Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4573

Search results for: urban commercial streets

4573 Urban Vitality: Methods for Measuring Vitality in Egypt's Commercial Streets

Authors: Alaa Eldien Sarhaan, Rania A. Galil, Yasmina Youssef

Abstract:

Vital streets transfer a totally different message from the lifeless streets; vitality is considered as the mobility dynamism for the city’s streets. The quality of a street is integral to the vitality. However, most efforts have focused on the requirements of cars resulting in the loss many qualities. A successful street is related to the needs and expectations of pedestrians. The amount of activity held in a place is one of the measures of vitality; hence the meaning of a vital street may be the result of a number of people engaged in various activities meeting their needs and expectations. Consequently, it varies from one city to another. This research focuses on vitality in commercial streets. It studies commercial streets in the Egyptian context, which have developed into a chaotic environment due to inefficiency and high-density activities. The first part identifies the meaning of vitality in the frame of its physical, social and economic dimensions, then determines the methods used in measuring vitality across commercial streets. Secondly, an application on one of the most important commercial streets in Alexandria ‘El-Attareen’ street is chosen as a case study to measure its vitality. The study contributes to a greater understanding of how theories on vital urban life contribute to the development of vital commercial streets in the Egyptian and similar contexts.

Keywords: footfall measurement, vitality, urban commercial streets, yield factor

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4572 Strategy Research for the Development of Thematic Commercial Streets - Based On the Survey of Eight Typical Thematic Commercial Streets in Harbin

Authors: Wang Zhenzhen, Wang Xu, Hong Liangping

Abstract:

The construction of thematic commercial streets has been on the hotspot with the rapid development of cities. In order to improve the image and competitiveness of cities, many cities are building or rebuilding thematic commercial streets. However, many contradictions and problems have emerged during this process. Therefore, it is significant, for both the practice and the research, to analyse the development of thematic commercial streets and provide some useful suggestions. Through the deep research and comparative study of the eight typical thematic commercial streets in Harbin, this paper summarize the current situations, laws and influencing factors of the development of these streets, and then put forward some suggestions about the plan, constructions and developments of the thematic commercial streets.

Keywords: thematic commercial streets, laws of the development, influence factors, the constructions and developments, degrees of aggregation

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4571 Elements of Successful Commercial Streets: A Socio-Spatial Analysis of Commercial Streets in Cairo

Authors: Toka Aly

Abstract:

Historically, marketplaces were the most important nodes and focal points of cities, where different activities took place. Commercial streets offer more than just spaces for shopping; they also offer choices for social activities and cultural exchange. They are considered the backbone of the city’s vibrancy and vitality. Despite that, the public life in Cairo’s commercial streets has deteriorated, where the shopping activities became reliant mainly on 'planned formal places', mainly in privatized or indoor spaces like shopping malls. The main aim of this paper is to explore the key elements and tools of assessing the successfulness of commercial streets in Cairo. The methodology followed in this paper is based on a case study methodology (multiple cases) that is based on assessing and analyzing the physical and social elements in historical and contemporary commercial streets in El Muiz Street and Baghdad Street in Cairo. The data collection is based on personal observations, photographs, maps and street sections. Findings indicate that the key factors of analyzing commercial streets are factors affecting the sensory experience, factors affecting the social behavior, and general aspects that attract people. Findings also indicate that urban features have clear influence on shopping pedestrian activities in both streets. Moreover, in order for a commercial street to be successful, shopping patterns must provide people with a quality public space that can provide easy navigation and accessibility, good visual continuity, and well-designed urban features and social gathering. Outcomes of this study will be a significant endeavor in providing a good background for urban designers on analyzing and assessing successfulness of commercial streets. The study will also help in understanding the different physical and social pattern of vending activities taking place in Cairo.

Keywords: activities, commercial street, marketplace, successful, vending

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4570 Investigating Informal Vending Practices and Social Encounters along Commercial Streets in Cairo, Egypt

Authors: Dalya M. Hassan

Abstract:

Marketplaces and commercial streets represent some of the most used and lively urban public spaces. Not only do they provide an outlet for commercial exchange, but they also facilitate social and recreational encounters. Such encounters can be influenced by both formal as well as informal vending activities. This paper explores and documents forms of informal vending practices and how they relate to social patterns that occur along the sidewalks of Commercial Streets in Cairo. A qualitative single case study approach of ‘Midan El Gami’ marketplace in Heliopolis, Cairo is adopted. The methodology applied includes direct and walk-by observations for two main commercial streets in the marketplace. Four zoomed-in activity maps are also done for three sidewalk segments that displayed varying vending and social features. Main findings include a documentation and classification of types of informal vending practices as well as a documentation of vendors’ distribution patterns in the urban space. Informal vending activities mainly included informal street vendors and shop spillovers, either as product or seating spillovers. Results indicated that staying and lingering activities were more prevalent in sidewalks that had certain physical features, such as diversity of shops, shaded areas, open frontages, and product or seating spillovers. Moreover, differences in social activity patterns were noted between sidewalks with street vendors and sidewalks with spillovers. While the first displayed more buying, selling, and people watching activities, the latter displayed more social relations and bonds amongst traders’ communities and café patrons. Ultimately, this paper provides a documentation, which suggests that informal vending can have a positive influence on creating a lively commercial street and on resulting patterns of use on the sidewalk space. The results can provide a basis for further investigations and analysis concerning this topic. This could aid in better accommodating informal vending activities within the design of future commercial streets.

