Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Sebnem Onal Hoscara

18 Review on Recent Dynamics and Constraints of Affordable Housing Provision in Nigeria: A Case of Growing Economic Precarity

Authors: Ikenna Stephen Ezennia, Sebnem Onal Hoscara

Abstract:

Successive governments in Nigeria are faced with the pressing problem of how to house an ever-expanding urban population, usually low-income earners. The question of housing and affordability presents a complex challenge for these governments, as the commodification of housing links it inextricably to markets and capital flows. Therefore, placing it as at the center of the government’s agenda. However, the provision of decent and affordable housing for average Nigerians has remained an illusion, despite copious schemes, policies and programs initiated and carried out by various successive governments. Similarly, this phenomenon has also been observed in many countries of Africa, which is largely a result of economic unpredictability, lack of housing finance and insecurity, among other factors peculiar to a struggling economy. This study reviews recent dynamics and factors challenging the provision and development of affordable housing for the low income urban populace of Nigeria. Thus, the aim of the study is to present a comprehensive approach for understanding recent trends in the provision of affordable housing for Nigerians. The approach is based on a new paradigm of research: transdisciplinarity; a form of inquiry that crosses the boundaries of different disciplines. Therefore, the review takes a retrospective gaze at the various housing development programs/schemes/policies taken by successive governments of Nigeria within the last few decades and exams recent efforts geared towards eradicating the problems of housing delivery. Sources of data included relevant English language articles and the results of literature search of Elsevier Science Direct, ISI Web of Knowledge, Pro Quest Central, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The findings reveal that factors such as; rapid urbanization, inadequate planning and land use control, lack of adequate and favorable finance, high prices of land, high prices of building material, youth/touts harassment of developers, poor urban infrastructure, multiple taxation, and risk share are the major factors posing as a hindrance to adequate housing delivery. The results show that the majority of Nigeria’s affordable housing schemes, programs and policies are in most cases poorly implemented and abandoned without proper coordination. Consequently, the study concludes that the affordable housing delivery strategies in Nigeria are an epitome of lip service politics by successive governments; and the current trend of leaving housing provision to the vagaries of market forces cannot be expected to support affordable housing especially for the low income urban populace.

Keywords: affordable housing, housing delivery, national housing policy, urban poor

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17 Calculation and Comparison of a Turbofan Engine Performance Parameters with Various Definitions

Authors: O. Onal, O. Turan

Abstract:

In this paper, some performance parameters of a selected turbofan engine (JT9D) are analyzed. The engine is a high bypass turbofan engine which powers a wide-body aircraft and it produces 206 kN thrust force (thrust/weight ratio is 5.4). The objective parameters for the engine include calculation of power, specific fuel consumption, specific thrust, engine propulsive, thermal and overall efficiencies according to the various definitions given in the literature. Furthermore, in the case study, wasted energy from the exhaust is calculated at the maximum power setting (i.e. take off phase) for the engine.

Keywords: turbofan, power, efficiency, trust

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16 Experimental Investigation of Performance Anode Side of PEM Fuel Cell with Spin Method Coated with YSZ+SDC

Authors: Gürol Önal, Kevser Dinçer, Salih Yayla

Abstract:

In this study, performance of proton exchange membrane PEM fuel cell was experimentally investigated. Coating on the anode side of the PEM fuel cell was accomplished with the spin method by using YSZ+SDC. A solution having 0,1 gr YttriaStabilized Zirconia (YSZ) + 0,1 Samarium-Doped Ceria (SDC) + 10 mL methanol was prepared. This solution was taken out and filled into a micro-pipette. Then the anode side of PEM fuel cell was coated with YSZ+ SDC by using spin method. In the experimental study, current, voltage and power performances before and after coating were recorded and then compared to each other. It was found that the efficiency of PEM fuel cell increases after the coating with YSZ+SDC.

