Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2826

Search results for: robot planning

2826 Motion Planning of SCARA Robots for Trajectory Tracking

Authors: Giovanni Incerti


The paper presents a method for a simple and immediate motion planning of a SCARA robot, whose end-effector has to move along a given trajectory; the calculation procedure requires the user to define in analytical form or by points the trajectory to be followed and to assign the curvilinear abscissa as function of the time. On the basis of the geometrical characteristics of the robot, a specifically developed program determines the motion laws of the actuators that enable the robot to generate the required movement; this software can be used in all industrial applications for which a SCARA robot has to be frequently reprogrammed, in order to generate various types of trajectories with different motion times.

Keywords: motion planning, SCARA robot, trajectory tracking, analytical form

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2825 Energy Management Techniques in Mobile Robots

Authors: G. Gurguze, I. Turkoglu


Today, the developing features of technological tools with limited energy resources have made it necessary to use energy efficiently. Energy management techniques have emerged for this purpose. As with every field, energy management is vital for robots that are being used in many areas from industry to daily life and that are thought to take up more spaces in the future. Particularly, effective power management in autonomous and multi robots, which are getting more complicated and increasing day by day, will improve the performance and success. In this study, robot management algorithms, usage of renewable and hybrid energy sources, robot motion patterns, robot designs, sharing strategies of workloads in multiple robots, road and mission planning algorithms are discussed for efficient use of energy resources by mobile robots. These techniques have been evaluated in terms of efficient use of existing energy resources and energy management in robots.

Keywords: energy management, mobile robot, robot administration, robot management, robot planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
2824 Design and Implementation of Bluetooth Controlled Autonomous Vehicle

Authors: Amanuel Berhanu Kesamo


This paper presents both circuit simulation and hardware implementation of a robot vehicle that can be either controlled manually via Bluetooth with video streaming or navigate autonomously to a target point by avoiding obstacles. In manual mode, the user controls the mobile robot using C# windows form interfaced via Bluetooth. The camera mounted on the robot is used to capture and send the real time video to the user. In autonomous mode, the robot plans the shortest path to the target point while avoiding obstacles along the way. Ultrasonic sensor is used for sensing the obstacle in its environment. An efficient path planning algorithm is implemented to navigate the robot along optimal route.

Keywords: Arduino Uno, autonomous, Bluetooth module, path planning, remote controlled robot, ultra sonic sensor

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2823 Motion Planning and Simulation Design of a Redundant Robot for Sheet Metal Bending Processes

Authors: Chih-Jer Lin, Jian-Hong Hou


Industry 4.0 is a vision of integrated industry implemented by artificial intelligent computing, software, and Internet technologies. The main goal of industry 4.0 is to deal with the difficulty owing to competitive pressures in the marketplace. For today’s manufacturing factories, the type of production is changed from mass production (high quantity production with low product variety) to medium quantity-high variety production. To offer flexibility, better quality control, and improved productivity, robot manipulators are used to combine material processing, material handling, and part positioning systems into an integrated manufacturing system. To implement the automated system for sheet metal bending operations, motion planning of a 7-degrees of freedom (DOF) robot is studied in this paper. A virtual reality (VR) environment of a bending cell, which consists of the robot and a bending machine, is established using the virtual robot experimentation platform (V-REP) simulator. For sheet metal bending operations, the robot only needs six DOFs for the pick-and-place or tracking tasks. Therefore, this 7 DOF robot has more DOFs than the required to execute a specified task; it can be called a redundant robot. Therefore, this robot has kinematic redundancies to deal with the task-priority problems. For redundant robots, Pseudo-inverse of the Jacobian is the most popular motion planning method, but the pseudo-inverse methods usually lead to a kind of chaotic motion with unpredictable arm configurations as the Jacobian matrix lose ranks. To overcome the above problem, we proposed a method to formulate the motion planning problems as optimization problem. Moreover, a genetic algorithm (GA) based method is proposed to deal with motion planning of the redundant robot. Simulation results validate the proposed method feasible for motion planning of the redundant robot in an automated sheet-metal bending operations.

