Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 403

Search results for: security threats

403 SeCloudBPMN: A Lightweight Extension for BPMN Considering Security Threats in the Cloud

Authors: Somayeh Sobati Moghadam

Abstract:

Business processes are crucial for organizations and help businesses to evaluate and optimize their performance and processes against current and future-state business goals. Outsourcing business processes to the cloud becomes popular due to a wide varsity of benefits and cost-saving. However, cloud outsourcing raises enterprise data security concerns, which must be incorporated in Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN). This paper, presents SeCloudBPMN, a lightweight extension for BPMN which extends the BPMN to explicitly support the security threats in the cloud as an outsourcing environment. SeCloudBPMN helps business’s security experts to outsource business processes to the cloud considering different threats from inside and outside the cloud. In this way, appropriate security countermeasures could be considered to preserve data security in business processes outsourcing to the cloud.

Keywords: BPMN, security threats, cloud computing, graphical representation.

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402 Security Threats on Wireless Sensor Network Protocols

Authors: H. Gorine, M. Ramadan Elmezughi

Abstract:

In this paper, we investigate security issues and challenges facing researchers in wireless sensor networks and countermeasures to resolve them. The broadcast nature of wireless communication makes Wireless Sensor Networks prone to various attacks. Due to resources limitation constraint in terms of limited energy, computation power and memory, security in wireless sensor networks creates different challenges than wired network security. We will discuss several attempts at addressing the issues of security in wireless sensor networks in an attempt to encourage more research into this area.

Keywords: Malicious nodes, network security, soft encryption, threats, wireless sensor networks.

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401 Determinants of Information Security Affecting Adoption of Web-based Integrated Information Systems

Authors: Jaehun Joo, Mie-jung Kim, Ismatilla Normatov, Lyunhwa Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to analyze determinants of information security affecting adoption of the Web-based integrated information systems (IIS). We introduced Web-based information systems which are designed to formulate strategic plans for Peruvian government. Theoretical model is proposed to test impact of organizational factors (deterrent efforts and severity; preventive efforts) and individual factors (information security threat; security awareness) on intentions to proactively use the Web-based IIS .Our empirical study results highlight that deterrent efforts and deterrent severity have no significant influence on the proactive use intentions of IIS, whereas, preventive efforts play an important role in proactive use intentions of IIS. Thus, we suggest that organizations need to do preventive efforts by introducing various information security solutions, and try to improve information security awareness while reducing the perceived information security threats.

Keywords: Information security, Deterrent efforts, deterrentseverity, preventive efforts, information security awareness, information security threats, integrated information systems

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400 Security of Mobile Agent in Ad hoc Network using Threshold Cryptography

Authors: S.M. Sarwarul Islam Rizvi, Zinat Sultana, Bo Sun, Md. Washiqul Islam

Abstract:

In a very simple form a Mobile Agent is an independent piece of code that has mobility and autonomy behavior. One of the main advantages of using Mobile Agent in a network is - it reduces network traffic load. In an, ad hoc network Mobile Agent can be used to protect the network by using agent based IDS or IPS. Besides, to deploy dynamic software in the network or to retrieve information from network nodes Mobile Agent can be useful. But in an ad hoc network the Mobile Agent itself needs some security. Security services should be guaranteed both for Mobile Agent and for Agent Server. In this paper to protect the Mobile Agent and Agent Server in an ad hoc network we have proposed a solution which is based on Threshold Cryptography, a new vibe in the cryptographic world where trust is distributed among multiple nodes in the network.

Keywords: Ad hoc network, Mobile Agent, Security, Threats, Threshold Cryptography.

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399 Towards Security in Virtualization of SDN

Authors: Wanqing You, Kai Qian, Xi He, Ying Qian

Abstract:

In this paper, the potential security issues brought by the virtualization of a Software Defined Networks (SDN) would be analyzed. The virtualization of SDN is achieved by FlowVisor (FV). With FV, a physical network is divided into multiple isolated logical networks while the underlying resources are still shared by different slices (isolated logical networks). However, along with the benefits brought by network virtualization, it also presents some issues regarding security. By examining security issues existing in an OpenFlow network, which uses FlowVisor to slice it into multiple virtual networks, we hope we can get some significant results and also can get furtherdiscussions among the security of SDN virtualization.

Keywords: FlowVisor, Network virtualization, Potential threats, Possible solutions.