Keywords: commercial streets, informal vending practices, sidewalks, social encounters

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4569 Research of Street Aspect Ratio on a Wind Environmental Perspective

Authors: Qi Kan, Xiaoyu Ying

Abstract:

With a rapid urbanization in China, the high-density new urban-center districts have already changed the microclimate in the city. Because of the using characters of building the commercial pedestrian streets which have emerged massively making a large number of pedestrians appear in there, pedestrian comfort in the commercial streets of the new urban-center districts requires more attention. The different street spatial layout will change the wind environment in the street and then influence the pedestrian comfort. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are used to study the correlation between the street aspect ratio and wind environment, under the simulation with relevant weather conditions. The results show that the wind speed in the city streets is inversely proportional to the street aspect ratio. The conclusion will provide an evaluation basis for urban planners and architects at the beginning stage of the design to effectively avoid the potential poor physical environment.

Keywords: street spatial layout, wind environment, street aspect ratio, pedestrian comfort

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4568 Analysis of Street Utilization Patterns in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

Authors: I. D. Mngutyo, T. T. Gyuse, D. S. A. Alaci, J. Atser

Abstract:

Streets are public spaces that are meaningful to all people because of lack of restriction on streets. Studies show that conditions, activities and people contribute to the success of public spaces. Also, self-organization potential in activity patterns offers a prospect for the revitalization of an urban area. This potential is mostly ignored hence many African streets appear disorganized giving African urban areas an unplanned look. Therefore, this study aims to analyze street utilization patterns and explore the relationship between the pattern of street use and condition of streets in Makurdi.These activity patterns form a data base for the revitalization of public space. Three major and minor arterials streets in nine out of the eleven wards that make up the built up part of Makurdi were purposively selected as units for measurement. A street activity audit was done on streets for activities that can be observed. For activities that cannot be easily observed 4 questionnaires were randomly administered on each of the three streets giving a total of 108 questionnaires. Multivariate statistical tools such as factor analysis and regression will be used to show emerging streets activity patterns and spatial variation among the nine wards.

Keywords: streets, utilization patterns, revitalization, urban design, urban, areas, developing countries

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4567 Visual Simulation for the Relationship of Urban Fabric

Authors: Ting-Yu Lin, Han-Liang Lin

Abstract:

This article is about the urban form of visualization by Cityengine. City is composed of different domains, and each domain has its own fabric because of arrangement. For example, a neighborhood unit contains fabrics such as schools, street networks, residential and commercial spaces. Therefore, studying urban morphology can help us understand the urban form in planning process. Streets, plots, and buildings seem as urban fabrics, and they configure urban form. Traditionally, urban morphology usually discussed single parameter, which is building type, ignoring other parameters such as streets and plots. However, urban space is three-dimensional, instead of two-dimensional. People perceive urban space by their visualization. Therefore, using visualization can fill the gap between two dimensions and three dimensions. Hence, the study of urban morphology will strengthen the understanding of whole appearance of a city. Cityengine is a software which can edit, analyze and monitor the data and visualize the result for GIS, a common tool to analyze data and display the map for urban plan and urban design. Cityengine can parameterize the data of streets, plots and building types and visualize the result in three-dimensional way. The research will reappear the real urban form by visualizing. We can know whether the urban form can be parameterized and the parameterized result can match the real urban form. Then, visualizing the result by software in three dimension to analyze the rule of urban form. There will be three stages of the research. It will start with a field survey of Tainan East District in Taiwan to conclude the relationships between urban fabrics of street networks, plots and building types. Second, to visualize the relationship, it will turn the relationship into codes which Cityengine can read. Last, Cityengine will automatically display the result by visualizing.

Keywords: Cityengine, urban fabric, urban morphology, visual simulation

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4566 A Comprehensive Approach to Create ‘Livable Streets’ in the Mixed Land Use of Urban Neighborhoods Applying Urban Design Principles Which Will Achieve Quality of Life for Pedestrians

Authors: K. C. Tanuja, Mamatha P. Raj

Abstract:

Urbanisation is happening rapidly all over the world. As population increasing in the urban settlements, its required to provide quality of life to all the inhabitants who live in. Urban design is a place making strategic planning. Urban design principles promote visualising any place environmentally, socially and economically viable. Urban design strategies include building mass, transit development, economic viability and sustenance and social aspects.

Keywords: livable streets, social interaction, pedestrian use, urban design

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4565 The Balance between the Two Characters of the Night: A Study on the Nightscape of Pei Ho Street and Yen Chow Street West in Sham Shui Po

Authors: Lei Danyang, Lu Jialiang

Abstract:

As nightlife is getting richer in urban area, urban nightscape has become an increasingly important part of the urban landscape. Understanding urban nightscape from the perspec­tive of pedestrian perception is very important to improve the livability and walkability of a city. The purpose of this study is to analyze the nightscapes of two different urban forms. The research methods are literature investigation and field investigation. From analyzing the lighting, sensory ex­perience, and night activities, this research studies the two streets, Pei Ho Street and Yen Chow Street West in Sham Shui Po. Results revealed that the two streets are on the two extremes of the two characters of the night and a better balance needs to be found between them. Because of the different land usage and stakeholders, the two streets should play different roles in the nightscape, so their balance points are also different. On the one hand, Pei Ho Street, which has a strong commercial atmos­phere, should not only retain its vitality and diversity but also ensure its function of relaxation at night; on the other hand, in Yen Chow Street West, it is necessary to develop its potential of reconnecting people with the darkness of the night while ensur­ing its safety. These findings may not only provide policymak­ers with information to help them improve the nightscape and livability of the Sham Shui Po area but also help bridge the gap between research and design. In the future, more attention should be paid to pedestrian preference and nightscape perception of vulnerable groups.

