Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2671

Search results for: unstable flight dynamics

2671 Numerical Solving Method for Specific Dynamic Performance of Unstable Flight Dynamics with PD Attitude Control

Authors: M. W. Sun, Y. Zhang, L. M. Zhang, Z. H. Wang, Z. Q. Chen

Abstract:

In the realm of flight control, the Proportional- Derivative (PD) control is still widely used for the attitude control in practice, particularly for the pitch control, and the attitude dynamics using PD controller should be investigated deeply. According to the empirical knowledge about the unstable flight dynamics, the control parameter combination conditions to generate sole or finite number of closed-loop oscillations, which is a quite smooth response and is more preferred by practitioners, are presented in analytical or numerical manners. To analyze the effects of the combination conditions of the control parameters, the roots of several polynomials are sought to obtain feasible solutions. These conditions can also be plotted in a 2-D plane which makes the conditions be more explicit by using multiple interval operations. Finally, numerical examples are used to validate the proposed methods and some comparisons are also performed.

Keywords: attitude control, dynamic performance, numerical solving method, interval, unstable flight dynamics

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2670 Numerical Study of Flapping-Wing Flight of Hummingbird Hawkmoth during Hovering: Longitudinal Dynamics

Authors: Yao Jie, Yeo Khoon Seng

Abstract:

In recent decades, flapping wing aerodynamics has attracted great interest. Understanding the physics of biological flyers such as birds and insects can help improve the performance of micro air vehicles. The present research focuses on the aerodynamics of insect-like flapping wing flight with the approach of numerical computation. Insect model of hawkmoth is adopted in the numerical study with rigid wing assumption currently. The numerical model integrates the computational fluid dynamics of the flow and active control of wing kinematics to achieve stable flight. The computation grid is a hybrid consisting of background Cartesian nodes and clouds of mesh-free grids around immersed boundaries. The generalized finite difference method is used in conjunction with single value decomposition (SVD-GFD) in computational fluid dynamics solver to study the dynamics of a free hovering hummingbird hawkmoth. The longitudinal dynamics of the hovering flight is governed by three control parameters, i.e., wing plane angle, mean positional angle and wing beating frequency. In present work, a PID controller works out the appropriate control parameters with the insect motion as input. The controller is adjusted to acquire desired maneuvering of the insect flight. The numerical scheme in present study is proven to be accurate and stable to simulate the flight of the hummingbird hawkmoth, which has relatively high Reynolds number. The PID controller is responsive to provide feedback to the wing kinematics during the hovering flight. The simulated hovering flight agrees well with the real insect flight. The present numerical study offers a promising route to investigate the free flight aerodynamics of insects, which could overcome some of the limitations of experiments.

Keywords: aerodynamics, flight control, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), flapping-wing flight

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2669 CFD Modeling of Insect Flight at Low Reynolds Numbers

Authors: Wu Di, Yeo Khoon Seng, Lim Tee Tai

Abstract:

The typical insects employ a flapping-wing mode of flight. The numerical simulations on free flight of a model fruit fly (Re=143) including hovering and are presented in this paper. Unsteady aerodynamics around a flapping insect is studied by solving the three-dimensional Newtonian dynamics of the flyer coupled with Navier-Stokes equations. A hybrid-grid scheme (Generalized Finite Difference Method) that combines great geometry flexibility and accuracy of moving boundary definition is employed for obtaining flow dynamics. The results show good points of agreement and consistency with the outcomes and analyses of other researchers, which validate the computational model and demonstrate the feasibility of this computational approach on analyzing fluid phenomena in insect flight. The present modeling approach also offers a promising route of investigation that could complement as well as overcome some of the limitations of physical experiments in the study of free flight aerodynamics of insects. The results are potentially useful for the design of biomimetic flapping-wing flyers.

Keywords: free hovering flight, flapping wings, fruit fly, insect aerodynamics, leading edge vortex (LEV), computational fluid dynamics (CFD), Navier-Stokes equations (N-S), fluid structure interaction (FSI), generalized finite-difference method (GFD)

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2668 Autonomous Flight Control for Multirotor by Alternative Input Output State Linearization with Nested Saturations

Authors: Yong Eun Yoon, Eric N. Johnson, Liling Ren

Abstract:

Multirotor is one of the most popular types of small unmanned aircraft systems and has already been used in many areas including transport, military, surveillance, and leisure. Together with its popularity, the needs for proper flight control is growing because in most applications it is required to conduct its missions autonomously, which is in many aspects based on autonomous flight control. There have been many studies about the flight control for multirotor, but there is still room for enhancements in terms of performance and efficiency. This paper presents an autonomous flight control method for multirotor based on alternative input output linearization coupled with nested saturations. With alternative choice of the output of the multirotor flight control system, we can reduce computational cost regarding Lie algebra, and the linearized system can be stabilized with the introduction of nested saturations with real poles of our own design. Stabilization of internal dynamics is also based on the nested saturations and accompanies the determination of part of desired states. In particular, outer control loops involving state variables which originally are not included in the output of the flight control system is naturally rendered through this internal dynamics stabilization. We can also observe that desired tilting angles are determined by error dynamics from outer loops. Simulation results show that in any tracking situations multirotor stabilizes itself with small time constants, preceded by tuning process for control parameters with relatively low degree of complexity. Future study includes control of piecewise linear behavior of multirotor with actuator saturations, and the optimal determination of desired states while tracking multiple waypoints.

