Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3258

Search results for: statistically independent

3258 Structural Reliability Analysis Using Extreme Learning Machine

Authors: Mehul Srivastava, Sharma Tushar Ravikant, Mridul Krishn Mishra


In structural design, the evaluation of safety and probability failure of structure is of significant importance, mainly when the variables are random. On real structures, structural reliability can be evaluated obtaining an implicit limit state function. The structural reliability limit state function is obtained depending upon the statistically independent variables. In the analysis of reliability, we considered the statistically independent random variables to be the load intensity applied and the depth or height of the beam member considered. There are many approaches for structural reliability problems. In this paper Extreme Learning Machine technique and First Order Second Moment Method is used to determine the reliability indices for the same set of variables. The reliability index obtained using ELM is compared with the reliability index obtained using FOSM. Higher the reliability index, more feasible is the method to determine the reliability.

Keywords: reliability, reliability index, statistically independent, extreme learning machine

Procedia PDF Downloads 575
3257 Statistical Analysis of Natural Images after Applying ICA and ISA

Authors: Peyman Sheikholharam Mashhadi


Difficulties in analyzing real world images in classical image processing and machine vision framework have motivated researchers towards considering the biology-based vision. It is a common belief that mammalian visual cortex has been adapted to the statistics of the real world images through the evolution process. There are two well-known successful models of mammalian visual cortical cells: Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and Independent Subspace Analysis (ISA). In this paper, we statistically analyze the dependencies which remain in the components after applying these models to the natural images. Also, we investigate the response of feature detectors to gratings with various parameters in order to find optimal parameters of the feature detectors. Finally, the selectiveness of feature detectors to phase, in both models is considered.

Keywords: statistics, independent component analysis, independent subspace analysis, phase, natural images

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
3256 Incremental Learning of Independent Topic Analysis

Authors: Takahiro Nishigaki, Katsumi Nitta, Takashi Onoda


In this paper, we present a method of applying Independent Topic Analysis (ITA) to increasing the number of document data. The number of document data has been increasing since the spread of the Internet. ITA was presented as one method to analyze the document data. ITA is a method for extracting the independent topics from the document data by using the Independent Component Analysis (ICA). ICA is a technique in the signal processing; however, it is difficult to apply the ITA to increasing number of document data. Because ITA must use the all document data so temporal and spatial cost is very high. Therefore, we present Incremental ITA which extracts the independent topics from increasing number of document data. Incremental ITA is a method of updating the independent topics when the document data is added after extracted the independent topics from a just previous the data. In addition, Incremental ITA updates the independent topics when the document data is added. And we show the result applied Incremental ITA to benchmark datasets.

Keywords: text mining, topic extraction, independent, incremental, independent component analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
3255 The Determinants of Financial Stability: Evidence from Jordan

Authors: Wasfi Al Salamat, Shaker Al-Kharouf


This study aims to examine the determinants of financial stability for 13 commercial banks listed on the Amman stock exchange (ASE) over the period (2007-2016) after controlling for the independent variables: return on equity (ROE), return on assets (ROA), earnings per share (EPS), growth in gross domestic product (GDP), inflation rate and debt ratio to measure the financial stability by three main variables: capital adequacy, non-performing loans and the number of returned checks. The balanced panel data statistical approach has been used for data analysis. Results are estimated by using multiple regression models. The empirical results suggested that there is statistically significant negative effect of inflation rate and debt ratio on the capital adequacy while there is statistically significant positive effect of growth in gross domestic product on capital adequacy. In contrast, there is statistically significant negative effect of return on equity and growth in gross domestic product on the non-performing loans while there is statistically significant positive effect of inflation rate on non-performing loans. Finally, there is statistically significant negative effect of growth in gross domestic product on the number of returned checks while there is statistically significant positive effect of inflation rate on the number of returned checks.

Keywords: capital adequacy, financial stability, non-performing loans, number of returned checks, ASE

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3254 Improving the Social Interactions of Students with Conduct Disorder in Dil Betigil Primary School

Authors: Dawit Thomas Lambamo


Conduct disorder has become a major health and social problem; it is the most common psychiatric problem diagnosed among students which affect the academic and social interaction of students. This intervention was conducted in Dil Betigil primary school. After identifying six students with conduct disorder in Dil Betigil primary school, the intervention was conducted using a true experimental research design specifically pretest and posttest control group design. Data from teachers and parents of the students with conduct disorder were collected using adapted conduct disorder scale and semi-structured interview. The independent sample t-test of Pretest results of both experimental and control group indicated that there is no statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups. Intervention is carried out to enhance their social interaction and to decrees aggressive, a serious violation of rules and theft behavior of students in collaboration with teachers and parents. After six intervention weeks the post-test result showed that there was statistically significant difference in aggression and serious violation between the experimental and control groups, but there was no statistically significant mean difference regarding deceitful or theft between the experimental and control group.

