of the literature as well as on experiments performed on real enterprise systems and network traffic. We conclude that problems can be solved successfully only when methods of artificial intelligence are being used besides human experts or operators.

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Big Data, Cyber Security, Deep learning

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181 Improving the Statistics Nature in Research Information System

Authors: Rajbir Cheema


In order to introduce an integrated research information system, this will provide scientific institutions with the necessary information on research activities and research results in assured quality. Since data collection, duplication, missing values, incorrect formatting, inconsistencies, etc. can arise in the collection of research data in different research information systems, which can have a wide range of negative effects on data quality, the subject of data quality should be treated with better results. This paper examines the data quality problems in research information systems and presents the new techniques that enable organizations to improve their quality of research information.

Keywords: standardization, Data Quality, Data cleansing, Research information systems (RIS), research information, heterogeneous sources, science system

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180 Socioeconomic Inequality in Physical Activity: The CASPIAN-V Study

Authors: Roya Kelishadi, Mostafa Amini-Rarani, Mostafa Qorbani


Introduction: As a health-related behavior, physical activity (PA) has an unequal distribution relating to individual's socioeconomic status. This study aimed to assess socioeconomic inequality in PA among Iranian students and their parents at national level and according to socioeconomic status (SES) of the living regions. Method: This study was conducted as part of a national surveillance program conducted among 14400 Iranian students and their parents. Non-linear principal component analysis was used to construct the households' socioeconomic status, and the concentration index approach was applied to measure inequality in father, mother, and student’s PA. Results: The data of 13313 students and their parents were complete for the current study. At national level and SES regions, students had more PA than their parents (except in the lowest SES region), and fathers have more PA than mothers. The lowest means of mother and student's PA were find in the highest SES region. At national level, the concentration indices of father and mother’s PA were -0.050 (95 % CI: -0.067 ~ -0.030) and -0.028 (95% CI: -0.044 ~ -0.012), respectively; indicating pro-poor inequality and, the CI value of student PA was nearly equal to zero (P > 0.05). At SES regions, father and mother's PA were more concentrated in the poor, except for lower middle region. Regional concentration indices for students reveal that inequality not statistically significant at all regions. Conclusion: This study suggests that reliable evidence that comparing different aspects of inequality of PA, based on socioeconomic status and residence areas of students and their parents, could be used for better planning for health promotion programs. Moreover, given the average of mother's and student’s PA in the richer regions were low, it can be suggested that richer focused-PA planning may further increase the level of PA across higher SES and, consequently, reduce inequality in PA. These findings can be applied in the health system services.

Keywords: Physical Activity, concentration index, Socioeconomic Inequality, health system services

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179 Service Interactions Coordination Using a Declarative Approach: Focuses on Deontic Rule from Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Rules Models

Authors: Nurulhuda A. Manaf, Nor Najihah Zainal Abidin, Nur Amalina Jamaludin


Coordinating service interactions are a vital part of developing distributed applications that are built up as networks of autonomous participants, e.g., software components, web services, online resources, involve a collaboration between a diverse number of participant services on different providers. The complexity in coordinating service interactions reflects how important the techniques and approaches require for designing and coordinating the interaction between participant services to ensure the overall goal of a collaboration between participant services is achieved. The objective of this research is to develop capability of steering a complex service interaction towards a desired outcome. Therefore, an efficient technique for modelling, generating, and verifying the coordination of service interactions is developed. The developed model describes service interactions using service choreographies approach and focusing on a declarative approach, advocating an Object Management Group (OMG) standard, Semantics of Business Vocabulary and Rules (SBVR). This model, namely, SBVR model for service choreographies focuses on a declarative deontic rule expressing both obligation and prohibition, which can be more useful in working with coordinating service interactions. The generated SBVR model is then be formulated and be transformed into Alloy model using Alloy Analyzer for verifying the generated SBVR model. The transformation of SBVR into Alloy allows to automatically generate the corresponding coordination of service interactions (service choreography), hence producing an immediate instance of execution that satisfies the constraints of the specification and verifies whether a specific request can be realised in the given choreography in the generated choreography.

Keywords: Verification, Model Transformation, Behavioural Modelling, service choreography, service coordination, complex interactions, declarative specification, semantics of business vocabulary and rules, SBVR

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178 Bubble Scrum: How to Run in Organizations That Only Know How to Walk

Authors: Zaheer A. Ali, George Szabo


SCRUM has roots in software and web development and works very well on that in that space. However, any technical person who has watched a typical waterfall managed project spiral out of control or into an abyss, has thought: "there must be a better way". I will discuss how that thought leads naturally to adopting Agile principles and SCRUM, as well as how Agile and SCRUM can be implemented in large institutions with long histories via a method I developed: Bubble Scrum. We will also see how SCRUM can be implemented in interesting places outside of the technical sphere and also discuss where and how to subtly bring Agility and SCRUM into large, rigid, institutions.