Keywords: automatic flight control, input output linearization, multirotor, nested saturations

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2667 Enhanced Flight Dynamics Model to Simulate the Aircraft Response to Gust Encounters

Authors: Castells Pau, Poetsch Christophe

Abstract:

The effect of gust and turbulence encounters on aircraft is a wide field of study which allows different approaches, from high-fidelity multidisciplinary simulations to more simplified models adapted to industrial applications. The typical main goal is to predict the gust loads on the aircraft in order to ensure a safe design and achieve certification. Another topic widely studied is the gust loads reduction through an active control law. The impact of gusts on aircraft handling qualities is of interest as well in the analysis of in-service events so as to evaluate the aircraft response and the performance of the flight control laws. Traditionally, gust loads and handling qualities are addressed separately with different models adapted to the specific needs of each discipline. In this paper, an assessment of the differences between both models is presented and a strategy to better account for the physics of gust encounters in a typical flight dynamics model is proposed based on the model used for gust loads analysis. The applied corrections aim to capture the gust unsteady aerodynamics and propagation as well as the effect of dynamic flexibility at low frequencies. Results from the gust loads model at different flight conditions and measures from real events are used for validation. An assessment of a possible extension of steady aerodynamic nonlinearities to low frequency range is also addressed. The proposed corrections provide meaningful means to evaluate the performance and possible adjustments of the flight control laws.

Keywords: flight dynamics, gust loads, handling qualities, unsteady aerodynamics

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2666 Quantification of Aerodynamic Variables Using Analytical Technique and Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Adil Loya, Kamran Maqsood, Muhammad Duraid

Abstract:

Aerodynamic stability coefficients are necessary to be known before any unmanned aircraft flight is performed. This requires expertise on aerodynamics and stability control of the aircraft. To enable efficacious performance of aircraft requires that a well-defined flight path and aerodynamics should be defined beforehand. This paper presents a study on the aerodynamics of an unmanned aero vehicle (UAV) during flight conditions. Current research holds comparative studies of different parameters for flight aerodynamic, measured using two different open source analytical software programs. These software packages are DATCOM and XLRF5, which help in depicting the flight aerodynamic variables. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was also used to perform aerodynamic analysis for which Star CCM+ was used. Output trends of the study demonstrate high accuracies between the two software programs with that of CFD. It can be seen that the Coefficient of Lift (CL) obtained from DATCOM and XFLR is similar to CL of CFD simulation. In the similar manner, other potential aerodynamic stability parameters obtained from analytical software are in good agreement with CFD.

Keywords: XFLR5, DATCOM, computational fluid dynamic, unmanned aero vehicle

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
2665 Modeling of a UAV Longitudinal Dynamics through System Identification Technique

Authors: Asadullah I. Qazi, Mansoor Ahsan, Zahir Ashraf, Uzair Ahmad

Abstract:

System identification of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), to acquire its mathematical model, is a significant step in the process of aircraft flight automation. The need for reliable mathematical model is an established requirement for autopilot design, flight simulator development, aircraft performance appraisal, analysis of aircraft modifications, preflight testing of prototype aircraft and investigation of fatigue life and stress distribution etc.  This research is aimed at system identification of a fixed wing UAV by means of specifically designed flight experiment. The purposely designed flight maneuvers were performed on the UAV and aircraft states were recorded during these flights. Acquired data were preprocessed for noise filtering and bias removal followed by parameter estimation of longitudinal dynamics transfer functions using MATLAB system identification toolbox. Black box identification based transfer function models, in response to elevator and throttle inputs, were estimated using least square error   technique. The identification results show a high confidence level and goodness of fit between the estimated model and actual aircraft response.

