Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 54

Search results for: Georges Ghazi

54 Development of an Efficient Algorithm for Cessna Citation X Speed Optimization in Cruise

Authors: Georges Ghazi, Marc-Henry Devillers, Ruxandra M. Botez


Aircraft flight trajectory optimization has been identified to be a promising solution for reducing both airline costs and the aviation net carbon footprint. Nowadays, this role has been mainly attributed to the flight management system. This system is an onboard multi-purpose computer responsible for providing the crew members with the optimized flight plan from a destination to the next. To accomplish this function, the flight management system uses a variety of look-up tables to compute the optimal speed and altitude for each flight regime instantly. Because the cruise is the longest segment of a typical flight, the proposed algorithm is focused on minimizing fuel consumption for this flight phase. In this paper, a complete methodology to estimate the aircraft performance and subsequently compute the optimal speed in cruise is presented. Results showed that the obtained performance database was accurate enough to predict the flight costs associated with the cruise phase.

Keywords: Cessna Citation X, cruise speed optimization, flight cost, cost index, and golden section search

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
53 The Benefit of a Universal Screening Program for Lipid Disorders in Two to Ten Years Old Lebanese Children

Authors: Nicolas Georges, Akiki Simon, Bassil Naim, Nawfal Georges, Abi Fares Georges


Introduction: Dyslipidemia has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. While the development of atherosclerotic lesions begins in childhood and progresses throughout life, data on the prevalence of dyslipidemic children in Lebanon is lacking. Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the benefit of a protocol for universal screening for lipid disorder in Lebanese children aged between two and ten years old. Materials and Methods: A total of four hundred children aged 2 to 10 years old (51.5% boys) were included in the study. The subjects were recruited from private pediatric clinics after parental consent. Fasting total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were measured and non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. The values were categorized according to 2011 Expert on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents. Results: The overall prevalence of high TC ( ≥ 200 mg/dL), high non-HDL-C ( ≥ 145 mg/dL), high LDL ( ≥ 130 mg/dL), high TG ( ≥ 100 mg/dL) and low HDL ( < 40 mg/dL) was respectively 19.5%, 23%, 19%, 31.8% and 20%. The overall frequency of dyslipidemia was 51.7%. In a bivariate analysis, dyslipidemia in children was associated with a BMI ≥ 95ᵗʰ percentile and parents having TC > 240 mg/dL with a P value respectively of 0.006 and 0.0001. Furthermore, high TG was independently associated with a BMI ≥ 95ᵗʰ percentile (P=0.0001). Children with parents having TC > 240 mg/dL was significantly correlated with high TC, high non-HDL-C and high LDL (P=0.0001 for all variables). Finally, according to the Pediatric dyslipidemia screening guidelines from the 2011 Expert Panel, 62.3% of dyslipidemic children had at least 1 risk factor that qualified them for screening while 37.7% of them didn’t have any risk factor. Conclusions: It is preferable to review the latest pediatric dyslipidemia screening guidelines by performing a universal screening program since a third of our dyslipidemic Lebanese children have been missed.

Keywords: cardiovascular risk factors, dyslipidemia, Lebanese children, screening

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
52 Groundwater Potential Zone Identification in Unconsolidated Aquifer Using Geophysical Techniques around Tarbela Ghazi, District Haripur, Pakistan

Authors: Syed Muzyan Shahzad, Liu Jianxin, Asim Shahzad, Muhammad Sharjeel Raza, Sun Ya, Fanidi Meryem


Electrical resistivity investigation was conducted in vicinity of Tarbela Ghazi, in order to study the subsurface layer with a view of determining the depth to the aquifer and thickness of groundwater potential zones. Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) using Schlumberger array was carried out at 16 VES stations. Well logging data at four tube wells have been used to mark the super saturated zones with great discharge rate. The present paper shows a geoelectrical identification of the lithology and an estimate of the relationship between the resistivity and Dar Zarrouk parameters (transverse unit resistance and longitudinal unit conductance). The VES results revealed both homogeneous and heterogeneous nature of the subsurface strata. Aquifer is unconfined to confine in nature, and at few locations though perched aquifer has been identified, groundwater potential zones are developed in unconsolidated deposits layers and more than seven geo-electric layers are observed at some VES locations. Saturated zones thickness ranges from 5 m to 150 m, whereas at few area aquifer is beyond 150 m thick. The average anisotropy, transvers resistance and longitudinal conductance values are 0.86 %, 35750.9821 Ω.m2, 0.729 Siemens, respectively. The transverse unit resistance values fluctuate all over the aquifer system, whereas below at particular depth high values are observed, that significantly associated with the high transmissivity zones. The groundwater quality in all analyzed samples is below permissible limit according to World Health Standard (WHO).