Keywords: Project Management, Agile, scrum, enterprise-agile, agile at scale, agile transition

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177 Does Operating Cash Flow Really Matter in Value Relevance? A Recent Empirical Analysis on the Largest European Companies

Authors: Francesco Paolone


This paper investigates the role of Operating Cash Flow (OCF) and accruals in firm valuation analyzing financial statement information from the largest European companies and evaluating their relation to firm market value. Using a dataset of 500 largest European companies in 2018, the study investigates the relative value-relevance of equity, net income and operating cash flow (OCF). Findings show that the cash flow measure has the same explanatory power and intensity as equity and earnings to explain the market value. This study contributes to the debate on the value relevance of OCF incremental to book value and earnings. It also extends the literature, showing that OCF has information content (value relevance) superior to earnings and book value in the main European markets (Bepari et al., 2013). Finally, the study provides a support that accounting method choice may confuse investors, who have reduced confidence in accounting earnings and book value; in other words, nowadays European investors rely more on cash flows instead of accruals numbers.

Keywords: Accounting, Financial Statement Analysis, Cash Flow Statement, value relevance

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176 High Resolution Satellite Imagery and Lidar Data for Object-Based Tree Species Classification in Quebec, Canada

Authors: Bilel Chalghaf, Mathieu Varin


Forest characterization in Quebec, Canada, is usually assessed based on photo-interpretation at the stand level. For species identification, this often results in a lack of precision. Very high spatial resolution imagery, such as DigitalGlobe, and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), have the potential to overcome the limitations of aerial imagery. To date, few studies have used that data to map a large number of species at the tree level using machine learning techniques. The main objective of this study is to map 11 individual high tree species ( > 17m) at the tree level using an object-based approach in the broadleaf forest of Kenauk Nature, Quebec. For the individual tree crown segmentation, three canopy-height models (CHMs) from LiDAR data were assessed: 1) the original, 2) a filtered, and 3) a corrected model. The corrected CHM gave the best accuracy and was then coupled with imagery to refine tree species crown identification. When compared with photo-interpretation, 90% of the objects represented a single species. For modeling, 313 variables were derived from 16-band WorldView-3 imagery and LiDAR data, using radiance, reflectance, pixel, and object-based calculation techniques. Variable selection procedures were employed to reduce their number from 313 to 16, using only 11 bands to aid reproducibility. For classification, a global approach using all 11 species was compared to a semi-hierarchical hybrid classification approach at two levels: (1) tree type (broadleaf/conifer) and (2) individual broadleaf (five) and conifer (six) species. Five different model techniques were used: (1) support vector machine (SVM), (2) classification and regression tree (CART), (3) random forest (RF), (4) k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), and (5) linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Each model was tuned separately for all approaches and levels. For the global approach, the best model was the SVM using eight variables (overall accuracy (OA): 80%, Kappa: 0.77). With the semi-hierarchical hybrid approach, at the tree type level, the best model was the k-NN using six variables (OA: 100% and Kappa: 1.00). At the level of identifying broadleaf and conifer species, the best model was the SVM, with OA of 80% and 97% and Kappa values of 0.74 and 0.97, respectively, using seven variables for both models. This paper demonstrates that a hybrid classification approach gives better results and that using 16-band WorldView-3 with LiDAR data leads to more precise predictions for tree segmentation and classification, especially when the number of tree species is large.

Keywords: Machine Learning, classification, Lidar, Tree Species, Multispectral, object-based, WorldView-3

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175 A Study of Agile Based Approaches to Improve Software Quality

Authors: Gurmeet Kaur


Agile software development methods are being recognized as popular, and efficient approach to the development of software system that has a short delivery period with high quality also that meets customer requirements with zero defect. In agile software development, quality means quality of code where in the quality is maintained through the use of methods or approaches like refactoring, test driven development, behavior driven development, acceptance test driven development, and demand driven development. Software quality is measured in term of metrics such as the number of defects during development of software. Usage of above mentioned methods or approaches, reduces the possibilities of defects in developed software, and hence improve quality. This paper focuses on study of agile based quality methods or approaches for software development that ensures improved quality of software as well as reduced cost, and customer satisfaction.