Keywords: fixed wing UAV, system identification, black box modeling, longitudinal dynamics, least square error

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2664 Development of a Tilt-Rotor Aircraft Model Using System Identification Technique

Authors: Antonio Vitale, Nicola Genito, Giovanni Cuciniello, Ferdinando Montemari

Abstract:

The introduction of tilt-rotor aircraft into the existing civilian air transportation system will provide beneficial effects due to tilt-rotor capability to combine the characteristics of a helicopter and a fixed-wing aircraft into one vehicle. The disposability of reliable tilt-rotor simulation models supports the development of such vehicle. Indeed, simulation models are required to design automatic control systems that increase safety, reduce pilot's workload and stress, and ensure the optimal aircraft configuration with respect to flight envelope limits, especially during the most critical flight phases such as conversion from helicopter to aircraft mode and vice versa. This article presents a process to build a simplified tilt-rotor simulation model, derived from the analysis of flight data. The model aims to reproduce the complex dynamics of tilt-rotor during the in-flight conversion phase. It uses a set of scheduled linear transfer functions to relate the autopilot reference inputs to the most relevant rigid body state variables. The model also computes information about the rotor flapping dynamics, which are useful to evaluate the aircraft control margin in terms of rotor collective and cyclic commands. The rotor flapping model is derived through a mixed theoretical-empirical approach, which includes physical analytical equations (applicable to helicopter configuration) and parametric corrective functions. The latter are introduced to best fit the actual rotor behavior and balance the differences existing between helicopter and tilt-rotor during flight. Time-domain system identification from flight data is exploited to optimize the model structure and to estimate the model parameters. The presented model-building process was applied to simulated flight data of the ERICA Tilt-Rotor, generated by using a high fidelity simulation model implemented in FlightLab environment. The validation of the obtained model was very satisfying, confirming the validity of the proposed approach.

Keywords: flapping dynamics, flight dynamics, system identification, tilt-rotor modeling and simulation

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2663 Project and Experiment-Based Fluid Dynamics Education

Authors: Etsuo Morishita

Abstract:

This paper presents the project and experiment-based fluid dynamics education in Meisei University, a private institution in Tokyo, Japan. We pay attention not only to the basic engineering courses but also to the practical aspect of engineering experience. So, we prepare courses called the Projects from I to VI. The Projects I and II are designed for the first year, III and IV are designated for the second year, V and VI are prepared for the third year, respectively. Each supervisor is responsible for two of these projects every year. When students take the Project V and VI at the third year, we automatically assume that these students will join the lab of the project for the graduation thesis. We would like to show our experience in the Project I in the summer term, 2016. In this project, we introduce a traction flight vehicle called Cat Flyer. This is a kind of a kite towed by a car for example. This is very similar to parasailing, but flight is possible even on the roads. Experiments in mechanical engineering education are also very important, and we would like to explain our course on centrifugal pump, venture, and orifice. Although these are described in detail in the text books of fluid dynamics, it is still crucial to have practical experiments as a student.

Keywords: aerodynamics, experiment, fluid dynamics, project

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2662 Hybrid Lateral-Directional Robust Flight Control with Propulsive Systems

Authors: Alexandra Monteiro, K. Bousson, Fernando J. O. Moreira, Ricardo Reis

Abstract:

Fixed-wing flying vehicles are usually controlled by means of control surfaces such as elevators, ailerons, and rudders. The failure of these systems may lead to severe or even fatal crashes. These failures resulted in increased popularity for research activities on propulsion control in the last decades. The present work deals with a hybrid control architecture in which the propulsion-controlled vehicle maintains its traditional control surfaces, addressing the issue of robust lateral-directional dynamics control. The challenges stem from the parameter uncertainties in the stability and control derivatives and some unknown terms in the flight dynamics model. Two approaches are implemented and tested: linear quadratic regulation with robustness characteristics and H∞ control. The problem is centered on roll-yaw controller design with full state-feedback, which is able to deal with a standalone propulsion control mode as well as a hybrid mode combining both propulsion control and conventional control surface concepts while maintaining the original flight maneuverability characteristics. The results for both controllers emphasized very good control performances; however, the H∞ controller showed higher stabilization rates and robustness albeit with a slightly higher control magnitude than using the linear quadratic regulator.

Keywords: robust propulsion control, h-infinity control, lateral-directional flight dynamics, parameter uncertainties

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2661 Quadrotor in Horizontal Motion Control and Maneuverability

Authors: Ali Oveysi Sarabi

Abstract:

In this paper, controller design for the attitude and altitude dynamics of an outdoor quadrotor, which is constructed with low cost actuators and drivers, is aimed. Before designing the controller, the quadrotor is modeled mathematically in Matlab-Simulink environment. To control attitude dynamics, linear quadratic regulator (LQR) based controllers are designed, simulated and applied to the system. Two different proportional-integral-derivative action (PID) controllers are designed to control yaw and altitude dynamics. During the implementation of the designed controllers, different test setups are used. Designed controllers are implemented and tuned on the real system using xPC Target. Tests show that these basic control structures are successful to control the attitude and altitude dynamics.