Keywords: aquifer, Dar Zarrouk parameters, geoelectric layers, Tarbela Ghazi

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
51 Cessna Citation X Business Aircraft Stability Analysis Using Linear Fractional Representation LFRs Model

Authors: Yamina Boughari, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez, Florian Theel, Georges Ghazi


Clearance of flight control laws of a civil aircraft is a long and expensive process in the Aerospace industry. Thousands of flight combinations in terms of speeds, altitudes, gross weights, centers of gravity and angles of attack have to be investigated, and proved to be safe. Nonetheless, in this method, a worst flight condition can be easily missed, and its missing would lead to a critical situation. Definitively, it would be impossible to analyze a model because of the infinite number of cases contained within its flight envelope, that might require more time, and therefore more design cost. Therefore, in industry, the technique of the flight envelope mesh is commonly used. For each point of the flight envelope, the simulation of the associated model ensures the satisfaction or not of specifications. In order to perform fast, comprehensive and effective analysis, other varying parameters models were developed by incorporating variations, or uncertainties in the nominal models, known as Linear Fractional Representation LFR models; these LFR models were able to describe the aircraft dynamics by taking into account uncertainties over the flight envelope. In this paper, the LFRs models are developed using the speeds and altitudes as varying parameters; The LFR models were built using several flying conditions expressed in terms of speeds and altitudes. The use of such a method has gained a great interest by the aeronautical companies that have seen a promising future in the modeling, and particularly in the design and certification of control laws. In this research paper, we will focus on the Cessna Citation X open loop stability analysis. The data are provided by a Research Aircraft Flight Simulator of Level D, that corresponds to the highest level flight dynamics certification; this simulator was developed by CAE Inc. and its development was based on the requirements of research at the LARCASE laboratory. The acquisition of these data was used to develop a linear model of the airplane in its longitudinal and lateral motions, and was further used to create the LFR’s models for 12 XCG /weights conditions, and thus the whole flight envelope using a friendly Graphical User Interface developed during this study. Then, the LFR’s models are analyzed using Interval Analysis method based upon Lyapunov function, and also the ‘stability and robustness analysis’ toolbox. The results were presented under the form of graphs, thus they have offered good readability, and were easily exploitable. The weakness of this method stays in a relatively long calculation, equal to about four hours for the entire flight envelope.

Keywords: flight control clearance, LFR, stability analysis, robustness analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
50 Assessing Water Quality Using GIS: The Case of Northern Lebanon Miocene Aquifer

Authors: M. Saba, A. Iaaly, E. Carlier, N. Georges


This research focuses on assessing the ground water quality of Northern Lebanon affected by saline water intrusion. The chemical, physical and microbiological parameters were collected in various seasons spanning over the period of two years. Results were assessed using Geographic Information System (GIS) due to its visual capabilities in presenting the pollution extent in the studied region. Future projections of the excessive pumping were also simulated using GIS in order to assess the extent of the problem of saline intrusion in the near future.

Keywords: GIS, saline water, quality control, drinkable water quality standards, pumping

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
49 In-Flight Aircraft Performance Model Enhancement Using Adaptive Lookup Tables