Keywords: TDD, BDD, ATDD, DDD

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174 Detecting Heartbeat Architectural Tactic in Source Code Using Program Analysis

Authors: Ananta Kumar Das, Sujit Kumar Chakrabarti


Architectural tactics such as heartbeat, ping-echo, encapsulate, encrypt data are techniques that are used to achieve quality attributes of a system. Detecting architectural tactics has several benefits: it can aid system comprehension (e.g., legacy systems) and in the estimation of quality attributes such as safety, security, maintainability, etc. Architectural tactics are typically spread over the source code and are implicit. For large codebases, manual detection is often not feasible. Therefore, there is a need for automated methods of detection of architectural tactics. This paper presents a formalization of the heartbeat architectural tactic and a program analytic approach to detect this tactic in source code. The experiment of the proposed method is done on a set of Java applications. The outcome of the experiment strongly suggests that the method compares well with a manual approach in terms of its sensitivity and specificity, and far supersedes a manual exercise in terms of its scalability.

Keywords: Software Architecture, program analysis, AST, architectural tactics, detecting architectural tactics, alias analysis

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173 Design of a Real Time Closed Loop Simulation Test Bed on a General Purpose Operating System: Practical Approaches

Authors: Pratibha Srivastava, Chithra V. J., Sudhakar S., Nitin K. D.


A closed-loop system comprises of a controller, a response system, and an actuating system. The controller, which is the system under test for us, excites the actuators based on feedback from the sensors in a periodic manner. The sensors should provide the feedback to the System Under Test (SUT) within a deterministic time post excitation of the actuators. Any delay or miss in the generation of response or acquisition of excitation pulses may lead to control loop controller computation errors, which can be catastrophic in certain cases. Such systems categorised as hard real-time systems that need special strategies. The real-time operating systems available in the market may be the best solutions for such kind of simulations, but they pose limitations like the availability of the X Windows system, graphical interfaces, other user tools. In this paper, we present strategies that can be used on a general purpose operating system (Bare Linux Kernel) to achieve a deterministic deadline and hence have the added advantages of a GPOS with real-time features. Techniques shall be discussed how to make the time-critical application run with the highest priority in an uninterrupted manner, reduced network latency for distributed architecture, real-time data acquisition, data storage, and retrieval, user interactions, etc.

Keywords: Scheduling, real time data acquisition, real time kernel preemption, network latency

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172 Curating Pluralistic Futures: Leveling up for Whole-Systems Change

Authors: Daniel Schimmelpfennig


This paper attempts to delineate the idea to curate the leveling up for whole-systems change. Curation is the act fo select, organize, look after, or present information from a professional point of view through expert knowledge. The trans-paradigmatic, trans-contextual, trans-disciplinary, trans-perspective of trans-media futures studies hopes to enable a move from a monochrome intellectual pursuit towards breathing a higher dimensionality. Progressing to the next level to equip actors for whole-systems change is in consideration of the commonly known symptoms of our time as well as in anticipation of future challenges, both a necessity and desirability. Systems of collective intelligence could potentially scale regenerative, adaptive, and anticipatory capacities. How could such a curation then be enacted and implemented, to initiate the process of leveling-up? The suggestion here is to focus on the metasystem transition, the bio-digital fusion, namely, by merging neurosciences, the ontological design of money as our operating system, and our understanding of the billions of years of time-proven permutations in nature, biomimicry, and biological metaphors like symbiogenesis. Evolutionary cybernetics accompanies the process of whole-systems change.

Keywords: Evolutionary Cybernetics, Metasystem Transition, bio-digital fusion, symbiogenesis, transmedia futures studies

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171 Probabilistic Gathering of Agents with Simple Sensors: Distributed Algorithm for Aggregation of Robots Equipped with Binary On-Board Detectors

Authors: Ariel Barel, Rotem Manor, Alfred M. Bruckstein


We present a probabilistic gathering algorithm for agents that can only detect the presence of other agents in front of or behind them. The agents act in the plane and are identical and indistinguishable, oblivious, and lack any means of direct communication. They do not have a common frame of reference in the plane and choose their orientation (direction of possible motion) at random. The analysis of the gathering process assumes that the agents act synchronously in selecting random orientations that remain fixed during each unit time-interval. Two algorithms are discussed. The first one assumes discrete jumps based on the sensing results given the randomly selected motion direction, and in this case, extensive experimental results exhibit probabilistic clustering into a circular region with radius equal to the step-size in time proportional to the number of agents. The second algorithm assumes agents with continuous sensing and motion, and in this case, we can prove gathering into a very small circular region in finite expected time.

