Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2198

Search results for: hyperspectral image segmentation

2198 Heuristic Spatial-Spectral Hyperspectral Image Segmentation Using Bands Quartile Box Plot Profiles

Authors: Mohamed A. Almoghalis, Osman M. Hegazy, Ibrahim F. Imam, Ali H. Elbastawessy

Abstract:

This paper presents a new hyperspectral image segmentation scheme with respect to both spatial and spectral contexts. The scheme uses the 8-pixels spatial pattern to build a weight structure that holds the number of outlier bands for each pixel among its neighborhood windows in different directions. The number of outlier bands for a pixel is obtained using bands quartile box plots profile among spatial 8-pixels pattern windows. The quartile box plot weight structure represents the spatial-spectral context in the image. Instead of starting segmentation process by single pixels, the proposed methodology starts by pixels groups that proved to share the same spectral features with respect to their spatial context. As a result, the segmentation scheme starts with Jigsaw pieces that build a mosaic image. The following step builds a model for each Jigsaw piece in the mosaic image. Each Jigsaw piece will be merged with another Jigsaw piece using KNN applied to their bands' quartile box plots profiles. The scheme iterates till required number of segments reached. Experiments use two data sets obtained from Earth Observer 1 (EO-1) sensor for Egypt and France. Initial results qualitative analysis showed encouraging results compared with ground truth. Quantitative analysis for the results will be included in the final paper.

Keywords: hyperspectral image segmentation, image processing, remote sensing, box plot

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2197 Potassium-Phosphorus-Nitrogen Detection and Spectral Segmentation Analysis Using Polarized Hyperspectral Imagery and Machine Learning

Authors: Nicholas V. Scott, Jack McCarthy

Abstract:

Military, law enforcement, and counter terrorism organizations are often tasked with target detection and image characterization of scenes containing explosive materials in various types of environments where light scattering intensity is high. Mitigation of this photonic noise using classical digital filtration and signal processing can be difficult. This is partially due to the lack of robust image processing methods for photonic noise removal, which strongly influence high resolution target detection and machine learning-based pattern recognition. Such analysis is crucial to the delivery of reliable intelligence. Polarization filters are a possible method for ambient glare reduction by allowing only certain modes of the electromagnetic field to be captured, providing strong scene contrast. An experiment was carried out utilizing a polarization lens attached to a hyperspectral imagery camera for the purpose of exploring the degree to which an imaged polarized scene of potassium, phosphorus, and nitrogen mixture allows for improved target detection and image segmentation. Preliminary imagery results based on the application of machine learning algorithms, including competitive leaky learning and distance metric analysis, to polarized hyperspectral imagery, suggest that polarization filters provide a slight advantage in image segmentation. The results of this work have implications for understanding the presence of explosive material in dry, desert areas where reflective glare is a significant impediment to scene characterization.

Keywords: explosive material, hyperspectral imagery, image segmentation, machine learning, polarization

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2196 Image Segmentation Using 2-D Histogram in RGB Color Space in Digital Libraries

Authors: El Asnaoui Khalid, Aksasse Brahim, Ouanan Mohammed

Abstract:

This paper presents an unsupervised color image segmentation method. It is based on a hierarchical analysis of 2-D histogram in RGB color space. This histogram minimizes storage space of images and thus facilitates the operations between them. The improved segmentation approach shows a better identification of objects in a color image and, at the same time, the system is fast.

Keywords: image segmentation, hierarchical analysis, 2-D histogram, classification

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2195 Design of a Graphical User Interface for Data Preprocessing and Image Segmentation Process in 2D MRI Images

Authors: Enver Kucukkulahli, Pakize Erdogmus, Kemal Polat

Abstract:

The 2D image segmentation is a significant process in finding a suitable region in medical images such as MRI, PET, CT etc. In this study, we have focused on 2D MRI images for image segmentation process. We have designed a GUI (graphical user interface) written in MATLABTM for 2D MRI images. In this program, there are two different interfaces including data pre-processing and image clustering or segmentation. In the data pre-processing section, there are median filter, average filter, unsharp mask filter, Wiener filter, and custom filter (a filter that is designed by user in MATLAB). As for the image clustering, there are seven different image segmentations for 2D MR images. These image segmentation algorithms are as follows: PSO (particle swarm optimization), GA (genetic algorithm), Lloyds algorithm, k-means, the combination of Lloyds and k-means, mean shift clustering, and finally BBO (Biogeography Based Optimization). To find the suitable cluster number in 2D MRI, we have designed the histogram based cluster estimation method and then applied to these numbers to image segmentation algorithms to cluster an image automatically. Also, we have selected the best hybrid method for each 2D MR images thanks to this GUI software.