Authors: Georges Ghazi, Magali Gelhaye, Ruxandra Botez


Over the years, the Flight Management System (FMS) has experienced a continuous improvement of its many features, to the point of becoming the pilot’s primary interface for flight planning operation on the airplane. With the assistance of the FMS, the concept of distance and time has been completely revolutionized, providing the crew members with the determination of the optimized route (or flight plan) from the departure airport to the arrival airport. To accomplish this function, the FMS needs an accurate Aircraft Performance Model (APM) of the aircraft. In general, APMs that equipped most modern FMSs are established before the entry into service of an individual aircraft, and results from the combination of a set of ordinary differential equations and a set of performance databases. Unfortunately, an aircraft in service is constantly exposed to dynamic loads that degrade its flight characteristics. These degradations endow two main origins: airframe deterioration (control surfaces rigging, seals missing or damaged, etc.) and engine performance degradation (fuel consumption increase for a given thrust). Thus, after several years of service, the performance databases and the APM associated to a specific aircraft are no longer representative enough of the actual aircraft performance. It is important to monitor the trend of the performance deterioration and correct the uncertainties of the aircraft model in order to improve the accuracy the flight management system predictions. The basis of this research lies in the new ability to continuously update an Aircraft Performance Model (APM) during flight using an adaptive lookup table technique. This methodology was developed and applied to the well-known Cessna Citation X business aircraft. For the purpose of this study, a level D Research Aircraft Flight Simulator (RAFS) was used as a test aircraft. According to Federal Aviation Administration the level D is the highest certification level for the flight dynamics modeling. Basically, using data available in the Flight Crew Operating Manual (FCOM), a first APM describing the variation of the engine fan speed and aircraft fuel flow w.r.t flight conditions was derived. This model was next improved using the proposed methodology. To do that, several cruise flights were performed using the RAFS. An algorithm was developed to frequently sample the aircraft sensors measurements during the flight and compare the model prediction with the actual measurements. Based on these comparisons, a correction was performed on the actual APM in order to minimize the error between the predicted data and the measured data. In this way, as the aircraft flies, the APM will be continuously enhanced, making the FMS more and more precise and the prediction of trajectories more realistic and more reliable. The results obtained are very encouraging. Indeed, using the tables initialized with the FCOM data, only a few iterations were needed to reduce the fuel flow prediction error from an average relative error of 12% to 0.3%. Similarly, the FCOM prediction regarding the engine fan speed was reduced from a maximum error deviation of 5.0% to 0.2% after only ten flights.

Keywords: aircraft performance, cruise, trajectory optimization, adaptive lookup tables, Cessna Citation X

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
48 CFD Modeling of Pollutant Dispersion in a Free Surface Flow

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Said, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


In this work, we determine the turbulent dynamic structure of pollutant dispersion in two-phase free surface flow. The numerical simulation was performed using ANSYS Fluent. The flow study is three-dimensional, unsteady and isothermal. The study area has been endowed with a rectangular obstacle to analyze its influence on the hydrodynamic variables and progression of the pollutant. The numerical results show that the hydrodynamic model provides prediction of the dispersion of a pollutant in an open channel flow and reproduces the recirculation and trapping the pollutant downstream near the obstacle.

Keywords: CFD, free surface, polluant dispersion, turbulent flows

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
47 Decision Making under Strict Uncertainty: Case Study in Sewer Network Planning

Authors: Zhen Wu, David Lupien St-Pierre, Georges Abdul-Nour


In decision making under strict uncertainty, decision makers have to choose a decision without any information about the states of nature. The classic criteria of Laplace, Wald, Savage, Hurwicz and Starr are introduced and compared in a case study of sewer network planning. Furthermore, results from different criteria are discussed and analyzed. Moreover, this paper discusses the idea that decision making under strict uncertainty (DMUSU) can be viewed as a two-player game and thus be solved by a solution concept in game theory: Nash equilibrium.

Keywords: decision criteria, decision making, sewer network planning, decision making, strict uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
46 Variations of Testing Concrete Mechanical Properties by European Standard and American Code

Authors: Ahmed M. Seyam, Rita Nemes, Salem Georges Nehme


Europe and the United States have a worldwide significance in the field of concrete control and construction; according to that, a lot of countries adopted their standards and regulations in the concrete field, as proof of the Europe and US strong standards and due to lack of own regulations. The main controlled property of concrete are the compressive strength, flexure tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity as it relates both to its bearing capacity and to the durability of the elements built with it, so in this paper, ASTM standard and EN standards method of testing those properties were put under the microscope to compare the variations between them.