Keywords: helicopter balance, flight dynamics, autonomous landing, control robotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
2660 Reinforcement Learning for Robust Missile Autopilot Design: TRPO Enhanced by Schedule Experience Replay

Authors: Bernardo Cortez, Florian Peter, Thomas Lausenhammer, Paulo Oliveira

Abstract:

Designing missiles’ autopilot controllers have been a complex task, given the extensive flight envelope and the nonlinear flight dynamics. A solution that can excel both in nominal performance and in robustness to uncertainties is still to be found. While Control Theory often debouches into parameters’ scheduling procedures, Reinforcement Learning has presented interesting results in ever more complex tasks, going from videogames to robotic tasks with continuous action domains. However, it still lacks clearer insights on how to find adequate reward functions and exploration strategies. To the best of our knowledge, this work is a pioneer in proposing Reinforcement Learning as a framework for flight control. In fact, it aims at training a model-free agent that can control the longitudinal non-linear flight dynamics of a missile, achieving the target performance and robustness to uncertainties. To that end, under TRPO’s methodology, the collected experience is augmented according to HER, stored in a replay buffer and sampled according to its significance. Not only does this work enhance the concept of prioritized experience replay into BPER, but it also reformulates HER, activating them both only when the training progress converges to suboptimal policies, in what is proposed as the SER methodology. The results show that it is possible both to achieve the target performance and to improve the agent’s robustness to uncertainties (with low damage on nominal performance) by further training it in non-nominal environments, therefore validating the proposed approach and encouraging future research in this field.

Keywords: Reinforcement Learning, flight control, HER, missile autopilot, TRPO

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2659 Aerodynamic Heating and Drag Reduction of Pegasus-XL Satellite Launch Vehicle

Authors: Syed Muhammad Awais Tahir, Syed Hossein Raza Hamdani

Abstract:

In the last two years, there has been a substantial increase in the rate of satellite launches. To keep up with the technology, it is imperative that the launch cost must be made affordable, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries. Launch cost is directly affected by the launch vehicle’s aerodynamic performance. Pegasus-XL SLV (Satellite Launch Vehicle) has been serving as a commercial SLV for the last 26 years, commencing its commercial flight operation from the six operational sites all around the US and Europe, and the Marshal Islands. Aerodynamic heating and drag contribute largely to Pegasus’s flight performance. The objective of this study is to reduce the aerodynamic heating and drag on Pegasus’s body significantly for supersonic and hypersonic flight regimes. Aerodynamic data for Pegasus’s first flight has been validated through CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), and then drag and aerodynamic heating is reduced by using a combination of a forward-facing cylindrical spike and a conical aero-disk at the actual operational flight conditions. CFD analysis using ANSYS fluent will be carried out for Mach no. ranges from 0.83 to 7.8, and AoA (Angle of Attack) ranges from -4 to +24 degrees for both simple and spiked-configuration, and then the comparison will be drawn using a variety of graphs and contours. Expected drag reduction for supersonic flight is to be around 15% to 25%, and for hypersonic flight is to be around 30% to 50%, especially for AoA < 15⁰. A 5% to 10% reduction in aerodynamic heating is expected to be achieved for hypersonic regions. In conclusion, the aerodynamic performance of air-launched Pegasus-XL SLV can be further enhanced, leading to its optimal fuel usage to achieve a more economical orbital flight.

Keywords: aerodynamics, pegasus-XL, drag reduction, aerodynamic heating, satellite launch vehicle, SLV, spike, aero-disk

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2658 Development of an Efficient Algorithm for Cessna Citation X Speed Optimization in Cruise

Authors: Georges Ghazi, Marc-Henry Devillers, Ruxandra M. Botez

Abstract:

Aircraft flight trajectory optimization has been identified to be a promising solution for reducing both airline costs and the aviation net carbon footprint. Nowadays, this role has been mainly attributed to the flight management system. This system is an onboard multi-purpose computer responsible for providing the crew members with the optimized flight plan from a destination to the next. To accomplish this function, the flight management system uses a variety of look-up tables to compute the optimal speed and altitude for each flight regime instantly. Because the cruise is the longest segment of a typical flight, the proposed algorithm is focused on minimizing fuel consumption for this flight phase. In this paper, a complete methodology to estimate the aircraft performance and subsequently compute the optimal speed in cruise is presented. Results showed that the obtained performance database was accurate enough to predict the flight costs associated with the cruise phase.