Keywords: fuel cell, Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM), membrane, spin method

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15 Pedestrian Safe Bumper Design from Commingled Glass Fiber/Polypropylene Reinforced Sandwich Composites

Authors: L. Onal

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to optimize manufacturing process for thermoplastic sandwich composite structures for the pedestrian safety of automobiles subjected to collision condition. In particular, cost-effective manufacturing techniques for sandwich structures with commingled GF/PP skins and low-density foam cores are being investigated. The performance of these structures under bending load is being studied. Samples are manufactured using compression moulding technique. The relationship of this performance to processing parameters such as mould temperature, moulding time, moulding pressure and sequence of the layers during moulding is being investigated. The results of bending tests are discussed in the light of the moulding conditions and conclusions are given regarding optimum set of processing conditions using the compression moulding route

Keywords: twintex, flexural properties, automobile composites, sandwich structures

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14 The Interior Design Proposals of Buildings for Tourism Purposes

Authors: Şebnem Ertaş

Abstract:

“Architecture” is one component of sustainable cultural tourism. The sustainability of architecture is possible through preservation and restoration activities. In Turkey, which has an important place in the world’s cultural heritage, several studies focused on the sustainability of the cultural heritage were done in terms of the principles of “preserve-use-sustain”. Within the scope of this study, a methodology will be proposed in order to obtain the development of different scenarios supporting sustainable tourism. Sille is an ancient village located on the Spice Road and Silk Road dating back to the Ottoman and Seljuk eras. However, in recent years it is protected as an archeological site. In the “Alternative Project Phase”, the streets and buildings which bring dynamism to trade are determined; among these, 10 major buildings in Hacı Ali Ağa Street are studied.

Keywords: cultural tourism, interior design, sustainability of architecture, Sille

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13 The Evaluation of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Materials Collected from Southeast Anatolia Region of Turkey

Authors: M. Kubilay Önal

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to determine the adaptabilities of native apricot materials collected from Southeast Anatolia region of Turkey to Aegean Region conditions. Different phenological and pomological characteristics of the cultivars were observed during study. Determination of promising types for adaptation trials were performed employing the 'weighed-ranking' method. To determine them the relative points were given to the characteristics such as yield, average fruit weight, attractiveness, soluble solid, seed ratio by weight and aroma. As a result of two-year evaluation studies on the phenological and pomological characteristics of 22 types, 9 out of them, viz., nos. 2235, 2236, 2237, 2239, 2242, 2244, 2246, 2249, 2257 were selected as promising ones.

Keywords: apricot, phenological characters, pomological characters, weight-ranking method

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12 Low-Cost Robotic-Assisted Laparoscope

Authors: Ege Can Onal, Enver Ersen, Meltem Elitas

Abstract:

Laparoscopy is a surgical operation, well known as keyhole surgery. The operation is performed through small holes, hence, scars of a patient become much smaller, patients can recover in a short time and the hospital stay becomes shorter in comparison to an open surgery. Several tools are used at laparoscopic operations; among them, the laparoscope has a crucial role. It provides the vision during the operation, which will be the main focus in here. Since the operation area is very small, motion of the surgical tools might be limited in laparoscopic operations compared to traditional surgeries. To overcome this limitation, most of the laparoscopic tools have become more precise, dexterous, multi-functional or automated. Here, we present a robotic-assisted laparoscope that is controlled with pedals directly by a surgeon. Thus, the movement of the laparoscope might be controlled better, so there will not be a need to calibrate the camera during the operation. The need for an assistant that controls the movement of the laparoscope will be eliminated. The duration of the laparoscopic operation might be shorter since the surgeon will directly operate the camera.

Keywords: laparoscope, laparoscopy, low-cost, minimally invasive surgery, robotic-assisted surgery

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11 The Effects of Yield and Yield Components of Some Quality Increase Applications on Ismailoglu Grape Type in Turkey

Authors: Yaşar Önal, Aydın Akın

Abstract:

This study was conducted Ismailoglu grape type (Vitis vinifera L.) and its vine which was aged 15 was grown on its own root in a vegetation period of 2013 in Nevşehir province in Turkey. In this research, it was investigated whether the applications of Control (C), 1/3 cluster tip reduction (1/3 CTR), shoot tip reduction (STR), 1/3 CTR + STR, TKI-HUMAS (TKI-HM) (Soil) (S), TKI-HM (Foliar) (F), TKI-HM (S + F), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (F), 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S+F), STR + TKI-HM (S), STR + TKI-HM (F), STR + TKI-HM (S + F), 1/3 CTR + STR+TKI-HM (S), 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (F), 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (S + F) on yield and yield components of Ismailoglu grape type. The results were obtained as the highest fresh grape yield (16.15 kg/vine) with TKI-HM (S), as the highest cluster weight (652.39 g) with 1/3 CTR + STR, as the highest 100 berry weight (419.07 g) with 1/3 CTR + STR + TKI-HM (F), as the highest maturity index (44.06) with 1/3 CTR, as the highest must yield (810.00 ml) with STR + TKI-HM (F), as the highest intensity of L* color (42.04) with TKI-HM (S + F), as the highest intensity of a* color (2.60) with 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S), as the highest intensity of b* color (7.16) with 1/3 CTR + TKI-HM (S) applications. To increase the fresh grape yield of Ismailoglu grape type can be recommended TKI-HM (S) application.

Keywords: 1/3 cluster tip reduction, shoot tip reduction, TKI-Humas application, yield and yield components

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10 The Relationships between the Feelings of Bullying, Self- Esteem, Employee Silence, Anger, Self- Blame and Shame

Authors: Şebnem Aslan, Demet Akarçay

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the feelings of health employees occurred by bullying and the relationships between these feelings at work place. In this context, the relationships between bullying and the feelings of self-esteem, employee silence, anger, self- blame and shame. This study was conducted among 512 health employees in three hospitals in Konya by using survey method and simple random sampling. The scales of bullying, self-esteem, employee silence, anger, self-blame, and shame were performed within the study. The obtained data were analyzed with descriptive analysis, correlation, confirmative factor analysis, structural equation modeling and path analysis. The results of the study showed that while bullying had a positive effect on self-esteem (.61), employee silence (.41), anger (.18), a negative effect on self-blame and shame (-.26) was observed. Employee silence affected self-blame and shame (.83) as positively. Besides, self-esteem impacted on self- blame and shame (.18), employee silence (.62) positively and self-blame and shame was observed as negatively affecting on anger (-.20). Similarly, self-esteem was found as negatively affected on anger (-.13).

Keywords: bullying, self-esteem, employee silence, anger, shame and guilt, healthcare employee

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9 Investigation of Spatial Changes in the Context of Cultural Sustainability

Authors: Aslı Taş, Şebnem Ertaş

Abstract:

Culture consists of material and spiritual values adopted by the emerging societies during the historical and social processes and continues to exist from past to present by being transferred through generations. Culture and cultural sustainability are interdependent concepts. Cultural sustainability exists when the requirements established cultural expression are added to the social life as lifestyle and habits. However, sustainability renders change inevitable. Changes that take place in the culture of a society also shows the impact in the daily life places. Functional changes occur in the spaces in order to adapt particularly to cultural change that appear in the aftermath of the user change, to modern technology and living standards. In this context, in this study, it was aimed to investigate the effect of the time-dependent functional changes that took place in the housing where non-Muslim population who was subject to population exchange and Muslim population lived after the population exchange in the vacated housing in Sille. Therefore, the changed and newly added venues in the house belonging to Ali Oğuz in Hacı Ali Ağa Street were investigated over the generated graphic in order to clearly perceive the cultural exchange on the housing and settlement and the functional changes were demonstrated.

Keywords: culture, house, spatial changes, sustainability

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8 Evaluation of the Families' Psychological Nature and the Relationship between the Academic Success According to the Students' Opinion

Authors: Sebnem Erismen, Ahmet Guneyli, Azize Ummanel

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the students' academic success and families' psychological nature. The study based upon the quantitative research, and descriptive model is used. Relational descriptive model is used while evaluating the relation between families’ psychological nature and the academic success level of the students. A total of 523 secondary school students have participated the study. Personal Information Form, Family Structure Evaluation Form (FSEF) and School Reports were employed as the primary methods of data gathering. ANOVA and LSD Scheffe Test were used for analysing the data. Results of the study indicate that there are differences between the FSEF scores according to the students’ and teachers’ gender; however, no differences between the class level and seniority of the teachers were seen. Regarding the academic success of the students, it was seen that majority of them have high points. It was also seen that the academic success level of the students differentiates regarding to the classroom teachers’ gender and seniority. In conclusion, it was seen that there is a relation between the families’ psychological nature and students' academic success.

