Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1534

Search results for: RSC neural classifier

1534 Speaker Recognition Using LIRA Neural Networks

Authors: Nestor A. Garcia Fragoso, Tetyana Baydyk, Ernst Kussul


This article contains information from our investigation in the field of voice recognition. For this purpose, we created a voice database that contains different phrases in two languages, English and Spanish, for men and women. As a classifier, the LIRA (Limited Receptive Area) grayscale neural classifier was selected. The LIRA grayscale neural classifier was developed for image recognition tasks and demonstrated good results. Therefore, we decided to develop a recognition system using this classifier for voice recognition. From a specific set of speakers, we can recognize the speaker’s voice. For this purpose, the system uses spectrograms of the voice signals as input to the system, extracts the characteristics and identifies the speaker. The results are described and analyzed in this article. The classifier can be used for speaker identification in security system or smart buildings for different types of intelligent devices.

Keywords: extreme learning, LIRA neural classifier, speaker identification, voice recognition

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1533 Random Subspace Neural Classifier for Meteor Recognition in the Night Sky

Authors: Carlos Vera, Tetyana Baydyk, Ernst Kussul, Graciela Velasco, Miguel Aparicio


This article describes the Random Subspace Neural Classifier (RSC) for the recognition of meteors in the night sky. We used images of meteors entering the atmosphere at night between 8:00 p.m.-5: 00 a.m. The objective of this project is to classify meteor and star images (with stars as the image background). The monitoring of the sky and the classification of meteors are made for future applications by scientists. The image database was collected from different websites. We worked with RGB-type images with dimensions of 220x220 pixels stored in the BitMap Protocol (BMP) format. Subsequent window scanning and processing were carried out for each image. The scan window where the characteristics were extracted had the size of 20x20 pixels with a scanning step size of 10 pixels. Brightness, contrast and contour orientation histograms were used as inputs for the RSC. The RSC worked with two classes and classified into: 1) with meteors and 2) without meteors. Different tests were carried out by varying the number of training cycles and the number of images for training and recognition. The percentage error for the neural classifier was calculated. The results show a good RSC classifier response with 89% correct recognition. The results of these experiments are presented and discussed.

Keywords: contour orientation histogram, meteors, night sky, RSC neural classifier, stars

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1532 Using Machine Learning to Build a Real-Time COVID-19 Mask Safety Monitor

Authors: Yash Jain


The US Center for Disease Control has recommended wearing masks to slow the spread of the virus. The research uses a video feed from a camera to conduct real-time classifications of whether or not a human is correctly wearing a mask, incorrectly wearing a mask, or not wearing a mask at all. Utilizing two distinct datasets from the open-source website Kaggle, a mask detection network had been trained. The first dataset that was used to train the model was titled 'Face Mask Detection' on Kaggle, where the dataset was retrieved from and the second dataset was titled 'Face Mask Dataset, which provided the data in a (YOLO Format)' so that the TinyYoloV3 model could be trained. Based on the data from Kaggle, two machine learning models were implemented and trained: a Tiny YoloV3 Real-time model and a two-stage neural network classifier. The two-stage neural network classifier had a first step of identifying distinct faces within the image, and the second step was a classifier to detect the state of the mask on the face and whether it was worn correctly, incorrectly, or no mask at all. The TinyYoloV3 was used for the live feed as well as for a comparison standpoint against the previous two-stage classifier and was trained using the darknet neural network framework. The two-stage classifier attained a mean average precision (MAP) of 80%, while the model trained using TinyYoloV3 real-time detection had a mean average precision (MAP) of 59%. Overall, both models were able to correctly classify stages/scenarios of no mask, mask, and incorrectly worn masks.

Keywords: datasets, classifier, mask-detection, real-time, TinyYoloV3, two-stage neural network classifier

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1531 Bundle Block Detection Using Spectral Coherence and Levenberg Marquardt Neural Network

Authors: K. Padmavathi, K. Sri Ramakrishna


This study describes a procedure for the detection of Left and Right Bundle Branch Block (LBBB and RBBB) ECG patterns using spectral Coherence(SC) technique and LM Neural Network. The Coherence function finds common frequencies between two signals and evaluate the similarity of the two signals. The QT variations of Bundle Blocks are observed in lead V1 of ECG. Spectral Coherence technique uses Welch method for calculating PSD. For the detection of normal and Bundle block beats, SC output values are given as the input features for the LMNN classifier. Overall accuracy of LMNN classifier is 99.5 percent. The data was collected from MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database.

