Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: latvian

17 Influence of κ-Casein Genotype on Milk Productivity of Latvia Local Dairy Breeds

Authors: S. Petrovska, D. Jonkus, D. Smiltiņa

Abstract:

κ-casein is one of milk proteins which are very important for milk processing. Genotypes of κ-casein affect milk yield, fat, and protein content. The main factors which affect local Latvian dairy breed milk yield and composition are analyzed in research. Data were collected from 88 Latvian brown and 82 Latvian blue cows in 2015. AA genotype was 0.557 in Latvian brown and 0.232 in Latvian blue breed. BB genotype was 0.034 in Latvian brown and 0.207 in Latvian blue breed. Highest milk yield was observed in Latvian brown (5131.2 ± 172.01 kg), significantly high fat content and fat yield also was in Latvian brown (p < 0.05). Significant differences between κ-casein genotypes were not found in Latvian brown, but highest milk yield (5057 ± 130.23 kg), protein content (3.42 ± 0.03%), and protein yield (171.9 ± 4.34 kg) were with AB genotype. Significantly high fat content was observed in Latvian blue breed with BB genotype (4.29 ± 0.17%) compared with AA genotypes (3.42 ± 0.19). Similar tendency was found in protein content – 3.27 ± 0.16% with BB genotype and 2.59 ± 0.16% with AA genotype (p < 0.05). Milk yield increases by increasing parity. We did not obtain major tendency of changes of milk fat and protein content according parity.

Keywords: dairy cows, κ-casein, milk productivity, polymorphism

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16 Six Sigma Assessment in the Latvian Commercial Banking Sector

Authors: J. Erina, I. Erins

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The goals of the present research are to estimate Six Sigma implementation in Latvian commercial banks and to identify the perceived benefits of its implementation. To achieve the goals, the authors used a sequential explanatory method. To obtain empirical data, the authors have developed the questionnaire and adapted it for the employees of Latvian commercial banks. The questions are related to Six Sigma implementation and its perceived benefits. The questionnaire mainly consists of closed questions, the evaluation of which is based on 5 point Likert scale. The obtained empirical data has shown that of the two hypotheses put forward in the present research Hypothesis 1 has to be rejected, while Hypothesis 2 has been partially confirmed. The authors have also faced some research limitations related to the fact that the participants in the questionnaire belong to different rank of the organization hierarchy.

Keywords: six sigma, quality, commercial banking sector, latvian

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15 Characteristic of Gluten-Free Products: Latvian Consumer Survey

Authors: Laila Ozola, Evita Straumite

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Celiac disease is a permanent enteropathy caused by the ingestion of gluten, a protein occurring in wheat, rye and barley. The only way of the effective daily treatment is a strict gluten-free diet. From the investigation of products available in the local market, it was found that Latvian producers do not offer gluten-free products. The aim of this research was to study and analyze changes of celiac patient’s attitude to gluten-free product quality and availability in the Latvian market and purchasing habits. The survey was designed using website www.visidati.lv, and a questionnaire was sent to people suffering from celiac disease. The first time the respondents were asked to fill in the questionnaire in 2011, but now repeatedly from the beginning of September 2013 till the end of January 2014. The questionnaire was performed with 75 celiac patients, respondents were from all Latvian regions and they answered 16 questions. One of the most important questions was aimed to find out consumers’ opinion about quality of gluten-free products, consumption patterns of gluten-free products, and, moreover, their interest in products made in Latvia. Respondents were asked to name gluten-free products they mainly buy and give specific purchase locations, evaluate the quality of products and necessity for products produced in Latvia. The results of questionnaire show that the consumers are satisfied with the quality of gluten-free flour, flour blends, sweets and pasta, but are not satisfied with the quality of bread and confectionery available in the Latvian markets.