Keywords: families’ perceived psychological nature, academic success, families effect on the academic success, education

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7 Parameter Tuning of Complex Systems Modeled in Agent Based Modeling and Simulation

Authors: Rabia Korkmaz Tan, Şebnem Bora

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The major problem encountered when modeling complex systems with agent-based modeling and simulation techniques is the existence of large parameter spaces. A complex system model cannot be expected to reflect the whole of the real system, but by specifying the most appropriate parameters, the actual system can be represented by the model under certain conditions. When the studies conducted in recent years were reviewed, it has been observed that there are few studies for parameter tuning problem in agent based simulations, and these studies have focused on tuning parameters of a single model. In this study, an approach of parameter tuning is proposed by using metaheuristic algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Artificial Bee Colonies (ABC), Firefly (FA) algorithms. With this hybrid structured study, the parameter tuning problems of the models in the different fields were solved. The new approach offered was tested in two different models, and its achievements in different problems were compared. The simulations and the results reveal that this proposed study is better than the existing parameter tuning studies.

Keywords: parameter tuning, agent based modeling and simulation, metaheuristic algorithms, complex systems

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6 On the Network Packet Loss Tolerance of SVM Based Activity Recognition

Authors: Gamze Uslu, Sebnem Baydere, Alper K. Demir

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In this study, data loss tolerance of Support Vector Machines (SVM) based activity recognition model and multi activity classification performance when data are received over a lossy wireless sensor network is examined. Initially, the classification algorithm we use is evaluated in terms of resilience to random data loss with 3D acceleration sensor data for sitting, lying, walking and standing actions. The results show that the proposed classification method can recognize these activities successfully despite high data loss. Secondly, the effect of differentiated quality of service performance on activity recognition success is measured with activity data acquired from a multi hop wireless sensor network, which introduces high data loss. The effect of number of nodes on the reliability and multi activity classification success is demonstrated in simulation environment. To the best of our knowledge, the effect of data loss in a wireless sensor network on activity detection success rate of an SVM based classification algorithm has not been studied before.

Keywords: activity recognition, support vector machines, acceleration sensor, wireless sensor networks, packet loss

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5 A Mathematical Model Approach Regarding the Children’s Height Development with Fractional Calculus

Authors: Nisa Özge Önal, Kamil Karaçuha, Göksu Hazar Erdinç, Banu Bahar Karaçuha, Ertuğrul Karaçuha

Abstract:

The study aims to use a mathematical approach with the fractional calculus which is developed to have the ability to continuously analyze the factors related to the children’s height development. Until now, tracking the development of the child is getting more important and meaningful. Knowing and determining the factors related to the physical development of the child any desired time would provide better, reliable and accurate results for childcare. In this frame, 7 groups for height percentile curve (3th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th) of Turkey are used. By using discrete height data of 0-18 years old children and the least squares method, a continuous curve is developed valid for any time interval. By doing so, in any desired instant, it is possible to find the percentage and location of the child in Percentage Chart. Here, with the help of the fractional calculus theory, a mathematical model is developed. The outcomes of the proposed approach are quite promising compared to the linear and the polynomial method. The approach also yields to predict the expected values of children in the sense of height.

Keywords: children growth percentile, children physical development, fractional calculus, linear and polynomial model

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4 The Effects on Abomasal Emtying Rate of Erythromycin and Bethanechol in Healthy, Premature and Diarrheic Calves