Keywords: Hong Kong, pedestrian perception, Sham Shui Po, urban form, urban nightscape

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4564 A Comprehensive Approach to Create ‘Livable Streets’ in the Mixed Land Use of Urban Neighborhoods: A Case Study of Bangalore Street

Authors: K. C. Tanuja, Mamatha P. Raj

Abstract:

"People have always lived on streets. They have been the places where children first learned about the world, where neighbours met, the social centres of towns and cities, the rallying points for revolts, the scenes of repression. The street has always been the scene of this conflict, between living and access, between resident and traveller, between street life and the threat of death.” Livable Streets by Donald Appleyard. Urbanisation is happening rapidly all over the world. As population increasing in the urban settlements, its required to provide quality of life to all the inhabitants who live in. Urban design is a place making strategic planning. Urban design principles promote visualising any place environmentally, socially and economically viable. Urban design strategies include building mass, transit development, economic viability and sustenance and social aspects. Cities are wonderful inventions of diversity- People, things, activities, ideas and ideologies. Cities should be smarter and adjustable to present technology and intelligent system. Streets represent the community in terms of social and physical aspects. Streets are an urban form that responds to many issues and are central to urban life. Streets are for livability, safety, mobility, place of interest, economic opportunity, balancing the ecology and for mass transit. Urban streets are places where people walk, shop, meet and engage in different types of social and recreational activities which make urban community enjoyable. Streets knit the urban fabric of activities. Urban streets become livable with the introduction of social network enhancing the pedestrian character by providing good design features which in turn should achieve the minimal impact of motor vehicle use on pedestrians. Livable streets are the spatial definition to the public right of way on urban streets. Streets in India have traditionally been the public spaces where social life happened or created from ages. Streets constitute the urban public realm where people congregate, celebrate and interact. Streets are public places that can promote social interaction, active living and community identity. Streets as potential contributors to a better living environment, knitting together the urban fabric of people and places that make up a community. Livable streets or complete streets are making our streets as social places, roadways and sidewalks accessible, safe, efficient and useable for all people. The purpose of this paper is to understand the concept of livable street and parameters of livability on urban streets. Streets to be designed as the pedestrians are the main users and create spaces and furniture for social interaction which serves for the needs of the people of all ages and abilities. The problems of streets like congestion due to width of the street, traffic movement and adjacent land use and type of movement need to be redesigned and improve conditions defining the clear movement path for vehicles and pedestrians. Well-designed spatial qualities of street enhances the street environment, livability and then achieves quality of life to the pedestrians. A methodology been derived to arrive at the typologies in street design after analysis of existing situation and comparing with livable standards. It was Donald Appleyard‟s Livable Streets laid out the social effects on streets creating the social network to achieve Livable Streets.

Keywords: livable streets, social interaction, pedestrian use, urban design

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4563 Urban Ecological Interaction: Air, Water, Light and New Transit at the Human Scale of Barcelona’s Superilles

Authors: Philip Speranza

Abstract:

As everyday transit options are shifting from autocentric to pedestrian and bicycle oriented modes for healthy living, downtown streets are becoming more attractive places to live. However, tools and methods to measure the natural environment at the small scale of streets do not exist. Fortunately, a combination of mobile data collection technology and parametric urban design software now allows an interface to relate urban ecological conditions. This paper describes creation of an interactive tool to measure urban phenomena of air, water, and heat/light at the scale of new three-by-three block pedestrianized areas in Barcelona called Superilles. Each Superilla limits transit to the exterior of the blocks and to create more walkable and bikeable interior streets for healthy living. The research will describe the integration of data collection, analysis, and design output via a live interface using parametric software Rhino Grasshopper and the Human User Interface (UI) plugin.

Keywords: transit, urban design, GIS, parametric design, Superilles, Barcelona, urban ecology

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4562 Spatial Evaluations of Haskoy: The Emperial Village

Authors: Yasemin Filiz-Kuruel, Emine Koseoglu

Abstract:

This study aims to evaluate Haskoy district of Beyoglu town of Istanbul. Haskoy is located in Halic region, between Kasimpasa district and Kagithane district. After the conquest of Istanbul, Fatih Sultan Mehmet (the Conqueror) set up his tent here. Therefore, the area gets its name as Haskoy, 'imperial village' that means a village which is special for Sultan. Today, there are shipyard and ateliers in variable sizes in Haskoy. In this study, the legibility of Haskoy streets is investigated comparatively. As a research method, semantic differential scale is used. The photos of the streets, which contain specific criteria, are chosen. The questionnaire is directed to first and third grade architecture students. The spatial evaluation of Haskoy streets is done through the survey.

Keywords: Haskoy, legibility, semantic differential scale, urban streets

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4561 Location Choice of Firms in an Unequal Length Streets Model: Game Theory Approach as an Extension of the Spoke Model

Authors: Kiumars Shahbazi, Salah Salimian, Abdolrahim Hashemi Dizaj

Abstract:

Locating is one of the key elements in success and survival of industrial centers and has great impact on cost reduction of establishment and launching of various economic activities. In this study, streets with unequal length model have been used that is the classic extension of Spoke model; however with unlimited number of streets with uneven lengths. The results showed that the spoke model is a special case of streets with unequal length model. According to the results of this study, if the strategy of enterprises and firms is to select both price and location, there would be no balance in the game. Furthermore, increased length of streets leads to increased profit of enterprises and with increased number of streets, the enterprises choose locations that are far from center (the maximum differentiation), and the enterprises' output will decrease. Moreover, the enterprise production rate will incline toward zero when the number of streets goes to infinity, and complete competition outcome will be achieved.