Keywords: Control, Multi-Agent, decentralized, gathering, simple sensors

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170 Gold-Bearing Alteration Zones in South Eastern Desert of Egypt: Geology and Remote Sensing Analysis

Authors: Mohamed F. Sadek, Safaa M. Hassan, Safwat S. Gabr


Several alteration zones hosting gold mineralization are wide spreading in the South Eastern Desert of Egypt where gold has been mined from many localities since the time of the Pharaohs. The Sukkari is the only mine currently producing gold in the Eastern Desert of Egypt. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct more detailed studies on these locations using modern exploratory methods. The remote sensing plays an important role in lithological mapping and detection of associated hydrothermal mineralization particularly the exploration of gold mineralization. This study is focused on three localities in South Eastern Desert of Egypt, namely Beida, Defiet and Hoteib-Eiqat aiming to detect the gold-bearing hydrothermal alteration zones using the integrated data of remote sensing, field study and mineralogical investigation. Generally, these areas are dominated by Precambrian basement rocks including metamorphic and magmatic assemblages. They comprise ophiolitic serpentinite-talc carbonate, island-arc metavolcanics which were intruded by syn to late orogenic mafic and felsic intrusions mainly gabbro, granodiorite and monzogranite. The processed data of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection (ASTER) and Landsat-8 images are used in the present study to map the gold bearing-hydrothermal alteration zones. Band rationing and principal component analysis techniques are used to discriminate the different lithologic units exposed in the studied three areas. Field study and mineralogical investigation have been used to verify the remote sensing data. This study concluded that, the integrated remote sensing data with geological, field and mineralogical investigations are very effective in lithological discrimination, detailed geological mapping and detection of the gold-bearing hydrothermal alteration zones. More detailed exploration for gold mineralization with the help of remote sensing techniques is recommended to evaluate its potentiality in the study areas.

Keywords: Gold, Egypt, pan-african, alteration zones, landsat-8; ASTER

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169 Lithological Mapping and Iron Deposits Identification in El-Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, Egypt, Using Remote Sensing Data Analysis

Authors: Safaa M. Hassan; Safwat S. Gabr, Mohamed F. Sadek


This study is proposed for the lithological and iron oxides detection in the old mine areas of El-Bahariya Depression, Western Desert, using ASTER and Landsat-8 remote sensing data. Four old iron ore occurrences, namely; El-Gedida, El-Haraa, Ghurabi, and Nasir mine areas found in the El-Bahariya area. This study aims to find new high potential areas for iron mineralization around El-Baharyia depression. Image processing methods such as principle component analysis (PCA) and band ratios (b4/b5, b5/b6, b6/b7, and 4/2, 6/7, band 6) images were used for lithological identification/mapping that includes the iron content in the investigated area. ASTER and Landsat-8 visible and short-wave infrared data found to help mapping the ferruginous sandstones, iron oxides as well as the clay minerals in and around the old mines area of El-Bahariya depression. Landsat-8 band ratio and the principle component of this study showed well distribution of the lithological units, especially ferruginous sandstones and iron zones (hematite and limonite) along with detection of probable high potential areas for iron mineralization which can be used in the future and proved the ability of Landsat-8 and ASTER data in mapping these features. Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), pixel purity index methods as well as Spectral Ange Mapper classifier algorithm have been successfully discriminated the hematite and limonite content within the iron zones in the study area. Various ASTER image spectra and ASD field spectra of hematite and limonite and the surrounding rocks are compared and found to be consistent in terms of the presence of absorption features at range from 1.95 to 2.3 μm for hematite and limonite. Pixel purity index algorithm and two sub-pixel spectral methods, namely Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF) and matched filtering (MF) methods, are applied to ASTER bands to delineate iron oxides (hematite and limonite) rich zones within the rock units. The results are validated in the field by comparing image spectra of spectrally anomalous zone with the USGS resampled laboratory spectra of hematite and limonite samples using ASD measurements. A number of iron oxides rich zones in addition to the main surface exposures of the El-Gadidah Mine, are confirmed in the field. The proposed method is a successful application of spectral mapping of iron oxides deposits in the exposed rock units (i.e., ferruginous sandstone) and present approach of both ASTER and ASD hyperspectral data processing can be used to delineate iron-rich zones occurring within similar geological provinces in any parts of the world.