Keywords: image segmentation, clustering, GUI, 2D MRI

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2194 Digital Retinal Images: Background and Damaged Areas Segmentation

Authors: Eman A. Gani, Loay E. George, Faisel G. Mohammed, Kamal H. Sager

Abstract:

Digital retinal images are more appropriate for automatic screening of diabetic retinopathy systems. Unfortunately, a significant percentage of these images are poor quality that hinders further analysis due to many factors (such as patient movement, inadequate or non-uniform illumination, acquisition angle and retinal pigmentation). The retinal images of poor quality need to be enhanced before the extraction of features and abnormalities. So, the segmentation of retinal image is essential for this purpose, the segmentation is employed to smooth and strengthen image by separating the background and damaged areas from the overall image thus resulting in retinal image enhancement and less processing time. In this paper, methods for segmenting colored retinal image are proposed to improve the quality of retinal image diagnosis. The methods generate two segmentation masks; i.e., background segmentation mask for extracting the background area and poor quality mask for removing the noisy areas from the retinal image. The standard retinal image databases DIARETDB0, DIARETDB1, STARE, DRIVE and some images obtained from ophthalmologists have been used to test the validation of the proposed segmentation technique. Experimental results indicate the introduced methods are effective and can lead to high segmentation accuracy.

Keywords: retinal images, fundus images, diabetic retinopathy, background segmentation, damaged areas segmentation

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2193 An Image Segmentation Algorithm for Gradient Target Based on Mean-Shift and Dictionary Learning

Authors: Yanwen Li, Shuguo Xie

Abstract:

In electromagnetic imaging, because of the diffraction limited system, the pixel values could change slowly near the edge of the image targets and they also change with the location in the same target. Using traditional digital image segmentation methods to segment electromagnetic gradient images could result in lots of errors because of this change in pixel values. To address this issue, this paper proposes a novel image segmentation and extraction algorithm based on Mean-Shift and dictionary learning. Firstly, the preliminary segmentation results from adaptive bandwidth Mean-Shift algorithm are expanded, merged and extracted. Then the overlap rate of the extracted image block is detected before determining a segmentation region with a single complete target. Last, the gradient edge of the extracted targets is recovered and reconstructed by using a dictionary-learning algorithm, while the final segmentation results are obtained which are very close to the gradient target in the original image. Both the experimental results and the simulated results show that the segmentation results are very accurate. The Dice coefficients are improved by 70% to 80% compared with the Mean-Shift only method.

Keywords: gradient image, segmentation and extract, mean-shift algorithm, dictionary iearning

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2192 A Comparative Study of Medical Image Segmentation Methods for Tumor Detection

Authors: Mayssa Bensalah, Atef Boujelben, Mouna Baklouti, Mohamed Abid

Abstract:

Image segmentation has a fundamental role in analysis and interpretation for many applications. The automated segmentation of organs and tissues throughout the body using computed imaging has been rapidly increasing. Indeed, it represents one of the most important parts of clinical diagnostic tools. In this paper, we discuss a thorough literature review of recent methods of tumour segmentation from medical images which are briefly explained with the recent contribution of various researchers. This study was followed by comparing these methods in order to define new directions to develop and improve the performance of the segmentation of the tumour area from medical images.