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398 The Most Secure Smartphone Operating System: A Survey

Authors: Sundus Ayyaz, Saad Rehman

Abstract:

In the recent years, a fundamental revolution in the Mobile Phone technology from just being able to provide voice and short message services to becoming the most essential part of our lives by connecting to network and various app stores for downloading software apps of almost every activity related to our life from finding location to banking from getting news updates to downloading HD videos and so on. This progress in Smart Phone industry has modernized and transformed our way of living into a trouble-free world. The smart phone has become our personal computers with the addition of significant features such as multi core processors, multi-tasking, large storage space, bluetooth, WiFi, including large screen and cameras. With this evolution, the rise in the security threats have also been amplified. In Literature, different threats related to smart phones have been highlighted and various precautions and solutions have been proposed to keep the smart phone safe which carries all the private data of a user. In this paper, a survey has been carried out to find out the most secure and the most unsecure smart phone operating system among the most popular smart phones in use today.

Keywords: Smart phone, operating system, security threats, Android, iOS, Balckberry, Windows.

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397 Analysis of Threats in Interoperability of Medical Devices

Authors: M. Sandhya, R. M. Madhumitha, Sharmila Sankar

Abstract:

Interoperable medical devices (IMDs) face threats due to the increased attack surface accessible by interoperability and the corresponding infrastructure. Initiating networking and coordination functionalities primarily modify medical systems' security properties. Understanding the threats is a vital first step in ultimately crafting security solutions for such systems. The key to this problem is coming up with some common types of threats or attacks with those of security and privacy, and providing this information as a roadmap. This paper analyses the security issues in interoperability of devices and presents the main types of threats that have to be considered to build a secured system.

Keywords: Interoperability, threats, attacks, medical devices.

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396 Analytical Study on Threats to Wetland Ecosystems and their Solutions in the Framework of the Ramsar Convention

Authors: Ehsan Daryadel, Farhad Talaei

Abstract:

Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. Nevertheless, various challenges threaten these ecosystems and disrupt their ecological character. Among these, the effects of human-based threats are more devastating. Following mass degradation of wetlands during 1970s, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) was concluded to conserve wetlands of international importance and prevent destruction and degradation of such ecosystems through wise use of wetlands as a mean to achieve sustainable development in all over the world. Therefore, in this paper, efforts have been made to analyze threats to wetlands and then investigate solutions in the framework of the Ramsar Convention. Finally, in order to operate these mechanisms, this study concludes that all states should in turn make their best effort to improve and restore global wetlands through preservation of environmental standards and close contribution and also through taking joint measures with other states effectively.

Keywords: Ramsar Convention, Threats, Wetland Ecosystems, Wise Use.

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395 Improving Security by Using Secure Servers Communicating via Internet with Standalone Secure Software

Authors: Carlos Gonzalez

Abstract:

This paper describes the use of the Internet as a feature to enhance the security of our software that is going to be distributed/sold to users potentially all over the world. By placing in a secure server some of the features of the secure software, we increase the security of such software. The communication between the protected software and the secure server is done by a double lock algorithm. This paper also includes an analysis of intruders and describes possible responses to detect threats.

Keywords: Internet, secure software, threats, cryptography process.

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394 Secure Low-Bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation in MANETs

Authors: S. Mohideen Badhusha, K. Duraiswamy

Abstract:

Most of the existing video streaming protocols provide video services without considering security aspects in decentralized mobile ad-hoc networks. The security policies adapted to the currently existing non-streaming protocols, do not comply with the live video streaming protocols resulting in considerable vulnerability, high bandwidth consumption and unreliability which cause severe security threats, low bandwidth and error prone transmission respectively in video streaming applications. Therefore a synergized methodology is required to reduce vulnerability and bandwidth consumption, and enhance reliability in the video streaming applications in MANET. To ensure the security measures with reduced bandwidth consumption and improve reliability of the video streaming applications, a Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming through Reliable Multipath Propagation (SLVRMP) protocol architecture has been proposed by incorporating the two algorithms namely Secure Low-bandwidth Video Streaming Algorithm and Reliable Secure Multipath Propagation Algorithm using Layered Video Coding in non-overlapping zone routing network topology. The performances of the proposed system are compared to those of the other existing secure multipath protocols Sec-MR, SPREAD using NS 2.34 and the simulation results show that the performances of the proposed system get considerably improved.