Keywords: conduct, disorder, social interaction, interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
3253 Independence and Path Independence on Cayley Digraphs of Left Groups and Right Groups

Authors: Nuttawoot Nupo, Sayan Panma


A semigroup S is said to be a left (right) zero semigroup if S satisfies the equation xy=x (xy=y) for all x,y in S. In addition, the semigroup S is called a left (right) group if S is isomorphic to the direct product of a group and a left (right) zero semigroup. The Cayley digraph Cay(S,A) of a semigroup S with a connection set A is defined to be a digraph with the vertex set S and the arc set E(Cay(S,A))={(x,xa) | x∈S, a∈A} where A is any subset of S. All sets in this research are assumed to be finite. Let D be a digraph together with a vertex set V and an arc set E. Let u and v be two different vertices in V and I a nonempty subset of V. The vertices u and v are said to be independent if (u,v)∉E and (v,u)∉E. The set I is called an independent set of D if any two different vertices in I are independent. The independence number of D is the maximum cardinality of an independent set of D. Moreover, the vertices u and v are said to be path independent if there is no dipath from u to v and there is no dipath from v to u. The set I is called a path independent set of D if any two different vertices in I are path independent. The path independence number of D is the maximum cardinality of a path independent set of D. In this research, we describe a lower bound and an upper bound of the independence number of Cayley digraphs of left groups and right groups. Some examples corresponding to those bounds are illustrated here. Furthermore, the exact value of the path independence number of Cayley digraphs of left groups and right groups are also presented.

Keywords: Cayley digraphs, independence number, left groups, path independence number, right groups

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3252 Web Search Engine Based Naming Procedure for Independent Topic

Authors: Takahiro Nishigaki, Takashi Onoda


In recent years, the number of document data has been increasing since the spread of the Internet. Many methods have been studied for extracting topics from large document data. We proposed Independent Topic Analysis (ITA) to extract topics independent of each other from large document data such as newspaper data. ITA is a method for extracting the independent topics from the document data by using the Independent Component Analysis. The topic represented by ITA is represented by a set of words. However, the set of words is quite different from the topics the user imagines. For example, the top five words with high independence of a topic are as follows. Topic1 = {"scor", "game", "lead", "quarter", "rebound"}. This Topic 1 is considered to represent the topic of "SPORTS". This topic name "SPORTS" has to be attached by the user. ITA cannot name topics. Therefore, in this research, we propose a method to obtain topics easy for people to understand by using the web search engine, topics given by the set of words given by independent topic analysis. In particular, we search a set of topical words, and the title of the homepage of the search result is taken as the topic name. And we also use the proposed method for some data and verify its effectiveness.

Keywords: independent topic analysis, topic extraction, topic naming, web search engine

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3251 Population Stereotype Production, User Factors, and Icon Design for Underserved Communities of Rural India

Authors: Avijit Sengupta, Klarissa Ting Ting Cheng, Maffee Peng-Hui Wan


This study investigates the influence of user factors and referent characteristics on representation types generated using the stereotype production method for designing icons. Sixty-eight participants of farming communities were asked to draw images based on sixteen feature referents. Significant statistical differences were found between the types of representations generated for contextual and context-independent referents. Strong correlations were observed between years of formal education and total number of abstract representations produced for both contextual and context-independent referents. However, representation characteristics were not influenced by other user factors such as participants’ experience with mobile phone and years of farming experience. A statistically significant tendency of making concrete representations was observed for both contextual and context-independent referents. These findings provide insights on community members’ involvement in icon design and suggest a consolidated icon design strategy based on population stereotype, particularly for under-served rural communities of India.

Keywords: abstract representation, concrete representation, participatory design, population stereotype

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
3250 Self-Efficacy as a Predictor of Well-Being in University Students

Authors: Enes Ergün, Sedat Geli̇bolu


The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and subjective well-being among university students. We are aiming to determine whether self efficacy of university students predicts their subjective well-being and if there is a statistically significant difference among boys and girls in this context. Sample of this study consists of 245 university students from Çanakkale, ages ranging between 17 and 24. 72% (n=171) of the participants were girls and 28% (n=69) boys. Three different scales were utilized as data collection tools that Life Satisfaction Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Positive Negative Experiences Scale. Pearson correlation coefficient, independent sample t test and simple linear regression were used for data analyses. Results showed that well-being is significantly correlated with self-efficacy and self-efficacy is a statistically significant predictor of well-being too. In terms of gender differences, there is no significant difference between self-efficacy scores of boys and girls which shows the same case with well being scores, as well. Fostering university students' academic, social and emotional self-efficacy will increase their well-being which is very important for young adults especially their freshman years.