Keywords: concrete, ASTM, EU standards, compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
45 Numerical Study of an Impinging Jet in a Coflow Stream

Authors: Rim Ben Kalifa, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


The present study treats different phenomena taking place in a configuration of air jet impinging on a flat surface in a coflow stream. A Computational Fluid Dynamics study is performed using the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations by means of the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) second order turbulent closure model. The results include mean and turbulent velocities and quantify the large effects of the coflow stream on an impinging air jet. The study of the jet in a no-directed coflow stream shows the presence of a phenomenon of recirculation near the flat plate. The influence of the coflow velocity ratio on the behavior of an impinging plane jet was also numerically investigated. The coflow stream imposed noticeable restrictions on the spreading of the impinging jet. The results show that the coflow stream decreases considerably the entrainment of air jet.

Keywords: turbulent jet, turbulence models, coflow stream, velocity ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
44 Microwave Assisted Extraction (MAE) of Castor Oil from Castor Bean

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Rosli Mohd Yunus, Nurfarahin Bt Harun, Mardhiana Binti Ismail


The microwave extraction has attracted great interest among the researchers. The main virtue of the microwave technique is cost-effective, time saving and simple handling procedure. Castor beans was chosen because of its high content in fatty acid, especially ricinoleic acid. The purpose of this research is to extract the castor oil by using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) using ethanol as solvent and to investigate the influence of extraction time on castor oil yield and to characterize the main composition of the produced castor oil by using the GC-MS. It was found that there is a direct dependence between the oil yield and the time of extraction as it increases from 45% to 58% as the time increase from 10 min to 60 min. The major components of castor oil detected by GC-MS were ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid and oleic acid.

Keywords: microwave assisted extraction (MAE), castor oil, ricinoleic acid, linoleic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
43 Pollutant Dispersion in Coastal Waters

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


This paper spots light on the effect of a point source pollution on streams, stemming out from intentional release caused by unconscious facts. The consequences of such contamination on ecosystems are very serious. Accordingly, effective tools are highly demanded in this respect, which enable us to come across an accurate progress of pollutant and anticipate different measures to be applied in order to limit the degradation of the environmental surrounding. In this context, we are eager to model a pollutant dispersion of a free surface flow which is ejected by an outfall sewer of an urban sewerage network in coastal water taking into account the influence of climatic parameters on the spread of pollutant. Numerical results showed that pollutant dispersion is merely due to the presence of vortices and turbulence. Hence, it was realized that the pollutant spread in seawater is strongly correlated with climatic conditions in this region.

Keywords: coastal waters, numerical simulation, pollutant dispersion, turbulent flows

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
42 Flow Measurement Using Magnetic Meters in Large Underground Cooling Water Pipelines

Authors: Humanyun Zahir, Irtsam Ghazi


This report outlines the basic installation and operation of magnetic inductive flow velocity sensors on large underground cooling water pipelines. Research on the effects of cathodic protection as well as into other factors that might influence the overall performance of the meter are presented in this paper. The experiments were carried out on an immersion type magnetic meter specially used for flow measurement of cooling water pipeline. An attempt has been made in this paper to outline guidelines that can ensure accurate measurement related to immersion type magnetic meters on underground pipelines.

Keywords: magnetic induction, flow meter, Faraday's law, immersion, cathodic protection, anode, cathode, flange, grounding, plant information management system, electrodes

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
41 Male Oreochromis mossambica as Indicator for Water Pollution with Trace Elements in Relation to Condition Factor from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Syed M. Moeen-ud-Din Raheel, Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Qaisar, Muhammad Khalid, Muhammad Zubair Ahmed, Muhammad Ashraf


Iron, Copper, Cadmium, Zinc, Manganese, Chromium levels were estimated to study the risk of trace elements on human consumption. The area of collection was Dera Ghazi Khan, Pakistan and was evaluated by means of flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The standards find in favor of the six heavy metals were in accordance with the threshold edge concentrations on behalf of fish meat obligatory by European and other international normative. Regressions were achieved for both size (length and weight) and condition factor with concentrations of metal present in the fish body.