Keywords: Bandwidth consumption, layered video coding, multipath propagation, reliability, security threats, video streaming applications, vulnerability.

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393 Systems and Software Safety and Security

Authors: Marzieh Mokhtaripour

Abstract:

Security issue and the importance of the function of police to provide practical and psychological contexts in the community has been the main topics among researchers , police and security circles and this subject require to review and analysis mechanisms within the police and its interaction with other parts of the system for providing community safety. This paper examine national and social security in the Internet.

Keywords: Internet National security Social security

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392 Design of Integration Security System using XML Security

Authors: Juhan Kim, Soohyung Kim, Kiyoung Moon

Abstract:

In this paper, we design an integration security system that provides authentication service, authorization service, and management service of security data and a unified interface for the management service. The interface is originated from XKMS protocol and is used to manage security data such as XACML policies, SAML assertions and other authentication security data including public keys. The system includes security services such as authentication, authorization and delegation of authentication by employing SAML and XACML based on security data such as authentication data, attributes information, assertions and polices managed with the interface in the system. It also has SAML producer that issues assertions related on the result of the authentication and the authorization services.

Keywords: XML, XML Security, XACML.

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391 Web Service Security Method To SOA Development

Authors: Nafise Fareghzadeh

Abstract:

Web services provide significant new benefits for SOAbased applications, but they also expose significant new security risks. There are huge number of WS security standards and processes. At present, there is still a lack of a comprehensive approach which offers a methodical development in the construction of secure WS-based SOA. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to address this needs, presenting a comprehensive method for Web Services Security guaranty in SOA. The proposed method defines three stages, Initial Security Analysis, Architectural Security Guaranty and WS Security Standards Identification. These facilitate, respectively, the definition and analysis of WS-specific security requirements, the development of a WS-based security architecture and the identification of the related WS security standards that the security architecture must articulate in order to implement the security services.

Keywords: Kernel, Repository, Security Standards, WS Security Policy, WS specification.

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390 Security Engine Management of Router based on Security Policy

Authors: Su Hyung Jo, Ki Young Kim, Sang Ho Lee

Abstract:

Security management has changed from the management of security equipments and useful interface to manager. It analyzes the whole security conditions of network and preserves the network services from attacks. Secure router technology has security functions, such as intrusion detection, IPsec(IP Security) and access control, are applied to legacy router for secure networking. It controls an unauthorized router access and detects an illegal network intrusion. This paper relates to a security engine management of router based on a security policy, which is the definition of security function against a network intrusion. This paper explains the security policy and designs the structure of security engine management framework.

Keywords: Policy server, security engine, security management, security policy

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389 Cyber Security Situational Awareness among Students: A Case Study in Malaysia

Authors: Yunos Zahri, Ab Hamid R. Susanty, Ahmad Mustaffa

Abstract:

This paper explores the need for a national baseline study on understanding the level of cyber security situational awareness among primary and secondary school students in Malaysia. The online survey method was deployed to administer the data collection exercise. The target groups were divided into three categories: Group 1 (primary school aged 7-9 years old), Group 2 (primary school aged 10-12 years old), and Group 3 (secondary school aged 13-17 years old). A different questionnaire set was designed for each group. The survey topics/areas included Internet and digital citizenship knowledge. Respondents were randomly selected from rural and urban areas throughout all 14 states in Malaysia. A total of 9,158 respondents participated in the survey, with most states meeting the minimum sample size requirement to represent the country’s demographics. The findings and recommendations from this baseline study are fundamental to develop teaching modules required for children to understand the security risks and threats associated with the Internet throughout their years in school. Early exposure and education will help ensure healthy cyber habits among millennials in Malaysia.

Keywords: Cyber security awareness, cyber security education, cyber security, students.

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388 Combination of Information Security Standards to Cover National Requirements

Authors: Sh. Ladan, A. Yari, H. Khodabandeh

Abstract:

The need for Information Security in organizations, regardless of their type and size, is being addressed by emerging standards and recommended best practices. The various standards and practices which evolved in recent years and are still being developed and constantly revised, address the issue of Information Security from different angles. This paper attempts to provide an overview of Information Security Standards and Practices by briefly discussing some of the most popular ones. Through a comparative study of their similarities and differences, some insight can be obtained on how their combination may lead to an increased level of Information Security.

Keywords: Information security management, information security standard, BS7799, ISO 17799, COBIT.