Keywords: positive psychology, self-efficacy, subjective well being, university students

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
3249 Building 1-Well-Covered Graphs by Corona, Join, and Rooted Product of Graphs

Authors: Vadim E. Levit, Eugen Mandrescu


A graph is well-covered if all its maximal independent sets are of the same size. A well-covered graph is 1-well-covered if deletion of every vertex of the graph leaves it well-covered. It is known that a graph without isolated vertices is 1-well-covered if and only if every two disjoint independent sets are included in two disjoint maximum independent sets. Well-covered graphs are related to combinatorial commutative algebra (e.g., every Cohen-Macaulay graph is well-covered, while each Gorenstein graph without isolated vertices is 1-well-covered). Our intent is to construct several infinite families of 1-well-covered graphs using the following known graph operations: corona, join, and rooted product of graphs. Adopting some known techniques used to advantage for well-covered graphs, one can prove that: if the graph G has no isolated vertices, then the corona of G and H is 1-well-covered if and only if H is a complete graph of order two at least; the join of the graphs G and H is 1-well-covered if and only if G and H have the same independence number and both are 1-well-covered; if H satisfies the property that every three pairwise disjoint independent sets are included in three pairwise disjoint maximum independent sets, then the rooted product of G and H is 1-well-covered, for every graph G. These findings show not only how to generate some more families of 1-well-covered graphs, but also that, to this aim, sometimes, one may use graphs that are not necessarily 1-well-covered.

Keywords: maximum independent set, corona, concatenation, join, well-covered graph

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3248 Independent Audit in Brazilian Companies Listed on B3: An Analysis of Companies That Received Qualified Opinion and Disclaimer of Opinion

Authors: Diego Saldo Alves, Marcelo Paveck Ayub


The quality of accounting information is very important for the decision-making of managers, investors government and other information users. The opinion of the independent audit has a significant influence on the decision-making, especially the investors. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the reasons that companies listed on Brazilian Stock Exchange B3, if they received qualified opinion and disclaimer of opinion of the independent auditors. We analyzed the reports of the independent auditors of 23 Brazilian companies listed in B3 that received qualified opinion and disclaimer of opinion between the years 2012 and 2017. The findings show that the companies do not comply the International Financial Reporting Standard, IFRS, also they did not provide documentation to prove the operations performed, did not account expenses, problems in corporate governance and internal controls.

Keywords: audit, disclaimer of opinion, independent auditors, qualified opinion

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3247 The Statistical Significant of Adsorbents for Effective Zn(II) Ions Removal

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Oros B. Ivana, Kecić S. Vesna, Kovačević M. Ilija, Aksentijević M. Snežana


The adsorption efficiency of various adsorbents for the removal of Zn(II) ions from the waste printing developer was studied in laboratory batch mode. The maximum adsorption efficiency of 94.1% was achieved with unfired clay pellets size (d≈15 mm). The obtained values of adsorption efficiency was subjected to the independent samples t-test in order to investigate the statistically significant differences of the investigated adsorbents for the effective removal of Zn(II) ions from the waste printing developer. The most statistically significant differences of adsorption efficiencies for Zn(II) ions removal were obtained between unfired clay pellets size (d≈15 mm) and activated carbon (|t|= 6.909), natural zeolite (|t|= 10.380), mixture of activated carbon and natural zeolite (|t|= 9.865), bentonite (|t|= 6.159), fired clay (|t|= 6.641), fired clay pellets size (d≈5 mm) (|t|= 6.678), fired clay pellets size (d≈8 mm) (|t|= 3.422), respectively.

Keywords: Adsorption efficiency, adsorbent, statistical analysis, zinc ion.

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3246 The Attitude and Willingness to Use Telecare for Arthritis Patients

Authors: Jui-Chen Huang


Nowadays, the population is aging, the number of people who need to be taken care of is increased, but the manpower and funding are insufficient. Therefore, this study aims to explore the attitudes and willingness of arthritis patients to adopt telecare and to take a large medical institution in the central area of Taiwan as a sample hospital. A structured questionnaire (using the Likert five-point scale) was used to collect chronic patients over 20 years old as sample data, and a total of 500 valid questionnaires were effectively collected. The SPSS 18.0 statistical software was used for reliability analysis and independent sample t-test to explore the differences in attitudes and willingness to use telecare for arthritis patients and non-arthritic patients. The Cronbach's alpha value of this study questionnaire was above 0.94, showing good reliability. Arthritis patients and non-arthritic patients had statistically significant differences in attitudes toward telecare, while the willingness to use did not reach statistically significant differences. In addition, the average attitude and intention of arthritis patients for telecare are 3.38 and 3.41, respectively, indicating that arthritis patients have a certain degree of attitude and willingness to adopt telecare, which is worthy of follow-up research and practical industry push.

Keywords: telecare, arthritis patients, attitudes, intention

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3245 Tax Avoidance During The Financial Crisis: Role Of Independent Commissioners And External Auditors

Authors: Yasir Ramadhan


This study aims to investigate tax avoidance practices when a financial crisis occurs due to the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. This study also finds out how the influence of independent commissioners and external auditors on tax avoidance practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Tax avoidance practices are measured by the current ETR. The role of the independent board of commissioners is measured by the proportion of independent commissioners in the composition of the board of commissioners, while the external auditor is measured by audit quality. In this study, there were 342 observations of companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2019 to 2020. This study used the difference-in-differences (DiD) method in data analysis. The results of this study indicate that companies do tax avoidance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Meanwhile, independent commissioners and qualified audits are not proven to be able to negate tax avoidance practices during the COVID-19 Pandemic. These results also show that a higher proportion of independent commissioners and audit quality are not sufficient for countries with low levels of auditor litigation and investor protection and weak regulatory frameworks.