Keywords: redundant robot, motion planning, genetic algorithm, obstacle avoidance

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2822 Optimization of Robot Motion Planning Using Biogeography Based Optimization (Bbo)

Authors: Jaber Nikpouri, Arsalan Amralizadeh


In robotics manipulators, the trajectory should be optimum, thus the torque of the robot can be minimized in order to save power. This paper includes an optimal path planning scheme for a robotic manipulator. Recently, techniques based on metaheuristics of natural computing, mainly evolutionary algorithms (EA), have been successfully applied to a large number of robotic applications. In this paper, the improved BBO algorithm is used to minimize the objective function in the presence of different obstacles. The simulation represents that the proposed optimal path planning method has satisfactory performance.

Keywords: biogeography-based optimization, path planning, obstacle detection, robotic manipulator

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2821 Study on Robot Trajectory Planning by Robot End-Effector Using Dual Curvature Theory of the Ruled Surface

Authors: Y. S. Oh, P. Abhishesh, B. S. Ryuh


This paper presents the method of trajectory planning by the robot end-effector which accounts for more accurate and smooth differential geometry of the ruled surface generated by tool line fixed with end-effector based on the methods of curvature theory of ruled surface and the dual curvature theory, and focuses on the underlying relation to unite them for enhancing the efficiency for trajectory planning. Robot motion can be represented as motion properties of the ruled surface generated by trajectory of the Tool Center Point (TCP). The linear and angular properties of the six degree-of-freedom motion of end-effector are computed using the explicit formulas and functions from curvature theory and dual curvature theory. This paper explains the complete dualization of ruled surface and shows that the linear and angular motion applied using the method of dual curvature theory is more accurate and less complex.

Keywords: dual curvature theory, robot end effector, ruled surface, TCP (Tool Center Point)

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2820 Path Planning for Orchard Robot Using Occupancy Grid Map in 2D Environment

Authors: Satyam Raikwar, Thomas Herlitzius, Jens Fehrmann


In recent years, the autonomous navigation of orchard and field robots is an emerging technology of the mobile robotics in agriculture. One of the core aspects of autonomous navigation builds upon path planning, which is still a crucial issue. Generally, for simple representation, the path planning for a mobile robot is performed in a two-dimensional space, which creates a path between the start and goal point. This paper presents the automatic path planning approach for robots used in orchards and vineyards using occupancy grid maps with field consideration. The orchards and vineyards are usually structured environment and their topology is assumed to be constant over time; therefore, in this approach, an RGB image of a field is used as a working environment. These images undergone different image processing operations and then discretized into two-dimensional grid matrices. The individual grid or cell of these grid matrices represents the occupancy of the space, whether it is free or occupied. The grid matrix represents the robot workspace for motion and path planning. After the grid matrix is described, a probabilistic roadmap (PRM) path algorithm is used to create the obstacle-free path over these occupancy grids. The path created by this method was successfully verified in the test area. Furthermore, this approach is used in the navigation of the orchard robot.

Keywords: orchard robots, automatic path planning, occupancy grid, probabilistic roadmap

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2819 Three-Dimensional Optimal Path Planning of a Flying Robot for Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance

Authors: Amirreza Kosari, Hossein Maghsoudi, Malahat Givar


In this study, the three-dimensional optimal path planning of a flying robot for Terrain Following / Terrain Avoidance (TF/TA) purposes using Direct Collocation has been investigated. To this purpose, firstly, the appropriate equations of motion representing the flying robot translational movement have been described. The three-dimensional optimal path planning of the flying vehicle in terrain following/terrain avoidance maneuver is formulated as an optimal control problem. The terrain profile, as the main allowable height constraint has been modeled using Fractal Generation Method. The resulting optimal control problem is discretized by applying Direct Collocation numerical technique, and then transformed into a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLP). The efficacy of the proposed method is demonstrated by extensive simulations, and in particular, it is verified that this approach could produce a solution satisfying almost all performance and environmental constraints encountering a low-level flying maneuver

Keywords: path planning, terrain following, optimal control, nonlinear programming

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2818 Hybrid Gravity Gradient Inversion-Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Motion Planning of Mobile Robots

Authors: Meng Wu


Motion planning is a common task required to be fulfilled by robots. A strategy combining Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and gravity gradient inversion algorithm is proposed for motion planning of mobile robots. In this paper, in order to realize optimal motion planning strategy, the cost function in ACO is designed based on gravity gradient inversion algorithm. The obstacles around mobile robot can cause gravity gradient anomalies; the gradiometer is installed on the mobile robot to detect the gravity gradient anomalies. After obtaining the anomalies, gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed to calculate relative distance and orientation between mobile robot and obstacles. The relative distance and orientation deduced from gravity gradient inversion algorithm is employed as cost function in ACO algorithm to realize motion planning. The proposed strategy is validated by the simulation and experiment results.