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387 System Security Impact on the Dynamic Characteristics of Measurement Sensors in Smart Grids

Authors: Yiyang Su, Jörg Neumann, Jan Wetzlich, Florian Thiel

Abstract:

Smart grid is a term used to describe the next generation power grid. New challenges such as integration of renewable and decentralized energy sources, the requirement for continuous grid estimation and optimization, as well as the use of two-way flows of energy have been brought to the power gird. In order to achieve efficient, reliable, sustainable, as well as secure delivery of electric power more and more information and communication technologies are used for the monitoring and the control of power grids. Consequently, the need for cybersecurity is dramatically increased and has converged into several standards which will be presented here. These standards for the smart grid must be designed to satisfy both performance and reliability requirements. An in depth investigation of the effect of retrospectively embedded security in existing grids on it’s dynamic behavior is required. Therefore, a retrofitting plan for existing meters is offered, and it’s performance in a test low voltage microgrid is investigated. As a result of this, integration of security measures into measurement architectures of smart grids at the design phase is strongly recommended.

Keywords: Cyber security, performance, protocols, security standards, smart grid.

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386 Stackelberg Security Game for Optimizing Security of Federated Internet of Things Platform Instances

Authors: Violeta Damjanovic-Behrendt

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for optimal cyber security decisions to protect instances of a federated Internet of Things (IoT) platform in the cloud. The presented solution implements the repeated Stackelberg Security Game (SSG) and a model called Stochastic Human behaviour model with AttRactiveness and Probability weighting (SHARP). SHARP employs the Subjective Utility Quantal Response (SUQR) for formulating a subjective utility function, which is based on the evaluations of alternative solutions during decision-making. We augment the repeated SSG (including SHARP and SUQR) with a reinforced learning algorithm called Naïve Q-Learning. Naïve Q-Learning belongs to the category of active and model-free Machine Learning (ML) techniques in which the agent (either the defender or the attacker) attempts to find an optimal security solution. In this way, we combine GT and ML algorithms for discovering optimal cyber security policies. The proposed security optimization components will be validated in a collaborative cloud platform that is based on the Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA) and its recently published security model.

Keywords: Security, internet of things, cloud computing, Stackelberg security game, machine learning, Naïve Q-learning.

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385 Prototype for Enhancing Information Security Awareness in Industry

Authors: E. Kritzinger, E. Smith

Abstract:

Human-related information security breaches within organizations are primarily caused by employees who have not been made aware of the importance of protecting the information they work with. Information security awareness is accordingly attracting more attention from industry, because stakeholders are held accountable for the information with which they work. The authors developed an Information Security Retrieval and Awareness model – entitled “ISRA" – that is tailored specifically towards enhancing information security awareness in industry amongst all users of information, to address shortcomings in existing information security awareness models. This paper is principally aimed at expounding a prototype for the ISRA model to highlight the advantages of utilizing the model. The prototype will focus on the non-technical, humanrelated information security issues in industry. The prototype will ensure that all stakeholders in an organization are part of an information security awareness process, and that these stakeholders are able to retrieve specific information related to information security issues relevant to their job category, preventing them from being overburdened with redundant information.

Keywords: Information security, information security awareness, information security awareness programs

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384 Institutional Aspects of Information Security in Russian Economy

Authors: Mingaleva Zhanna, Kapuskina Tatiana

Abstract:

The article touches upon questions of information security in Russian Economy. It covers theoretical bases of information security and causes of its development. The theory is proved by the analysis of business activities and the main tendencies of information security development. Perm region has been chosen as the bases for the analysis, being the fastestdeveloping region that uses methods of information security in managing it economy. As a result of the study the authors of the given article have formulated their own vision of the problem of information security in various branches of economy and stated prospects of information security development and its growing role in Russian economy

Keywords: security of business, management of information security, institutional analyses.

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383 Assessing Stakeholders’ Interests in Postal Security

Authors: T. Männistö, M. Finger

Abstract:

The events of October 2010, where terrorists managed to get explosive devices onboard of three passenger aircrafts and two air freighters, demonstrated weaknesses of the international air cargo and airmail security. Ever since, postal security has gained interest among policymakers and authorities. This study augments the limited body of academic literature on the topic bydemarcating areas of postal security, identifying relevant stakeholders in each area, and investigating why these stakeholders engage in postal security. Research is based on a case study on Swiss Post’s mail service.