Keywords: bundle block, SC, LMNN classifier, welch method, PSD, MIT-BIH, arrhythmia database

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1530 Margin-Based Feed-Forward Neural Network Classifiers

Authors: Xiaohan Bookman, Xiaoyan Zhu


Margin-Based Principle has been proposed for a long time, it has been proved that this principle could reduce the structural risk and improve the performance in both theoretical and practical aspects. Meanwhile, feed-forward neural network is a traditional classifier, which is very hot at present with a deeper architecture. However, the training algorithm of feed-forward neural network is developed and generated from Widrow-Hoff Principle that means to minimize the squared error. In this paper, we propose a new training algorithm for feed-forward neural networks based on Margin-Based Principle, which could effectively promote the accuracy and generalization ability of neural network classifiers with less labeled samples and flexible network. We have conducted experiments on four UCI open data sets and achieved good results as expected. In conclusion, our model could handle more sparse labeled and more high-dimension data set in a high accuracy while modification from old ANN method to our method is easy and almost free of work.

Keywords: Max-Margin Principle, Feed-Forward Neural Network, classifier, structural risk

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1529 Intelligent Rheumatoid Arthritis Identification System Based Image Processing and Neural Classifier

Authors: Abdulkader Helwan


Rheumatoid joint inflammation is characterized as a perpetual incendiary issue which influences the joints by hurting body tissues Therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective intelligent identification system of knee Rheumatoid arthritis especially in its early stages. This paper is to develop a new intelligent system for the identification of Rheumatoid arthritis of the knee utilizing image processing techniques and neural classifier. The system involves two principle stages. The first one is the image processing stage in which the images are processed using some techniques such as RGB to gryascale conversion, rescaling, median filtering, background extracting, images subtracting, segmentation using canny edge detection, and features extraction using pattern averaging. The extracted features are used then as inputs for the neural network which classifies the X-ray knee images as normal or abnormal (arthritic) based on a backpropagation learning algorithm which involves training of the network on 400 X-ray normal and abnormal knee images. The system was tested on 400 x-ray images and the network shows good performance during that phase, resulting in a good identification rate 97%.

Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, intelligent identification, neural classifier, segmentation, backpropoagation

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1528 Performance Analysis of Artificial Neural Network Based Land Cover Classification

Authors: Najam Aziz, Nasru Minallah, Ahmad Junaid, Kashaf Gul


Landcover classification using automated classification techniques, while employing remotely sensed multi-spectral imagery, is one of the promising areas of research. Different land conditions at different time are captured through satellite and monitored by applying different classification algorithms in specific environment. In this paper, a SPOT-5 image provided by SUPARCO has been studied and classified in Environment for Visual Interpretation (ENVI), a tool widely used in remote sensing. Then, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classification technique is used to detect the land cover changes in Abbottabad district. Obtained results are compared with a pixel based Distance classifier. The results show that ANN gives the better overall accuracy of 99.20% and Kappa coefficient value of 0.98 over the Mahalanobis Distance Classifier.

Keywords: landcover classification, artificial neural network, remote sensing, SPOT 5

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1527 An ANN Approach for Detection and Localization of Fatigue Damage in Aircraft Structures

Authors: Reza Rezaeipour Honarmandzad


In this paper we propose an ANN for detection and localization of fatigue damage in aircraft structures. We used network of piezoelectric transducers for Lamb-wave measurements in order to calculate damage indices. Data gathered by the sensors was given to neural network classifier. A set of neural network electors of different architecture cooperates to achieve consensus concerning the state of each monitored path. Sensed signal variations in the ROI, detected by the networks at each path, were used to assess the state of the structure as well as to localize detected damage and to filter out ambient changes. The classifier has been extensively tested on large data sets acquired in the tests of specimens with artificially introduced notches as well as the results of numerous fatigue experiments. Effect of the classifier structure and test data used for training on the results was evaluated.