Keywords: motion planning, gravity gradient inversion algorithm, ant colony optimization

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2817 Development of an Autonomous Automated Guided Vehicle with Robot Manipulator under Robot Operation System Architecture

Authors: Jinsiang Shaw, Sheng-Xiang Xu


This paper presents the development of an autonomous automated guided vehicle (AGV) with a robot arm attached on top of it within the framework of robot operation system (ROS). ROS can provide libraries and tools, including hardware abstraction, device drivers, libraries, visualizers, message-passing, package management, etc. For this reason, this AGV can provide automatic navigation and parts transportation and pick-and-place task using robot arm for typical industrial production line use. More specifically, this AGV will be controlled by an on-board host computer running ROS software. Command signals for vehicle and robot arm control and measurement signals from various sensors are transferred to respective microcontrollers. Users can operate the AGV remotely through the TCP / IP protocol and perform SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping). An RGBD camera and LIDAR sensors are installed on the AGV, using these data to perceive the environment. For SLAM, Gmapping is used to construct the environment map by Rao-Blackwellized particle filter; and AMCL method (Adaptive Monte Carlo localization) is employed for mobile robot localization. In addition, current AGV position and orientation can be visualized by ROS toolkit. As for robot navigation and obstacle avoidance, A* for global path planning and dynamic window approach for local planning are implemented. The developed ROS AGV with a robot arm on it has been experimented in the university factory. A 2-D and 3-D map of the factory were successfully constructed by the SLAM method. Base on this map, robot navigation through the factory with and without dynamic obstacles are shown to perform well. Finally, pick-and-place of parts using robot arm and ensuing delivery in the factory by the mobile robot are also accomplished.

Keywords: automated guided vehicle, navigation, robot operation system, Simultaneous Localization and Mapping

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2816 Multi Objective Near-Optimal Trajectory Planning of Mobile Robot

Authors: Amar Khoukhi, Mohamed Shahab


This paper presents the optimal control problem of mobile robot motion as a nonlinear programming problem (NLP) and solved using a direct method of numerical optimal control. The NLP is initialized with a B-Spline for which node locations are optimized using a genetic search. The system acceleration inputs and sampling periods are considered as optimization variables. Different scenarios with different objectives weights are implemented and investigated. Interesting results are found in terms of complying with the expected behavior of a mobile robot system and time-energy minimization.

Keywords: multi-objective control, non-holonomic systems, mobile robots, nonlinear programming, motion planning, B-spline, genetic algorithm

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2815 LogiSun: An Interactive Robot to Reduce Pollution on the Beach

Authors: Ruth Manzanares, Victor Honores, Hugo Zapata, Javier Cansaya, Deivid Yavar, Junior Meza


LogiSum is a robot focused on education like a solution to the ecological crisis. This robot allows reducing the pollution on the beaches by stimulating environmental awareness of not contaminating through the collection of waste. Through the use of the methodology of design thinking, it is intended to reinforce values in adults and with a greater focus on children, so as not to contaminate the beaches. The goal is to encourage the use of the container of the robot LogiSum to put the garbage, with visual interaction and simulation of dialogue with the function of the robot. The results obtained of the testings of the interaction of children with the robot showed an encouraging behavior. With the robot, children left the waste in the right places and not bury it in the sand or in the floor.