Keywords: consumers, gluten-free products, quality, survey

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14 PRKAG3 and RYR1 Gene in Latvian White Pigs

Authors: Daina Jonkus, Liga Paura, Tatjana Sjakste, Kristina Dokane

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The aim of this study was to analyse PRKAG3 and RYR1 gene and genotypes frequencies in Latvian White pigs’ breed. Genotypes of RYR1 gene two loci (rs196953058 and rs323041392) in 89 exon and PRKAG3 gene two loci (rs196958025 and rs344045190) in gene promoter were detected in 103 individuals of Latvian white pigs’ breed. Analysis of RYR1 gene loci rs196953058 shows all individuals are homozygous by T allele and all animals are with genotypes TT, its mean - in 2769 position is Phenylalanine. Analysis of RYR1 gene loci rs323041392 shows all individuals are homozygous by G allele and all animals are with genotypes GG, its mean - in 4119 positions is Asparagine. In loci rs196953058 and rs323041392, there were no gene polymorphisms. All analysed individuals by two loci rs196953058-rs323041392 have TT-GG genotypes or Phe-Asp amino acids. In PRKAG3 gene loci rs196958025 and rs344045190 there was gene polymorphisms. In both loci frequencies for A allele was higher: 84.6% for rs196958025 and 73.0% for rs344045190. Analysis of PRKAG3 gene loci rs196958025 shows 74% of individuals are homozygous by An allele and animals are with genotypes AA. Only 4% of individuals are homozygous by G allele and animals are with genotypes GG, which is associated with pale meat colour and higher drip loss. Analysis of PRKAG3 gene loci rs344045190 shows 46% of individuals are homozygous with genotypes AA and 54% of individuals are heterozygous with genotypes AG. There are no individuals with GG genotypes. According to the results, in Latvian white pigs population there are no rs344435545 (RYR1 gene) CT heterozygous or TT recessive homozygous genotypes, which is related to the meat quality and pigs’ stress syndrome; and there are 4% rs196958025 (PRKAG3 gene) GG recessive homozygote genotypes, which is related to the meat quality. Acknowledgment: the investigation is supported by VPP 2014-2017 AgroBioRes Project No. 3 LIVESTOCK.

Keywords: genotype frequencies, pig, PRKAG3, RYR1

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13 Spatial Deictics in Face-to-Face Communication: Findings in Baltic Languages

Authors: Gintare Judzentyte

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The present research is aimed to discuss semantics and pragmatics of spatial deictics (deictic adverbs of place and demonstrative pronouns) in the Baltic languages: in spoken Lithuanian and in spoken Latvian. The following objectives have been identified to achieve the aim: 1) to determine the usage of adverbs of place in spoken Lithuanian and Latvian and to verify their meanings in face-to-face communication; 2) to determine the usage of demonstrative pronouns in spoken Lithuanian and Latvian and to verify their meanings in face-to-face communication; 3) to compare the systems between the two spoken languages and to identify the main tendencies. As meanings of demonstratives (adverbs of place and demonstrative pronouns) are context-bound, it is necessary to verify their usage in spontaneous interaction. Besides, deictic gestures play a very important role in face-to-face communication. Therefore, an experimental method is necessary to collect the data. Video material representing spoken Lithuanian and spoken Latvian was recorded by means of the method of a qualitative interview (a semi-structured interview: an empirical research is all about asking right questions). The collected material was transcribed and evaluated taking into account several approaches: 1) physical distance (location of the referent, visual accessibility of the referent); 2) deictic gestures (the combination of language and gesture is especially characteristic of the exophoric use); 3) representation of mental spaces in physical space (a speaker sometimes wishes to mark something that is psychically close as psychologically distant and vice versa). The research of the collected data revealed that in face-to-face communication the participants choose deictic adverbs of place instead of demonstrative pronouns to locate/identify entities in situations where the demonstrative pronouns would be expected in spoken Lithuanian and in spoken Latvian. The analysis showed that visual accessibility of the referent is very important in face-to-face communication, but the main criterion while localizing objects and entities is the need for contrast: lith. čia ‘here’, šis ‘this’, latv. šeit ‘here’, šis ‘this’ usually identify distant entities and are used instead of distal demonstratives (lith. ten ‘there’, tas ‘that’, latv. tur ‘there’, tas ‘that’), because the referred objects/subjects contrast to further entities. Furthermore, the interlocutors in examples from a spontaneously situated interaction usually extend their space and can refer to a ‘distal’ object/subject with a ‘proximal’ demonstrative based on the psychological choice. As the research of the spoken Baltic languages confirmed, the choice of spatial deictics in face-to-face communication is strongly effected by a complex of criteria. Although there are some main tendencies, the exact meaning of spatial deictics in the spoken Baltic languages is revealed and is relevant only in a certain context.