Authors: Sebnem Canikli Engin, Mutlu Sevinc, Hasan Guzelbektes

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In this study, we aim to define the effects of erythromycin and bethanechol which are prokinetic agents, on the value of abomasal discharge in healthy, diarrhea and premature calves. In the work, 5 healty calves, 12 diarrheaic calves and 12 premature calves, amounting to a total of 29 calves. In healty calves work; the same 5 calves were used for controlled, erythromycin and bethanechol studies (there was a 48-hour waiting period between each work). In diarrheic calves work; 12 diarrheic calves were used during the study (4 of them for control group, 4 of them bethanechol group and last 4 calves erythromycin group). In premature calves works; 12 premature calves were used during the study (4 of them for control group, 4 of them bethanechol group and last 4 calves erythromycin group). 10 mg/kg IM dose of erythromycin were applied to each erythromycin group, 0,07 mg/kg IM dose of bethanechol were applied on bethanechol group. No drugs were applied to the control group and substitution milk was given to all calves. 50 mg/kg acetominophen and 25 gram/L glucose have been added into the substitution milk to evaluate the speed of gastrointestinal motility with the test results of absorptions of acetominophen and glucose. The blood samples have been taken before substitution milk application and 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 minutes after substitution milk application. Respiratory rates and number of heartbeats were also recorded during the test time. No changes were observed in the number of heartbeats, respiratory rates and general conditions for all groups after drug application. It is observed that, the feces of some calves became slightly watery and viscous and premature calves generaly defecated after 180 minutes. When Cmax, Tmax and AUC values of acetaminophen and glucose are compared with control group’s after applying erythromycin on the calves in the premature group, we obtain higher Cmax (P<0,05), shorter Tmax and greather AUC (P>0,05) values. In conclusion, according to clinical and laboratory findings, it may be stated that the application of 10 mg/kg doze of erythromycin IM has provided faster abomazal emptying in premature calves.

Keywords: abomazal emptying, bethanechol, calf, erythromycin

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3 Bioproduction of L(+)-Lactic Acid and Purification by Ion Exchange Mechanism

Authors: Zelal Polat, Şebnem Harsa, Semra Ülkü

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Lactic acid exists in nature optically in two forms, L(+), D(-)-lactic acid, and has been used in food, leather, textile, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Moreover, L(+)-lactic acid constitutes the raw material for the production of poly-L-lactic acid which is used in biomedical applications. Microbially produced lactic acid was aimed to be recovered from the fermentation media efficiently and economically. Among the various downstream operations, ion exchange chromatography is highly selective and yields a low cost product recovery within a short period of time. In this project, Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441 was used for the production of L(+)-lactic acid from whey by fermentation at pH 5.5 and 37°C that took 12 hours. The product concentration was 50 g/l with 100% L(+)-lactic acid content. Next, the suitable resin was selected due to its high sorption capacity with rapid equilibrium behavior. Dowex marathon WBA, weakly basic anion exchanger in OH form reached the equilibrium in 15 minutes. The batch adsorption experiments were done approximately at pH 7.0 and 30°C and sampling was continued for 20 hours. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and pH was investigated and their influence was found to be unimportant. All the adsorption/desorption experiments were applied to both model lactic acid and biomass free fermentation broth. The ion exchange equilibria of lactic acid and L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth on Dowex marathon WBA was explained by Langmuir isotherm. The maximum exchange capacity (qm) for model lactic acid was 0.25 g La/g wet resin and for fermentation broth 0.04 g La/g wet resin. The equilibrium loading and exchange efficiency of L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth were reduced as a result of competition by other ionic species. The competing ions inhibit the binding of L(+)-lactic acid to the free sites of ion exchanger. Moreover, column operations were applied to recover adsorbed lactic acid from the ion exchanger. 2.0 M HCl was the suitable eluting agent to recover the bound L(+)-lactic acid with a flowrate of 1 ml/min at ambient temperature. About 95% of bound L(+)-lactic acid was recovered from Dowex marathon WBA. The equilibrium was reached within 15 minutes. The aim of this project was to investigate the purification of L(+)-lactic acid with ion exchange method from fermentation broth. The additional goals were to investigate the end product purity, to obtain new data on the adsorption/desorption behaviours of lactic acid and applicability of the system in industrial usage.