Keywords: locating, Nash equilibrium, streets with unequal length model, streets with unequal length model

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4560 A Future Urban Street Design in Baltimore, Maryland Based on a Hierarchy of Functional Needs and the Context of Autonomous Vehicles, Green Infrastructure, and Evolving Street Typologies

Authors: Samuel Quick

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to examine future urban street design in the context of developing technologies, evolving street typologies, and projected transportation trends. The goal was to envision a future urban street in the year 2060 that addresses the advent and implementation of autonomous vehicles, the promotion of new street typologies, and the projection of current transportation trends. Using a hierarchy of functional needs for urban streets, the future street was designed and evaluated based on the functions the street provides to the surrounding community. The site chosen for the future street design is an eight-block section of West North Avenue in the city of Baltimore, Maryland. Three different conceptual designs were initially completed and evaluated leading to a master plan for West North Avenue as well as street designs for connecting streets that represent different existing street types. Final designs were compared with the existing street design and evaluated with the adapted ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ theory. The review of the literature and the results from this paper indicate that urban streets will have to become increasingly multi-functional to meet the competing needs of the environment and community. Future streets will have to accommodate multimodal transit which will include mass transit, walking, and biking. Furthermore, a comprehensive implementation of green infrastructure within the urban street will provide access to nature for urban communities and essential stormwater management. With these developments, the future of an urban street will move closer to a greenway typology. Findings from this study indicate that urban street design will have to be policy-driven to promote and implement autonomous bus-rapid-transit in order to conserve street space for other functions. With this conservation of space, urban streets can then provide more functions to the surrounding community, taking a holistic approach to urban street design.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, greenway, green infrastructure, multi-modality, street typology

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4559 Effective Design Factors for Bicycle-Friendly Streets

Authors: Zohreh Asadi-Shekari, Mehdi Moeinaddini, Muhammad Zaly Shah, Amran Hamzah

Abstract:

Bicycle level of service (BLOS) is a measure for evaluating street conditions for cyclists. Currently, various methods are proposed for BLOS. These analytical methods however have some drawbacks: they usually assume cyclists as users that can share street facilities with motorized vehicles, it is not easy to link them to design process and they are not easy to follow. In addition, they only support a narrow range of cycling facilities and may not be applicable for all situations. Along this, the current paper introduces various effective design factors for bicycle-friendly streets. This study considers cyclists as users of streets who have special needs and facilities. Therefore, the key factors that influence BLOS based on different cycling facilities that are proposed by developed guidelines and literature are identified. The combination of these factors presents a complete set of effective design factors for bicycle-friendly streets. In addition, the weight of each factor in existing BLOS models is estimated and these effective factors are ranked based on these weights. These factors and their weights can be used in further studies to propose special bicycle-friendly street design model.

Keywords: bicycle level of service, bicycle-friendly streets, cycling facilities, rating system, urban streets

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4558 Economic Value Added of Green Marketing for Urban Commerical Center

Authors: Kuo-Wei Hsu, Yen-Ting, Wu

Abstract:

Recently, green marketing issues have emerged as the developing direction for local governments and social enterprises. At the same time, many social enterprises have considered how to effectively create a low-carbon and sustainable environment. Local government has a role to play in promoting low-carbon life styles and creating a green sustainable environment within this green marketing trend. Therefore, urban commercial centers have implemented relevant plans such as: Green Store, Green Action Shops, Green Restaurants and Green Hotels. The purpose of these plans to select the commercial center organizations have potential energy saving demonstration and environmental greenification. These organizations are willing to provide assistance counseling and become a green demonstration district, thereby promoting the major shopping district to take the initiative to enhance its green competitiveness. Finally, they create a new landscape for the commercial center. Studies on green marketing in commercial centers are seen as less attractive and only a few studies for commercial centers have focused on green marketing strategies. There is no empirical evidence for how commercial center managers evaluate a commercial center green marketing strategy. This research investigated the major commercial centers in Taichung City and found green marketing helps to enhance the connection between the urban commercial center value and society value, shape corporate image with social responsibility and create brand value, and therefore impact the increase of economic value.

Keywords: economic value added, green marketing, sustainable environment, urban commercial center.

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4557 Assessing the Walkability and Urban Design Qualities of Campus Streets

Authors: Zhehao Zhang

Abstract:

Walking has become an indispensable and sustainable way of travel for college students in their daily lives; campus street is an important carrier for students to walk and take part in a variety of activities, improving the walkability of campus streets plays an important role in optimizing the quality of campus space environment, promoting the campus walking system and inducing multiple walking behaviors. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of campus layout, facility distribution, and location site selection on the walkability of campus streets, and assess the street design qualities from the elements of imageability, enclosure, complexity, transparency, and human scale, and further examines the relationship between street-level urban design perceptual qualities and walkability and its effect on walking behavior in the campus. Taking Tianjin University as the research object, this paper uses the optimized walk score method based on walking frequency, variety, and distance to evaluate the walkability of streets from a macro perspective and measures the urban design qualities in terms of the calculation of street physical environment characteristics, as well as uses behavior annotation and street image data to establish temporal and spatial behavior database to analyze walking activity from the microscopic view. In addition, based on the conclusions, the improvement and design strategy will be presented from the aspects of the built walking environment, street vitality, and walking behavior.

