Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Shelby Simpson

31 A t-SNE and UMAP Based Neural Network Image Classification Algorithm

Authors: Shelby Simpson, William Stanley, Namir Naba, Xiaodi Wang


Both t-SNE and UMAP are brand new state of art tools to predominantly preserve the local structure that is to group neighboring data points together, which indeed provides a very informative visualization of heterogeneity in our data. In this research, we develop a t-SNE and UMAP base neural network image classification algorithm to embed the original dataset to a corresponding low dimensional dataset as a preprocessing step, then use this embedded database as input to our specially designed neural network classifier for image classification. We use the fashion MNIST data set, which is a labeled data set of images of clothing objects in our experiments. t-SNE and UMAP are used for dimensionality reduction of the data set and thus produce low dimensional embeddings. Furthermore, we use the embeddings from t-SNE and UMAP to feed into two neural networks. The accuracy of the models from the two neural networks is then compared to a dense neural network that does not use embedding as an input to show which model can classify the images of clothing objects more accurately.

Keywords: t-SNE, UMAP, fashion MNIST, neural networks

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30 The History of Sambipitu Formation Temperature during the Early Miocene Epooch at Kali Ngalang, Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency

Authors: R. Harman Dwi, Ryan Avirsa, P. Abraham Ivan


Understanding of temperatures in the past, present, and future temperatures can be possible to do by analysis abundance of fossil foraminifera. This research was conducted in Sambipitu Formation, Ngalang River, Nglipar, Gunung Kidul Regency. The research method is divided into 3 stages: 1) study of literature, research based on previous researchers, 2) spatial, observation and sampling every 5-10 meters, 3) descriptive, analyzing samples consisting of a 10-gram sample weight, washing sample using 30% peroxide, biostratigraphy analysis, paleotemperature analysis using abundance of fossil, diversity analysis using Simpson diversity index method, and comparing current temperature data. There are two phases based on the appearance of Globorotalia menardii and Pulleniatina obliqueculata pointed to Phase Tropical Area, and the appearance of fossil Globigerinoides ruber and Orbulina universa fossil shows the phase of Subtropical Area. Paleotemperatur based on the appearance of Globorotalia menardii, Globigerinoides trilobus, Globigerinoides ruber, Orbulina universa, and Pulleniatina obliqueculata pointed to Warm Water Area and Warm Water Area (average surface water approximate 25°C).

Keywords: abundance, biostratigraphy, Simpson diversity index method, paleotemperature

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29 Status of Mangrove Wetlands and Implications for Sustainable Livelihood of Coastal Communities on the Lagos Coast (West Africa)

Authors: I. Agboola Julius, Christopher A. Kumolu-Johnson, O. Kolade Rafiu, A. Saba Abdulwakil


This work elucidates on mangrove diversity, trends of change, factors responsible for loss over the years and implications for sustainable livelihoods of locals in four villages (Ajido (L1), Tarkwa bay (L2), University of Lagos (L3), and Ikosi (L4)) along the coast of Lagos, Nigeria. Primary data were collected through field survey, questionnaires, interviews, and review of existing literature. Field observation and data analysis reveals mangrove diversity as low and varied on a spatial scale, where Margalef’s Diversity Index (D) was 0.368, 0.269, 0.326, and 0.333, respectively for L1, L2, L3, and L4. Shannon Weiner’s Index (H) was estimated to be 1.003, 1.460, 1.160, 1.046, and Specie Richness (E) 0.913, 0.907, 0.858, and 0.015, respectively, for the four villages. Also, The Simpson’s index of diversity was analyzed to be 0.632, 0. 731, 0.647, 0.667, and Simpson’s reciprocal index 2.717, 3.717, 3.060, and 3.003, respectively, for the four villages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the impact of mangrove loss on the sustainable livelihood of coastal communities. Calculated Chi-square (X2) value (5) was higher than tabulated value (4.30), suggesting that loss of mangrove wetlands impacted on local communities’ livelihood at the four villages. Analyses of causes and trends of mangrove wetland loss over the years suggest that urbanization, fuel wood and agricultural activities are major causes. Current degradation observed in mangrove wetlands on the Lagos coast suggest a reduction in mangroves biodiversity and associated fauna with potential cascading effects on higher trophic levels such as fisheries. Low yield in fish catch, reduction in income and increasing cases of natural disaster has culminated in threats to sustainable livelihoods of local communities along the coast of Lagos.