Keywords: Cessna Citation X, cruise speed optimization, flight cost, cost index, and golden section search

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2657 Development of Precise Ephemeris Generation Module for Thaichote Satellite Operations

Authors: Manop Aorpimai, Ponthep Navakitkanok

Abstract:

In this paper, the development of the ephemeris generation module used for the Thaichote satellite operations is presented. It is a vital part of the flight dynamics system, which comprises, the orbit determination, orbit propagation, event prediction and station-keeping maneuver modules. In the generation of the spacecraft ephemeris data, the estimated orbital state vector from the orbit determination module is used as an initial condition. The equations of motion are then integrated forward in time to predict the satellite states. The higher geopotential harmonics, as well as other disturbing forces, are taken into account to resemble the environment in low-earth orbit. Using a highly accurate numerical integrator based on the Burlish-Stoer algorithm the ephemeris data can be generated for long-term predictions, by using a relatively small computation burden and short calculation time. Some events occurring during the prediction course that are related to the mission operations, such as the satellite’s rise/set viewed from the ground station, Earth and Moon eclipses, the drift in ground track as well as the drift in the local solar time of the orbital plane are all detected and reported. When combined with other modules to form a flight dynamics system, this application is aimed to be applied for the Thaichote satellite and successive Thailand’s Earth-observation missions.

Keywords: flight dynamics system, orbit propagation, satellite ephemeris, Thailand’s Earth Observation Satellite

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2656 Aerodynamic Modelling of Unmanned Aerial System through Computational Fluid Dynamics: Application to the UAS-S45 Balaam

Authors: Maxime A. J. Kuitche, Ruxandra M. Botez, Arthur Guillemin

Abstract:

As the Unmanned Aerial Systems have found diverse utilities in both military and civil aviation, the necessity to obtain an accurate aerodynamic model has shown an enormous growth of interest. Recent modeling techniques are procedures using optimization algorithms and statistics that require many flight tests and are therefore extremely demanding in terms of costs. This paper presents a procedure to estimate the aerodynamic behavior of an unmanned aerial system from a numerical approach using computational fluid dynamic analysis. The study was performed using an unstructured mesh obtained from a grid convergence analysis at a Mach number of 0.14, and at an angle of attack of 0°. The flow around the aircraft was described using a standard k-ω turbulence model. Thus, the Reynold Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were solved using ANSYS FLUENT software. The method was applied on the UAS-S45 designed and manufactured by Hydra Technologies in Mexico. The lift, the drag, and the pitching moment coefficients were obtained at different angles of attack for several flight conditions defined in terms of altitudes and Mach numbers. The results obtained from the Computational Fluid Dynamics analysis were compared with the results obtained by using the DATCOM semi-empirical procedure. This comparison has indicated that our approach is highly accurate and that the aerodynamic model obtained could be useful to estimate the flight dynamics of the UAS-S45.

Keywords: aerodynamic modelling, CFD Analysis, ANSYS FLUENT, UAS-S45

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2655 A Fuzzy TOPSIS Based Model for Safety Risk Assessment of Operational Flight Data

Authors: N. Borjalilu, P. Rabiei, A. Enjoo

Abstract:

Flight Data Monitoring (FDM) program assists an operator in aviation industries to identify, quantify, assess and address operational safety risks, in order to improve safety of flight operations. FDM is a powerful tool for an aircraft operator integrated into the operator’s Safety Management System (SMS), allowing to detect, confirm, and assess safety issues and to check the effectiveness of corrective actions, associated with human errors. This article proposes a model for safety risk assessment level of flight data in a different aspect of event focus based on fuzzy set values. It permits to evaluate the operational safety level from the point of view of flight activities. The main advantages of this method are proposed qualitative safety analysis of flight data. This research applies the opinions of the aviation experts through a number of questionnaires Related to flight data in four categories of occurrence that can take place during an accident or an incident such as: Runway Excursions (RE), Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT), Mid-Air Collision (MAC), Loss of Control in Flight (LOC-I). By weighting each one (by F-TOPSIS) and applying it to the number of risks of the event, the safety risk of each related events can be obtained.

Keywords: F-topsis, fuzzy set, flight data monitoring (FDM), flight safety

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2654 Cessna Citation X Business Aircraft Stability Analysis Using Linear Fractional Representation LFRs Model

Authors: Yamina Boughari, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Florian Theel, Georges Ghazi

Abstract:

Clearance of flight control laws of a civil aircraft is a long and expensive process in the Aerospace industry. Thousands of flight combinations in terms of speeds, altitudes, gross weights, centers of gravity and angles of attack have to be investigated, and proved to be safe. Nonetheless, in this method, a worst flight condition can be easily missed, and its missing would lead to a critical situation. Definitively, it would be impossible to analyze a model because of the infinite number of cases contained within its flight envelope, that might require more time, and therefore more design cost. Therefore, in industry, the technique of the flight envelope mesh is commonly used. For each point of the flight envelope, the simulation of the associated model ensures the satisfaction or not of specifications. In order to perform fast, comprehensive and effective analysis, other varying parameters models were developed by incorporating variations, or uncertainties in the nominal models, known as Linear Fractional Representation LFR models; these LFR models were able to describe the aircraft dynamics by taking into account uncertainties over the flight envelope. In this paper, the LFRs models are developed using the speeds and altitudes as varying parameters; The LFR models were built using several flying conditions expressed in terms of speeds and altitudes. The use of such a method has gained a great interest by the aeronautical companies that have seen a promising future in the modeling, and particularly in the design and certification of control laws. In this research paper, we will focus on the Cessna Citation X open loop stability analysis. The data are provided by a Research Aircraft Flight Simulator of Level D, that corresponds to the highest level flight dynamics certification; this simulator was developed by CAE Inc. and its development was based on the requirements of research at the LARCASE laboratory. The acquisition of these data was used to develop a linear model of the airplane in its longitudinal and lateral motions, and was further used to create the LFR’s models for 12 XCG /weights conditions, and thus the whole flight envelope using a friendly Graphical User Interface developed during this study. Then, the LFR’s models are analyzed using Interval Analysis method based upon Lyapunov function, and also the ‘stability and robustness analysis’ toolbox. The results were presented under the form of graphs, thus they have offered good readability, and were easily exploitable. The weakness of this method stays in a relatively long calculation, equal to about four hours for the entire flight envelope.