Keywords: walkability, streetscapes, pedestrian activity, walk score

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4556 Research on Hangzhou Commercial Center System Based on Point of Interest Data

Authors: Chen Wang, Qiuxiao Chen

Abstract:

With the advent of the information age and the era of big data, urban planning research is no longer satisfied with the analysis and application of traditional data. Because of the limitations of traditional urban commercial center system research, big data provides new opportunities for urban research. Therefore, based on the quantitative evaluation method of big data, the commercial center system of the main city of Hangzhou is analyzed and evaluated, and the scale and hierarchical structure characteristics of the urban commercial center system are studied. In order to make up for the shortcomings of the existing POI extraction method, it proposes a POI extraction method based on adaptive adjustment of search window, which can accurately and efficiently extract the POI data of commercial business in the main city of Hangzhou. Through the visualization and nuclear density analysis of the extracted Point of Interest (POI) data, the current situation of the commercial center system in the main city of Hangzhou is evaluated. Then it compares with the commercial center system structure of 'Hangzhou City Master Plan (2001-2020)', analyzes the problems existing in the planned urban commercial center system, and provides corresponding suggestions and optimization strategy for the optimization of the planning of Hangzhou commercial center system. Then get the following conclusions: The status quo of the commercial center system in the main city of Hangzhou presents a first-level main center, a two-level main center, three third-level sub-centers, and multiple community-level business centers. Generally speaking, the construction of the main center in the commercial center system is basically up to standard, and there is still a big gap in the construction of the sub-center and the regional-level commercial center, further construction is needed. Therefore, it proposes an optimized hierarchical functional system, organizes commercial centers in an orderly manner; strengthens the central radiation to drive surrounding areas; implements the construction guidance of the center, effectively promotes the development of group formation and further improves the commercial center system structure of the main city of Hangzhou.

Keywords: business center system, business format, main city of Hangzhou, POI extraction method

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4555 Sewer Culvert Installation Method to Accommodate Underground Construction in an Urban Area with Narrow Streets

Authors: Osamu Igawa, Hiroshi Kouchiwa, Yuji Ito

Abstract:

In recent years, a reconstruction project for sewer pipelines has been progressing in Japan with the aim of renewing old sewer culverts. However, it is difficult to secure a sufficient base area for shafts in an urban area because many streets are narrow with a complex layout. As a result, construction in such urban areas is generally very demanding. In urban areas, there is a strong requirement for a safe, reliable and economical construction method that does not disturb the public’s daily life and urban activities. With this in mind, we developed a new construction method called the 'shield switching type micro-tunneling method' which integrates the micro-tunneling method and shield method. In this method, pipeline is constructed first for sections that are gently curved or straight using the economical micro-tunneling method, and then the method is switched to the shield method for sections with a sharp curve or a series of curves without establishing an intermediate shaft. This paper provides the information, features and construction examples of this newly developed method.

Keywords: micro-tunneling method, secondary lining applied RC segment, sharp curve, shield method, switching type

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4554 Connectivity: Connecting ActivityRethinking Streets as Public Space under the Six Dimensions of Urban Space Design in the Context of Bangladesh

Authors: Manal Anis, Bin Bakhti Sayeed

Abstract:

With the encroachment of automobile upon our communities for decades and the concomitant urban sprawl resulting in a loss of public place, it was only a matter of time before people, realizing the role of streets in stimulating urban prosperity, would start reclaiming them to rebuild their communities. In order for this restoration of communities to take effect it is imperative that streets be freed from the dominance of motor vehicles. A holistic approach to pedestrian-friendly street environment can help build communities that embody the cities in which they are found. While the developed countries are finding more and more innovative ways to integrate walkable streets to foster communal living, the developing countries still have a long way to go. Since Dhaka is still struggling to balance the growing needs of accommodating automobiles for increased population with the loss of urban community life that comes with it, it is high time that alternate approaches are looked into. This study aims to understand streets as a living corridor through which one discovers and identifies with the city. The research area is chosen to be Manik Mia Avenue, overlooking the South Plaza of the National Parliament Building in Dhaka city. Being the site of supreme power, it is precisely this symbolic importance that the National Parliament Building has in the psyche of Bangladeshis, which has given Manik Mia Avenue a significant place in the country’s history. Above all, being an avenue it is essentially a neutral territory, universally accessible, inclusive and pluralist. The needs of the Avenue’s frequent users are analyzed with the help of a multi-method approach to survey consisting of an empirical study, a questionnaire survey and interview with relevant users. The research then tries to understand the concept of walkability by exploring the different ways in which the built environment influences walking. For this analysis, the six dimensions of Matthew Carmona are taken as a guideline for a holistic approach toward the different interacting facets of an urban public space. Based on the studies, a set of criteria is proposed to evaluate, plan and design streets that are more contextual in nature. The study concludes with how the existing street patterns of Dhaka city can be rethought and redesigned to cater to peoples’ need for a public place. The proposal is meant to be an inspiration for further studies in this respect in the context of Bangladesh.

Keywords: public space, six dimensions, street, urban, walkability

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4553 Gendered Experiences of the Urban Space in India as Portrayed by Hindi Cinema: A Quantitative Analysis

Authors: Hugo Ribadeau Dumas

Abstract:

In India, cities represent intense battlefields where patriarchal norms are simultaneously defied and reinforced. While Indian metropolises have witnessed numerous initiatives where women boldly claimed their right to the city, urban spaces still remain disproportionately unfriendly to female city-dwellers. As a result, the presence of strees (women, in Hindi) in the streets remains a socially and politically potent phenomenon. This paper explores how, in India, women engage with the city as compared to men. Borrowing analytical tools from urban geography, it uses Hindi cinema as a medium to map the extent to which activities, attitudes and experiences in urban spaces are highly gendered. The sample consists of 30 movies, both mainstream and independent, which were released between 2010 and 2020, were set in an urban environment and comprised at least one pivotal female character. The paper adopts a quantitative approach, consisting of the scrutiny of close to 3,000 minutes of footage, the labeling and time count of every scene, and the computation of regressions to identify statistical relationships between characters and the way they navigate the city. According to the analysis, female characters spend half less time in the public space than their male counterparts. When they do step out, women do it mostly for utilitarian reasons; inversely, in private spaces or in pseudo-public commercial places – like malls – they indulge in fun activities. For male characters, the pattern is the exact opposite: fun takes place in public and serious work in private. The characters’ attitudes in the streets are also greatly gendered: men spend a significant amount of time immobile, loitering, while women are usually on the move, displaying some sense of purpose. Likewise, body language and emotional expressiveness betray differentiated gender scripts: while women wander in the streets either smiling – in a charming role – or with a hostile face – in a defensive mode – men are more likely to adopt neutral facial expressions. These trends were observed across all movies, although some nuances were identified depending on the character's age group, social background, and city, highlighting that the urban experience is not the same for all women. The empirical pieces of evidence presented in this study are helpful to reflect on the meaning of public space in the context of contemporary Indian cities. The paper ends with a discussion on the link between universal access to public spaces and women's empowerment.