Keywords: Oreochromis mossambica, toxic analysis, body size, condition factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 451
40 A New Genus Longicheles (Acari: Mesostigmata: Macrochelidae) for Pakistan Fauna from Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan


Macrochelid mites are poorly studied from the planes of Punjab, Pakistan. The study was conducted as a part of PhD thesis research partially funded by the Royal Society of Entomology, UK. The genus Longicheles was first time reported from the Pakistan. Samples were collected on the monthly basis from different districts of Punjab province, Pakistan. The genus Longicheles was frequently found from five districts (Faisalabad, Dera Ghazi Khan, Jhung, Layyah, and Rajanpur) of Punjab province. Taxonomic studies were performed in Acarology Lab., Department of Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad with slide deposition. Taxonomic work was performed by using Phase contrast microscope and adobe illustrator (drawings) for finishing of picture. The detail descriptions of two (Longicheles mandibularis and Longicheles hortorum) females are given along with diagrams and key.

Keywords: macrochelidae, longicheles, new records, Punjab

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
39 Fabrication and Evaluation of Particleboards from Oil Palm Fronds Blend with Empty Fruit Bunch Fibre

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Wahida Amat Fadzila


The aim of this study is to investigate physical and mechanical properties of experimental particleboards manufactured from mixing the oil palm fronds particles with empty fruit bunch fibers. Variables were two blending ratios (100:0 and 70:30), press temperature (160°C and 180°C) and press time (180 and 300 s). Experimental boards with a target density of 750 kg m-3 were manufactured from these two particles and fibers blended with urea formaldehyde resin and compressed into targeted thickness. The effect of these manufacturing conditions on bending strength, internal bonding, water absorption and thickness swelling were determined. From this research, it can be concluded that hybridization of fibers with fronds particles improved some properties of particleboard. Empty fruit bunch fibers and fronds particleboard showed better modulus of rupture and internal bonding than fronds particleboards.

Keywords: oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunch, particleboards, chemistry, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
38 Perspectives of Saudi Students on Reasons for Seeking Private Tutors in English

Authors: Ghazi Alotaibi


The current study examined and described the views of secondary school students and their parents on their reasons for seeking private tutors in English. These views were obtained through two group interviews with the students and parents separately. Several causes were brought up during the two interviews. These causes included difficulty of the English language, weak teacher performance, the need to pass exams with high marks, lack of parents’ follow-up of student school performance, social pressure, variability in student comprehension levels at school, weak English foundation in previous school years, repeated student absence from school, large classes, as well as English teachers’ heavy teaching loads. The study started with a description of the EFL educational system in Saudi Arabia and concluded with recommendations for the improvement of the school learning environment.

Keywords: english, learning difficulty, private tutoring, Saudi, teaching practices, learning environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 374
37 Bioethanol Synthesis Using Cellulose Recovered from Biowaste

Authors: Ghazi Faisal Najmuldeen, Noridah Abdullah, Mimi Sakinah


Bioethanol is an alcohol made by fermentation, mostly from carbohydrates, Cellulosic biomass, derived from non-food sources, such as castor shell waste, is also being developed as a feedstock for ethanol production Cellulose extracted from biomass sources is considered the future feedstock for many products due to the availability and eco-friendly nature of cellulose. In this study, castor shell (CS) biowaste resulted from the extraction of Castor oil from castor seeds was evaluated as a potential source of cellulose. The cellulose was extracted after pretreatment process was done on the CS. The pretreatment process began with the removal of other extractives from CS, then an alkaline treatment, bleaching process with hydrogen peroxide, and followed by a mixture of acetic and nitric acids. CS cellulose was analysed by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The result showed that the overall process was adequate to produce cellulose with high purity and crystallinity from CS waste. The cellulose was then hydrolyzed to produce glucose and then fermented to bioethanol.

Keywords: bioethanol, castor shell, cellulose, biowaste

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
36 The Influence of the Discharge Point Position on the Pollutant Dispersion

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Said, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


The distribution characteristics of pollutants released at different vertical inlet positions of an open channel are investigated with a three-dimensional numerical model. Pollutants are injected from time-dependent sources in a turbulent free surface flow. Numerical computations were carried out using ANSYS Fluent which is based on the finite volume approach. The air/water interface was modeled with the volume of the fluid method (VOF). By focusing on investigating the influences of flow on pollutants, it is found that pollutant released from the bottom position of the channel takes more time to disperse in the longitudinal direction of the flow in comparison with the case of pollutant released near the free surface. On the other hand, the pollutant released from the bottom position generates a vertical dispersion with decreased amplitude. These findings may assist in cost-effective scientific countermeasures to be taken for accident or planned pollutant discharged into a river.