Keywords: Mangroves, lagos coast, fisheries, management

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28 Design Components and Reliability Aspects of Municipal Waste Water and SEIG Based Micro Hydro Power Plant

Authors: R. K. Saket


This paper presents design aspects and probabilistic approach for generation reliability evaluation of an alternative resource: municipal waste water based micro hydro power generation system. Annual and daily flow duration curves have been obtained for design, installation, development, scientific analysis and reliability evaluation of the MHPP. The hydro potential of the waste water flowing through sewage system of the BHU campus has been determined to produce annual flow duration and daily flow duration curves by ordering the recorded water flows from maximum to minimum values. Design pressure, the roughness of the pipe’s interior surface, method of joining, weight, ease of installation, accessibility to the sewage system, design life, maintenance, weather conditions, availability of material, related cost and likelihood of structural damage have been considered for design of a particular penstock for reliable operation of the MHPP. A MHPGS based on MWW and SEIG is designed, developed, and practically implemented to provide reliable electric energy to suitable load in the campus of the Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, (UP), India. Generation reliability evaluation of the developed MHPP using Gaussian distribution approach, safety factor concept, peak load consideration and Simpson 1/3rd rule has presented in this paper.

Keywords: self excited induction generator, annual and daily flow duration curve, sewage system, municipal waste water, reliability evaluation, Gaussian distribution, Simpson 1/3rd rule

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27 Reduction of Plants Biodiversity in Hyrcanian Forest by Coal Mining Activities

Authors: Mahsa Tavakoli, Seyed Mohammad Hojjati, Yahya Kooch


Considering that coal mining is one of the important industrial activities, it may cause damages to environment. According to the author’s best knowledge, the effect of traditional coal mining activities on plant biodiversity has not been investigated in the Hyrcanian forests. Therefore, in this study, the effect of coal mining activities on vegetation and tree diversity was investigated in Hyrcanian forest, North Iran. After filed visiting and determining the mine, 16 plots (20×20 m2) were established by systematic-randomly (60×60 m2) in an area of 4 ha (200×200 m2-mine entrance placed at center). An area adjacent to the mine was not affected by the mining activity, and it is considered as the control area. In each plot, the data about trees such as number and type of species were recorded. The biodiversity of vegetation cover was considered 5 square sub-plots (1 m2) in each plot. PAST software and Ecological Methodology were used to calculate Biodiversity indices. The value of Shannon Wiener and Simpson diversity indices for tree cover in control area (1.04±0.34 and 0.62±0.20) was significantly higher than mining area (0.78±0.27 and 0.45±0.14). The value of evenness indices for tree cover in the mining area was significantly lower than that of the control area. The value of Shannon Wiener and Simpson diversity indices for vegetation cover in the control area (1.37±0.06 and 0.69±0.02) was significantly higher than the mining area (1.02±0.13 and 0.50±0.07). The value of evenness index in the control area was significantly higher than the mining area. Plant communities are a good indicator of the changes in the site. Study about changes in vegetation biodiversity and plant dynamics in the degraded land can provide necessary information for forest management and reforestation of these areas.

Keywords: vegetation biodiversity, species composition, traditional coal mining, Caspian forest

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26 Geotechnical and Mineralogical Properties of Clay Soils in the Second Organized Industrial Region, Konya, Turkey

Authors: Mustafa Yıldız, Ali Ulvi Uzer, Murat Olgun


In this study, geotechnical and mineralogical properties of gypsum containing clay basis which form the ground of Second Organized Industrial Zone in Konya province have been researched through comprehensive field and laboratory experiments. Although sufficient geotechnical research has not been performed yet, an intensive structuring in the region continues at present. The study area consists of mid-lake sediments formed by gypsum containing soft silt-clay basis which evolves to a large area. To determine the soil profile and geotechnical specifications; 18 drilling holes were opened and disturbed / undisturbed soil samples have been taken through shelby tubes within 1.5m intervals. Tests have been performed on these samples to designate the index and strength properties of soil. Besides, at all drilling holes Standart Penetration Tests have been done within 1.5m intervals. For the purpose of determining the mineralogical characteristics of the soil; all rock and X-RD analysis have been carried out on 6 samples which were taken from various depths through the soil profile. Strength and compressibility characteristics of the soil were defined with correlations using laboratory and field test results. Unconfined compressive strength, undrained cohesion, compression index varies between 16 kN/m2 and 405.4 kN/m2, 6.5 kN/m2 and 72 kN/m2, 0.066 and 0.864, respectively.