Keywords: interaction human-robot, pollution reduction, social robot, robot container, beach pollution

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2814 A Review on Robot Trajectory Optimization and Process Validation through off-Line Programming in Virtual Environment Using Robcad

Authors: Ashwini Umale


Trajectory planning and optimization is a fundamental problem in articulated robotics. It is often viewed as a two phase problem of initial feasible path planning around obstacles and subsequent optimization of a trajectory satisfying dynamical constraints. An optimized trajectory of multi-axis robot is important and directly influences the Performance of the executing task. Optimal is defined to be the minimum time to transition from the current speed to the set speed. In optimization of trajectory through virtual environment explores the most suitable way to represent robot motion from virtual environment to real environment. This paper aims to review the research of trajectory optimization in virtual environment using simulation software Robcad. Improvements are to be expected in trajectory optimization to generate smooth and collision free trajectories with minimization of overall robot cycle time.

Keywords: trajectory optimization, forward kinematics and reverse kinematics, dynamic constraints, robcad simulation software

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2813 An Exponential Field Path Planning Method for Mobile Robots Integrated with Visual Perception

Authors: Magdy Roman, Mostafa Shoeib, Mostafa Rostom


Global vision, whether provided by overhead fixed cameras, on-board aerial vehicle cameras, or satellite images can always provide detailed information on the environment around mobile robots. In this paper, an intelligent vision-based method of path planning and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots is presented. The method integrates visual perception with a new proposed field-based path-planning method to overcome common path-planning problems such as local minima, unreachable destination and unnecessary lengthy paths around obstacles. The method proposes an exponential angle deviation field around each obstacle that affects the orientation of a close robot. As the robot directs toward, the goal point obstacles are classified into right and left groups, and a deviation angle is exponentially added or subtracted to the orientation of the robot. Exponential field parameters are chosen based on Lyapunov stability criterion to guarantee robot convergence to the destination. The proposed method uses obstacles' shape and location, extracted from global vision system, through a collision prediction mechanism to decide whether to activate or deactivate obstacles field. In addition, a search mechanism is developed in case of robot or goal point is trapped among obstacles to find suitable exit or entrance. The proposed algorithm is validated both in simulation and through experiments. The algorithm shows effectiveness in obstacles' avoidance and destination convergence, overcoming common path planning problems found in classical methods.

Keywords: path planning, collision avoidance, convergence, computer vision, mobile robots

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2812 Designing Expressive Behaviors to Improve Human-Robot Relationships

Authors: Sahil Anand, John Luetke, Nikhil Venkatesh, Dorothy Wong


Trust plays an important role in building and sustaining long-term relationships between people. In this paper, we present a robot that communicates using nonverbal behaviors such as facial expressions and body movements. Our study reports on an experiment in which participants were asked to team up with the robot to perform specific tasks. We varied the expressivity of the robot and measured the effects on trust, quality of interactions as well as on the praising and punishing behavior of the participant towards the robot. We found that participants developed a stronger affinity towards the expressive robot, but did not show any significant differences in the level of trust. When the same robot made mistakes, participants unconsciously punished it with lesser intensity compared to the neutral robot. The results emphasize the role of expressive behaviors on participant’s perception of the robot and also on the quality of interactions between humans and robots.

Keywords: human-robot interaction, nonverbal communication, relationships, social robot, trust

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2811 The Follower Robots Tested in Different Lighting Condition and Improved Capabilities

Authors: Sultan Muhammed Fatih Apaydin


In this study, two types of robot were examined as being pioneer robot and follower robot for improving of the capabilities of tracking robots. Robots continue to tracking each other and measurement of the follow-up distance between them is very important for improvements to be applied. It was achieved that the follower robot follows the pioneer robot in line with intended goals. The tests were applied to the robots in various grounds and environments in point of performance and necessary improvements were implemented by measuring the results of these tests.

Keywords: mobile robot, remote and autonomous control, infra-red sensors, arduino

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2810 Applying Sliding Autonomy for a Human-Robot Team on USARSim

Authors: Fang Tang, Jacob Longazo


This paper describes a sliding autonomy approach for coordinating a team of robots to assist the human operator to accomplish tasks while adapting to new or unexpected situations by requesting help from the human operator. While sliding autonomy has been well studied in the context of controlling a single robot. Much work needs to be done to apply sliding autonomy to a multi-robot team, especially human-robot team. Our approach aims at a hierarchical sliding control structure, with components that support human-robot collaboration. We validated our approach in the USARSim simulation and demonstrated that the human-robot team's overall performance can be improved under the sliding autonomy control.