Keywords: Lithological Mapping, ASTER, western desert, Landsat-8, iron exploration

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168 Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems for Identifying Water Catchments Areas in the Northwest Coast of Egypt for Sustainable Agricultural Development

Authors: Mohamed Aboelghar, Ayman Abou Hadid, Usama Albehairy, Asmaa Khater


Sustainable agricultural development of the desert areas of Egypt under the pressure of irrigation water scarcity is a significant national challenge. Existing water harvesting techniques on the northwest coast of Egypt do not ensure the optimal use of rainfall for agricultural purposes. Basin-scale hydrology potentialities were studied to investigate how available annual rainfall could be used to increase agricultural production. All data related to agricultural production included in the form of geospatial layers. Thematic classification of Sentinal-2 imagery was carried out to produce the land cover and crop maps following the (FAO) system of land cover classification. Contour lines and spot height points were used to create a digital elevation model (DEM). Then, DEM was used to delineate basins, sub-basins, and water outlet points using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (Arc SWAT). Main soil units of the study area identified from Land Master Plan maps. Climatic data collected from existing official sources. The amount of precipitation, surface water runoff, potential, and actual evapotranspiration for the years (2004 to 2017) shown as results of (Arc SWAT). The land cover map showed that the two tree crops (olive and fig) cover 195.8 km2 when herbaceous crops (barley and wheat) cover 154 km2. The maximum elevation was 250 meters above sea level when the lowest one was 3 meters below sea level. The study area receives a massive variable amount of precipitation; however, water harvesting methods are inappropriate to store water for purposes.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, GIS, sustainable agricultural development, water catchements

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167 Agent-Based Modeling to Simulate the Dynamics of Health Insurance Markets

Authors: Haripriya Chakraborty


The healthcare system in the United States is considered to be one of the most inefficient and expensive systems when compared to other developed countries. Consequently, there are persistent concerns regarding the overall functioning of this system. For instance, the large number of uninsured individuals and high premiums are pressing issues that are shown to have a negative effect on health outcomes with possible life-threatening consequences. The Affordable Care Act (ACA), which was signed into law in 2010, was aimed at improving some of these inefficiencies. This paper aims at providing a computational mechanism to examine some of these inefficiencies and the effects that policy proposals may have on reducing these inefficiencies. Agent-based modeling is an invaluable tool that provides a flexible framework to model complex systems. It can provide an important perspective into the nature of some interactions that occur and how the benefits of these interactions are allocated. In this paper, we propose a novel and versatile agent-based model with realistic assumptions to simulate the dynamics of a health insurance marketplace that contains a mixture of private and public insurers and individuals. We use this model to analyze the characteristics, motivations, payoffs, and strategies of these agents. In addition, we examine the effects of certain policies, including some of the provisions of the ACA, aimed at reducing the uninsured rate and the cost of premiums to move closer to a system that is more equitable and improves health outcomes for the general population. Our test results confirm the usefulness of our agent-based model in studying this complicated issue and suggest some implications for public policies aimed at healthcare reform.

Keywords: Public Policy, Agent-Based Modeling, healthcare reform, insurance markets

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166 Rank-Based Chain-Mode Ensemble for Binary Classification

Authors: Chongya Song, Kang Yen, Alexander Pons, Jin Liu


In the field of machine learning, the ensemble has been employed as a common methodology to improve the performance upon multiple base classifiers. However, the true predictions are often canceled out by the false ones during consensus due to a phenomenon called “curse of correlation” which is represented as the strong interferences among the predictions produced by the base classifiers. In addition, the existing practices are still not able to effectively mitigate the problem of imbalanced classification. Based on the analysis on our experiment results, we conclude that the two problems are caused by some inherent deficiencies in the approach of consensus. Therefore, we create an enhanced ensemble algorithm which adopts a designed rank-based chain-mode consensus to overcome the two problems. In order to evaluate the proposed ensemble algorithm, we employ a well-known benchmark data set NSL-KDD (the improved version of dataset KDDCup99 produced by University of New Brunswick) to make comparisons between the proposed and 8 common ensemble algorithms. Particularly, each compared ensemble classifier uses the same 22 base classifiers, so that the differences in terms of the improvements toward the accuracy and reliability upon the base classifiers can be truly revealed. As a result, the proposed rank-based chain-mode consensus is proved to be a more effective ensemble solution than the traditional consensus approach, which outperforms the 8 ensemble algorithms by 20% on almost all compared metrices which include accuracy, precision, recall, F1-score and area under receiver operating characteristic curve.