Keywords: ANN, fatigue damage, aircraft structures, piezoelectric transducers, lamb-wave measurements

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1526 Classification of Red, Green and Blue Values from Face Images Using k-NN Classifier to Predict the Skin or Non-Skin

Authors: Kemal Polat


In this study, it has been estimated whether there is skin by using RBG values obtained from the camera and k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier. The dataset used in this study has an unbalanced distribution and a linearly non-separable structure. This problem can also be called a big data problem. The Skin dataset was taken from UCI machine learning repository. As the classifier, we have used the k-NN method to handle this big data problem. For k value of k-NN classifier, we have used as 1. To train and test the k-NN classifier, 50-50% training-testing partition has been used. As the performance metrics, TP rate, FP Rate, Precision, recall, f-measure and AUC values have been used to evaluate the performance of k-NN classifier. These obtained results are as follows: 0.999, 0.001, 0.999, 0.999, 0.999, and 1,00. As can be seen from the obtained results, this proposed method could be used to predict whether the image is skin or not.

Keywords: k-NN classifier, skin or non-skin classification, RGB values, classification

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1525 Machine Learning Predictive Models for Hydroponic Systems: A Case Study Nutrient Film Technique and Deep Flow Technique

Authors: Kritiyaporn Kunsook


Machine learning algorithms (MLAs) such us artificial neural networks (ANNs), decision tree, support vector machines (SVMs), Naïve Bayes, and ensemble classifier by voting are powerful data driven methods that are relatively less widely used in the mapping of technique of system, and thus have not been comparatively evaluated together thoroughly in this field. The performances of a series of MLAs, ANNs, decision tree, SVMs, Naïve Bayes, and ensemble classifier by voting in technique of hydroponic systems prospectively modeling are compared based on the accuracy of each model. Classification of hydroponic systems only covers the test samples from vegetables grown with Nutrient film technique (NFT) and Deep flow technique (DFT). The feature, which are the characteristics of vegetables compose harvesting height width, temperature, require light and color. The results indicate that the classification performance of the ANNs is 98%, decision tree is 98%, SVMs is 97.33%, Naïve Bayes is 96.67%, and ensemble classifier by voting is 98.96% algorithm respectively.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, decision tree, support vector machines, naïve Bayes, ensemble classifier by voting

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1524 Assessment of Planet Image for Land Cover Mapping Using Soft and Hard Classifiers

Authors: Lamyaa Gamal El-Deen Taha, Ashraf Sharawi


Planet image is a new data source from planet lab. This research is concerned with the assessment of Planet image for land cover mapping. Two pixel based classifiers and one subpixel based classifier were compared. Firstly, rectification of Planet image was performed. Secondly, a comparison between minimum distance, maximum likelihood and neural network classifications for classification of Planet image was performed. Thirdly, the overall accuracy of classification and kappa coefficient were calculated. Results indicate that neural network classification is best followed by maximum likelihood classifier then minimum distance classification for land cover mapping.

Keywords: planet image, land cover mapping, rectification, neural network classification, multilayer perceptron, soft classifiers, hard classifiers

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1523 A Comparative Study of k-NN and MLP-NN Classifiers Using GA-kNN Based Feature Selection Method for Wood Recognition System

Authors: Uswah Khairuddin, Rubiyah Yusof, Nenny Ruthfalydia Rosli


This paper presents a comparative study between k-Nearest Neighbour (k-NN) and Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP-NN) classifier using Genetic Algorithm (GA) as feature selector for wood recognition system. The features have been extracted from the images using Grey Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM). The use of GA based feature selection is mainly to ensure that the database used for training the features for the wood species pattern classifier consists of only optimized features. The feature selection process is aimed at selecting only the most discriminating features of the wood species to reduce the confusion for the pattern classifier. This feature selection approach maintains the ‘good’ features that minimizes the inter-class distance and maximizes the intra-class distance. Wrapper GA is used with k-NN classifier as fitness evaluator (GA-kNN). The results shows that k-NN is the best choice of classifier because it uses a very simple distance calculation algorithm and classification tasks can be done in a short time with good classification accuracy.