Keywords: flight control clearance, LFR, stability analysis, robustness analysis

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2653 Airliner-UAV Flight Formation in Climb Regime

Authors: Pavel Zikmund, Robert Popela

Abstract:

Extreme formation is a theoretical concept of self-sustain flight when a big Airliner is followed by a small UAV glider flying in airliner’s wake vortex. The paper presents results of climb analysis with a goal to lift the gliding UAV to airliner’s cruise altitude. Wake vortex models, the UAV drag polar and basic parameters and airliner’s climb profile are introduced at first. Then, flight performance of the UAV in the wake vortex is evaluated by analytical methods. Time history of optimal distance between the airliner and the UAV during the climb is determined. The results are encouraging, therefore available UAV drag margin for electricity generation is figured out for different vortex models.

Keywords: flight in formation, self-sustained flight, UAV, wake vortex

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2652 Aerodynamic Modeling Using Flight Data at High Angle of Attack

Authors: Rakesh Kumar, A. K. Ghosh

Abstract:

The paper presents the modeling of linear and nonlinear longitudinal aerodynamics using real flight data of Hansa-3 aircraft gathered at low and high angles of attack. The Neural-Gauss-Newton (NGN) method has been applied to model the linear and nonlinear longitudinal dynamics and estimate parameters from flight data. Unsteady aerodynamics due to flow separation at high angles of attack near stall has been included in the aerodynamic model using Kirchhoff’s quasi-steady stall model. NGN method is an algorithm that utilizes Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN) and Gauss-Newton optimization to estimate the parameters and it does not require any a priori postulation of mathematical model or solving of equations of motion. NGN method was validated on real flight data generated at moderate angles of attack before application to the data at high angles of attack. The estimates obtained from compatible flight data using NGN method were validated by comparing with wind tunnel values and the maximum likelihood estimates. Validation was also carried out by comparing the response of measured motion variables with the response generated by using estimates a different control input. Next, NGN method was applied to real flight data generated by executing a well-designed quasi-steady stall maneuver. The results obtained in terms of stall characteristics and aerodynamic parameters were encouraging and reasonably accurate to establish NGN as a method for modeling nonlinear aerodynamics from real flight data at high angles of attack.

Keywords: parameter estimation, NGN method, linear and nonlinear, aerodynamic modeling

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2651 Neural Network Approach for Solving Integral Equations

Authors: Bhavini Pandya

Abstract:

This paper considers Hη: T2 → T2 the Perturbed Cerbelli-Giona map. That is a family of 2-dimensional nonlinear area-preserving transformations on the torus T2=[0,1]×[0,1]= ℝ2/ ℤ2. A single parameter η varies between 0 and 1, taking the transformation from a hyperbolic toral automorphism to the “Cerbelli-Giona” map, a system known to exhibit multifractal properties. Here we study the multifractal properties of the family of maps. We apply a box-counting method by defining a grid of boxes Bi(δ), where i is the index and δ is the size of the boxes, to quantify the distribution of stable and unstable manifolds of the map. When the parameter is in the range 0.51< η <0.58 and 0.68< η <1 the map is ergodic; i.e., the unstable and stable manifolds eventually cover the whole torus, although not in a uniform distribution. For accurate numerical results we require correspondingly accurate construction of the stable and unstable manifolds. Here we use the piecewise linearity of the map to achieve this, by computing the endpoints of line segments which define the global stable and unstable manifolds. This allows the generalized fractal dimension Dq, and spectrum of dimensions f(α), to be computed with accuracy. Finally, the intersection of the unstable and stable manifold of the map will be investigated, and compared with the distribution of periodic points of the system.