Keywords: consensus, imbalance classification, curse of correlation, rank-based chain-mode ensemble

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165 Text Based Shuffling Algorithm on Graphics Processing Unit for Digital Watermarking

Authors: Zayar Phyo, Ei Chaw Htoon


In a New-LSB based Steganography method, the Fisher-Yates algorithm is used to permute an existing array randomly. However, that algorithm performance became slower and occurred memory overflow problem while processing the large dimension of images. Therefore, the Text-Based Shuffling algorithm aimed to select only necessary pixels as hiding characters at the specific position of an image according to the length of the input text. In this paper, the enhanced text-based shuffling algorithm is presented with the powered of GPU to improve more excellent performance. The proposed algorithm employs the OpenCL Aparapi framework, along with XORShift Kernel including the Pseudo-Random Number Generator (PRNG) Kernel. PRNG is applied to produce random numbers inside the kernel of OpenCL. The experiment of the proposed algorithm is carried out by practicing GPU that it can perform faster-processing speed and better efficiency without getting the disruption of unnecessary operating system tasks.

Keywords: opencl, LSB based steganography, Fisher-Yates algorithm, text-based shuffling algorithm, XORShiftKernel

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164 Improving System Performance through User's Resource Access Patterns

Authors: K. C. Wong


This paper demonstrates a number of examples in the hope to shed some light on the possibility of designing future operating systems in a more adaptation-based manner. A modern operating system, we conceive, should possess the capability of 'learning' in such a way that it can dynamically adjust its services and behavior according to the current status of the environment in which it operates. In other words, a modern operating system should play a more proactive role during the session of providing system services to users. As such, a modern operating system is expected to create a computing environment, in which its users are provided with system services more matching their dynamically changing needs. The examples demonstrated in this paper show that user's resource access patterns 'learned' and determined during a session can be utilized to improve system performance and hence to provide users with a better and more effective computing environment. The paper also discusses how to use the frequency, the continuity, and the duration of resource accesses in a session to quantitatively measure and determine user's resource access patterns for the examples shown in the paper.

Keywords: Operating Systems, system performance, adaptation-based systems, resource access patterns

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163 Multilayer Perceptron Neural Network for Rainfall-Water Level Modeling

Authors: Thohidul Islam, Md. Hamidul Haque, Robin Kumar Biswas


Floods are one of the deadliest natural disasters which are very complex to model; however, machine learning is opening the door for more reliable and accurate flood prediction. In this research, a multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP) is developed to model the rainfall-water level relation, in a subtropical monsoon climatic region of the Bangladesh-India border. Our experiments show promising empirical results to forecast the water level for 1 day lead time. Our best performing MLP model achieves 98.7% coefficient of determination with lower model complexity which surpasses previously reported results on similar forecasting problems.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Regression, Flood Forecasting, multilayer perceptron network

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162 Comparing Deep Architectures for Selecting Optimal Machine Translation

Authors: Despoina Mouratidis, Katia Lida Kermanidis


Machine translation (MT) is a very important task in Natural Language Processing (NLP). MT evaluation is crucial in MT development, as it constitutes the means to assess the success of an MT system, and also helps improve its performance. Several methods have been proposed for the evaluation of (MT) systems. Some of the most popular ones in automatic MT evaluation are score-based, such as the BLEU score, and others are based on lexical similarity or syntactic similarity between the MT outputs and the reference involving higher-level information like part of speech tagging (POS). This paper presents a language-independent machine learning framework for classifying pairwise translations. This framework uses vector representations of two machine-produced translations, one from a statistical machine translation model (SMT) and one from a neural machine translation model (NMT). The vector representations consist of automatically extracted word embeddings and string-like language-independent features. These vector representations used as an input to a multi-layer neural network (NN) that models the similarity between each MT output and the reference, as well as between the two MT outputs. To evaluate the proposed approach, a professional translation and a "ground-truth" annotation are used. The parallel corpora used are English-Greek (EN-GR) and English-Italian (EN-IT), in the educational domain and of informal genres (video lecture subtitles, course forum text, etc.) that are difficult to be reliably translated. They have tested three basic deep learning (DL) architectures to this schema: (i) fully-connected dense, (ii) Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), and (iii) Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM). Experiments show that all tested architectures achieved better results when compared against those of some of the well-known basic approaches, such as Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Better accuracy results are obtained when LSTM layers are used in our schema. In terms of a balance between the results, better accuracy results are obtained when dense layers are used. The reason for this is that the model correctly classifies more sentences of the minority class (SMT). For a more integrated analysis of the accuracy results, a qualitative linguistic analysis is carried out. In this context, problems have been identified about some figures of speech, as the metaphors, or about certain linguistic phenomena, such as per etymology: paronyms. It is quite interesting to find out why all the classifiers led to worse accuracy results in Italian as compared to Greek, taking into account that the linguistic features employed are language independent.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Neural Network Architecture, machine translation evaluation, pairwise classification

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161 Improvement of Central Composite Design in Modeling and Optimization of Simulation Experiments