Keywords: feature selection, genetic algorithm, optimization, wood recognition system

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1522 A t-SNE and UMAP Based Neural Network Image Classification Algorithm

Authors: Shelby Simpson, William Stanley, Namir Naba, Xiaodi Wang


Both t-SNE and UMAP are brand new state of art tools to predominantly preserve the local structure that is to group neighboring data points together, which indeed provides a very informative visualization of heterogeneity in our data. In this research, we develop a t-SNE and UMAP base neural network image classification algorithm to embed the original dataset to a corresponding low dimensional dataset as a preprocessing step, then use this embedded database as input to our specially designed neural network classifier for image classification. We use the fashion MNIST data set, which is a labeled data set of images of clothing objects in our experiments. t-SNE and UMAP are used for dimensionality reduction of the data set and thus produce low dimensional embeddings. Furthermore, we use the embeddings from t-SNE and UMAP to feed into two neural networks. The accuracy of the models from the two neural networks is then compared to a dense neural network that does not use embedding as an input to show which model can classify the images of clothing objects more accurately.

Keywords: t-SNE, UMAP, fashion MNIST, neural networks

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1521 Classification of Multiple Cancer Types with Deep Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Nan Deng, Zhenqiu Liu


Thousands of patients with metastatic tumors were diagnosed with cancers of unknown primary sites each year. The inability to identify the primary cancer site may lead to inappropriate treatment and unexpected prognosis. Nowadays, a large amount of genomics and transcriptomics cancer data has been generated by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database has accrued thousands of human cancer tumors and healthy controls, which provides an abundance of resource to differentiate cancer types. Meanwhile, deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have shown high accuracy on classification among a large number of image object categories. Here, we utilize 25 cancer primary tumors and 3 normal tissues from TCGA and convert their RNA-Seq gene expression profiling to color images; train, validate and test a CNN classifier directly from these images. The performance result shows that our CNN classifier can archive >80% test accuracy on most of the tumors and normal tissues. Since the gene expression pattern of distant metastases is similar to their primary tumors, the CNN classifier may provide a potential computational strategy on identifying the unknown primary origin of metastatic cancer in order to plan appropriate treatment for patients.

Keywords: bioinformatics, cancer, convolutional neural network, deep leaning, gene expression pattern

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1520 Parkinson’s Disease Detection Analysis through Machine Learning Approaches

Authors: Muhtasim Shafi Kader, Fizar Ahmed, Annesha Acharjee


Machine learning and data mining are crucial in health care, as well as medical information and detection. Machine learning approaches are now being utilized to improve awareness of a variety of critical health issues, including diabetes detection, neuron cell tumor diagnosis, COVID 19 identification, and so on. Parkinson’s disease is basically a disease for our senior citizens in Bangladesh. Parkinson's Disease indications often seem progressive and get worst with time. People got affected trouble walking and communicating with the condition advances. Patients can also have psychological and social vagaries, nap problems, hopelessness, reminiscence loss, and weariness. Parkinson's disease can happen in both men and women. Though men are affected by the illness at a proportion that is around partial of them are women. In this research, we have to get out the accurate ML algorithm to find out the disease with a predictable dataset and the model of the following machine learning classifiers. Therefore, nine ML classifiers are secondhand to portion study to use machine learning approaches like as follows, Naive Bayes, Adaptive Boosting, Bagging Classifier, Decision Tree Classifier, Random Forest classifier, XBG Classifier, K Nearest Neighbor Classifier, Support Vector Machine Classifier, and Gradient Boosting Classifier are used.

Keywords: naive bayes, adaptive boosting, bagging classifier, decision tree classifier, random forest classifier, XBG classifier, k nearest neighbor classifier, support vector classifier, gradient boosting classifier

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1519 Myers-Briggs Type Index Personality Type Classification Based on an Individual’s Spotify Playlists

Authors: Sefik Can Karakaya, Ibrahim Demir


In this study, the relationship between musical preferences and personality traits has been investigated in terms of Spotify audio analysis features. The aim of this paper is to build such a classifier capable of segmenting people into their Myers-Briggs Type Index (MBTI) personality type based on their Spotify playlists. Music takes an important place in the lives of people all over the world and online music streaming platforms make it easier to reach musical contents. In this context, the motivation to build such a classifier is allowing people to gain access to their MBTI personality type and perhaps for more reliably and more quickly. For this purpose, logistic regression and deep neural networks have been selected for classifier and their performances are compared. In conclusion, it has been found that musical preferences differ statistically between personality traits, and evaluated models are able to distinguish personality types based on given musical data structure with over %60 accuracy rate.