Keywords: fermentation, ion exchange, lactic acid, purification, whey

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2 Institutional Quality and Tax Compliance: A Cross-Country Regression Evidence

Authors: Debi Konukcu Onal, Tarkan Cavusoglu

Abstract:

In modern societies, the costs of public goods and services are shared through taxes paid by citizens. However, taxation has always been a frictional issue, as tax obligations are perceived to be a financial burden for taxpayers rather than being merit that fulfills the redistribution, regulation and stabilization functions of the welfare state. The tax compliance literature evolves into discussing why people still pay taxes in systems with low costs of legal enforcement. Related empirical and theoretical works show that a wide range of socially oriented behavioral factors can stimulate voluntary compliance and subversive effects as well. These behavioral motivations are argued to be driven by self-enforcing rules of informal institutions, either independently or through interactions with legal orders set by formal institutions. The main focus of this study is to investigate empirically whether institutional particularities have a significant role in explaining the cross-country differences in the tax noncompliance levels. A part of the controversy about the driving forces behind tax noncompliance may be attributed to the lack of empirical evidence. Thus, this study aims to fill this gap through regression estimates, which help to trace the link between institutional quality and noncompliance on a cross-country basis. Tax evasion estimates of Buehn and Schneider is used as the proxy measure for the tax noncompliance levels. Institutional quality is quantified by three different indicators (percentile ranks of Worldwide Governance Indicators, ratings of the International Country Risk Guide, and the country ratings of the Freedom in the World). Robust Least Squares and Threshold Regression estimates based on the sample of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries imply that tax compliance increases with institutional quality. Moreover, a threshold-based asymmetry is detected in the effect of institutional quality on tax noncompliance. That is, the negative effects of tax burdens on compliance are found to be more pronounced in countries with institutional quality below a certain threshold. These findings are robust to all alternative indicators of institutional quality, supporting the significant interaction of societal values with the individual taxpayer decisions.

Keywords: institutional quality, OECD economies, tax compliance, tax evasion

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1 The Effect of Rheological Properties and Spun/Meltblown Fiber Characteristics on “Hotmelt Bleed through” Behavior in High Speed Textile Backsheet Lamination Process

Authors: Kinyas Aydin, Fatih Erguney, Tolga Ceper, Serap Ozay, Ipar N. Uzun, Sebnem Kemaloglu Dogan, Deniz Tunc

Abstract:

In order to meet high growth rates in baby diaper industry worldwide, the high-speed textile backsheet lamination lines have recently been introduced to the market for non-woven/film lamination applications. It is a process where two substrates are bonded to each other via hotmelt adhesive (HMA). Nonwoven (NW) lamination system basically consists of 4 components; polypropylene (PP) nonwoven, polyethylene (PE) film, HMA and applicator system. Each component has a substantial effect on the process efficiency of continuous line and final product properties. However, for a precise subject cover, we will be addressing only the main challenges and possible solutions in this paper. The NW is often produced by spunbond method (SSS or SMS configuration) and has a 10-12 gsm (g/m²) basis weight. The NW rolls can have a width and length up to 2.060 mm and 30.000 linear meters, respectively. The PE film is the 2ⁿᵈ component in TBS lamination, which is usually a 12-14 gsm blown or cast breathable film. HMA is a thermoplastic glue (mostly rubber based) that can be applied in a large range of viscosity ranges. The main HMA application technology in TBS lamination is the slot die application in which HMA is spread on the top of the NW along the whole width at high temperatures in the melt form. Then, the NW is passed over chiller rolls with a certain open time depending on the line speed. HMAs are applied at certain levels in order to provide a proper de-lamination strength in cross and machine directions to the entire structure. Current TBS lamination line speed and width can be as high as 800 m/min and 2100 mm, respectively. They also feature an automated web control tension system for winders and unwinders. In order to run a continuous trouble-free mass production campaign on the fast industrial TBS lines, rheological properties of HMAs and micro-properties of NWs can have adverse effects on the line efficiency and continuity. NW fiber orientation and fineness, as well as spun/melt blown composition fabric micro-level properties, are the significant factors to affect the degree of “HMA bleed through.” As a result of this problem, frequent line stops are observed to clean the glue that is being accumulated on the chiller rolls, which significantly reduces the line efficiency. HMA rheology is also important and to eliminate any bleed through the problem; one should have a good understanding of rheology driven potential complications. So, the applied viscosity/temperature should be optimized in accordance with the line speed, line width, NW characteristics and the required open time for a given HMA formulation. In this study, we will show practical aspects of potential preventative actions to minimize the HMA bleed through the problem, which may stem from both HMA rheological properties and NW spun melt/melt blown fiber characteristics.

Keywords: breathable, hotmelt, nonwoven, textile backsheet lamination, spun/melt blown

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