Keywords: Baltic languages, face-to-face communication, pragmatics, semantics, spatial deictics

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12 Genetic Polymorphism of Milk Protein Gene and Association with Milk Production Traits in Local Latvian Brown Breed Cows

Authors: Daina Jonkus, Solvita Petrovska, Dace Smiltina, Lasma Cielava

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The beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein are milk proteins which are important for milk composition. Cows with beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein gene BB genotypes have highest milk crude protein and fat content. The aim of the study was to determinate the frequencies of milk protein gene polymorphisms in local Latvian Brown (LB) cows breed and analyze the influence of beta-lactoglobulin and kappa-casein genotypes to milk productivity traits. 102 cows’ genotypes of milk protein genes were detected using Polymerase Chain Reaction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and electrophoresis on 3% agarose gel. For beta-lactoglobulin were observed 2 types of alleles A and B and for kappa-casein 3 types: A, B and E. Highest frequency in beta-lactoglobulin gene was observed for B allele – 0.926. Molecular analysis of beta-lactoglobulin gene shows 86.3% of individuals are homozygous by B allele and animals are with genotypes BB and 12.7% of individuals are heterozygous with genotypes AB. The highest milk yield 4711.7 kg was for 1st lactation cows with AB genotypes, whereas the highest milk protein content (3.35%) and fat content (4.46 %) was for BB genotypes. Analysis of the kappa-casein locus showed a prevalence of the A allele – 0.750. The genetic variant of B was characterized by a low frequency – 0.240. Moreover, the frequency of E occurred in the LB cows’ population with very low frequency – 0.010. 54.9 % of cows are homozygous with genotypes AA, and only 4.9 % are homozygous with genotypes BB. 32.8 % of individuals are heterozygous with genotypes AB, and 2.0 % are with AE. The highest milk productivity was for 1st lactation cows with AB genotypes: milk yield 4620.3 kg, milk protein content 3.39% and fat content 4.53 %. According to the results, in local Latvian brown there are only 2.9% of cows are with BB-BB genotypes, which is related to milk coagulation ability and affected cheese production yield. Acknowledgment: the investigation is supported by VPP 2014-2017 AgroBioRes Project No. 3 LIVESTOCK.

Keywords: beta-lactoglobulin, cows, genotype frequencies, kappa-casein

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11 Rural-Urban Partnership for Balanced Spatial Development in Latvia

Authors: Zane Bulderberga

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Spatial dimension in development planning is becoming more topical in 21st century as a result of changes in population structure. Sustainable spatial development focuses on identifying and using territorial advantages to foster the harmonized development of the entire country, reducing negative effects of population concentration, increasing availability and mobility. EU and national development planning documents state polycentrism as main tool for balance spatial development, including investment concentration in growth centres. If mutual cooperation of growth centres as well as urban-rural cooperation is not fostered, then territorial differences can deepen and create unbalanced development. The aim of research: to evaluate the urban-rural interaction, elaborating spatial development scenarios in framework of Latvian regional policy. To perform the research monographic, comparison, abstract-logical method, synthesis and analysis will be used when studying the theoretical aspects of research aiming at collecting the ideas of scientists from different countries, concepts, regulations as well as to create meaningful scientific discussion. Hierarchy analysis process (AHP) will be used to state further scenarios of spatial development in Latvia. Experts from various institutions recognized urban-rural interaction and co-operation as an essential tool for the development. The most important factors for balanced spatial development in Latvia are availability of public transportation and improvement of service availability. Evaluating the three alternative scenarios, it was concluded that the urban-rural partnership will ensure a balanced development in Latvian regions.