Keywords: Dangerous goods, mail bombs, postal security, supply chain security, theft of mail, trafficking.

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382 Developing a Viral Artifact to Improve Employees’ Security Behavior

Authors: Stefan Bauer, Josef Frysak

Abstract:

According to the scientific information management literature, the improper use of information technology (e.g. personal computers) by employees are one main cause for operational and information security loss events. Therefore, organizations implement information security awareness programs to increase employees’ awareness to further prevention of loss events. However, in many cases these information security awareness programs consist of conventional delivery methods like posters, leaflets, or internal messages to make employees aware of information security policies. We assume that a viral information security awareness video might be more effective medium than conventional methods commonly used by organizations. The purpose of this research is to develop a viral video artifact to improve employee security behavior concerning information technology.

Keywords: Information Security Awareness, Delivery Methods, Viral Videos, Employee Security Behavior.

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381 Power System Security Assessment using Binary SVM Based Pattern Recognition

Authors: S Kalyani, K Shanti Swarup

Abstract:

Power System Security is a major concern in real time operation. Conventional method of security evaluation consists of performing continuous load flow and transient stability studies by simulation program. This is highly time consuming and infeasible for on-line application. Pattern Recognition (PR) is a promising tool for on-line security evaluation. This paper proposes a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based binary classification for static and transient security evaluation. The proposed SVM based PR approach is implemented on New England 39 Bus and IEEE 57 Bus systems. The simulation results of SVM classifier is compared with the other classifier algorithms like Method of Least Squares (MLS), Multi- Layer Perceptron (MLP) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifiers.

Keywords: Static Security, Transient Security, Pattern Recognition, Classifier, Support Vector Machine.

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380 Security of Internet of Things: Challenges, Requirements and Future Directions

Authors: Amjad F. Alharbi, Bashayer A. Alotaibi, Fahd S. Alotaibi

Abstract:

The emergence of Internet of Things (IoT) technology provides capabilities for a huge number of smart devices, services and people to be communicate with each other for exchanging data and information over existing network. While as IoT is progressing, it provides many opportunities for new ways of communications as well it introduces many security and privacy threats and challenges which need to be considered for the future of IoT development. In this survey paper, an IoT security issues as threats and current challenges are summarized. The security architecture for IoT are presented from four main layers. Based on these layers, the IoT security requirements are presented to insure security in the whole system. Furthermore, some researches initiatives related to IoT security are discussed as well as the future direction for IoT security are highlighted.

Keywords: Internet of Things, IoT, IoT security challenges, IoT security requirements, IoT security architecture.

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379 A New Approach of Wireless Network Traffic on VPN

Authors: Amir Rashid, M. Saleem Khan, Freeha Zafar

Abstract:

This work presents a new approach of securing a wireless network. The configuration is focused on securing & Protecting wireless network traffic for a small network such as a home or dorm room. The security Mechanism provided both authentication, allowing only known authorized users access to the wireless network, and encryption, preventing anyone from reading the wireless traffic. The mentioned solution utilizes the open source free S/WAN software which implements the Internet Protocol Security –IPSEC. In addition to wireless components, wireless NIC in PC and wireless access point needs a machine running Linux to act as security gateway. While the current configuration assumes that the wireless PC clients are running Linux, Windows XP/VISTA/7 based machines equipped with VPN software which will allow to interface with this configuration.

Keywords: Wireless network security, security network, authentication, encryption and internet protocol security.

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378 Research on Software Security Testing

Authors: Gu Tian-yang, Shi Yin-sheng, Fang You-yuan

Abstract:

Software security testing is an important means to ensure software security and trustiness. This paper first mainly discusses the definition and classification of software security testing, and investigates methods and tools of software security testing widely. Then it analyzes and concludes the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and the scope of application, presents a taxonomy of security testing tools. Finally, the paper points out future focus and development directions of software security testing technology.