Keywords: features extraction, image segmentation, medical images, tumor detection

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2191 Morphology Operation and Discrete Wavelet Transform for Blood Vessels Segmentation in Retina Fundus

Authors: Rita Magdalena, N. K. Caecar Pratiwi, Yunendah Nur Fuadah, Sofia Saidah, Bima Sakti

Abstract:

Vessel segmentation of retinal fundus is important for biomedical sciences in diagnosing ailments related to the eye. Segmentation can simplify medical experts in diagnosing retinal fundus image state. Therefore, in this study, we designed a software using MATLAB which enables the segmentation of the retinal blood vessels on retinal fundus images. There are two main steps in the process of segmentation. The first step is image preprocessing that aims to improve the quality of the image to be optimum segmented. The second step is the image segmentation in order to perform the extraction process to retrieve the retina’s blood vessel from the eye fundus image. The image segmentation methods that will be analyzed in this study are Morphology Operation, Discrete Wavelet Transform and combination of both. The amount of data that used in this project is 40 for the retinal image and 40 for manually segmentation image. After doing some testing scenarios, the average accuracy for Morphology Operation method is 88.46 % while for Discrete Wavelet Transform is 89.28 %. By combining the two methods mentioned in later, the average accuracy was increased to 89.53 %. The result of this study is an image processing system that can segment the blood vessels in retinal fundus with high accuracy and low computation time.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, fundus retina, morphology operation, segmentation, vessel

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2190 Automatic Classification Using Dynamic Fuzzy C Means Algorithm and Mathematical Morphology: Application in 3D MRI Image

Authors: Abdelkhalek Bakkari

Abstract:

Image segmentation is a critical step in image processing and pattern recognition. In this paper, we proposed a new robust automatic image classification based on a dynamic fuzzy c-means algorithm and mathematical morphology. The proposed segmentation algorithm (DFCM_MM) has been applied to MR perfusion images. The obtained results show the validity and robustness of the proposed approach.

Keywords: segmentation, classification, dynamic, fuzzy c-means, MR image

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2189 Review of the Software Used for 3D Volumetric Reconstruction of the Liver

Authors: P. Strakos, M. Jaros, T. Karasek, T. Kozubek, P. Vavra, T. Jonszta

Abstract:

In medical imaging, segmentation of different areas of human body like bones, organs, tissues, etc. is an important issue. Image segmentation allows isolating the object of interest for further processing that can lead for example to 3D model reconstruction of whole organs. Difficulty of this procedure varies from trivial for bones to quite difficult for organs like liver. The liver is being considered as one of the most difficult human body organ to segment. It is mainly for its complexity, shape versatility and proximity of other organs and tissues. Due to this facts usually substantial user effort has to be applied to obtain satisfactory results of the image segmentation. Process of image segmentation then deteriorates from automatic or semi-automatic to fairly manual one. In this paper, overview of selected available software applications that can handle semi-automatic image segmentation with further 3D volume reconstruction of human liver is presented. The applications are being evaluated based on the segmentation results of several consecutive DICOM images covering the abdominal area of the human body.

Keywords: image segmentation, semi-automatic, software, 3D volumetric reconstruction

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2188 The Influence of Noise on Aerial Image Semantic Segmentation

Authors: Pengchao Wei, Xiangzhong Fang

Abstract:

Noise is ubiquitous in this world. Denoising is an essential technology, especially in image semantic segmentation, where noises are generally categorized into two main types i.e. feature noise and label noise. The main focus of this paper is aiming at modeling label noise, investigating the behaviors of different types of label noise on image semantic segmentation tasks using K-Nearest-Neighbor and Convolutional Neural Network classifier. The performance without label noise and with is evaluated and illustrated in this paper. In addition to that, the influence of feature noise on the image semantic segmentation task is researched as well and a feature noise reduction method is applied to mitigate its influence in the learning procedure.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, denoising, feature noise, image semantic segmentation, k-nearest-neighbor, label noise

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2187 Brainbow Image Segmentation Using Bayesian Sequential Partitioning

Authors: Yayun Hsu, Henry Horng-Shing Lu

Abstract:

This paper proposes a data-driven, biology-inspired neural segmentation method of 3D drosophila Brainbow images. We use Bayesian Sequential Partitioning algorithm for probabilistic modeling, which can be used to detect somas and to eliminate cross talk effects. This work attempts to develop an automatic methodology for neuron image segmentation, which nowadays still lacks a complete solution due to the complexity of the image. The proposed method does not need any predetermined, risk-prone thresholds since biological information is inherently included in the image processing procedure. Therefore, it is less sensitive to variations in neuron morphology; meanwhile, its flexibility would be beneficial for tracing the intertwining structure of neurons.