Keywords: rural-urban interaction, rural-urban cooperation, spatial development, AHP

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10 Freshwater Source of Sapropel for Healthcare

Authors: Ilona Pavlovska, Aneka Klavina, Agris Auce, Ivars Vanadzins, Alise Silova, Laura Komarovska, Linda Paegle, Baiba Silamikele, Linda Dobkevica

Abstract:

Freshwater sapropel is a common material formed by complex biological transformations of Holocene sediments in the water basement of the lakes in Latvia that has the potential to be used as medical mud. Sapropel forms over a long period in shallow waters by slowly decomposing organic sediment and has different compositions depending on the location of the source, surroundings, the water regime, etc. Official geological survey of Latvia lakes, from Latvian lake database (ezeri.lv), used in the selection of the area of the exploration. The multifunctional effect of sapropel on the whole organism explained by its complex chemical and biological structure. This unique, organic substance and its ability to maintain heat for a long time ensures deep tissue warming and has a positive effect on the treatment of various joint and skin diseases. Sapropel is a valuable resource with multiple areas of application. Investigation of sapropel sediments and survey of the five sites selected according to the criteria performed in the current study. Also, our study includes sampling at different depths and their initial treatment, evaluation of external signs, and study of physical-chemical parameters, as well as analysis of biochemical parameters and evaluation of microbiological indicators. The main selection criteria were sapropel deposits depth, hydrological regime, the history of agriculture next to the lake, and the potential exposure to industrial waste. One hundred and five sapropel samples obtained from five lakes (Audzelu, Dunakla, Ivusku, Zielu, and Mazars Kivdalova) during the wintertime. The main goal of the study is to carry out detailed and systematic research on the medical properties of sapropel to be obtained in Latvia, to promote its scientifically based use in balneology, to develop new medical procedures and services, and to promote the development of new exportable products. Latvian freshwater sapropel could be used as raw material for getting sapropel extract and use it as a remedy. All mentioned above brings us to the main question for sapropel usage in medicine, balneology, and pharmacy “how to develop quality criteria for raw sapropel and its extracts. The research was co-financed by the project "Analysis of characteristics of medical sapropel and its usage for medical purposes and elaboration of industrial extraction methods" No.1.1.1.1/16/A/165.

Keywords: balneology, extracts, freshwater sapropel, Latvian lakes, medical mud, sapropel

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9 The Effect of Cow Reproductive Traits on Lifetime Productivity and Longevity

Authors: Lāsma Cielava, Daina Jonkus, Līga Paura

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The age of first calving (AFC) is one of the most important factors that have a significant impact on cow productivity in different lactations and its whole life. A belated AFC leads to reduced reproductive performance and it is one of the main reasons for reduced longevity. Cows that calved in time period from 2001-2007 and in this time finished at least four lactations were included in the database. Data were obtained from 68841 crossbred Holstein Black and White (HM), crossbred Latvian Brown (LB), and Latvian Brown genetic resources (LBGR) cows. Cows were distributed in four groups depending on age at first calving. The longest lifespan was conducted for LBGR cows, but they were also characterized with lowest lifetime milk yield and life day milk yield. HM breed cows had the shortest lifespan, but in the lifespan of 2862.2 days was obtained in average 37916.4 kg milk accordingly 13.2 kg milk in one life day. HM breed cows were also characterized with longer calving intervals (CI) in first four lactations, but LBGR cows had the shortest CI in the study group. Age at first calving significantly affected the length of CI in different lactations (p<0.05). HM cows that first time calved >30 months old in the fourth lactation had the longest CI in all study groups (421.4 days). The LBGR cows were characterized with the shortest CI, but there was slight increase in second and third lactation. Age at first calving had a significant impact on cows’ age in each calving time. In the analysis, cow group was conducted that cows with age at first calving <24 months or in average 580.5 days at the time of fifth calving were 2156.7 days (5.9 years) old, but cows with age at first calving >30 months (932.6 days) at the time of fifth calving were 2560.9 days (7.3 years) old.