Keywords: feed forward, gradient descent, neural network, integral equation

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2650 Multifractal Behavior of the Perturbed Cerbelli-Giona Map: Numerical Computation of ω-Measure

Authors: Ibrahim Alsendid, Rob Sturman, Benjamin Sharp

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider a family of 2-dimensional nonlinear area-preserving transformations on the torus. A single parameter η varies between 0 and 1, taking the transformation from a hyperbolic toral automorphism to the “Cerbelli-Giona” map, a system known to exhibit multifractal properties. Here we study the multifractal properties of the family of maps. We apply a box-counting method by defining a grid of boxes Bi(δ), where i is the index and δ is the size of the boxes, to quantify the distribution of stable and unstable manifolds of the map. When the parameter is in the range 0.51< η <0.58 and 0.68< η <1 the map is ergodic; i.e., the unstable and stable manifolds eventually cover the whole torus, although not in a uniform distribution. For accurate numerical results, we require correspondingly accurate construction of the stable and unstable manifolds. Here we use the piecewise linearity of the map to achieve this, by computing the endpoints of line segments that define the global stable and unstable manifolds. This allows the generalized fractal dimension Dq, and spectrum of dimensions f(α), to be computed with accuracy. Finally, the intersection of the unstable and stable manifold of the map will be investigated and compared with the distribution of periodic points of the system.

Keywords: Discrete-time dynamical systems, Fractal geometry, Multifractal behaviour of the Perturbed map, Multifractal of Dynamical systems

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2649 Flight School Perceptions of Electric Planes for Training

Authors: Chelsea-Anne Edwards, Paul Parker

Abstract:

Flight school members are facing a major disruption in the technologies available for them to fly as electric planes enter the aviation industry. The year 2020 marked a new era in aviation with the first type certification of an electric plane. The Pipistrel Velis Electro is a two-seat electric aircraft (e-plane) designed for flight training. Electric flight training has the potential to deeply reduce emissions, noise, and cost of pilot training. Though these are all attractive features, understanding must be developed on the perceptions of the essential actor of the technology, the pilot. This study asks student pilots, flight instructors, flight center managers, and other members of flight schools about their perceptions of e-planes. The questions were divided into three categories: safety and trust of the technology, expected costs in comparison to conventional planes, and interest in the technology, including their desire to fly electric planes. Participants were recruited from flight schools using a protocol approved by the Office of Research Ethics. None of these flight schools have an e-plane in their fleet so these views are based on perceptions rather than direct experience. The results revealed perceptions that were strongly positive with many qualitative comments indicating great excitement about the potential of the new electric aviation technology. Some concerns were raised regarding battery endurance limits. Overall, the flight school community is clearly in favor of introducing electric propulsion technology and reducing the environmental impacts of their industry.

Keywords: electric planes, flight training, green aircraft, student pilots, sustainable aviation

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2648 The Structure of Invariant Manifolds after a Supercritical Hamiltonian Hopf Bifurcation

Authors: Matthaios Katsanikas

Abstract:

We study the structure of the invariant manifolds of complex unstable periodic orbits of a family of periodic orbits, in a 3D autonomous Hamiltonian system of galactic type, after a transition of this family from stability to complex instability (Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation). We consider the case of a supercritical Hamiltonian Hopf bifurcation. The invariant manifolds of complex unstable periodic orbits have two kinds of structures. The first kind is represented by a disk confined structure on the 4D space of section. The second kind is represented by a complicated central tube structure that is associated with an extended network of tube structures, strips and flat structures of sheet type on the 4D space of section.

Keywords: dynamical systems, galactic dynamics, chaos, phase space

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2647 Modelling the Effect of Distancing and Wearing of Face Masks on Transmission of COVID-19 Infection Dynamics

Authors: Nurudeen Oluwasola Lasisi

Abstract:

The COVID-19 is an infection caused by coronavirus, which has been designated as a pandemic in the world. In this paper, we proposed a model to study the effect of distancing and wearing masks on the transmission of COVID-19 infection dynamics. The invariant region of the model is established. The COVID-19 free equilibrium and the reproduction number of the model were obtained. The local and global stability of the model is determined using the linearization technique method and Lyapunov method. It was found that COVID-19 free equilibrium state is locally asymptotically stable in feasible region Ω if R₀ < 1 and globally asymptomatically stable if R₀ < 1, otherwise unstable if R₀ > 1. More so, numerical analysis and simulations of the dynamics of the COVID-19 infection are presented.