Keywords: sliding autonomy, multi-robot team, human-robot collaboration, USARSim

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2809 Modeling and Simulation of the Tripod Gait of a Hexapod Robot

Authors: El Hansali Hasnaa, Bennani Mohammed


Hexapod legged robot’s missions, particularly in irregular and dangerous areas, require high stability and high precision. In this paper, we consider the rectangular architecture body of legged robots with six legs distributed symmetrically along two sides, each leg contains three degrees of freedom for greater mobility. The aim of this work is planning tripod gait trajectory, based on the computing of the kinematic model to determine the joint variables in the lifting and the propelling phases. For this, appropriate coordinate frames are attached to the body and legs in order to obtain clear representation and efficient generation of the system equations. A simulation in MATLAB software platform is developed to confirm the kinematic model and various trajectories to the tripod gait adopted by the hexapod robot in its locomotion.

Keywords: hexapod legged robot, inverse kinematic model, simulation in MATLAB, tripod gait

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2808 Underneath Vehicle Inspection Using Fuzzy Logic, Subsumption, and Open Cv-Library

Authors: Hazim Abdulsada


The inspection of underneath vehicle system has been given significant attention by governments after the threat of terrorism become more prevalent. New technologies such as mobile robots and computer vision are led to have more secure environment. This paper proposed that a mobile robot like Aria robot can be used to search and inspect the bombs under parking a lot vehicle. This robot is using fuzzy logic and subsumption algorithms to control the robot that movies underneath the vehicle. An OpenCV library and laser Hokuyo are added to Aria robot to complete the experiment for under vehicle inspection. This experiment was conducted at the indoor environment to demonstrate the efficiency of our methods to search objects and control the robot movements under vehicle. We got excellent results not only by controlling the robot movement but also inspecting object by the robot camera at same time. This success allowed us to know the requirement to construct a new cost effective robot with more functionality.

Keywords: fuzzy logic, mobile robots, Opencv, subsumption, under vehicle inspection

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2807 Joint Path and Push Planning among Moveable Obstacles

Authors: Victor Emeli, Akansel Cosgun


This paper explores the navigation among movable obstacles (NAMO) problem and proposes joint path and push planning: which path to take and in what direction the obstacles should be pushed at, given a start and goal position. We present a planning algorithm for selecting a path and the obstacles to be pushed, where a rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT)-based heuristic is employed to calculate a minimal collision path. When it is necessary to apply a pushing force to slide an obstacle out of the way, the planners leverage means-end analysis through a dynamic physics simulation to determine the sequence of linear pushes to clear the necessary space. Simulation experiments show that our approach finds solutions in higher clutter percentages (up to 49%) compared to the straight-line push planner (37%) and RRT without pushing (18%).

Keywords: motion planning, path planning, push planning, robot navigation

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2806 Tracked Robot with Blade Arms to Enhance Crawling Capability

Authors: Jhu-Wei Ji, Fa-Shian Chang, Lih-Tyng Hwang, Chih-Feng Liu, Jeng-Nan Lee, Shun-Min Wang, Kai-Yi Cho


This paper presents a tracked robot with blade arms powered to assist movement in difficult environments. As a result, the tracked robot is able to pass a ramp or climb stairs. The main feature is a pair of blade arms on both sides of the vehicle body working in collaboration with previously validated transformable track system. When the robot encounters an obstacle in a terrain, it enlists the blade arms with power to overcome the obstacle. In disaster areas, there usually will be terrains that are full of broken and complicated slopes, broken walls, rubbles, and ditches. Thereupon, a robot, which is instructed to pass through such disaster areas, needs to have a good off-road capability for such complicated terrains. The robot with crawling-assisting blade arms would overcome the obstacles along the terrains, and possibly become to be a rescue robot. A prototype has been developed and built; experiments were carried out to validate the enhanced crawling capability of the robot.