Keywords: age at first calving, calving interval, longevity, milk yield

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8 Intertemporal Individual Preferences for Climate Change Intergenerational Investments – Estimating the Social Discount Rate for Poland

Authors: Monika Foltyn-Zarychta

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Climate change mitigation investment activities are inevitably extended in time extremely. The project cycle does not last for decades – sometimes it stretches out for hundreds of years and the project outcomes impact several generations. The longevity of those activities raises multiple problems in the appraisal procedure. One of the pivotal issues is the choice of the discount rate, which affect tremendously the net present value criterion. The paper aims at estimating the value of social discount rate for intergenerational investment projects in Poland based on individual intertemporal preferences. The analysis is based on questionnaire surveying Polish citizens and designed as contingent valuation method. The analysis aimed at answering two questions: 1) whether the value of the individual discount rate decline with increased time of delay, and 2) whether the value of the individual discount rate changes with increased spatial distance toward the gainers of the project. The valuation questions were designed to identify respondent’s indifference point between lives saved today and in the future due to hypothetical project mitigating climate changes. Several project effects’ delays (of 10, 30, 90 and 150 years) were used to test the decline in value with time. The variability in regard to distance was tested by asking respondents to estimate their indifference point separately for gainers in Poland and in Latvia. The results show that as the time delay increases, the average discount rate value decreases from 15,32% for 10-year delay to 2,75% for 150-year delay. Similar values were estimated for Latvian beneficiaries. There should be also noticed that the average volatility measured by standard deviation also decreased with time delay. However, the results did not show any statistically significant difference in discount rate values for Polish and Latvian gainers. The results showing the decline of the discount rate with time prove the possible economic efficiency of the intergenerational effect of climate change mitigation projects and may induce the assumption of the altruistic behavior of present generation toward future people. Furthermore, it can be backed up by the same discount rate level declared by Polish for distant in space Latvian gainers. The climate change activities usually need significant outlays and the payback period is extremely long. The more precise the variables in the appraisal are, the more trustworthy and rational the investment decision is. The discount rate estimations for Poland add to the vivid discussion concerning the issue of climate change and intergenerational justice.

Keywords: climate change, social discount rate, investment appraisal, intergenerational justice

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7 Intangible Cultural Heritage as a Strategic Place Branding Tool

Authors: L. Ozoliņa

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Place branding as a strategic marketing tool is applied in Latvia since 2000. The main objective of the study is to find unique connecting aspects of the intangible cultural heritage elements on the development of sustainable place branding. The study is based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with Latvian place branding experts and content analysis of Latvia's place brand identities. The study indicates place branding as an internal co-creational and educational process of all involved stakeholders of the place and highlights a critical view on the local place branding practices on the notability of the in-depth research of the intangible cultural heritage.

Keywords: belonging, identity, intangible cultural heritage, narrative, self-image, place branding

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6 Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Daina Karklina, Fredijs Dimins

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Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titratable acidity of dessert apple juices is in the range of 4.1g L-1 to 10.83g L-1 and in crab apple juices titratable acidity is from 7.87g L-1 to 19.6g L-1. Fructose was detected as the main sugar whereas glucose level varied depending on the variety. The highest titratable acidity and content of sugars was detected in ‘Cornelia’ apples juice.

Keywords: apple juice, hierarchical cluster analysis, sugars, titratable acidity

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5 Variation of Phenolic Compounds in Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Fredijs Dimins, Inta Krasnova, Daina Karklina

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Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples total phenolic compounds, tannins and individual phenolic compounds content were determined. The total phenolic content of different variety apple juices ranged from 650mg L-1 to 4265mg L-1. Chlorogenic acid is the predominant phenolic compound in all juice samples and ranged from 143.99mg L-1 in ‘Quaker Beauty’ apple juice to 617.66mg L-1 in ‘Kerr’ juice. Some dessert and crab apple juices have similar phenolic composition, but in several varieties such as ‘Cornelie’, ‘Hyslop’ and ‘Riku’ it was significantly higher. For cider production it is better to blend different kinds of apple juices including apples rich in high phenol content ('Rick', 'Cornelie') and also, for successful fermentation, apples rich in sugars and soluble solids content should be used in blends.