Keywords: distancing, reproduction number, wearing of mask, local and global stability, modelling, transmission

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2646 The Image of a Flight Attendant Career: A Case Study of High School Students in Bangkok, Thailand

Authors: Kevin Wongleedee

Abstract:

The purposes of this research were to study the image of a flight attendant career from the perspective of high school students in Bangkok and to study the level of interest to pursue a flight attendant career. A probability random sampling of 400 students was utilized. Half the sample group came from private high schools and the other half came from public high schools. A questionnaire was used to collect the data and small in-depth interviews were also used to get their opinions about the image and their level of interest in the flight attendant career. The findings revealed that the majority of respondents had a medium level of interest in the flight attendant career. High school students who majored in Math-English were more interested in a flight attendant career than high school students who majored in Science-Math with a 0.05 level of significance. The image of flight attendant career was rated as a good career with a chance to travel to many countries. The image of flight attendance career can be ranked as follows: a career with a chance to travel, a career with ability to speak English, a career that requires punctuality, a career with a good service mind, and a career with an understanding of details. The findings from the in-depth interviews revealed that the major obstacles that prevented high school students from choosing a flight attendant as a career were their ability to speak English, their body proportions, and lack of information.

Keywords: flight attendant, high school students, image, media engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
2645 A Review Of Blended Wing Body And Slender Delta Wing Performance Utilizing Experimental Techniques And Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Abhiyan Paudel, Maheshwaran M Pillai

Abstract:

This paper deals with the optimization and comparison of slender delta wing and blended wing body. The objective is to study the difference between the two wing types and analyze the various aerodynamic characteristics of both of these types.The blended-wing body is an aircraft configuration that has the potential to be more efficient than conventional large transport aircraft configurations with the same capability. The purported advantages of the BWB approach are efficient high-lift wings and a wide airfoil-shaped body. Similarly, symmetric separation vortices over slender delta wing may become asymmetric as the angle of attack is increased beyond a certain value, causing asymmetric forces even at symmetric flight conditions. The transition of the vortex pattern from being symmetric to asymmetric over symmetric bodies under symmetric flow conditions is a fascinating fluid dynamics problem and of major importance for the performance and control of high-maneuverability flight vehicles that favor the use of slender bodies. With the use of Star CCM, we analyze both the fluid properties. The CL, CD and CM were investigated in steady state CFD of BWB at Mach 0.3 and through wind tunnel experiments on 1/6th model of BWB at Mach 0.1. From CFD analysis pressure variation, Mach number contours and turbulence area was observed.

Keywords: Coefficient of Lift, Coefficient of Drag, CFD=Computational Fluid Dynamics, BWB=Blended Wing Body, slender delta wing

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2644 GIS-Based Automatic Flight Planning of Camera-Equipped UAVs for Fire Emergency Response

Authors: Mohammed Sulaiman, Hexu Liu, Mohamed Binalhaj, William W. Liou, Osama Abudayyeh

Abstract:

Emerging technologies such as camera-equipped unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are increasingly being applied in building fire rescue to provide real-time visualization and 3D reconstruction of the entire fireground. However, flight planning of camera-equipped UAVs is usually a manual process, which is not sufficient to fulfill the needs of emergency management. This research proposes a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based approach to automatic flight planning of camera-equipped UAVs for building fire emergency response. In this research, Haversine formula and lawn mowing patterns are employed to automate flight planning based on geometrical and spatial information from GIS. The resulting flight mission satisfies the requirements of 3D reconstruction purposes of the fireground, in consideration of flight execution safety and visibility of camera frames. The proposed approach is implemented within a GIS environment through an application programming interface. A case study is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The result shows that flight mission can be generated in a timely manner for application to fire emergency response.

Keywords: GIS, camera-equipped UAVs, automatic flight planning, fire emergency response

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2643 Some Aspects on Formation Initialization and Its Maintenance of Leo Satellites

Authors: Y. Johnson

Abstract:

Study of multi-satellite formation flight systems has drawn wide attention recently due to so many potential advantages. The present work aims to model the relative motion dynamics in terms of change in classical orbital parameters between the two satellites-chief and deputy- under Earth’s oblateness effect. The required impulsive thrust control is calculated to minimize these orbital parameter changes. The formation configuration is initialized by selecting a set of orbital parameters for the chief and deputy satellites such that bounded motion is maintained for a long time in a J_2-invariant relative non-circular orbit between the satellites. The solution of J_2-modified Hill’s equations is also derived in this paper.

Keywords: satellite, formation flight, j2 effect, control

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
2642 Experimental Studies of Dragonfly Flight Aerodynamics

Authors: Mohd Izmir Bin Yamin, Thomas Arthur Ward

Abstract:

Past aerodynamic studies of flapping wing flight have shown that it has increased aerodynamic performances compared to fixed wing steady flight. One of the dominant mechanisms that is responsible for causing this phenomenon is a leading edge vortex, generated by the flapping motion of a flexible wing. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to observe the aerodynamic profile of a flapping wing, by measuring the lift, drag and thrust. Analysis was done to explain how unsteady aerodynamics leads towards better power performances than a fixed wing flight. The information from this study can be used as a base line for designing future Bio-mimetic Micro Air Vehicles that are based on flying insect aerodynamic mechanisms.

Keywords: flapping wing flight, leading edge vortex, aerodynamics performances, wind tunnel test

Procedia PDF Downloads 293