Keywords: brainbow, 3D imaging, image segmentation, neuron morphology, biological data mining, non-parametric learning

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2186 Abdominal Organ Segmentation in CT Images Based On Watershed Transform and Mosaic Image

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid

Abstract:

Accurate Liver, spleen and kidneys segmentation in abdominal CT images is one of the most important steps for computer aided abdominal organs pathology diagnosis. In this paper, we have proposed a new semi-automatic algorithm for Liver, spleen and kidneys area extraction in abdominal CT images. Our proposed method is based on hierarchical segmentation and watershed algorithm. In our approach, a powerful technique has been designed to suppress over-segmentation based on mosaic image and on the computation of the watershed transform. The algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to improve the quality of the gradient-mosaic image. In this step, we propose a method for improving the gradient-mosaic image by applying the anisotropic diffusion filter followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter we proceed to the hierarchical segmentation of the liver, spleen and kidney. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion filter, CT images, morphological filter, mosaic image, multi-abdominal organ segmentation, mosaic image, the watershed algorithm

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2185 Traffic Light Detection Using Image Segmentation

Authors: Vaishnavi Shivde, Shrishti Sinha, Trapti Mishra

Abstract:

Traffic light detection from a moving vehicle is an important technology both for driver safety assistance functions as well as for autonomous driving in the city. This paper proposed a deep-learning-based traffic light recognition method that consists of a pixel-wise image segmentation technique and a fully convolutional network i.e., UNET architecture. This paper has used a method for detecting the position and recognizing the state of the traffic lights in video sequences is presented and evaluated using Traffic Light Dataset which contains masked traffic light image data. The first stage is the detection, which is accomplished through image processing (image segmentation) techniques such as image cropping, color transformation, segmentation of possible traffic lights. The second stage is the recognition, which means identifying the color of the traffic light or knowing the state of traffic light which is achieved by using a Convolutional Neural Network (UNET architecture).

Keywords: traffic light detection, image segmentation, machine learning, classification, convolutional neural networks

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2184 A Comparison between Different Segmentation Techniques Used in Medical Imaging

Authors: Ibtihal D. Mustafa, Mawia A. Hassan

Abstract:

Tumor segmentation from MRI image is important part of medical images experts. This is particularly a challenging task because of the high assorting appearance of tumor tissue among different patients. MRI images are advance of medical imaging because it is give richer information about human soft tissue. There are different segmentation techniques to detect MRI brain tumor. In this paper, different procedure segmentation methods are used to segment brain tumors and compare the result of segmentations by using correlation and structural similarity index (SSIM) to analysis and see the best technique that could be applied to MRI image.

Keywords: MRI, segmentation, correlation, structural similarity

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2183 A Modified Shannon Entropy Measure for Improved Image Segmentation

Authors: Mohammad A. U. Khan, Omar A. Kittaneh, M. Akbar, Tariq M. Khan, Husam A. Bayoud

Abstract:

The Shannon Entropy measure has been widely used for measuring uncertainty. However, in partial settings, the histogram is used to estimate the underlying distribution. The histogram is dependent on the number of bins used. In this paper, a modification is proposed that makes the Shannon entropy based on histogram consistent. For providing the benefits, two application are picked in medical image processing applications. The simulations are carried out to show the superiority of this modified measure for image segmentation problem. The improvement may be contributed to robustness shown to uneven background in images.

Keywords: Shannon entropy, medical image processing, image segmentation, modification

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2182 An Improved C-Means Model for MRI Segmentation

Authors: Ying Shen, Weihua Zhu

Abstract:

Medical images are important to help identifying different diseases, for example, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be used to investigate the brain, spinal cord, bones, joints, breasts, blood vessels, and heart. Image segmentation, in medical image analysis, is usually the first step to find out some characteristics with similar color, intensity or texture so that the diagnosis could be further carried out based on these features. This paper introduces an improved C-means model to segment the MRI images. The model is based on information entropy to evaluate the segmentation results by achieving global optimization. Several contributions are significant. Firstly, Genetic Algorithm (GA) is used for achieving global optimization in this model where fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm (FCMA) is not capable of doing that. Secondly, the information entropy after segmentation is used for measuring the effectiveness of MRI image processing. Experimental results show the outperformance of the proposed model by comparing with traditional approaches.

