Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: UCSF chimer

5 In Silico Analysis of Deleterious nsSNPs (Missense) of Dihydrolipoamide Branched-Chain Transacylase E2 Gene Associated with Maple Syrup Urine Disease Type II

Authors: Zainab S. Ahmed, Mohammed S. Ali, Nadia A. Elshiekh, Sami Adam Ibrahim, Ghada M. El-Tayeb, Ahmed H. Elsadig, Rihab A. Omer, Sofia B. Mohamed


Maple syrup urine (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease that causes a deficiency in the enzyme branched-chain alpha-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase. The development of disease has been associated with SNPs in the DBT gene. Despite that, the computational analysis of SNPs in coding and noncoding and their functional impacts on protein level still remains unknown. Hence, in this study, we carried out a comprehensive in silico analysis of missense that was predicted to have a harmful influence on DBT structure and function. In this study, eight different in silico prediction algorithms; SIFT, PROVEAN, MutPred, SNP&GO, PhD-SNP, PANTHER, I-Mutant 2.0 and MUpo were used for screening nsSNPs in DBT including. Additionally, to understand the effect of mutations in the strength of the interactions that bind protein together the ELASPIC servers were used. Finally, the 3D structure of DBT was formed using Mutation3D and Chimera servers respectively. Our result showed that a total of 15 nsSNPs confirmed by 4 software (R301C, R376H, W84R, S268F, W84C, F276C, H452R, R178H, I355T, V191G, M444T, T174A, I200T, R113H, and R178C) were found damaging and can lead to a shift in DBT gene structure. Moreover, we found 7 nsSNPs located on the 2-oxoacid_dh catalytic domain, 5 nsSNPs on the E_3 binding domain and 3 nsSNPs on the Biotin Domain. So these nsSNPs may alter the putative structure of DBT’s domain. Furthermore, we detected all these nsSNPs are on the core residues of the protein and have the ability to change the stability of the protein. Additionally, we found W84R, S268F, and M444T have high significance, and they affected Leucine, Isoleucine, and Valine, which reduces or disrupt the function of BCKD complex, E2-subunit which the DBT gene encodes. In conclusion, based on our extensive in-silico analysis, we report 15 nsSNPs that have possible association with protein deteriorating and disease-causing abilities. These candidate SNPs can aid in future studies on Maple Syrup Urine Disease type II base in the genetic level.

Keywords: DBT gene, ELASPIC, in silico analysis, UCSF chimer

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4 Liver Transplant for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Single Medical Center Experience in Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Chih Wang, Chia-Yu Lai, Hsiao-Tien Liu, Yi-Ju Chen, Shao-Bin Cheng


Liver transplant has been one of the curative treatment options for hepatocellular carcinomaunder certain oncological conditions. Two of the most validated criteria are from Milan in1996 and USCF in 2001, suggesting number and size limits of tumor without vascularinvasion or distant metastasis. We performed a retrospective cohort study of hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing livertransplant between August 2003 and December 2020 in our institute. Clinical andpathological characteristic, survival outcome, and recurrent pattern were analysed.UCSF criteria was applied for living donor transplantation, and Milan criteria was applied for deceased donor transplantation. Of 180 total patients, 52 cases(28.8%) with diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, including26 living donor(LD) and 26 deceased donor(DD) liver transplant. Complete pathologicalremission was significantly more in the DD group(p=0.009). Pathological reports showed that30.8% of DD group exceeded Milan criteria, and 19.2% of LD group exceeded UCSFcriteria.After a median follow-up of 52.2 months, the 1-year, 3-year and 5-year overall survival was 87.6%, 74.1%, and 71.8%, respectively.Meanwhile, progression-free survival was 93.1%, 85.7%, and 81.6% for 1, 3, and 5-year, respectively, similar to that in Mazzaferro et al, 1996. We concluded that Liver transplant could be applied cautiously in expanded criteria for patent withhepatocellular carcinoma.

Keywords: liver transplant, milan criteria, UCSF criteria, living donor transplantation, deceased donor transplantation

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3 Data Analytics of Electronic Medical Records Shows an Age-Related Differences in Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Maryam Panahiazar, Andrew M. Bishara, Yorick Chern, Roohallah Alizadehsani, Dexter Hadleye, Ramin E. Beygui


Early detection plays a crucial role in enhancing the outcome for a patient with coronary artery disease (CAD). We utilized a big data analytics platform on ~23,000 patients with CAD from a total of 960,129 UCSF patients in 8 years. We traced the patients from their first encounter with a physician to diagnose and treat CAD. Characteristics such as demographic information, comorbidities, vital, lab tests, medications, and procedures are included. There are statistically significant gender-based differences in patients younger than 60 years old from the time of the first physician encounter to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a p-value=0.03. There are no significant differences between the patients between 60 and 80 years old (p-value=0.8) and older than 80 (p-value=0.4) with a 95% confidence interval. This recognition would affect significant changes in the guideline for referral of the patients for diagnostic tests expeditiously to improve the outcome by avoiding the delay in treatment.