Keywords: audit, commissioner, tax avoidance, COVID-19 pandemic

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3244 Element-Independent Implementation for Method of Lagrange Multipliers

Authors: Gil-Eon Jeong, Sung-Kie Youn, K. C. Park


Treatment for the non-matching interface is an important computational issue. To handle this problem, the method of Lagrange multipliers including classical and localized versions are the most popular technique. It essentially imposes the interface compatibility conditions by introducing Lagrange multipliers. However, the numerical system becomes unstable and inefficient due to the Lagrange multipliers. The interface element-independent formulation that does not include the Lagrange multipliers can be obtained by modifying the independent variables mathematically. Through this modification, more efficient and stable system can be achieved while involving equivalent accuracy comparing with the conventional method. A numerical example is conducted to verify the validity of the presented method.

Keywords: element-independent formulation, interface coupling, methods of Lagrange multipliers, non-matching interface

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3243 Satisfaction of Distance Education University Students with the Use of Audio Media as a Medium of Instruction: The Case of Mountains of the Moon University in Uganda

Authors: Mark Kaahwa, Chang Zhu, Moses Muhumuza


This study investigates the satisfaction of distance education university students (DEUS) with the use of audio media as a medium of instruction. Studying students’ satisfaction is vital because it shows whether learners are comfortable with a certain instructional strategy or not. Although previous studies have investigated the use of audio media, the satisfaction of students with an instructional strategy that combines radio teaching and podcasts as an independent teaching strategy has not been fully investigated. In this study, all lectures were delivered through the radio and students had no direct contact with their instructors. No modules or any other material in form of text were given to the students. They instead, revised the taught content by listening to podcasts saved on their mobile electronic gadgets. Prior to data collection, DEUS received orientation through workshops on how to use audio media in distance education. To achieve objectives of the study, a survey, naturalistic observations and face-to-face interviews were used to collect data from a sample of 211 undergraduate and graduate students. Findings indicate that there was no statistically significant difference in the levels of satisfaction between male and female students. The results from post hoc analysis show that there is a statistically significant difference in the levels of satisfaction regarding the use of audio media between diploma and graduate students. Diploma students are more satisfied compared to their graduate counterparts. T-test results reveal that there was no statistically significant difference in the general satisfaction with audio media between rural and urban-based students. And ANOVA results indicate that there is no statistically significant difference in the levels of satisfaction with the use of audio media across age groups. Furthermore, results from observations and interviews reveal that DEUS found learning using audio media a pleasurable medium of instruction. This is an indication that audio media can be considered as an instructional strategy on its own merit.

Keywords: audio media, distance education, distance education university students, medium of instruction, satisfaction

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3242 The Effectiveness of Teaching Emotional Intelligence on Reducing Marital Conflicts and Marital Adjustment in Married Students of Tehran University

Authors: Elham Jafari


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of emotional intelligence training on reducing marital conflict and marital adjustment in married students of the University of Tehran. This research is an applied type in terms of purpose and a semi-experimental design of pre-test-post-test type with the control group and with follow-up test in terms of the data collection method. The statistical population of the present study consisted of all married students of the University of Tehran. In this study, 30 married students of the University of Tehran were selected by convenience sampling method as a sample that 15 people in the experimental group and 15 people in the control group were randomly selected. The method of data collection in this research was field and library. The data collection tool in the field section was two questionnaires of marital conflict and marital adjustment. To analyze the collected data, first at the descriptive level, using statistical indicators, the demographic characteristics of the sample were described by SPSS software. In inferential statistics, the statistical method used was the test of analysis of covariance. The results showed that the effect of the independent variable of emotional intelligence on the reduction of marital conflicts is statistically significant. And it can be inferred that emotional intelligence training has reduced the marital conflicts of married students of the University of Tehran in the experimental group compared to the control group. Also, the effect of the independent variable of emotional intelligence on marital adjustment was statistically significant. It can be inferred that emotional intelligence training has adjusted the marital adjustment of married students of the University of Tehran in the experimental group compared to the control group.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, marital conflicts, marital compatibility, married students

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3241 Rank of Semigroup: Generating Sets and Cases Revealing Limitations of the Concept of Independence

Authors: Zsolt Lipcsey, Sampson Marshal Imeh


We investigate a certain characterisation for rank of a semigroup by Howie and Ribeiro (1999), to ascertain the relevance of the concept of independence. There are cases where the concept of independence fails to be useful for this purpose. One would expect the basic element to be the maximal independent subset of a given semigroup. However, we construct examples for semigroups where finite basis exist and the basis is larger than the number of independent elements.