Keywords: tracked robot, rescue robot, blade arm, crawling ability, control system

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2805 Finite Element Analysis and Multibody Dynamics of 6-DOF Industrial Robot

Authors: Rahul Arora, S. S. Dhami


This paper implements the design structure of industrial robot along with the different transmission components like gear assembly and analysis of complete industrial robot. In this paper, it gives the overview on the most efficient types of modeling and different analysis results that can be obtained for an industrial robot. The investigation is executed in regards to two classifications i.e. the deformation and the stress tests. SolidWorks is utilized to design and review the 3D drawing plan while ANSYS Workbench is utilized to execute the FEA on an industrial robot and the designed component. The CAD evaluation was conducted on a disentangled model of an industrial robot. The study includes design and drafting its transmission system. In CAE study static, modal and dynamic analysis are presented. Every one of the outcomes is divided in regard with the impact of the static and dynamic analysis on the situating exactness of the robot. It gives critical data with respect to parts of the industrial robot that are inclined to harm under higher high force applications. Therefore, the mechanical structure under different operating conditions can help in optimizing the manipulator geometry and in selecting the right material for the same. The FEA analysis is conducted for four different materials on the same industrial robot and gear assembly.

Keywords: CAD, CAE, FEA, robot, static, dynamic, modal, gear assembly

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2804 Innovative Design of Spherical Robot with Hydraulic Actuator

Authors: Roya Khajepour, Alireza B. Novinzadeh


In this paper, the spherical robot is modeled using the Band-Graph approach. This breed of robots is typically employed in expedition missions to unknown territories. Its motion mechanism is based on convection of a fluid in a set of three donut vessels, arranged orthogonally in space. This robot is a non-linear, non-holonomic system. This paper utilizes the Band-Graph technique to derive the torque generation mechanism in a spherical robot. Eventually, this paper describes the motion of a sphere due to the exerted torque components.

Keywords: spherical robot, Band-Graph, modeling, torque

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2803 Evaluation and Fault Classification for Healthcare Robot during Sit-To-Stand Performance through Center of Pressure

Authors: Tianyi Wang, Hieyong Jeong, An Guo, Yuko Ohno


Healthcare robot for assisting sit-to-stand (STS) performance had aroused numerous research interests. To author’s best knowledge, knowledge about how evaluating healthcare robot is still unknown. Robot should be labeled as fault if users feel demanding during STS when they are assisted by robot. In this research, we aim to propose a method to evaluate sit-to-stand assist robot through center of pressure (CoP), then classify different STS performance. Experiments were executed five times with ten healthy subjects under four conditions: two self-performed STSs with chair heights of 62 cm and 43 cm, and two robot-assisted STSs with chair heights of 43 cm and robot end-effect speed of 2 s and 5 s. CoP was measured using a Wii Balance Board (WBB). Bayesian classification was utilized to classify STS performance. The results showed that faults occurred when decreased the chair height and slowed robot assist speed. Proposed method for fault classification showed high probability of classifying fault classes form others. It was concluded that faults for STS assist robot could be detected by inspecting center of pressure and be classified through proposed classification algorithm.

Keywords: center of pressure, fault classification, healthcare robot, sit-to-stand movement

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2802 Investigating Breakdowns in Human Robot Interaction: A Conversation Analysis Guided Single Case Study of a Human-Robot Communication in a Museum Environment

Authors: B. Arend, P. Sunnen, P. Caire


In a single case study, we show how a conversation analysis (CA) approach can shed light onto the sequential unfolding of human-robot interaction. Relying on video data, we are able to show that CA allows us to investigate the respective turn-taking systems of humans and a NAO robot in their dialogical dynamics, thus pointing out relevant differences. Our fine grained video analysis points out occurring breakdowns and their overcoming, when humans and a NAO-robot engage in a multimodally uttered multi-party communication during a sports guessing game. Our findings suggest that interdisciplinary work opens up the opportunity to gain new insights into the challenging issues of human robot communication in order to provide resources for developing mechanisms that enable complex human-robot interaction (HRI).

Keywords: human robot interaction, conversation analysis, dialogism, breakdown, museum

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2801 Design of a Robot with a Transformable Track System in Tackling Motion Barrier

Authors: Kai-Yi Cho, Fa-Shian Chang, Lih-Tyng Hwang, Chih-Feng Liu, Jeng-Nan Lee, Shun-Min Wang, Jhu-Wei Ji


This paper presents a ground robot which has the tracked transformative structures of the motion mechanism. The robot has a good ability to adapt to the terrain, due to the front end of the track can be deformed, it can more easily pass the more complex area, such as to climb stairs and ramp areas. Usually in the disaster area, where the terrain is generally broken and complicated, there will be many slopes, broken walls, rubble, and obstacles, then if you want the robot through this area, you need to have a good off-road performance for possible complex terrain, this robot with the transformative tracked mechanism has a strong adaptability, it can overcome the limitation of the terrains to be a good rescue robot. Also, the robot has a good flexibility in the shape of contact with the ground; that can adapt the varied terrain by the deformable track, thus able to pass the different terrains, that was verified through the experiments on a test-platform and a field test. The prototype of the robot system has been developed, and experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the proposed design.