Authors: A. Nuchitprasittichai, N. Lerdritsirikoon, T. Khamsing


Simulation modeling can be used to solve real world problems. It provides an understanding of a complex system. To develop a simplified model of process simulation, a suitable experimental design is required to be able to capture surface characteristics. This paper presents the experimental design and algorithm used to model the process simulation for optimization problem. The CO2 liquefaction based on external refrigeration with two refrigeration circuits was used as a simulation case study. Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) was purposed to combine with existing Central Composite Design (CCD) samples to improve the performance of CCD in generating the second order model of the system. The second order model was then used as the objective function of the optimization problem. The results showed that adding LHS samples to CCD samples can help capture surface curvature characteristics. Suitable number of LHS sample points should be considered in order to get an accurate nonlinear model with minimum number of simulation experiments.

Keywords: central composite design, simulation-based optimization, CO2 liquefaction, latin hypercube sampling

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160 A Review on Web-Based Attendance Management System

Authors: Arvind Lal, Chumphila Bhutia, Bidhan Pradhan, Retika Sharma, Monisha Limboo


There have been many proposals to optimize the students’ management system in higher education. Managing student attendance during lecture periods have become a difficult challenge. Manual calculation of attendance produces errors and wastes a lot of time. This proposed system manages the student’s attendance in a web portal and the records of the attendance will be stored in a database. The attendance of the students will be further forwarded to their HOD (Head OF Department), class teacher and their parents/guardians. This system will use MySQL for the database. The template of the website will be built using HTML and CSS (Cascading StyleSheet) code. JavaScript will be added to improve the use of the system. Student’s details will be stored in the database. Also, it will contain the details of the teachers according to their subjects and the classes they teach. The system will be responsive which can be used in mobile phones. Also, the development of this project will be user-friendly by facilitating with clear and understandable tabs. Hence, this website will be beneficial to institutes.

Keywords: website, PHP, JavaScript, html, MYSQL database, CSS, student's attendance

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159 Rapid, Direct, Real-Time Method for Bacteria Detection on Surfaces

Authors: Evgenia Iakovleva, Juha Koivisto, Pasi Karppinen, J. Inkinen, Mikko Alava


Preventing the spread of infectious diseases throughout the worldwide is one of the most important tasks of modern health care. Infectious diseases not only account for one fifth of the deaths in the world, but also cause many pathological complications for the human health. Touch surfaces pose an important vector for the spread of infections by varying microorganisms, including antimicrobial resistant organisms. Further, antimicrobial resistance is reply of bacteria to the overused or inappropriate used of antibiotics everywhere. The biggest challenges in bacterial detection by existing methods are non-direct determination, long time of analysis, the sample preparation, use of chemicals and expensive equipment, and availability of qualified specialists. Therefore, a high-performance, rapid, real-time detection is demanded in rapid practical bacterial detection and to control the epidemiological hazard. Among the known methods for determining bacteria on the surfaces, Hyperspectral methods can be used as direct and rapid methods for microorganism detection on different kind of surfaces based on fluorescence without sampling, sample preparation and chemicals. The aim of this study was to assess the relevance of such systems to remote sensing of surfaces for microorganisms detection to prevent a global spread of infectious diseases. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli with different concentrations (from 0 to 10x8 cell/100µL) were detected with hyperspectral camera using different filters as visible visualization of bacteria and background spots on the steel plate. A method of internal standards was applied for monitoring the correctness of the analysis results. Distances from sample to hyperspectral camera and light source are 25 cm and 40 cm, respectively. Each sample is optically imaged from the surface by hyperspectral imaging system, utilizing a JAI CM-140GE-UV camera. Light source is BeamZ FLATPAR DMX Tri-light, 3W tri-colour LEDs (red, blue and green). Light colors are changed through DMX USB Pro interface. The developed system was calibrated following a standard procedure of setting exposure and focused for light with λ=525 nm. The filter is ThorLabs KuriousTM hyperspectral filter controller with wavelengths from 420 to 720 nm. All data collection, pro-processing and multivariate analysis was performed using LabVIEW and Python software. The studied human eye visible and invisible bacterial stains clustered apart from a reference steel material by clustering analysis using different light sources and filter wavelengths. The calculation of random and systematic errors of the analysis results proved the applicability of the method in real conditions. Validation experiments have been carried out with photometry and ATP swab-test. The lower detection limit of developed method is several orders of magnitude lower than for both validation methods. All parameters of the experiments were the same, except for the light. Hyperspectral imaging method allows to separate not only bacteria and surfaces, but also different types of bacteria, such as Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. Developed method allows skipping the sample preparation and the use of chemicals, unlike all other microbiological methods. The time of analysis with novel hyperspectral system is a few seconds, which is innovative in the field of microbiological tests.