Keywords: myers-briggs type indicator, music psychology, Spotify, behavioural user profiling, deep neural networks, logistic regression

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1518 Use of Fractal Geometry in Machine Learning

Authors: Fuad M. Alkoot


The main component of a machine learning system is the classifier. Classifiers are mathematical models that can perform classification tasks for a specific application area. Additionally, many classifiers are combined using any of the available methods to reduce the classifier error rate. The benefits gained from the combination of multiple classifier designs has motivated the development of diverse approaches to multiple classifiers. We aim to investigate using fractal geometry to develop an improved classifier combiner. Initially we experiment with measuring the fractal dimension of data and use the results in the development of a combiner strategy.

Keywords: fractal geometry, machine learning, classifier, fractal dimension

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1517 Performance Evaluation of Contemporary Classifiers for Automatic Detection of Epileptic EEG

Authors: K. E. Ch. Vidyasagar, M. Moghavvemi, T. S. S. T. Prabhat


Epilepsy is a global problem, and with seizures eluding even the smartest of diagnoses a requirement for automatic detection of the same using electroencephalogram (EEG) would have a huge impact in diagnosis of the disorder. Among a multitude of methods for automatic epilepsy detection, one should find the best method out, based on accuracy, for classification. This paper reasons out, and rationalizes, the best methods for classification. Accuracy is based on the classifier, and thus this paper discusses classifiers like quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), classification and regression tree (CART), support vector machine (SVM), naive Bayes classifier (NBC), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), K-nearest neighbor (KNN) and artificial neural networks (ANN). Results show that ANN is the most accurate of all the above stated classifiers with 97.7% accuracy, 97.25% specificity and 98.28% sensitivity in its merit. This is followed closely by SVM with 1% variation in result. These results would certainly help researchers choose the best classifier for detection of epilepsy.

Keywords: classification, seizure, KNN, SVM, LDA, ANN, epilepsy

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1516 Classification of Forest Types Using Remote Sensing and Self-Organizing Maps

Authors: Wanderson Goncalves e Goncalves, José Alberto Silva de Sá


Human actions are a threat to the balance and conservation of the Amazon forest. Therefore the environmental monitoring services play an important role as the preservation and maintenance of this environment. This study classified forest types using data from a forest inventory provided by the 'Florestal e da Biodiversidade do Estado do Pará' (IDEFLOR-BIO), located between the municipalities of Santarém, Juruti and Aveiro, in the state of Pará, Brazil, covering an area approximately of 600,000 hectares, Bands 3, 4 and 5 of the TM-Landsat satellite image, and Self - Organizing Maps. The information from the satellite images was extracted using QGIS software 2.8.1 Wien and was used as a database for training the neural network. The midpoints of each sample of forest inventory have been linked to images. Later the Digital Numbers of the pixels have been extracted, composing the database that fed the training process and testing of the classifier. The neural network was trained to classify two forest types: Rain Forest of Lowland Emerging Canopy (Dbe) and Rain Forest of Lowland Emerging Canopy plus Open with palm trees (Dbe + Abp) in the Mamuru Arapiuns glebes of Pará State, and the number of examples in the training data set was 400, 200 examples for each class (Dbe and Dbe + Abp), and the size of the test data set was 100, with 50 examples for each class (Dbe and Dbe + Abp). Therefore, total mass of data consisted of 500 examples. The classifier was compiled in Orange Data Mining 2.7 Software and was evaluated in terms of the confusion matrix indicators. The results of the classifier were considered satisfactory, and being obtained values of the global accuracy equal to 89% and Kappa coefficient equal to 78% and F1 score equal to 0,88. It evaluated also the efficiency of the classifier by the ROC plot (receiver operating characteristics), obtaining results close to ideal ratings, showing it to be a very good classifier, and demonstrating the potential of this methodology to provide ecosystem services, particularly in anthropogenic areas in the Amazon.