Keywords: security testing, security functional testing, securityvulnerability testing, testing method, testing tool

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377 A 10 Giga VPN Accelerator Board for Trust Channel Security System

Authors: Ki Hyun Kim, Jang-Hee Yoo, Kyo Il Chung

Abstract:

This paper proposes a VPN Accelerator Board (VPN-AB), a virtual private network (VPN) protocol designed for trust channel security system (TCSS). TCSS supports safety communication channel between security nodes in internet. It furnishes authentication, confidentiality, integrity, and access control to security node to transmit data packets with IPsec protocol. TCSS consists of internet key exchange block, security association block, and IPsec engine block. The internet key exchange block negotiates crypto algorithm and key used in IPsec engine block. Security Association blocks setting-up and manages security association information. IPsec engine block treats IPsec packets and consists of networking functions for communication. The IPsec engine block should be embodied by H/W and in-line mode transaction for high speed IPsec processing. Our VPN-AB is implemented with high speed security processor that supports many cryptographic algorithms and in-line mode. We evaluate a small TCSS communication environment, and measure a performance of VPN-AB in the environment. The experiment results show that VPN-AB gets a performance throughput of maximum 15.645Gbps when we set the IPsec protocol with 3DES-HMAC-MD5 tunnel mode.

Keywords: TCSS(Trust Channel Security System), VPN(VirtualPrivate Network), IPsec, SSL, Security Processor, Securitycommunication.

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376 A Security Model of Voice Eavesdropping Protection over Digital Networks

Authors: Supachai Tangwongsan, Sathaporn Kassuvan

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to develop a security model for voice eavesdropping protection over digital networks. The proposed model provides an encryption scheme and a personal secret key exchange between communicating parties, a so-called voice data transformation system, resulting in a real-privacy conversation. The operation of this system comprises two main steps as follows: The first one is the personal secret key exchange for using the keys in the data encryption process during conversation. The key owner could freely make his/her choice in key selection, so it is recommended that one should exchange a different key for a different conversational party, and record the key for each case into the memory provided in the client device. The next step is to set and record another personal option of encryption, either taking all frames or just partial frames, so-called the figure of 1:M. Using different personal secret keys and different sets of 1:M to different parties without the intervention of the service operator, would result in posing quite a big problem for any eavesdroppers who attempt to discover the key used during the conversation, especially in a short period of time. Thus, it is quite safe and effective to protect the case of voice eavesdropping. The results of the implementation indicate that the system can perform its function accurately as designed. In this regard, the proposed system is suitable for effective use in voice eavesdropping protection over digital networks, without any requirements to change presently existing network systems, mobile phone network and VoIP, for instance.

Keywords: Computer Security, Encryption, Key Exchange, Security Model, Voice Eavesdropping.

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375 Addressing Data Security in the Cloud

Authors: Marinela Mircea

Abstract:

The development of information and communication technology, the increased use of the internet, as well as the effects of the recession within the last years, have lead to the increased use of cloud computing based solutions, also called on-demand solutions. These solutions offer a large number of benefits to organizations as well as challenges and risks, mainly determined by data visualization in different geographic locations on the internet. As far as the specific risks of cloud environment are concerned, data security is still considered a peak barrier in adopting cloud computing. The present study offers an approach upon ensuring the security of cloud data, oriented towards the whole data life cycle. The final part of the study focuses on the assessment of data security in the cloud, this representing the bases in determining the potential losses and the premise for subsequent improvements and continuous learning.

Keywords: cloud computing, data life cycle, data security, security assessment.

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374 From Risk/Security Analysis via Timespace to a Model of Human Vulnerability and Human Security

Authors: Anders Troedsson

Abstract:

For us humans, risk and insecurity are intimately linked to vulnerabilities - where there is vulnerability, there is potentially risk and insecurity. Reducing vulnerability through compensatory measures means decreasing the likelihood of a certain external event be qualified as a risk/threat/assault, and thus also means increasing the individual’s sense of security. The paper suggests that a meaningful way to approach the study of risk/ insecurity is to organize thinking about the vulnerabilities that external phenomena evoke in humans as perceived by them. Such phenomena are, through a set of given vulnerabilities, potentially translated into perceptions of "insecurity." An ontological discussion about salient timespace characteristics of external phenomena as perceived by humans, including such which potentially can be qualified as risk/threat/assault, leads to the positing of two dimensions which are central for describing what in the paper is called the essence of risk/threat/assault. As is argued, such modeling helps analysis steer free of the subjective factor which is intimately connected to human perception and which mediates between phenomena “out there” potentially identified as risk/threat/assault, and their translation into an experience of security or insecurity. A proposed set of universally given vulnerabilities are scrutinized with the help of the two dimensions, resulting in a modeling effort featuring four realms of vulnerabilities which together represent a dynamic whole. This model in turn informs modeling on human security.

Keywords: Human vulnerabilities, human security, inert-immediate, material-immaterial, timespace.

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