Keywords: tracked robot, rescue robot, transformation mechanism, deformable track, hull design

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2800 Control of Spherical Robot with Sliding Mode

Authors: Roya Khajepour, Alireza B. Novinzadeh


A major issue with spherical robot is it surface shape, which is not always predictable. This means that given only the dynamic model of the robot, it is not possible to control the robot. Due to the fact that in certain conditions it is not possible to measure surface friction, control methods must be prepared for these conditions. Moreover, although spherical robot never becomes unstable or topples thanks to its special shape, since it moves by rolling it has a non-holonomic constraint at point of contact and therefore it is considered a non-holonomic system. Existence of such a point leads to complexity and non-linearity of robot's kinematic equations and makes the control problem difficult. Due to the non-linear dynamics and presence of uncertainty, the sliding-mode control is employed. The proposed method is based on Lyapunov Theory and guarantees system stability. This controller is insusceptible to external disturbances and un-modeled dynamics.

Keywords: sliding mode, spherical robot, non-holomonic constraint, system stability

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2799 Implementing Digital Control System in Robotics

Authors: Safiullah Abdullahi


This paper describes the design of a digital control system which controls the speed and direction of a robot. The robot is expected to follow a black thick line with the highest possible speed and lowest error around the line. The control system of the robot will correct for the angle error that is made between the frame axis of the robot and the line. The cause for error is the difference in speed of the two driving wheels of the robot which are driven by two separate DC motors, whereas the speed difference in wheels is due to the un-modeled fraction that is available in the wheels with different magnitudes in each. The control scheme is that a number of photo sensors are mounted in the front of the robot and report their position in reference to the black line to the digital controller. The controller then, evaluates the position error and generates the needed duty cycle for the related wheel motor to drive it faster or slower.

Keywords: digital control, robot, controller, control system

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2798 Stability and Performance Improvement of a Two-Degree-of-Freedom Robot under Interaction Using the Impedance Control

Authors: Seyed Reza Mirdehghan, Mohammad Reza Haeri Yazdi


In this paper, the stability and the performance of a two-degree-of-freedom robot under an interaction with a unknown environment has been investigated. The time when the robot returns to its initial position after an interaction and the primary resistance of the robot against the impact must be reduced. Thus, the applied torque on the motor will be reduced. The impedance control is an appropriate method for robot control in these conditions. The stability of the robot at interaction moment was transformed to be a robust stability problem. The dynamic of the unknown environment was modeled as a weight function and the stability of the robot under an interaction with the environment has been investigated using the robust control concept. To improve the performance of the system, a force controller has been designed which the normalized impedance after interaction has been reduced. The resistance of the robot has been considered as a normalized cost function and its value was 0.593. The results has showed reduction of resistance of the robot against impact and the reduction of convergence time by lower than one second.

Keywords: impedance control, control system, robots, interaction

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2797 Design of Jumping Structure of Spherical Robot Based on Archimedes' Helix

Authors: Zhang Zijian


Nowadays, spherical robots have played an important role in many fields, but the insufficient ability of obstacle surmounting limits their wider application fields. To solve this problem, a jumping system of a spherical robot is designed based on Archimedes helix. The jumping system of the robot utilizes the characteristics of Archimedes helix and isovelocity helix to achieve constant speed and stable contraction, which ensures the stability of the system. Also, the jumping action of the robot is realized by instantaneous release of elastic potential energy. In order to verify the effectiveness of the jumping system, we designed a spherical robot and its jumping system. The experimental results show that the jumping system has the advantages of light weight, small size, high energy conversion efficiency, and can realize the spherical jumping function.

Keywords: hopping mechanism, Archimedes' Helix, hopping robot, spherical robot

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