Keywords: apple juice, phenolic compounds, hierarchical cluster analysis, cider production

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4 A System Dynamics Model for Assessment of Alternative Energy Policy Measures: A Case of Energy Management System as an Energy Efficiency Policy Tool

Authors: Andra Blumberga, Uldis Bariss, Anna Kubule, Dagnija Blumberga

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European Union Energy Efficiency Directive provides a set of binding energy efficiency measures to reach. Each of the member states can use either energy efficiency obligation scheme or alternative policy measures or combination of both. Latvian government has decided to divide savings among obligation scheme (65%) and alternative measures (35%). This decision might lead to significant energy tariff increase hence impact on the national economy. To assess impact of alternative policy measures focusing on energy management scheme based on ISO 50001 and ability to decrease share of obligation scheme a System Dynamics modeling was used. Simulation results show that energy efficiency goal can be met with alternative policy measure to large energy consumers in industrial, tertiary and public sectors by applying the energy tax exemption for implementers of energy management system. A delay in applying alternative policy measures plays very important role in reaching the energy efficiency goal. One year delay in implementation of this policy measure reduces cumulative energy savings from 2016 to 2017 from 5200 GWh to 3000 GWh in 2020.

Keywords: system dynamics, energy efficiency, policy measure, energy management system, obligation scheme

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3 Dairy Wastewater Treatment by Electrochemical and Catalytic Method

Authors: Basanti Ekka, Talis Juhna

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Dairy industrial effluents originated by the typical processing activities are composed of various organic and inorganic constituents, and these include proteins, fats, inorganic salts, antibiotics, detergents, sanitizers, pathogenic viruses, bacteria, etc. These contaminants are harmful to not only human beings but also aquatic flora and fauna. Because consisting of large classes of contaminants, the specific targeted removal methods available in the literature are not viable solutions on the industrial scale. Therefore, in this on-going research, a series of coagulation, electrochemical, and catalytic methods will be employed. The bulk coagulation and electrochemical methods can wash off most of the contaminants, but some of the harmful chemicals may slip in; therefore, specific catalysts designed and synthesized will be employed for the removal of targeted chemicals. In the context of Latvian dairy industries, presently, work is under progress on the characterization of dairy effluents by total organic carbon (TOC), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)/ Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), and Mass Spectrometry. After careful evaluation of the dairy effluents, a cost-effective natural coagulant will be employed prior to advanced electrochemical technology such as electrocoagulation and electro-oxidation as a secondary treatment process. Finally, graphene oxide (GO) based hybrid materials will be used for post-treatment of dairy wastewater as graphene oxide has been widely applied in various fields such as environmental remediation and energy production due to the presence of various oxygen-containing groups. Modified GO will be used as a catalyst for the removal of remaining contaminants after the electrochemical process.

Keywords: catalysis, dairy wastewater, electrochemical method, graphene oxide

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2 Exploring the Relationships between Job Satisfaction, Work Engagement, and Loyalty of Academic Staff