Keywords: generating sets, independent set, rank, cyclic semigroup, basis, commutative

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3240 The Effects of Fearing Cancer in Women

Authors: E. Kotrotsiou, A. S. Topsioti, S. Mantzoukas, E. Dragioti, M. Gouva


Introduction: The literature has demonstrated that individual and psychological factors have a direct effect on the perceptions and attitudes of women with cancer. Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the fear of cancer and anxiety. Aim: To examine the impact of the fear of cancer in women with state and trait anxiety of women. Methods: A community sample of 286 women (mean age 39.6 years, SD = 9.5 ranged 20-60) participated in the current study. The women completed a) State - Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and b) questionnaire concerning socio-demographic information and questions for fear of cancer. Results: The perception of fear in women with cancer is statistically independent from their age (t–test, p = 0.58), their family status (χ2, p = 0.519), their place of residency (χ2, p = 0.148), the manifestation of gynecological cancer (χ2, p = 0.979) or the manifestation of any type of cancer in the family (χ2, p = 0.277). In contrast, it was observed that there was a dependence in relation to a total of phobias (χ2, p = 0.003), the fear of illness (χ2, p< 0.001) and the fear of heights (χ2, p = 0.004). Furthermore, the participants that responded that they feared cancer displayed greater level of stress both as situation (t=-3.462; p=0.001) and as a trait of their personality (t=-4.377; p<0.001), and at the same time they displayed greater levels of depression in comparisons with the other participants. Furthermore, following multiple linear regression analysis it was observed that the participants that responded positively to the question if they feared cancer had 8, 3 units greater stress level as a personality trait in comparison to women that responded negatively to the question if they feared cancer (B=8.3; p=0.016; R2=0.506). Conclusion: Women’s fear of cancer is statistically independent from their age, family status, place of residency, the manifestation of gynaecological cancer and with the manifestation of cancer any type in the family. In contrast, there is a dependency with the total of phobias, fear of illness and fear of heights. Women that state that they have a fear of cancer manifest greater levels of stress from the rest of the participants both as situation and as a trait of their personality (p = 0.001 and p< 0.001 accordingly). In specific, the study demonstrated that the participants that positively to the question if they feared cancer had 8,3 units greater stress level as a personality trait in comparison to women that responded negatively.

Keywords: fear, women health, anxiety, psychology, cancer

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3239 Corruption and Income: Case of Independent Turkish Republic

Authors: Rahime Hülya Öztürk


Along with the development of globalization, the relationship between economic, politic and commercial behaviors became unlimited. The liberalization of capital has many advantages for countries, but it also has some disadvantages. In these disadvantages the most important one is corruption. Especially in Developing Countries and Underdeveloped countries, corruption is very extensive. Corruption causes inefficient use of resources and promotes income inequality. Especially in the transition period of economies corruption increases and sometimes governments don’t interfere. To fight against corruption domestic and international measures are taken. Corruption is an economic problem, but it also has social and moral effects. The aim of this study is to define the relationship between corruption and income in Independent Turkish State. In the first part of the study, the concept of corruption is examined. In the second part of the study, information about The Independent Turkish Republic is given. In the third part of the study, country’s relationship between corruption and income is analyzed with panel data analysis.

Keywords: corruption, income, independent Turkish Republic, distribution of income

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3238 The Effectiveness of Self-Compassion Training: A Field Trial Study

Authors: Esmaeil Sarikhani


Objectives: Considering the importance of introducing new methods of improving self-compassion and compassion to the others in nursing students, this study intends to evaluate the effect of self-compassion training on nursing students. Methods: This is a field trial study in which 52 nursing interns from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences were selected using convenience sampling method and divided in two experimental and control groups. The sampling was done during two phases: before and after the intervention. The intervention consisted of eight sessions over eight weeks of self-compassion training. The data were collected using the self-compassion standard questionnaire with 26 questions before and after the intervention. Data were then analyzed by the SPSS18 software and independent and paired T-tests, and also Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The results obtained from the independent t-test showed that the mean score of self-compassion and its components in the experimental group was significantly increased compared to the control group (p < 0.001). Comparing the groups, the mean overall score difference of self-compassion and its components had also a statistically significant change after the intervention (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Self-compassion training program, leads to improving nursing students' self-compassion. As it seems, this method can be used as an important training course in order to improve compassion of nursing students to themselves and the others.

