The Two Layers of Food Safety and GMOs in the Hungarian Agricultural Law
Authors: Gergely Horváth
The study presents the complexity of food safety dividing it into two layers. Beyond the basic layer of requirements, there is a more demanding higher level linked with quality and purity aspects. It would be important to give special prominence to both layers, given that massive illnesses are caused by foods even though officially licensed. Then the study discusses an exciting safety challenge stemming from the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Furthermore, it features legal case examples that illustrate how certain liability questions are solved or not yet decided in connection with the production of genetically modified crops. In addition, a special kind of land grabbing, more precisely land grabbing from non-GMO farming systems can also be noticed as well as a new phenomenon eroding food sovereignty. Coexistence, the state where organic, conventional, and GM farming systems are standing alongside each other is an unsuitable experiment that cannot be successful, because of biophysical reasons (such as cross-pollination). Agricultural and environmental lawyers both try to find the optimal solution. Agri-environmental measures are introduced as a special subfield of law maintaining also food safety. The important steps of agri-environmental legislation are aiming at the protection of natural values, the environmental media and strengthening food safety as well, practically the quality of agricultural products intended for human consumption. The major findings of the study focus on searching for the appropriate approach capable of solving the security and safety problems of food production. The most interesting concepts of the Hungarian national and EU food law legislation are analyzed in more detail with descriptive, analytic and comparative methods.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI): doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2702618Procedia APA BibTeX Chicago EndNote Harvard JSON MLA RIS XML ISO 690 PDF Downloads 513
 Act on the food chain and its official control No XLVI. 2008, Annex, Definitions point 11
 P. Aggett, F. Aguilar, R. Crebelli, et al., 2018. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of carrageenan (E 407) and processed Eucheuma seaweed (E 407a) as food additives. EFSA Journal 2018, 16(4):5238, pp.112 (Also available at: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/5238)
 H. Azadi, F. Taube & F. Taheri (2017): Co-existence of GM, conventional and organic crops in developing countries: Main debates and concerns, Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2017.1322553, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10408398.2017.1322553?scroll=top&needAccess=true (Accessed: 29.4.2018)
 Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, Burden of Foodborne Illness: Overview. Estimates of Foodborne Illness in the United States, (Jan. 8, 2014) U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Atlanta, USA, http://www.cdc.gov/foodborneburden (https://perma.cc/986Y-VPZC) (Accessed: 8 May 2018, also available at: http://servsafetraining.org/).
 European Economic and Social Committee (EESC): Opinion: Land grabbing – a warning for Europe and a threat to family farming, NAT/632 – EESC-2014-00926-00-00- AC-TRA (EN), Brussels, 21 January 2015, 2.2.
 Food Safety Law of the People's Republic of China 2015
 J. A. Cogan Jr., The Uneasy Case for Food Safety Liability Insurance, Brooklyn Law Review Vol. 81:4, pp. 1495-1553.
 S. DeWaal, Food Safety and Security: What Tragedy Teaches Us about Our 100-Year-Old Food Laws, Vanderbilt Journal Of Transnational Law 2007 Vol. 40 p. 921
 G. Horváth, Agricultural and environmental aspects of civil liability (A polgári jogi felelősség agrárjogi, illetve környezetjogi vonatkozásai), In Fazekas Judit – Kőhidi Ákos – Csitei Béla (ed.): Permanence and change. Studies of private liability (Állandóság és változás. Tanulmányok a magánjogi felelősség köréből.) Gondolat Press, Budapest, 2017 pp. 264-292. p. 287
 G. Horváth, Some legal aspects of agri-environmental efforts in the common agricultural policy, In: Radovan David, Martin Orgonik, David Sehnalek, Jaromir Tauchen, (eds.) et al.: Europeanization of the national law, the Lisbon Treaty and some other legal issues: COFOLA 2008, Conference Proceedings. Brno, 2008. pp. 261-271. (Also available at: https://www.law.muni.cz/sborniky/cofola2008/files/pdf/evropa/horvath_gergely.pdf)
 G. Horváth, The Renewed Constitutional level of Environmental Law in Hungary. Acta Juridica Hungarica Vol. 56, No. 4, (2015) pp. 302–316
 S. S. Kirdar, Food safety practices, levels of knowledge, and problems of dairy companies in Turkey, Journal of Food Safety Vol 38, No 2 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jfs.12431 (Accessed: 2 May 2018)
 B. Macartan, Food Sovereignty: An Alternative Framework to the Narrower Concept Of Food Security, Royal Agricultural University, UK, 2017, pp. 20, p. 3
 N. McKeon, Are Equity and Sustainability a Likely Outcome When Foxes and Chickens Share the Same Coop? Critiquing the Concept of Multistakeholder Governance of Food Security, 2017, Globalizations, 14:3, pp. 379-398, DOI: 10.1080/14747731.2017.1286168, 381.
 J. Morris, How Safe Is Our Food? Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2011, pp. 126-128.
 R. Norer, Handbuch des Agrarrechts, Springer, Wien, 2005
 R. Norer (edit.): Handbuch des Agrarrechts, Wien, Verlag Österreich, 2012, 13-14.
 M. Pimbert (2009) Towards Food Sovereignty: Reclaiming Autonomous Food Systems. CAFS, IIED and RCC, London and Munich. (Online) Available from: http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G02268.pdf (Date Accessed: 29.4.2018) pp. 1-58
 Proposal for a Council Decision concerning the placing on the market for cultivation, in accordance with Directive 2001/18/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council, of a maize product (Zea mays L., line 1507) genetically modified for resistance to certain lepidopteran pests /* COM/2013/0758 final - 2013/0368 (NLE), Explanatory Memorandum
 R. Read, and T. O'riordan, The Precautionary Principle Under Fire, Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development, Vol 59 No 5, pp. 4-15, p. 10 http://www.environmentmagazine.org/Archives/Back%20Issues/2017/September-October%202017/precautionary-principle-full.html (Date Accessed: 30.4.2018)
 Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety. (Also available at: https://www.fsai.ie/uploadedFiles/Legislation/Food_Legisation_Links/General_Principles_of_Food_Law/Consol_Reg178_2002.pdf)
 J. E. Szilágyi – A. Raisz – B. E. Kocsis, New dimensions of the Hungarian agricultural law in respect of food sovereignty. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Law 22/2017, p. 169, http://epa.oszk.hu/01000/01040/00024/pdf/EPA01040_agrar_es_kornyezetjog_22_160-201.pdf (Date Accessed: 30.4.2018)
 S. Wilson, Induced Nuisance: Holding Patent Owners Liable for GMO Cross-Contamination. Emory Law Journal, Vol. 64:169, 2014, p. 171 http://law.emory.edu/elj/content/volume-64/issue-1/comments/holding-patent-owners-liable.html (Date Accessed: 30.4.2018)
 H. Wittman, Food Sovereignty A New Rights Framework for Food and Nature? Environment and Society: Advances in Research 2 (2011): 87–105, p. 87 https://www.berghahnjournals.com/view/journals/environment-and-society/2/1/air-es020106.xml (Accessed: 2 May 2018)