Keywords: magnetic resonance image (MRI), c-means model, image segmentation, information entropy

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2181 Level Set and Morphological Operation Techniques in Application of Dental Image Segmentation

Authors: Abdolvahab Ehsani Rad, Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Alireza Norouzi

Abstract:

Medical image analysis is one of the great effects of computer image processing. There are several processes to analysis the medical images which the segmentation process is one of the challenging and most important step. In this paper the segmentation method proposed in order to segment the dental radiograph images. Thresholding method has been applied to simplify the images and to morphologically open binary image technique performed to eliminate the unnecessary regions on images. Furthermore, horizontal and vertical integral projection techniques used to extract the each individual tooth from radiograph images. Segmentation process has been done by applying the level set method on each extracted images. Nevertheless, the experiments results by 90% accuracy demonstrate that proposed method achieves high accuracy and promising result.

Keywords: integral production, level set method, morphological operation, segmentation

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2180 Maximum Entropy Based Image Segmentation of Human Skin Lesion

Authors: Sheema Shuja Khattak, Gule Saman, Imran Khan, Abdus Salam

Abstract:

Image segmentation plays an important role in medical imaging applications. Therefore, accurate methods are needed for the successful segmentation of medical images for diagnosis and detection of various diseases. In this paper, we have used maximum entropy to achieve image segmentation. Maximum entropy has been calculated using Shannon, Renyi, and Tsallis entropies. This work has novelty based on the detection of skin lesion caused by the bite of a parasite called Sand Fly causing the disease is called Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Keywords: shannon, maximum entropy, Renyi, Tsallis entropy

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2179 Change Detection Method Based on Scale-Invariant Feature Transformation Keypoints and Segmentation for Synthetic Aperture Radar Image

Authors: Lan Du, Yan Wang, Hui Dai

Abstract:

Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image change detection has recently become a challenging problem owing to the existence of speckle noises. In this paper, an unsupervised distribution-free change detection for SAR image based on scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) keypoints and segmentation is proposed. Firstly, the noise-robust SIFT keypoints which reveal the blob-like structures in an image are extracted in the log-ratio image to reduce the detection range. Then, different from the traditional change detection which directly obtains the change-detection map from the difference image, segmentation is made around the extracted keypoints in the two original multitemporal SAR images to obtain accurate changed region. At last, the change-detection map is generated by comparing the two segmentations. Experimental results on the real SAR image dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: change detection, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), Scale-Invariant Feature Transformation (SIFT), segmentation

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2178 A Neural Approach for Color-Textured Images Segmentation

Authors: Khalid Salhi, El Miloud Jaara, Mohammed Talibi Alaoui

Abstract:

In this paper, we present a neural approach for unsupervised natural color-texture image segmentation, which is based on both Kohonen maps and mathematical morphology, using a combination of the texture and the image color information of the image, namely, the fractal features based on fractal dimension are selected to present the information texture, and the color features presented in RGB color space. These features are then used to train the network Kohonen, which will be represented by the underlying probability density function, the segmentation of this map is made by morphological watershed transformation. The performance of our color-texture segmentation approach is compared first, to color-based methods or texture-based methods only, and then to k-means method.

Keywords: segmentation, color-texture, neural networks, fractal, watershed

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2177 A Review on Artificial Neural Networks in Image Processing

Authors: B. Afsharipoor, E. Nazemi

Abstract:

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are powerful tool for prediction which can be trained based on a set of examples and thus, it would be useful for nonlinear image processing. The present paper reviews several paper regarding applications of ANN in image processing to shed the light on advantage and disadvantage of ANNs in this field. Different steps in the image processing chain including pre-processing, enhancement, segmentation, object recognition, image understanding and optimization by using ANN are summarized. Furthermore, results on using multi artificial neural networks are presented.