Keywords: self-compassion, student, nursing students, field trial

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3237 Factors Affecting Customer Loyalty in the Independent Surveyor Service Industry in Indonesia

Authors: Sufrin Hannan, Budi Suharjo, Rita Nurmalina, Kirbrandoko


The challenge for independent surveyor service companies now is growing with increasing uncertainty in business. Protection from the government for domestic independent surveyor industry from competitor attack, such as entering the global surveyors to Indonesia also no longer exists. Therefore, building customer loyalty becomes very important to create a long-term relationship between an independent surveyor with its customers. This study aims to develop a model that can be used to build customer loyalty by looking at various factors that determine customer loyalty, especially on independent surveyors for coal inspection in Indonesia. The development of this model uses the relationship marketing approach. Testing of the hypothesis is done by testing the variables that determine customer loyalty, either directly or indirectly, which amounted to 10 variables. The data were collected from 200 questionnaires filled by independent surveyor company decision makers from 51 exporting companies and coal trading companies in Indonesia and analyzed using Structural Equation Model (SEM). The results show that customer loyalty of independent surveyors is influenced by customer satisfaction, trust, switching-barrier, and relationship-bond. Research on customer satisfaction shows that customer satisfaction is influenced by the perceived quality and perceived value, while perceived quality is influenced by reliability, assurance, responsiveness, and empathy.

Keywords: relationship marketing, customer loyalty, customer satisfaction, switching barriers, relationship bonds

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3236 Biomechanics of Ceramic on Ceramic vs. Ceramic on Xlpe Total Hip Arthroplasties During Gait

Authors: Athanasios Triantafyllou, Georgios Papagiannis, Vassilios Nikolaou, Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos, George C. Babis


In vitro measurements are widely used in order to predict THAs wear rate implementing gait kinematic and kinetic parameters. Clinical tests of materials and designs are crucial to prove the accuracy and validate such measurements. The purpose of this study is to examine the affection of THA gait kinematics and kinetics on wear during gait, the essential functional activity of humans, by comparing in vivo gait data to in vitro results. Our study hypothesis is that both implants will present the same hip joint kinematics and kinetics during gait. 127 unilateral primary cementless total hip arthroplasties were included in the research. Independent t-tests were used to identify a statistically significant difference in kinetic and kinematic data extracted from 3D gait analysis. No statistically significant differences observed at mean peak abduction, flexion and extension moments between the two groups (P.abduction= 0,125, P.flexion= 0,218, P.extension= 0,082). The kinematic measurements show no statistically significant differences too (Prom flexion-extension= 0,687, Prom abduction-adduction= 0,679). THA kinematics and kinetics during gait are important biomechanical parameters directly associated with implants wear. In vitro studies report less wear in CoC than CoXLPE when tested with the same gait cycle kinematic protocol. Our findings confirm that both implants behave identically in terms of kinematics in the clinical environment, thus strengthening in vitro results of CoC advantage. Correlated to all other significant factors that affect THA wear could address in a complete prism the wear on CoC and CoXLPE.

Keywords: total hip arthroplasty biomechanics, THA gait analysis, ceramic on ceramic kinematics, ceramic on XLPE kinetics, total hip replacement wear

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3235 Role of Vitamin-D in Reducing Need for Supplemental Oxygen Among COVID-19 Patients

Authors: Anita Bajpai, Sarah Duan, Ashlee Erskine, Shehzein Khan, Raymond Kramer


Introduction: This research focuses on exploring the beneficial effects if any, of Vitamin-D in reducing the need for supplemental oxygen among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Two questions are investigated – Q1)Doeshaving a healthy level of baselineVitamin-D 25-OH (≥ 30ng/ml) help,andQ2) does administering Vitamin-D therapy after-the-factduring inpatient hospitalization help? Methods/Study Design: This is a comprehensive, retrospective, observational study of all inpatients at RUHS from March through December 2020 who tested positive for COVID-19 based on real-time reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction assay of nasal and pharyngeal swabs and rapid assay antigen test. To address Q1, we looked atall N1=182 patients whose baseline plasma Vitamin-D 25-OH was known and who needed supplemental oxygen. Of this, a total of 121 patients had a healthy Vitamin-D level of ≥30 ng/mlwhile the remaining 61 patients had low or borderline (≤ 29.9ng/ml)level. Similarly, for Q2, we looked at a total of N2=893 patients who were given supplemental oxygen, of which713 were not given Vitamin-D and 180 were given Vitamin-D therapy. The numerical value of the maximum amount of oxygen flow rate(dependent variable) administered was recorded for each patient. The mean values and associated standard deviations for each group were calculated. Thesetwo sets of independent data served as the basis for independent, two-sample t-Test statistical analysis. To be accommodative of any reasonable benefitof Vitamin-D, ap-value of 0.10(α< 10%) was set as the cutoff point for statistical significance. Results: Given the large sample sizes, the calculated statistical power for both our studies exceeded the customary norm of 80% or better (β< 0.2). For Q1, the mean value for maximumoxygen flow rate for the group with healthybaseline level of Vitamin-D was 8.6 L/min vs.12.6L/min for those with low or borderline levels, yielding a p-value of 0.07 (p < 0.10) with the conclusion that those with a healthy level of baseline Vitamin-D needed statistically significant lower levels of supplemental oxygen. ForQ2, the mean value for a maximum oxygen flow rate for those not administered Vitamin-Dwas 12.5 L/min vs.12.8L/min for those given Vitamin-D, yielding a p-valueof 0.87 (p > 0.10). We thereforeconcludedthat there was no statistically significant difference in the use of oxygen therapy between those who were or were not administered Vitamin-D after-the-fact in the hospital. Discussion/Conclusion: We found that patients who had healthy levels of Vitamin-D at baseline needed statistically significant lower levels of supplemental oxygen. Vitamin-D is well documented, including in a recent article in the Lancet, for its anti-inflammatory role as an adjuvant in the regulation of cytokines and immune cells. Interestingly, we found no statistically significant advantage for giving Vitamin-D to hospitalized patients. It may be a case of “too little too late”. A randomized clinical trial reported in JAMA also did not find any reduction in hospital stay of patients given Vitamin-D. Such conclusions come with a caveat that any delayed marginal benefits may not have materialized promptly in the presence of a significant inflammatory condition. Since Vitamin-D is a low-cost, low-risk option, it may still be useful on an inpatient basis until more definitive findings are established.