Keywords: Konya second organized industrial region, strength, compressibility, soft clay

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25 Assessment of an ICA-Based Method for Detecting the Effect of Attention in the Auditory Late Response

Authors: Siavash Mirahmadizoghi, Steven Bell, David Simpson


In this work a new independent component analysis (ICA) based method for noise reduction in evoked potentials is evaluated on for auditory late responses (ALR) captured with a 63-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) from 10 normal-hearing subjects. The performance of the new method is compared with a single channel alternative in terms of signal to noise ratio (SNR), the number of channels with an SNR above an empirically derived statistical critical value and an estimate of the effect of attention on the major components in the ALR waveform. The results show that the multichannel signal processing method can significantly enhance the quality of the ALR signal and also detect the effect of the attention on the ALR better than the single channel alternative.

Keywords: auditory late response (ALR), attention, EEG, independent component analysis (ICA), multichannel signal processing

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24 The Effects of Religiosity and Spiritual Intelligence on the Performance of Accountants in Ghana

Authors: Wisdom Dordudnu, George M. Y. Owusu, Samuel N. Y. Simpson


The recent failures of many corporate giants have generated intense research interest in the factors that influence accountants’ job performance. Against the backdrop that these factors also create an enabling environment for success at the work place, this study contributes to literature on job performance of accountants by exploring the impact of two psycho-spiritual factors: religiosity and spiritual intelligence on job performance of accountants in Ghana. The study employs a survey approach using questionnaires as the principal means of data collection to elicit responses from accountants working in the 222 certified firms of Institute of Chartered Accountants Ghana (ICAG). A structural equation modeling-based approach is employed to examine the relationship among the study constructs. Results of this study indicate that there is a positive relationship between these factors and accountants’ performance. It is expected that this study provides strong evidence and highlight the need for specific action from managers to look critically at the non-material aspect of accountants in accounting firms.

Keywords: job performance, psycho-spiritual, religiosity, spiritual intelligence

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23 On-Farm Diversification in Vietnam: Determinants and Trends

Authors: Diep Thanh Tung, Joachim Aurbacher


This study aims to measure the level of on-farm diversification in Vietnam. The empirical results of the research carried out reflect regional differences in terms of on-farm diversification and its determinants. Households in the northern regions have adapted to the fragmented and small-sized parcels of land held by diversifying their on-farm activities. In contrast, the Mekong delta region in the south of Vietnam is characterized by larger agricultural parcels and a specialization in rice production. Land use fragmentation, as reflected by a large number of plots in a given area, is one of the most important reasons for the high levels of on-farm diversification seen, while the higher share of non-farm income in total income is the reason of lower levels of on-farm diversification. Households have reacted to natural and economic shocks by diversifying their on-farm activities. The non-stationary Markov chain model used here shows various diversification scenarios and trends. In most cases, on-farm diversification generally tends to reduce over the next few years.

Keywords: diversification, simpson index, fixed effects, non-stationary markov chain

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22 Effect of Traffic Composition on Delay and Saturation Flow at Signal Controlled Intersections

Authors: Arpita Saha, Apoorv Jain, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh


Level of service at a signal controlled intersection is directly measured from the delay. Similarly, saturation flow rate is a fundamental parameter to measure the intersection capacity. The present study calculates vehicle arrival rate, departure rate, and queue length for every five seconds interval in each cycle. Based on the queue lengths, the total delay of the cycle has been calculated using Simpson’s 1/3rd rule. Saturation flow has been estimated in terms of veh/hr of green/lane for every five seconds interval of the green period until at least three vehicles are left to cross the stop line. Vehicle composition shows an immense effect on total delay and saturation flow rate. The increase in two-wheeler proportion increases the saturation flow rate and reduces the total delay per vehicle significantly. Additionally, an increase in the heavy vehicle proportion reduces the saturation flow rate and increases the total delay for each vehicle.

Keywords: delay, saturation flow, signalised intersection, vehicle composition

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21 Effect of Gaseous Imperfections on the Supersonic Flow Parameters for Air in Nozzles

Authors: Merouane Salhi, Toufik Zebbiche


When the stagnation pressure of perfect gas increases, the specific heat and their ratio do not remain constant anymore and start to vary with this pressure. The gas doesn’t remain perfect. Its state equation change and it becomes for a real gas. In this case, the effects of molecular size and intermolecular attraction forces intervene to correct the state equation. The aim of this work is to show and discuss the effect of stagnation pressure on supersonic thermodynamical, physical and geometrical flow parameters, to find a general case for real gas. With the assumptions that Berthelot’s state equation accounts for the molecular size and intermolecular force effects, expressions are developed for analyzing supersonic flow for thermally and calorically imperfect gas lower than the dissociation molecules threshold. The designs parameters for supersonic nozzle like thrust coefficient depend directly on stagnation parameters of the combustion chamber. The application is for air. A computation of error is made in this case to give a limit of perfect gas model compared to real gas model.