Keywords: Hyperspectral Imaging, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, microorganisms detection

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158 Customer Acquisition through Time-Aware Marketing Campaign Analysis in Banking Industry

Authors: Harneet Walia, Morteza Zihayat


Customer acquisition has become one of the critical issues of any business in the 21st century; having a healthy customer base is the essential asset of the bank business. Term deposits act as a major source of cheap funds for the banks to invest and benefit from interest rate arbitrage. To attract customers, the marketing campaigns at most financial institutions consist of multiple outbound telephonic calls with more than one contact to a customer which is a very time-consuming process. Therefore, customized direct marketing has become more critical than ever for attracting new clients. As customer acquisition is becoming more difficult to archive, having an intelligent and redefined list is necessary to sell a product smartly. Our aim of this research is to increase the effectiveness of campaigns by predicting customers who will most likely subscribe to the fixed deposit and suggest the most suitable month to reach out to customers. We design a Time Aware Upsell Prediction Framework (TAUPF) using two different approaches, with an aim to find the best approach and technique to build the prediction model. TAUPF is implemented using Upsell Prediction Approach (UPA) and Clustered Upsell Prediction Approach (CUPA). We also address the data imbalance problem by examining and comparing different methods of sampling (Up-sampling and down-sampling). Our results have shown building such a model is quite feasible and profitable for the financial institutions. The Time Aware Upsell Prediction Framework (TAUPF) can be easily used in any industry such as telecom, automobile, tourism, etc. where the TAUPF (Clustered Upsell Prediction Approach (CUPA) or Upsell Prediction Approach (UPA)) holds valid. In our case, CUPA books more reliable. As proven in our research, one of the most important challenges is to define measures which have enough predictive power as the subscription to a fixed deposit depends on highly ambiguous situations and cannot be easily isolated. While we have shown the practicality of time-aware upsell prediction model where financial institutions can benefit from contacting the customers at the specified month, further research needs to be done to understand the specific time of the day. In addition, a further empirical/pilot study on real live customer needs to be conducted to prove the effectiveness of the model in the real world.

Keywords: predictive analysis, customer acquisition, targeted marketing, time-aware analysis

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157 Identifying Missing Component in the Bechdel Test Using Principal Component Analysis Method

Authors: Raghav Lakhotia, Chandra Kanth Nagesh, Krishna Madgula


A lot has been said and discussed regarding the rationale and significance of the Bechdel Score. It became a digital sensation in 2013, when Swedish cinemas began to showcase the Bechdel test score of a film alongside its rating. The test has drawn criticism from experts and the film fraternity regarding its use to rate the female presence in a movie. The pundits believe that the score is too simplified and the underlying criteria of a film to pass the test must include 1) at least two women, 2) who have at least one dialogue, 3) about something other than a man, is egregious. In this research, we have considered a few more parameters which highlight how we represent females in film, like the number of female dialogues in a movie, dialogue genre, and part of speech tags in the dialogue. The parameters were missing in the existing criteria to calculate the Bechdel score. The research aims to analyze 342 movies scripts to test a hypothesis if these extra parameters, above with the current Bechdel criteria, are significant in calculating the female representation score. The result of the Principal Component Analysis method concludes that the female dialogue content is a key component and should be considered while measuring the representation of women in a work of fiction.

Keywords: Principal Component Analysis, Bechdel test, dialogue genre, parts of speech tags

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156 Flood Monitoring Using Active Microwave Remote Sensed Synthetic Aperture Radar Data

Authors: Bikramjit Goswami, Manoranjan Kalita


Active microwave remote sensing is useful in remote sensing applications in cloud-covered regions in the world. Because of high spatial resolution, the spatial variations of land cover can be monitored in greater detail using synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Inundation is studied using the SAR images obtained from Sentinel-1A in both VH and VV polarizations in the present experimental study. The temporal variation of the SAR scattering coefficient values for the area gives a good indication of flood and its boundary. The study area is the district of Morigaon in the state of Assam in India. The period of flood monitoring study is the monsoon season of the year 2017, during which high flood occurred in the state of Assam. The variation of microwave scattering value shows a distinctive indication of flood from the non-flooded period. Frequent monitoring of flood in a large area (10 km x 10 km) using passive microwave sensing and pin-pointing the actual flooded portions (5 m x 5 m) within the flooded area using active microwave sensing, can be a highly useful combination, as revealed by the present experimental results.

Keywords: Synthetic Aperture Radar, Microwave Remote Sensing, active remote sensing, flood monitoring

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