Keywords: COVID-19, vitamin-D, supplemental oxygen, vitamin-D in primary care

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3234 Cognitive Performance and Everyday Functionality in Healthy Greek Seniors

Authors: George Pavlidis, Ana Vivas


The demographic change into an aging population has stimulated the examination of seniors’ mental health and ability to live independently. The corresponding literature depicts the relation between cognitive decline and everyday functionality with aging, focusing largely in individuals that are reaching or have bridged the threshold of various forms of neuropathology and disability. In this context, recent meta-analysis depicts a moderate relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality in AD sufferers. However, there has not been an analogous effort for the examination of this relation in the healthy spectrum of aging (i.e, in samples that are not challenged from a neurodegenerative disease). There is a consensus that the assessment tools designed to detect neuropathology with those that assess cognitive performance in healthy adults are distinct, thus their universal use in cognitively challenged and in healthy adults is not always valid. The same accounts for the assessment of everyday functionality. In addition, it is argued that everyday functionality should be examined with cultural adjusted assessment tools, since many vital everyday tasks are heterotypical among distinct cultures. Therefore, this study was set out to examine the relation between cognitive performance and everyday functionality a) in the healthy spectrum of aging and b) by adjusting the everyday functionality tools EPT and OTDL-R in the Greek cultural context. In Greece, 107 cognitively healthy seniors ( Mage = 62.24) completed a battery of neuropsychological tests and everyday functionality tests. Both were carefully chosen to be sensitive in fluctuations of performance in the healthy spectrum of cognitive performance and everyday functionality. The everyday functionality assessment tools were modified to reflect the local cultural context (i.e., EPT-G and OTDL-G). The results depicted that performance in all everyday functionality measures decline with age (.197 < r > .509). Statistically significant correlations emerged between cognitive performance and everyday functionality assessments that range from r =0.202 to r=0.510. A series of independent regression analysis including the scores of cognitive assessments has yield statistical significant models that explained 20.9 < AR2 > 32.4 of the variance in everyday functionality scored indexes. All everyday functionality measures were independently predicted by the TMT B-A index, and indicator of executive function. Stepwise regression analyses depicted that TMT B-A and age were statistically significant independent predictors of EPT-G and OTDL-G. It was concluded that everyday functionality is declining with age and that cognitive performance and everyday functional may be related in the healthy spectrum of aging. Age seems not to be the sole contributing factor in everyday functionality decline, rather executive control as well. Moreover, it was concluded that the EPT-G and OTDL-G are valuable tools to assess everyday functionality in Greek seniors that are not cognitively challenged, especially for research purposes. Future research should examine the contributing factors of a better cognitive vitality especially in executive control, as vital for the maintenance of independent living capacity with aging.

Keywords: cognition, everyday functionality, aging, cognitive decline, healthy aging, Greece

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3233 The Depiction of Suburbia in US-American Independent Movies

Authors: Sven Weidner


In the last two decades, US-American Independent Cinema has been faced with numerous metamorphoses. With regard to style, content, film aesthetics and themes a large array is offered. And as a consequence of the increasing influence of the world wide web and absolutely new ways of production opportunities alter the indie-film scene fundamentally. While in the 90s many independent films were situated in urban spaces -for instance, films of Jim Jarmusch, Abel Ferrara or Quentin Tarantino- there is a tendency from the 2000s years on to go to rural America. Jeff Nichols, Debra Granik or Matthew Porterfield can be named. Suburbia the symbol of the American Dream and in particular of an emerging prosperity after the Second World War is an essential theme with some independent directors; among them indie icons Todd Solondz and Todd Haynes. Based on selected films of both of them the paper explores the formal and aesthetic structures (narrative, drama, montage, lighting, sound, color) of the pictures and how suburbia, its people, and its "perfect" families are shown and unmasked in all facets. Films are: "Happiness" (1998), "Life During Wartime" (2009) and "Far From Heaven" (2002).