Keywords: cinema, Indian cities, public space, women empowerment

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4552 Situated Urban Rituals: Rethinking the Meaning and Practice of Micro Culture in Cities in East Asia

Authors: Heide Imai

Abstract:

Contemporary cities, especially in Japan, have reached an indescribable complexity and excessive, global investments blur formal, rooted structures. Modern urban agglomerations blindly trust a macro understanding, whereas everyday activities which portray the human degree of living space are being suppressed and erased. The paper will draw upon the approach ‘Micro-Urbanism’ which focus on the sensitive and indigenous side of contemporary cities, which in fact can hold the authentic qualities of a city. Related to this approach is the term ‘Micro-Culture’ which is used to clarify the inner realities of the everyday living space on the example of the Japanese urban backstreet. The paper identifies an example of a ‘micro-zone’ in terms of ‘street space’, originally embedded in the landscape of the Japanese city. And although the approach ‘Micro-Urbanism’ is more complex, the understanding of the term can be tackled by a social analysis of the street, as shown on the backstreet called roji and closely linked examples of ‘situated’ urban rituals like (1) urban festivities, (2) local markets/ street vendors and (3) artistic, intellectual tactics. Likewise, the paper offers insights in a ‘community of streets’ which boundaries are specially shaped by cultural activity and social networks.

Keywords: urban rituals, community, streets as micro-zone, everyday space

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4551 Quality Assessment of Pedestrian Streets in Iran: Case Study of Saf, Tehran

Authors: Fstemeh Rais Esmaili, Ehsan Ranjbar

Abstract:

Pedestrian streets as one type of urban public spaces have an important role in improving the quality of urban life. In Iran, planning and designing of pedestrian streets is in its primary steps. In spite of starting this approach in Iran, and designing several pedestrian streets, there are still not organized studies about quality assessment of pedestrian streets. As a result, the strength and weakness points of the initial experiences have not been utilized. This inattention to quality assessment have caused designing pedestrian streets to be limited to just vehicles traffic control and preliminary actions like paving; so that, special potentials of pedestrian streets for creating social, livable and dynamic public spaces have not been used. This article, as an organized study about quality assessment of pedestrian streets in Iran, tries to reach two main goals: first, introducing a framework for quality assessment of pedestrian streets in Iran, and second, creating a context for improving the quality of pedestrian streets especially for further experiences. The main research methods are description and context analyzing. With respect to comparative analysis of ideas about quality, considering international and local case studies and analyzing existing condition of Saf Pedestrian Street, a particular model for quality assessment has been introduced. In this model, main components and assessment criteria have been presented. On the basis of this model, questionnaire and checklist for assessment have been prepared. The questionnaire and interview have been used to assess qualities which are in direct contact with people and the checklist has been used for analyzing visual qualities by authors through observation. Some results of questionnaire and checklist show that 7 of 11 primary components, diversity, flexibility, cleanness, legibility and imaginably, identity, livability, form and physical setting are rated low and very low in quality degree. Three components, efficiency, comfort and distinctiveness, have medium and low quality degree and one component, access, linkage and permeability has high quality degree. Therefore, based on implemented analyzing process, Saf Pedestrian Street needs to be improved and these quality improvement priorities are determined based on presented criteria. Adaption of final results with existing condition illustrates the shortage of services for satisfying user’s needs, inflexibility and impossibility of using spaces in various times, lack of facilities for different climatic conditions, lack of facilities such as drinking fountain, inappropriate designing of existing urban furniture like garbage cans, and creating pollution and unsuitable view, lack of visual attractions, neglecting disabled persons in designing entrances, shortage of benches and their undesirable designing, lack of vegetation, absence of special characters making it different from other streets, preventing people taking part in the space causing lack of affiliation, lack of appropriate elements for leisure time and lack of exhilaration in the space. On the other hand, these results present high access and permeability, high safety, less sound pollution and more relief, comfortable movement along the way due to suitable pavement and economic efficiency, as the strength points of Saf pedestrian street.

Keywords: pedestrian streets, quality assessment, quality criteria, Saf Pedestrian Street

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4550 A New Direction of Urban Regeneration: Form-Based Urban Reconstruction through the Idea of Bricolage

Authors: Hyejin Song, Jin Baek

Abstract:

Based on the idea of bricolage that a new meaning beyond that of each of objects can be created through combination and juxtaposition of various objets, this study finds a way of morphological-recomposing of urban space through combination and juxtaposition of existing urban fabric and new fabric and suggests this idea as new direction of urban regeneration. This study sets concept of bricolage as a philosophical ground of interpreting contemporary urban situation. In this concept, urban objects such as buildings from various zeitgeists are positively considered as potential textures which can construct meaningful context. Seoul, as the city having long history and experiencing colonization and development, appears dynamic urban structure full of various objects from various periods. However, in contrast with successful plazas and streets in Europe, objects in Seoul do not make a meaningful context as public space due to thoughtless development. This study defines this situation as ‘disorgnized-fabric’. Following the concept of bricolage, to find the way for those existing scattered objects to be organized as a context of meaningful public space, this study firstly researches the case of successful public space by morphological analysis. Secondly, this study carefully explores urban space in Seoul, and draws figure-ground diagram to grasp the form of current urban fabric by various urban-objects. As a result of exploration, a lot of urban spaces from Myeong-dong, one of vibrant commercial district in Seoul, to declining residential area are judged as having potential fabric which can become meaningful context by just small adjustment of relationship between existing objects. This study also confirmed that by inserting a new object with consideration of form of existing fabric, it is possible to accord a new context as plaza to existing void which have broken as several parts. This study defines it as form-based urban reconstruction through the idea of bricolage, and suggests that it could be one of philosophical ground of successful urban regeneration.

Keywords: adjustment of relationship between existing objets, bricolage, morphological analysis of urban fabric, urban regeneration, urban reconstruction

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4549 Survival Strategies of Street Children Using the Urban Space: A Case Study at Sealdah Railway Station Area, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Authors: Sibnath Sarkar

Abstract:

Developing countries are facing many Social problems. In India, too there are several such problems. The problem of street children is one of them. No country or city anywhere in the world today is without the presence of street children, but the problem is most acute in developing countries. Thousands of street children can be seen in our populous cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, and Chennai. Most of them are in the age group of 5-15 years. The number of street children is increasing gradually. Poverty, unemployment, rapid urbanization, rural-urban migrations are the root causes of street children. Being deprive from many of their, they have escaped to the street as a safe place for living. Street children always related with the urban spaces in the developing world and it represents a sad outcome of the rapid urbanization process. After coming to the streets, these children have to cope with the new situation every day. They also adopt or develop many complex survival strategies and a variety of different informal or even illegal activities in public space and form supportive social networks in order to survive in street life. Street children use the different suitable urban spaces as their earning, living, entertaining spot. Therefore, the livelihoods of young people on the street should analyze in relation to the spaces they use, as well as their age and length of stay on the streets. This paper tries to explore the livelihood strategies and copping situation of street children in Sealdah station area. One hundred seventy-five street living children are included in the study living in and around the railway station.

Keywords: strategies, street children, survive, urban-space

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4548 Characters of Developing Commercial Employment Sub-Centres and Employment Density in Ahmedabad City

Authors: Bhaumik Patel, Amit Gotecha

Abstract:

Commercial centres of different hierarchy and sizes play a vital role in the growth and development of the city. Economic uncertainty and demand for space leads to more urban sprawl and emerging more commercial spaces. The study was focused on the understanding of various indicators affecting the commercial development that can help to solve many issues related to commercial urban development and can guide for future employment growth centre development, Accessibility, Infrastructure, Planning and development regulations and Market forces. The aim of the study was to review characteristics and identifying employment density of Commercial Employment Sub-centres by achieving objectives Understanding various employment sub-centres, Identifying characteristics and deriving behaviour of employment densities and Evaluating and comparing employment sub-centres for the Ahmedabad city. Commercial employment sub-centres one in old city (Kalupur), second in highly developed commercial (C.G.road-Ashram road) and third in the latest developing commercial area (Prahladnagar) were identified by distance from city centre, Land use diversity, Access to Major roads and Public transport, Population density in proximity, Complimentary land uses in proximity and Land price. Commercial activities were categorised into retail, wholesale and service sector and sub categorised into various activities. From the study, Time period of establishment of the unit is a critical parameter for commercial activity, building height, and land-use diversity. Employment diversity is also one parameter for the commercial centre. The old city has retail, wholesale and trading and higher commercial density concerning units and employment both. Prahladnagar area functioned as commercial due to market pressure and developed as more units rather than a requirement. Employment density is higher in the centre of the city, as far as distance increases from city centre employment density and unit density decreases. Characters of influencing employment density and unit density are distance from city centre, development type, establishment time period, building density, unit density, public transport accessibility and road connectivity.

Keywords: commercial employment sub-centres, employment density, employment diversity, unit density

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4547 Associations between Sharing Bike Usage and Characteristics of Urban Street Built Environment in Wuhan, China

Authors: Miao Li, Mengyuan Xu

Abstract:

As a low-carbon travel mode, bicycling has drawn increasing political interest in the contemporary Chinese urban context, and the public sharing bikes have become the most popular ways of bike usage in China now. This research aims to explore the spatial-temporal relationship between sharing bike usage and different characteristics of the urban street built environment. In the research, street segments were used as the analytic unit of the street built environment defined by street intersections. The sharing bike usage data in the research include a total of 2.64 million samples that are the entire sharing bike distribution data recorded in two days in 2018 within a neighborhood of 185.4 hectares in the city of Wuhan, China. And these data are assigned to the 97 urban street segments in this area based on their geographic location. The built environment variables used in this research are categorized into three sections: 1) street design characteristics, such as street width, street greenery, types of bicycle lanes; 2) condition of other public transportation, such as the availability of metro station; 3) Street function characteristics that are described by the categories and density of the point of interest (POI) along the segments. Spatial Lag Models (SLM) were used in order to reveal the relationships of specific urban streets built environment characteristics and the likelihood of sharing bicycling usage in whole and different periods a day. The results show: 1) there is spatial autocorrelation among sharing bicycling usage of urban streets in case area in general, non-working day, working day and each period of a day, which presents a clustering pattern in the street space; 2) a statistically strong association between bike sharing usage and several different built environment characteristics such as POI density, types of bicycle lanes and street width; 3) the pattern that bike sharing usage is influenced by built environment characteristics depends on the period within a day. These findings could be useful for policymakers and urban designers to better understand the factors affecting bike sharing system and thus propose guidance and strategy for urban street planning and design in order to promote the use of sharing bikes.