Keywords: numerical simulation, pollutant release, turbulent free surface flow, VOF model

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
35 Computational Study of Passive Scalar Diffusion of a Counterflowing round Jet

Authors: Amani Amamou, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Georges Le Palec


Round jets have been widely studied due to their important application in industry. Many configurations of round jet were encountered in literature as free jet, co-flow jet, couterflowing jet and cross flow jet. In this paper, we are concerned with turbulent round jet in uniform counterflow stream which is known to enhance mixing and dispersion efficiency owing to flow reversal. This type of flow configuration is a typical application in environmental engineering such as the disposal of wastewater into seas or rivers. A computational study of a turbulent circular jet discharging into a uniform counterflow is conducted in order to investigate the characteristics of the diffusion field of the jet effluent. The investigation is carried out for three different cases of jet-to-current velocity ratios; low, medium and high velocity ratios. The Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) is used in the comparison with available experimental measurements. The decay of the center line velocity and the dynamic proprieties of the flow together with the centerline dilution of the passive scalar and the other characteristics of the concentration field are computationally analyzed in this paper.

Keywords: Counterflow stream, jet, velocity, concentration

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
34 CFD Study of Free Surface Flows Resulting from a Dam-Breaking

Authors: Sonia Ben Hamza, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Hervé Bournot, Georges Le Palec


Free surface flows caused by dam breaks in channels or rivers is an attention-getting subject to the engineering practice, however, the studies are few to be reported. In this paper, a numerical investigation of unsteady free surface flows resulting from a dam-breaking in a rectangular channel is studied. Numerical computations were carried out using ANSYS Fluent which is based on the finite volume approach. The air/water interface was modeled with the volume of fluid method (VOF). Verification for a typical dam-break problem is analyzed by comparing the present results with others and very good agreement is obtained. The present approach is then used to predict the characteristics of free surface flow due to the dam breaking in channel. The characteristics of complex unsteady free surface flow in these examples are clearly explained. The numerical results show that the flow became more disturbed after impacting the vertical wall, then a recirculation zone, as well as turbulence phenomena, were created. At this instant, a cavity of air was included on the flow. The results agree well with the experimental data found in the literature.

Keywords: CFD, dam-break, free surface, turbulent flows, VOF

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
33 Bias Optimization of Mach-Zehnder Modulator Considering RF Gain on OFDM Radio-Over-Fiber System

Authors: Ghazi Al Sukkar, Yazid Khattabi, Shifen Zhong


Most of the recent wireless LANs, broadband access networks, and digital broadcasting use Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing techniques. In addition, the increasing demand of Data and Internet makes fiber optics an important technology, as fiber optics has many characteristics that make it the best solution for transferring huge frames of Data from a point to another. Radio over fiber is the place where high quality RF is converted to optical signals over single mode fiber. Optimum values for the bias level and the switching voltage for Mach-Zehnder modulator are important for the performance of radio over fiber links. In this paper, we propose a method to optimize the two parameters simultaneously; the bias and the switching voltage point of the external modulator of a radio over fiber system considering RF gain. Simulation results show the optimum gain value under these two parameters.

Keywords: OFDM, Mach Zehnder bias voltage, switching voltage, radio-over-fiber, RF gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
32 Assessment of Chemical and Physical Properties of Surface Water Resources in Flood Affected Area

Authors: Siti Hajar Ya’acob, Nor Sayzwani Sukri, Farah Khaliz Kedri, Rozidaini Mohd Ghazi, Nik Raihan Nik Yusoff, Aweng A/L Eh Rak


Flood event that occurred in mid-December 2014 in East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia has driven attention from the public nationwide. Apart from loss and damage of properties and belongings, the massive flood event has introduced environmental disturbances on surface water resources in such flood affected area. A study has been conducted to measure the physical and chemical composition of Galas River and Pergau River prior to identification the flood impact towards environmental deterioration in surrounding area. Samples that have been collected were analyzed in-situ using YSI portable instrument and also in the laboratory for acid digestion and heavy metals analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Results showed that range of temperature (0C), DO (mg/L), Ec (µs/cm), TDS (mg/L), turbidity (NTU), pH, and salinity were 25.05-26.65, 1.51-5.85, 0.032-0.054, 0.022-0.035, 23.2-76.4, 3.46-7.31, and 0.01-0.02 respectively. The results from this study could be used as a primary database to evaluate the status of water quality of the respective river after the massive flood.