Keywords: artificial neural network, computational intelligence, pattern recognition, unsupervised learning

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1515 Bias Prevention in Automated Diagnosis of Melanoma: Augmentation of a Convolutional Neural Network Classifier

Authors: Kemka Ihemelandu, Chukwuemeka Ihemelandu


Melanoma remains a public health crisis, with incidence rates increasing rapidly in the past decades. Improving diagnostic accuracy to decrease misdiagnosis using Artificial intelligence (AI) continues to be documented. Unfortunately, unintended racially biased outcomes, a product of lack of diversity in the dataset used, with a noted class imbalance favoring lighter vs. darker skin tone, have increasingly been recognized as a problem.Resulting in noted limitations of the accuracy of the Convolutional neural network (CNN)models. CNN models are prone to biased output due to biases in the dataset used to train them. Our aim in this study was the optimization of convolutional neural network algorithms to mitigate bias in the automated diagnosis of melanoma. We hypothesized that our proposed training algorithms based on a data augmentation method to optimize the diagnostic accuracy of a CNN classifier by generating new training samples from the original ones will reduce bias in the automated diagnosis of melanoma. We applied geometric transformation, including; rotations, translations, scale change, flipping, and shearing. Resulting in a CNN model that provided a modifiedinput data making for a model that could learn subtle racial features. Optimal selection of the momentum and batch hyperparameter increased our model accuracy. We show that our augmented model reduces bias while maintaining accuracy in the automated diagnosis of melanoma.

Keywords: bias, augmentation, melanoma, convolutional neural network

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1514 Comparing SVM and Naïve Bayes Classifier for Automatic Microaneurysm Detections

Authors: A. Sopharak, B. Uyyanonvara, S. Barman


Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by the development of retinal microaneurysms. The damage can be prevented if disease is treated in its early stages. In this paper, we are comparing Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naïve Bayes (NB) classifiers for automatic microaneurysm detection in images acquired through non-dilated pupils. The Nearest Neighbor classifier is used as a baseline for comparison. Detected microaneurysms are validated with expert ophthalmologists’ hand-drawn ground-truths. The sensitivity, specificity, precision and accuracy of each method are also compared.

Keywords: diabetic retinopathy, microaneurysm, naive Bayes classifier, SVM classifier

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1513 Sign Language Recognition of Static Gestures Using Kinect™ and Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Rohit Semwal, Shivam Arora, Saurav, Sangita Roy


This work proposes a supervised framework with deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for vision-based sign language recognition of static gestures. Our approach addresses the acquisition and segmentation of correct inputs for the CNN-based classifier. Microsoft Kinect™ sensor, despite complex environmental conditions, can track hands efficiently. Skin Colour based segmentation is applied on cropped images of hands in different poses, used to depict different sign language gestures. The segmented hand images are used as an input for our classifier. The CNN classifier proposed in the paper is able to classify the input images with a high degree of accuracy. The system was trained and tested on 39 static sign language gestures, including 26 letters of the alphabet and 13 commonly used words. This paper includes a problem definition for building the proposed system, which acts as a sign language translator between deaf/mute and the rest of the society. It is then followed by a focus on reviewing existing knowledge in the area and work done by other researchers. It also describes the working principles behind different components of CNNs in brief. The architecture and system design specifications of the proposed system are discussed in the subsequent sections of the paper to give the reader a clear picture of the system in terms of the capability required. The design then gives the top-level details of how the proposed system meets the requirements.

Keywords: sign language, CNN, HCI, segmentation

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1512 Measuring Multi-Class Linear Classifier for Image Classification

Authors: Fatma Susilawati Mohamad, Azizah Abdul Manaf, Fadhillah Ahmad, Zarina Mohamad, Wan Suryani Wan Awang


A simple and robust multi-class linear classifier is proposed and implemented. For a pair of classes of the linear boundary, a collection of segments of hyper planes created as perpendicular bisectors of line segments linking centroids of the classes or part of classes. Nearest Neighbor and Linear Discriminant Analysis are compared in the experiments to see the performances of each classifier in discriminating ripeness of oil palm. This paper proposes a multi-class linear classifier using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) for image identification. Result proves that LDA is well capable in separating multi-class features for ripeness identification.