Keywords: big data, sharing bike usage, spatial statistics, urban street built environment

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4546 Between Riots and Protests: A Structural Approach to Urban Environmental Uprisings in China

Authors: Zi Zhu

Abstract:

The last decade has witnessed increasing urban environmental uprisings in China, as thousands of citizens swarmed into streets to express their deep concerns about the environmental threat and public health through various collective actions. The prevalent western approaches to collective actions, which usually treat urban riots and social movements as distinct phenomenon, have plagued an adequate analysis of the urban environmental uprisings in China. The increasing urban environmental contention can neither be categorized into riots nor social movements, as they carry the features of both: at first sight, they are spontaneous, disorganized and disruptive with an absence of observable mobilization process; however, unlike riots in the west, these collective actions conveyed explicit demand in a mostly non-destructive way rather than a pure expression of frustration. This article proposes a different approach to urban environmental uprisings in China which concerns the diminishing boundaries between riots and social movements and points to the underlying structural causes to the unique forms of urban environmental contention. Taking the urban anti-PX protests as examples, this article analyzes the societal and political structural environment faced by the Chinese environmental protesters and its influence on the origin and development of their contention.

Keywords: urban environmental uprisings, China, anti-PX protests, opportunity structure

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4545 Thermal Comfort and Outdoor Urban Spaces in the Hot Dry City of Damascus, Syria

Authors: Lujain Khraiba

Abstract:

Recently, there is a broad recognition that micro-climate conditions contribute to the quality of life in urban spaces outdoors, both from economical and social viewpoints. The consideration of urban micro-climate and outdoor thermal comfort in urban design and planning processes has become one of the important aspects in current related studies. However, these aspects are so far not considered in urban planning regulations in practice and these regulations are often poorly adapted to the local climate and culture. Therefore, there is a huge need to adapt the existing planning regulations to the local climate especially in cities that have extremely hot weather conditions. The overall aim of this study is to point out the complexity of the relationship between urban planning regulations, urban design, micro-climate and outdoor thermal comfort in the hot dry city of Damascus, Syria. The main aim is to investigate the temporal and spatial effects of micro-climate on urban surface temperatures and outdoor thermal comfort in different urban design patterns as a result of urban planning regulations during the extreme summer conditions. In addition, studying different alternatives of how to mitigate the surface temperature and thermal stress is also a part of the aim. The novelty of this study is to highlight the combined effect of urban surface materials and vegetation to develop the thermal environment. This study is based on micro-climate simulations using ENVI-met 3.1. The input data is calibrated according to a micro-climate fieldwork that has been conducted in different urban zones in Damascus. Different urban forms and geometries including the old and the modern parts of Damascus are thermally evaluated. The Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index is used as an indicator for outdoor thermal comfort analysis. The study highlights the shortcomings of existing planning regulations in terms of solar protection especially at street levels. The results show that the surface temperatures in Old Damascus are lower than in the modern part. This is basically due to the difference in urban geometries that prevent the solar radiation in Old Damascus to reach the ground and heat up the surface whereas in modern Damascus, the streets are prescribed as wide spaces with high values of Sky View Factor (SVF is about 0.7). Moreover, the canyons in the old part are paved in cobblestones whereas the asphalt is the main material used in the streets of modern Damascus. Furthermore, Old Damascus is less stressful than the modern part (the difference in PET index is about 10 °C). The thermal situation is enhanced when different vegetation are considered (an improvement of 13 °C in the surface temperature is recorded in modern Damascus). The study recommends considering a detailed landscape code at street levels to be integrated in urban regulations of Damascus in order to achieve a better urban development in harmony with micro-climate and comfort. Such strategy will be very useful to decrease the urban warming in the city.

Keywords: micro-climate, outdoor thermal comfort, urban planning regulations, urban spaces

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4544 Historical Analysis of Two Types of Urbanization Changing Both the Aspect and Identity of a Town in Transylvania, Romania

Authors: Ágota Ladó

Abstract:

Miercurea Ciuc is a town in the historical region of Szeklerland in Transylvania, Romania, with a predominantly Hungarian population (its name in Hungarian being Csíkszereda) having an urban landscape and environment that has been shaped dramatically by different perceptions of urbanization during the history. The town has been part of Hungary and the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War. It even got an important role, becoming in 1876 the seat and administrative center of the historical Csík county. This marks the beginning of the first urbanization process: new administrative buildings, railways, a railway station, a hospital, a Redoute and new schools have been built, new streets have been opened. However, not only the public facilities have changed: the center of the town with its private houses has also transformed, new, modern decorative and lifestyle elements have appeared. One of the streets from the town center, Kossuth street, has been featured on many postcards of the time; even a novel has mentioned it as a symbol of modern urbanization. Right after the First World War, the town became part of Romania and aside from a short interruption (between 1940 and 1944), it is still part of it. The beginning of the second major urbanization process – exactly one hundred years later - is marked by the visit of the communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu in Miercurea Ciuc on the 6th of October 1976. In the upcoming years, he decided and started to demolish the old Kossuth street and to construct a new avenue with tall blocks of flats according to the principles of socialist urbanization. No other Transylvanian settlement has gone through such systematic abolition of its historical center and urban history during the Communist era. Not only the urban landscape has been affected. The collective memory and contemporary identity of the locals are also violated by this recent transformation of the town: important spaces, buildings, venues of activities and events simply cannot be localized, thus understood - by the younger generations.

Keywords: communist era, historical urban landscape, urban identity, urbanization

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