Keywords: flood, river, heavy metals, AAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
31 Numerical Investigation of a Slightly Oblique Round Jet Flowing into a Uniform Counterflow Stream

Authors: Amani Amamou, Sabra Habli, Nejla Mahjoub Saïd, Philippe Bournot, Georges Le Palec


A counterflowing jet is a particular configuration of turbulent jets issuing into a moving ambient which has not carried much attention in literature compared with jet in a coflow or in a crossflow. This is due to the marked instability of the jet in a counterflow coupled with experimental and theoretical difficulties related to the flow inversion phenomenon. Nevertheless, jets in a counterflow are encountered in many engineering applications which required enhanced mixing as combustion, process and environmental engineering. In this work, we propose to investigate a round turbulent jet flowing into a uniform counterflow stream through a numerical approach. A hydrodynamic and thermal study of a slightly oblique round jets issuing into a uniform counterflow stream is carried out for different jet-to-counterflow velocity ratios ranging between 3.1 and 15. It is found that even a slight inclination of the jet in the vertical direction of the flow affects the structure and the velocity field of the counterflowing jet. In addition, the evolution of passive scalar temperature and pertinent length scales are presented at various velocity ratios, confirming that the flow is sensitive to directional perturbations.

Keywords: jet, counterflow, velocity, temperature, jet inclination

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
30 Performance of VSAT MC-CDMA System Using LDPC and Turbo Codes over Multipath Channel

Authors: Hassan El Ghazi, Mohammed El Jourmi, Tayeb Sadiki, Esmail Ahouzi


The purpose of this paper is to model and analyze a geostationary satellite communication system based on VSAT network and Multicarrier CDMA system scheme which presents a combination of multicarrier modulation scheme and CDMA concepts. In this study the channel coding strategies (Turbo codes and LDPC codes) are adopted to achieve good performance due to iterative decoding. The envisaged system is examined for a transmission over Multipath channel with use of Ku band in the uplink case. The simulation results are obtained for each different case. The performance of the system is given in terms of Bit Error Rate (BER) and energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio (Eb/N0). The performance results of designed system shown that the communication system coded with LDPC codes can achieve better error rate performance compared to VSAT MC-CDMA system coded with Turbo codes.

Keywords: satellite communication, VSAT Network, MC-CDMA, LDPC codes, turbo codes, uplink

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
29 Plastic Degradation Activity of Bacillus Sp. Isolated from the Gut of Plastic-Fed Yellow Mealworm

Authors: Najat El-Kurdi, Sherif Hammad, Mohamed Ghazi, Sahar El-Shatoury, Khaled Zakaria


The increasing number of plastic production and its importance to humanity in daily life made it a headache to the planet earth. The persistence of plastic wastes in the environment formed a serious problem. They are prominent with their capability to resist microbial degradation for decades. Thus, it was crucial to find ways to eliminate the plastics without depending on conventional recycling methods, which causes the formation of more hazardous compounds and doubles the problem. In this paper, mealworms were fed with a mixture of plastic wastes such as plastic bags, Styrofoam, PE foam, and plastic tarpaulins film as the sole food source for a month. Frass was collected at the end of the test and examined using FTIR analysis. Also, the gut bacteria were isolated and identified using 16S rRNA. The results show the mineralization of plastic in the frass of plastic-fed worms when compared to control. The 16S rRNA and the BLAST analysis showed that the obtained isolate belongs to the genus Bacillus Sp especially Bacillus subtilis. Phylogenetic analysis showed their relatedness to the other Bacillus species in the NCBI database.