Keywords: US-independent cinema, Suburbia, film history, film analysis

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3232 Model Driven Architecture Methodologies: A Review

Authors: Arslan Murtaza


Model Driven Architecture (MDA) is technique presented by OMG (Object Management Group) for software development in which different models are proposed and converted them into code. The main plan is to identify task by using PIM (Platform Independent Model) and transform it into PSM (Platform Specific Model) and then converted into code. In this review paper describes some challenges and issues that are faced in MDA, type and transformation of models (e.g. CIM, PIM and PSM), and evaluation of MDA-based methodologies.

Keywords: OMG, model driven rrchitecture (MDA), computation independent model (CIM), platform independent model (PIM), platform specific model(PSM), MDA-based methodologies

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3231 The Effect of Teaching Science Strategies Curriculum and Evaluating on Developing the Efficiency of Academic Self in Science and the Teaching Motivation for the Student Teachers of the Primary Years

Authors: Amani M. Al-Hussan


The current study aimed to explore the effects of science teaching strategies course (CURR422) on developing academic self efficacy and motivation towards teaching it in female primary classroom teachers in College of Education in Princess Nora Bint AbdulRahman University. The study sample consisted (48) female student teachers. To achieve the study aims, the researcher designed two instruments: Academic Self Efficacy Scale & Motivation towards Teaching Science Scale while maintaining the validity and reliability of these instruments.. Several statistical procedures were conducted i.e. Independent Sample T-test, Eta Square, Cohen D effect size. The results reveal that there were statistically significant differences between means of pre and post test for the sample in favor of post test. For academic self efficacy scale, Eta square was 0.99 and the effect size was 27.26. While for the motivation towards teaching science scale, Eta was 0.99 and the effect size was 51.72. These results indicated high effects of independent variable on the dependent variable.

Keywords: academic self efficiency, achievement, motivation, primary classroom teacher, science teaching strategies course, evaluation

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3230 The Effect of Parathyroid Hormone on Aldosterone Secretion in Patients with Primary Hyperparathyroidism

Authors: Branka Milicic Stanic, Romana Mijovic


In primary hyperparathyroidism, an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease may exist due to increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). In adenomatous altered tissue of parathyroid gland, compared to normal tissue, there are two to fourfold increase in the expression of type 1 angiotensin II receptors. As there is a clear evidence of the independent role of aldosterone on the cardiovascular system, the aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of an association between aldosterone secretion and parathyroid hormone in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. This study included 48 patients with elevated parathyroid hormone who had come to the Departement of Nuclear Medicine, Clinical Center of Vojvodina, for Parathyroid Scintigraphy. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects who matched age and gender to the study group. All the results were statistically processed by statistical package STATISTICA 14 (Statsoft Inc,Tulsa, OK, USA). The survey was conducted between February 2017 and April 2018 at the Departement of Nuclear Medicine and at the Departement for Endocinology Diagnoistics, in Clinical Center of Vojvodina, Novi Sad. Compared to the control group, the study group had statistically significantly higher values of aldosterone (p=0.028), total calcium (p=0.01), ionized calcium (p=0.003) and parathyroid hormone (N-TACT PTH) (p=0.00), while statistically a significant lower levels in the study group were for phosphorus (p=0.003) and vitamin D (p=0.04). A linear correlation analysis in the study group revealed a statistically significant degree of positive correlation between renin and N-TACT PTH (r=0.688, p<0.05); renin and calcium (r=0.673, p<0.05) and renin and ionized calcium (r=0.641, p<0.05). Serum aldosterone and parathyroid hormone levels (N-TACT) were correlated positively in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (r=0.509, p<0.05). According to the linear correlation analysis in the control group, aldosterone showed no positive correlation with N-TACT PTH (r=-0.285, p>0.05), as well as total and ionized calcium (r=-0.200, p>0.05; r=-0.313, p>0.05). In multivariate regression analysis of the study group, the strongest predictive variable of aldosterone secretion was N-TACT PTH (p=0.011). Aldosterone correlated positively to PTH levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, and the fact is that in these patients aldosterone might be a key mediator of cardiovascular symptoms. All this knowledge should help to find new treatments to prevent cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: aldosterone, hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid hormone, parathyroid gland

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3229 The Effect of Organizational Commitment and Burn out on Organizational Cynicism: A Field Study in the Healthcare Industry

Authors: Aykut Bedük, Kemalettin Eryeşil, Osman Eşmen


The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between organizational commitment which is defined as a strong belief in and acceptance of the organization’s goals and values, and burnout syndrome and organizational cynicism. Accordingly, a field research based on survey method was conducted on the employees of a health institution operating in the province of Konya. The findings of the research show that there is a positive statistically significant relationship between organizational cynicism and burnout while there is a negative statistically significant relationship between organizational commitment and burnout. Furthermore, it has been also realized that there is a negative and statistically significant relationship between organizational commitment and organizational cynicism.

Keywords: burnout, organizational commitment, organizational cynicism, healthcare management

Procedia PDF Downloads 175