Keywords: multi-class, linear classifier, nearest neighbor, linear discriminant analysis

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1511 Non-Targeted Adversarial Image Classification Attack-Region Modification Methods

Authors: Bandar Alahmadi, Lethia Jackson


Machine Learning model is used today in many real-life applications. The safety and security of such model is important, so the results of the model are as accurate as possible. One challenge of machine learning model security is the adversarial examples attack. Adversarial examples are designed by the attacker to cause the machine learning model to misclassify the input. We propose a method to generate adversarial examples to attack image classifiers. We are modifying the successfully classified images, so a classifier misclassifies them after the modification. In our method, we do not update the whole image, but instead we detect the important region, modify it, place it back to the original image, and then run it through a classifier. The algorithm modifies the detected region using two methods. First, it will add abstract image matrix on back of the detected image matrix. Then, it will perform a rotation attack to rotate the detected region around its axes, and embed the trace of image in image background. Finally, the attacked region is placed in its original position, from where it was removed, and a smoothing filter is applied to smooth the background with foreground. We test our method in cascade classifier, and the algorithm is efficient, the classifier confident has dropped to almost zero. We also try it in CNN (Convolutional neural network) with higher setting and the algorithm was successfully worked.

Keywords: adversarial examples, attack, computer vision, image processing

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1510 Early Detection of Breast Cancer in Digital Mammograms Based on Image Processing and Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Sehreen Moorat, Mussarat Lakho


A method of artificial intelligence using digital mammograms data has been proposed in this paper for detection of breast cancer. Many researchers have developed techniques for the early detection of breast cancer; the early diagnosis helps to save many lives. The detection of breast cancer through mammography is effective method which detects the cancer before it is felt and increases the survival rate. In this paper, we have purposed image processing technique for enhancing the image to detect the graphical table data and markings. Texture features based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix and intensity based features are extracted from the selected region. For classification purpose, neural network based supervised classifier system has been used which can discriminate between benign and malignant. Hence, 68 digital mammograms have been used to train the classifier. The obtained result proved that automated detection of breast cancer is beneficial for early diagnosis and increases the survival rates of breast cancer patients. The proposed system will help radiologist in the better interpretation of breast cancer.

Keywords: medical imaging, cancer, processing, neural network

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1509 Neural Rendering Applied to Confocal Microscopy Images

Authors: Daniel Li


We present a novel application of neural rendering methods to confocal microscopy. Neural rendering and implicit neural representations have developed at a remarkable pace, and are prevalent in modern 3D computer vision literature. However, they have not yet been applied to optical microscopy, an important imaging field where 3D volume information may be heavily sought after. In this paper, we employ neural rendering on confocal microscopy focus stack data and share the results. We highlight the benefits and potential of adding neural rendering to the toolkit of microscopy image processing techniques.

Keywords: neural rendering, implicit neural representations, confocal microscopy, medical image processing

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1508 Extensive Machine Learning Analysis in Predicting the Treatment Outcome of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Fibroids With an Immediate Nonperfused Volume Ratio of at Least 90%

Authors: Emine Akpınar, Bilgin Keserci


Uterine fibroids, arising from the myometrium and composed of smooth muscle cells, are the most common benign tumors of the uterus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) plays an important clinical role in the treatment of uterine fibroids. One of the biggest challenges in this treatment is the selection of patients suitable for HIFU treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study comparatively used different machine learning (ML) techniques to predict the treatment outcome of HIFU therapy. The screening MR examinations of 73 women (mean age, 38.8 years; range, 22–49 years) were included in the analysis. We, in this study, used mpMRI features, including tissue characteristics of lesion outlining its cellularity, diffusivity, and vascularity. Eighteen traditional based, tree-based, and Boosting based ML classifiers —including Logistic regression (LR), passive-aggressive classifier, SGD classifier, linear discriminant analysis, quadratic discriminant analysis, linear support vector classifier, support vector classifier (SVC), K-neighbours classifier (KNN), Gaussian Naive Bayes, Ridge classifier, decision tree classifier (DTC), random forest classifier (RFC), extra tree classifier (ETC), bagging classifier, adaptive boosting (AdaBoost) classifier, gradient boosting classifier, extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) classifier, CatBoost classifier, light gradient boosted machine (LightGBM) classifier, histogram gradient boosting (HistGBM) classifier and RusBoost classifier were used. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and accuracy are the performance metrics used for analysing the algorithms. Thus, the RusBoost classifier gave a superior performance with an AUROC value of 0.97 and an accuracy of 0.96. In the traditional-based ML group, LR, Passive Aggressive classifier, SGD classifier, and Gaussian Naive Bayes gave an equal performance with an AUROC value of 0.81. In the Tree-based group, RFC gave a 0.92 AUROC value and 0.96 accuracy score. This preliminary study indicates that ML algorithms should be considered in assisting physicians in fully evaluating the outcome of the HIFU therapy.