Authors: Iveta Ludviga, Agita Kalvina

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This paper aims to link together the concepts of job satisfaction, work engagement, trust, job meaningfulness and loyalty to the organisation focusing on specific type of employment–academic jobs. The research investigates the relationships between job satisfaction, work engagement and loyalty as well as the impact of trust and job meaningfulness on the work engagement and loyalty. The survey was conducted in one of the largest Latvian higher education institutions and the sample was drawn from academic staff (n=326). Structured questionnaire with 44 reflective type questions was developed to measure toe constructs. Data was analysed using SPSS and Smart-PLS software. Variance based structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) technique was used to test the model and to predict the most important factors relevant to employee engagement and loyalty. The first order model included two endogenous constructs (loyalty and intention to stay and recommend, and employee engagement), as well as six exogenous constructs (feeling of fair treatment and trust in management; career growth opportunities; compensation, pay and benefits; management; colleagues; teamwork; and finally job meaningfulness). Job satisfaction was developed as second order construct and both: first and second order models were designed for data analysis. It was found that academics are more engaged than satisfied with their work and main reason for that was found to be job meaningfulness, which is significant predictor for work engagement, but not for job satisfaction. Compensation is not significantly related to work engagement, but only to job satisfaction. Trust was not significantly related neither to engagement, nor to satisfaction, however, it appeared to be significant predictor of loyalty and intentions to stay with the University. This paper revealed academic jobs as specific kind of employment where employees can be more engaged than satisfied and highlighted the specific role of job meaningfulness in the University settings.

Keywords: job satisfaction, job meaningfulness, higher education, work engagement

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1 Atmospheric Circulation Patterns Inducing Coastal Upwelling in the Baltic Sea

Authors: Ewa Bednorz, Marek Polrolniczak, Bartosz Czernecki, Arkadiusz Marek Tomczyk

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This study is meant as a contribution to the research of the upwelling phenomenon, which is one of the most pronounced examples of the sea-atmosphere coupling. The aim is to confirm the atmospheric forcing of the sea waters circulation and sea surface temperature along the variously oriented Baltic Sea coasts and to find out macroscale and regional circulation patterns triggering upwelling along different sections of this relatively small and semi-closed sea basin. The mean daily sea surface temperature data from the summer seasons (June–August) of the years 1982–2017 made the basis for the detection of upwelling cases. For the atmospheric part of the analysis, monthly indices of the Northern Hemisphere macroscale circulation patterns were used. Besides, in order to identify the local direction of airflow, the daily zonal and meridional regional circulation indices were constructed and introduced to the analysis. Finally, daily regional circulation patterns over the Baltic Sea region were distinguished by applying the principal component analysis to the gridded mean daily sea level pressure data. Within the Baltic Sea, upwelling is the most frequent along the zonally oriented northern coast of the Gulf of Finland, southern coasts of Sweden, and along the middle part of the western Gulf of Bothnia coast. Among the macroscale circulation patterns, the Scandinavian type (SCAND), with a primary circulation center located over Scandinavia, has the strongest impact on the horizontal flow of surface sea waters in the Baltic Sea, which triggers upwelling. An anticyclone center over Scandinavia in the positive phase of SCAND enhances the eastern airflow, which increases upwelling frequency along southeastern Baltic coasts. It was proved in the study that the zonal circulation has a stronger impact on upwelling occurrence than the meridional one, and it could increase/decrease a chance of upwelling formation by more than 70% in some coastal sections. Positive and negative phases of six distinguished regional daily circulation patterns made 12 different synoptic situations which were analyzed in the terms of their influence on the upwelling formation. Each of them revealed some impact on the frequency of upwelling in some coastal section of the Baltic Sea; however, two kinds of synoptic situations seemed to have the strongest influence, namely, the first kind representing pressure patterns enhancing the zonal flow and the second kind representing synoptic patterns with a cyclone/anticyclone centers over southern Scandinavia. Upwelling occurrence appeared to be particularly strongly reliant on the atmospheric conditions in some specific coastal sections, namely: the Gulf of Finland, the south eastern Baltic coasts (Polish and Latvian-Lithuanian section), and the western part of the Gulf of Bothnia. Concluding, it can be stated that atmospheric conditions strongly control the occurrence of upwelling within the Baltic Sea basin. Both local and macroscale circulation patterns expressed by the location of the pressure centers influence the frequency of this phenomenon; however, the impact strength varies, depending on the coastal region. Acknowledgment: This research was funded by the National Science Centre, Poland, grant number 2016/21/B/ST10/01440.

Keywords: Baltic Sea, circulation patterns, coastal upwelling, synoptic conditions

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