Keywords: mealworm, waste management, plastic-degrading bacteria, gut microbiome, Bacillus sp

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
28 The Viability of Islamic Finance and Its Impact on Global Financial Stability: Evidence from Practical Implications

Authors: Malik Shahzad Shabbir, Muhammad Saarim Ghazi, Amir Khalil ur Rehman


This study examines the factors which influence and contribute towards the financial viability of Islamic finance and its impact on global financial stability. However, the purpose of this paper is to differentiate the practical implications of both Islamic and conventional finance on global financial stability. The Islamic finance is asset backed financing which creates wealth through trade, commerce and believes in risk and return sharing. Islamic banking is asset driven as against to conventional banking which is liability driven. In order to introduce new financial products for market, financial innovation in Islamic finance must be within the Shari’ah parameters that are tested against the ‘Maqasid al-Shari’ah’. Interest-based system leads to income and wealth inequalities and mis-allocation of resources. Moreover, this system has absence of just and equitable aspect of distribution that may exploit either the debt holder or the financier. Such implications are reached to a tipping point that leaves only one choice: change or face continued decline and misery.

Keywords: viability, global financial stability, practical implications, asset driven, tipping point

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
27 Task Evoked Pupillary Response for Surgical Task Difficulty Prediction via Multitask Learning

Authors: Beilei Xu, Wencheng Wu, Lei Lin, Rachel Melnyk, Ahmed Ghazi


In operating rooms, excessive cognitive stress can impede the performance of a surgeon, while low engagement can lead to unavoidable mistakes due to complacency. As a consequence, there is a strong desire in the surgical community to be able to monitor and quantify the cognitive stress of a surgeon while performing surgical procedures. Quantitative cognitiveload-based feedback can also provide valuable insights during surgical training to optimize training efficiency and effectiveness. Various physiological measures have been evaluated for quantifying cognitive stress for different mental challenges. In this paper, we present a study using the cognitive stress measured by the task evoked pupillary response extracted from the time series eye-tracking measurements to predict task difficulties in a virtual reality based robotic surgery training environment. In particular, we proposed a differential-task-difficulty scale, utilized a comprehensive feature extraction approach, and implemented a multitask learning framework and compared the regression accuracy between the conventional single-task-based and three multitask approaches across subjects.

Keywords: surgical metric, task evoked pupillary response, multitask learning, TSFresh

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
26 Scale Effects on the Wake Airflow of a Heavy Truck

Authors: Aude Pérard Lecomte, Georges Fokoua, Amine Mehel, Anne Tanière


Air quality in urban areas is deteriorated by pollution, mainly due to the constant increase of the traffic of different types of ground vehicles. In particular, particulate matter pollution with important concentrations in urban areas can cause serious health issues. Characterizing and understanding particle dynamics is therefore essential to establish recommendations to improve air quality in urban areas. To analyze the effects of turbulence on particulate pollutants dispersion, the first step is to focus on the single-phase flow structure and turbulence characteristics in the wake of a heavy truck model. To achieve this, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted with the aim of modeling the wake airflow of a full- and reduced-scale heavy truck. The Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the Reynolds Stress Model (RSM)as the turbulence model closure was used. The simulations highlight the apparition of a large vortex coming from the under trailer. This vortex belongs to the recirculation region, located in the near-wake of the heavy truck. These vortical structures are expected to have a strong influence on particle dynamics that are emitted by the truck.

Keywords: CDF, heavy truck, recirculation region, reduced scale

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
25 Performance Analysis in 5th Generation Massive Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output Systems

Authors: Jihad S. Daba, Jean-Pierre Dubois, Georges El Soury


Fifth generation wireless networks guarantee significant capacity enhancement to suit more clients and services at higher information rates with better reliability while consuming less power. The deployment of massive multiple-input-multiple-output technology guarantees broadband wireless networks with the use of base station antenna arrays to serve a large number of users on the same frequency and time-slot channels. In this work, we evaluate the performance of massive multiple-input-multiple-output systems (MIMO) systems in 5th generation cellular networks in terms of capacity and bit error rate. Several cases were considered and analyzed to compare the performance of massive MIMO systems while varying the number of antennas at both transmitting and receiving ends. We found that, unlike classical MIMO systems, reducing the number of transmit antennas while increasing the number of antennas at the receiver end provides a better solution to performance enhancement. In addition, enhanced orthogonal frequency division multiplexing and beam division multiple access schemes further improve the performance of massive MIMO systems and make them more reliable.

Keywords: beam division multiple access, D2D communication, enhanced OFDM, fifth generation broadband, massive MIMO

Procedia PDF Downloads 178