Keywords: neural networks, image processing, segmentation, object recognition, image understanding, optimization, MANN

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2176 Multi-Atlas Segmentation Based on Dynamic Energy Model: Application to Brain MR Images

Authors: Jie Huo, Jonathan Wu

Abstract:

Segmentation of anatomical structures in medical images is essential for scientific inquiry into the complex relationships between biological structure and clinical diagnosis, treatment and assessment. As a method of incorporating the prior knowledge and the anatomical structure similarity between a target image and atlases, multi-atlas segmentation has been successfully applied in segmenting a variety of medical images, including the brain, cardiac, and abdominal images. The basic idea of multi-atlas segmentation is to transfer the labels in atlases to the coordinate of the target image by matching the target patch to the atlas patch in the neighborhood. However, this technique is limited by the pairwise registration between target image and atlases. In this paper, a novel multi-atlas segmentation approach is proposed by introducing a dynamic energy model. First, the target is mapped to each atlas image by minimizing the dynamic energy function, then the segmentation of target image is generated by weighted fusion based on the energy. The method is tested on MICCAI 2012 Multi-Atlas Labeling Challenge dataset which includes 20 target images and 15 atlases images. The paper also analyzes the influence of different parameters of the dynamic energy model on the segmentation accuracy and measures the dice coefficient by using different feature terms with the energy model. The highest mean dice coefficient obtained with the proposed method is 0.861, which is competitive compared with the recently published method.

Keywords: brain MRI segmentation, dynamic energy model, multi-atlas segmentation, energy minimization

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2175 Non-Local Simultaneous Sparse Unmixing for Hyperspectral Data

Authors: Fanqiang Kong, Chending Bian

Abstract:

Sparse unmixing is a promising approach in a semisupervised fashion by assuming that the observed pixels of a hyperspectral image can be expressed in the form of linear combination of only a few pure spectral signatures (end members) in an available spectral library. However, the sparse unmixing problem still remains a great challenge at finding the optimal subset of endmembers for the observed data from a large standard spectral library, without considering the spatial information. Under such circumstances, a sparse unmixing algorithm termed as non-local simultaneous sparse unmixing (NLSSU) is presented. In NLSSU, the non-local simultaneous sparse representation method for endmember selection of sparse unmixing, is used to finding the optimal subset of endmembers for the similar image patch set in the hyperspectral image. And then, the non-local means method, as a regularizer for abundance estimation of sparse unmixing, is used to exploit the abundance image non-local self-similarity. Experimental results on both simulated and real data demonstrate that NLSSU outperforms the other algorithms, with a better spectral unmixing accuracy.

Keywords: hyperspectral unmixing, simultaneous sparse representation, sparse regression, non-local means

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2174 Computer-Aided Detection of Simultaneous Abdominal Organ CT Images by Iterative Watershed Transform

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid

Abstract:

Interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer-aided diagnosis applications. Segmentation of liver, spleen and kidneys is regarded as a major primary step in the computer-aided diagnosis of abdominal organ diseases. In this paper, a semi-automated method for medical image data is presented for the abdominal organ segmentation data using mathematical morphology. Our proposed method is based on hierarchical segmentation and watershed algorithm. In our approach, a powerful technique has been designed to suppress over-segmentation based on mosaic image and on the computation of the watershed transform. Our algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to improve the quality of the gradient-mosaic image. In this step, we propose a method for improving the gradient-mosaic image by applying the anisotropic diffusion filter followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter, we proceed to the hierarchical segmentation of the liver, spleen and kidney. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion filter, CT images, morphological filter, mosaic image, simultaneous organ segmentation, the watershed algorithm

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2173 Image Analysis for Obturator Foramen Based on Marker-controlled Watershed Segmentation and Zernike Moments

Authors: Seda Sahin, Emin Akata

Abstract:

Obturator foramen is a specific structure in pelvic bone images and recognition of it is a new concept in medical image processing. Moreover, segmentation of bone structures such as obturator foramen plays an essential role for clinical research in orthopedics. In this paper, we present a novel method to analyze the similarity between the substructures of the imaged region and a hand drawn template, on hip radiographs to detect obturator foramen accurately with integrated usage of Marker-controlled Watershed segmentation and Zernike moment feature descriptor. Marker-controlled Watershed segmentation is applied to seperate obturator foramen from the background effectively. Zernike moment feature descriptor is used to provide matching between binary template image and the segmented binary image for obturator foramens for final extraction. The proposed method is tested on randomly selected 100 hip radiographs. The experimental results represent that our method is able to segment obturator foramens with % 96 accuracy.