Keywords: uterine fibroids, magnetic resonance imaging, high-intensity focused ultrasound, machine learning algorithms

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1507 Speech Emotion Recognition: A DNN and LSTM Comparison in Single and Multiple Feature Application

Authors: Thiago Spilborghs Bueno Meyer, Plinio Thomaz Aquino Junior


Through speech, which privileges the functional and interactive nature of the text, it is possible to ascertain the spatiotemporal circumstances, the conditions of production and reception of the discourse, the explicit purposes such as informing, explaining, convincing, etc. These conditions allow bringing the interaction between humans closer to the human-robot interaction, making it natural and sensitive to information. However, it is not enough to understand what is said; it is necessary to recognize emotions for the desired interaction. The validity of the use of neural networks for feature selection and emotion recognition was verified. For this purpose, it is proposed the use of neural networks and comparison of models, such as recurrent neural networks and deep neural networks, in order to carry out the classification of emotions through speech signals to verify the quality of recognition. It is expected to enable the implementation of robots in a domestic environment, such as the HERA robot from the [email protected] team, which focuses on autonomous service robots for the domestic environment. Tests were performed using only the Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients, as well as tests with several characteristics of Delta-MFCC, spectral contrast, and the Mel spectrogram. To carry out the training, validation and testing of the neural networks, the eNTERFACE’05 database was used, which has 42 speakers from 14 different nationalities speaking the English language. The data from the chosen database are videos that, for use in neural networks, were converted into audios. It was found as a result, a classification of 51,969% of correct answers when using the deep neural network, when the use of the recurrent neural network was verified, with the classification with accuracy equal to 44.09%. The results are more accurate when only the Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients are used for the classification, using the classifier with the deep neural network, and in only one case, it is possible to observe a greater accuracy by the recurrent neural network, which occurs in the use of various features and setting 73 for batch size and 100 training epochs.

Keywords: emotion recognition, speech, deep learning, human-robot interaction, neural networks

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1506 A New Internal Architecture Based On Feature Selection for Holonic Manufacturing System

Authors: Jihan Abdulazeez Ahmed, Adnan Mohsin Abdulazeez Brifcani


This paper suggests a new internal architecture of holon based on feature selection model using the combination of Bees Algorithm (BA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). BA is used to generate features while ANN is used as a classifier to evaluate the produced features. Proposed system is applied on the Wine data set, the statistical result proves that the proposed system is effective and has the ability to choose informative features with high accuracy.

Keywords: artificial neural network, bees algorithm, feature selection, Holon

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1505 Identification of Bayesian Network with Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Mohamed Raouf Benmakrelouf, Wafa Karouche, Joseph Rynkiewicz


In this paper, we propose an alternative method to construct a Bayesian Network (BN). This method relies on a convolutional neural network (CNN classifier), which determinates the edges of the network skeleton. We train a CNN on a normalized empirical probability density distribution (NEPDF) for predicting causal interactions and relationships. We have to find the optimal Bayesian network structure for causal inference. Indeed, we are undertaking a search for pair-wise causality, depending on considered causal assumptions. In order to avoid unreasonable causal structure, we consider a blacklist and a whitelist of causality senses. We tested the method on real data to assess the influence of education on the voting intention for the extreme right-wing party. We show that, with this method, we get a safer causal structure of variables (Bayesian Network) and make to identify a variable that satisfies the backdoor criterion.

Keywords: Bayesian network, structure learning, optimal search, convolutional neural network, causal inference

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