Keywords: electronic medical records, coronary artery disease, data analytics, young women

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2 Antiplasmodial Activity of Drimane Sesquiterpene Isolated from Warburgia salutaris

Authors: Mthokozisi Simelane


Background: Malaria remains a life-threatening disease in tropical regions despite the advances in the treatment of this disease, it still remains a significant burden as some parasites have become resistant to the currently available drugs. This has created a necessity for the development of alternative, more efficient antimalarial drugs. Warburgia salutaris is a traditional medicinal plant used in malaria treatment by Zulu traditional healers. Materials and methods: The W. salutaris stem-bark was extracted with dichloromethane and the compound was isolated through column chromatography. The compound was identified and characterized by spectroscopic analysis (1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and MS) and the structure was also confirmed by x-ray crystallography. The anti-plasmodial activity (in vitro) was studied on NF54 Plasmodium falciparum strain (CQS). Cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay on HEK239 and HEPG2 cell lines. Docking of Mukaadial acetate was conducted in AutoDock Vina. Structural modifications were conducted in UCSF Chimera and molecular interactions examined in LigPlot. Results: The compound, Mukaadial Acetate showed appreciable inhibition (IC50 0.44±0.10 µg/ml) of the parasite growth and cytotoxicity activity of 0.124±0.109 and 0.199±0.083 (µg/ml) on HEK293 and HEPG2 cells respectively. Molecular docking revealed that Mukaadial Acetate binds to the purine, pyrophosphate and ribose binding sites of the PfHGXPRT with an optimum binding conformation and forms hydrogen bond, steric and hydrophobic interactions with the residues inhabiting the respective binding sites. Conclusion: It is apparent that W. salutaris contains components (including Mukaadial Acetate) that exhibit antimalarial activity. This study scientifically validates the use of this plant in folk medicine.

Keywords: plasmodium falciparum, molecular docking, antimalarial activity, PfHGXPRT, Warburgia salutaris, mukaadial acetate

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1 Exploring Valproic Acid (VPA) Analogues Interactions with HDAC8 Involved in VPA Mediated Teratogenicity: A Toxicoinformatics Analysis

Authors: Sakshi Piplani, Ajit Kumar


Valproic acid (VPA) is the first synthetic therapeutic agent used to treat epileptic disorders, which account for affecting nearly 1% world population. Teratogenicity caused by VPA has prompted the search for next generation drug with better efficacy and lower side effects. Recent studies have posed HDAC8 as direct target of VPA that causes the teratogenic effect in foetus. We have employed molecular dynamics (MD) and docking simulations to understand the binding mode of VPA and their analogues onto HDAC8. A total of twenty 3D-structures of human HDAC8 isoforms were selected using BLAST-P search against PDB. Multiple sequence alignment was carried out using ClustalW and PDB-3F07 having least missing and mutated regions was selected for study. The missing residues of loop region were constructed using MODELLER and energy was minimized. A set of 216 structural analogues (>90% identity) of VPA were obtained from Pubchem and ZINC database and their energy was optimized with Chemsketch software using 3-D CHARMM-type force field. Four major neurotransmitters (GABAt, SSADH, α-KGDH, GAD) involved in anticonvulsant activity were docked with VPA and its analogues. Out of 216 analogues, 75 were selected on the basis of lower binding energy and inhibition constant as compared to VPA, thus predicted to have anti-convulsant activity. Selected hHDAC8 structure was then subjected to MD Simulation using licenced version YASARA with AMBER99SB force field. The structure was solvated in rectangular box of TIP3P. The simulation was carried out with periodic boundary conditions and electrostatic interactions and treated with Particle mesh Ewald algorithm. pH of system was set to 7.4, temperature 323K and pressure 1atm respectively. Simulation snapshots were stored every 25ps. The MD simulation was carried out for 20ns and pdb file of HDAC8 structure was saved every 2ns. The structures were analysed using castP and UCSF Chimera and most stabilized structure (20ns) was used for docking study. Molecular docking of 75 selected VPA-analogues with PDB-3F07 was performed using AUTODOCK4.2.6. Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm was used to generate conformations of docked ligand and structure. The docking study revealed that VPA and its analogues have more affinity towards ‘hydrophobic active site channel’, due to its hydrophobic properties and allows VPA and their analogues to take part in van der Waal interactions with TYR24, HIS42, VAL41, TYR20, SER138, TRP137 while TRP137 and SER138 showed hydrogen bonding interaction with VPA-analogues. 14 analogues showed better binding affinity than VPA. ADMET SAR server was used to predict the ADMET properties of selected VPA analogues for predicting their druggability. On the basis of ADMET screening, 09 molecules were selected and are being used for in-vivo evaluation using Danio rerio model.

Keywords: HDAC8, docking, molecular dynamics simulation, valproic acid

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