Keywords: medical image analysis, segmentation of bone structures on hip radiographs, marker-controlled watershed segmentation, zernike moment feature descriptor

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2172 Performance Evaluation of Various Segmentation Techniques on MRI of Brain Tissue

Authors: U.V. Suryawanshi, S.S. Chowhan, U.V Kulkarni

Abstract:

Accuracy of segmentation methods is of great importance in brain image analysis. Tissue classification in Magnetic Resonance brain images (MRI) is an important issue in the analysis of several brain dementias. This paper portraits performance of segmentation techniques that are used on Brain MRI. A large variety of algorithms for segmentation of Brain MRI has been developed. The objective of this paper is to perform a segmentation process on MR images of the human brain, using Fuzzy c-means (FCM), Kernel based Fuzzy c-means clustering (KFCM), Spatial Fuzzy c-means (SFCM) and Improved Fuzzy c-means (IFCM). The review covers imaging modalities, MRI and methods for noise reduction and segmentation approaches. All methods are applied on MRI brain images which are degraded by salt-pepper noise demonstrate that the IFCM algorithm performs more robust to noise than the standard FCM algorithm. We conclude with a discussion on the trend of future research in brain segmentation and changing norms in IFCM for better results.

Keywords: image segmentation, preprocessing, MRI, FCM, KFCM, SFCM, IFCM

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2171 A Technique for Image Segmentation Using K-Means Clustering Classification

Authors: Sadia Basar, Naila Habib, Awais Adnan

Abstract:

The paper presents the Technique for Image Segmentation Using K-Means Clustering Classification. The presented algorithms were specific, however, missed the neighboring information and required high-speed computerized machines to run the segmentation algorithms. Clustering is the process of partitioning a group of data points into a small number of clusters. The proposed method is content-aware and feature extraction method which is able to run on low-end computerized machines, simple algorithm, required low-quality streaming, efficient and used for security purpose. It has the capability to highlight the boundary and the object. At first, the user enters the data in the representation of the input. Then in the next step, the digital image is converted into groups clusters. Clusters are divided into many regions. The same categories with same features of clusters are assembled within a group and different clusters are placed in other groups. Finally, the clusters are combined with respect to similar features and then represented in the form of segments. The clustered image depicts the clear representation of the digital image in order to highlight the regions and boundaries of the image. At last, the final image is presented in the form of segments. All colors of the image are separated in clusters.

Keywords: clustering, image segmentation, K-means function, local and global minimum, region

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2170 On Musical Information Geometry with Applications to Sonified Image Analysis

Authors: Shannon Steinmetz, Ellen Gethner

Abstract:

In this paper, a theoretical foundation is developed for patterned segmentation of audio using the geometry of music and statistical manifold. We demonstrate image content clustering using conic space sonification. The algorithm takes a geodesic curve as a model estimator of the three-parameter Gamma distribution. The random variable is parameterized by musical centricity and centric velocity. Model parameters predict audio segmentation in the form of duration and frame count based on the likelihood of musical geometry transition. We provide an example using a database of randomly selected images, resulting in statistically significant clusters of similar image content.

Keywords: sonification, musical information geometry, image, content extraction, automated quantification, audio segmentation, pattern recognition

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2169 Defect Detection for Nanofibrous Images with Deep Learning-Based Approaches

Authors: Gaokai Liu

Abstract:

Automatic defect detection for nanomaterial images is widely required in industrial scenarios. Deep learning approaches are considered as the most effective solutions for the great majority of image-based tasks. In this paper, an edge guidance network for defect segmentation is proposed. First, the encoder path with multiple convolution and downsampling operations is applied to the acquisition of shared features. Then two decoder paths both are connected to the last convolution layer of the encoder and supervised by the edge and segmentation labels, respectively, to guide the whole training process. Meanwhile, the edge and encoder outputs from the same stage are concatenated to the segmentation corresponding part to further tune the segmentation result. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified via the experiments on open nanofibrous datasets.

Keywords: deep learning, defect detection, image segmentation, nanomaterials

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