Keywords: supersonic flow, real gas model, Berthelot’s state equation, Simpson’s method, condensation function, stagnation pressure

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20 Determinants of Income Diversification among Support Zone Communities of National Parks in Nigeria

Authors: Daniel Etim Jacob, Samuel Onadeko, Edem A. Eniang, Imaobong Ufot Nelson


This paper examined determinants of income diversification among households in support zones communities of national parks in Nigeria. This involved the use household data collected through questionnaires administered randomly among 1009 household heads in the study area. The data obtained were analyzed using probability and non-probability statistical analysis such as regression and analysis of variance to test for mean difference between parks. The result obtained indicates that majority of the household heads were male (92.57%0, between the age class of 21 – 40 years (44.90%), had non-formal education (38.16%), were farmers (65.21%), owned land (95.44%), with a household size of 1 – 5 (36.67%) and an annual income range of ₦401,000 - ₦600,000 (24.58%). Mean Simpson index of diversity showed a general low (0.375) level of income diversification among the households. Income, age, off-farm dependence, education, household size and occupation where significant (p<0.01) factors that affected households’ income diversification. The study recommends improvement in the existing infrastructures and social capital in the communities as avenues to improve the livelihood and ensure positive conservation behaviors in the study area.

Keywords: income diversification, protected area, livelihood, poverty, Nigeria

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19 Thermal and Caloric Imperfections Effect on the Supersonic Flow Parameters with Application for Air in Nozzles

Authors: Merouane Salhi, Toufik Zebbiche, Omar Abada


When the stagnation pressure of perfect gas increases, the specific heat and their ratio do not remain constant anymore and start to vary with this pressure. The gas does not remain perfect. Its state equation change and it becomes a real gas. In this case, the effects of molecular size and inter molecular attraction forces intervene to correct the state equation. The aim of this work is to show and discuss the effect of stagnation pressure on supersonic thermo dynamical, physical and geometrical flow parameters, to find a general case for real gas. With the assumptions that Berthelot’s state equation accounts for molecular size and inter molecular force effects, expressions are developed for analyzing supersonic flow for thermally and calorically imperfect gas lower than the dissociation molecules threshold. The designs parameters for supersonic nozzle like thrust coefficient depend directly on stagnation parameters of the combustion chamber. The application is for air. A computation of error is made in this case to give a limit of perfect gas model compared to real gas model.

Keywords: supersonic flow, real gas model, Berthelot’s state equation, Simpson’s method, condensation function, stagnation pressure

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
18 Biodiversity Indices for Macrobenthic Community structures of Mangrove Forests, Khamir Port, Iran

Authors: Mousa Keshavarz, Abdul-Reza Dabbagh, Maryam Soyuf Jahromi


The diversity of mangrove macrobenthos assemblages at mudflat and mangrove ecosystems of Port Khamir, Iran were investigated for one year. During this period, we measured physicochemical properties of water temperature, salinity, pH, DO and the density and distribution of the macrobenthos. We sampled a total of 9 transects, at three different topographic levels along the intertidal zone at three stations. Assemblages at class level were compared. The five most diverse and abundant classes were Foraminifers (54%), Gastropods (23%), Polychaetes (10%), Bivalves (8%) & Crustaceans (5%), respectively. Overall densities were 1869 ± 424 ind/m2 (26%) in spring, 2544 ± 383 ind/m2(36%) in summer, 1482 ± 323 ind/m2 (21%) in autumn and 1207 ± 80 ind/m2 (17%) in winter. Along the intertidal zone, the overall relative density of individuals at high, intermediate, and low topographic levels was 40, 30, and 30% respectively. Biodiversity indices were used to compare different classes: Gastropoda (Shannon index: 0.33) and Foraminifera (Simpson index: 0.28) calculated the highest scores. It was also calculated other bio-indices. With the exception of bivalves, filter feeders were associated with coarser sediments at higher intertidal levels, while deposit feeders were associated with finer sediments at lower levels. Salinity was the most important factor acting on community structure, while DO and pH had little influence.

Keywords: macrobenthos, biodiversity, mangrove forest, Khamir Port

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17 Estimation and Comparison of Delay at Signalized Intersections Based on Existing Methods

Authors: Arpita Saha, Satish Chandra, Indrajit Ghosh


Delay implicates the time loss of a traveler while crossing an intersection. Efficiency of traffic operation at signalized intersections is assessed in terms of delay caused to an individual vehicle. Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) method and Webster’s method are the most widely used in India for delay estimation purpose. However, in India, traffic is highly heterogeneous in nature with extremely poor lane discipline. Therefore, to explore best delay estimation technique for Indian condition, a comparison was made. In this study, seven signalized intersections from three different cities where chosen. Data was collected for both during morning and evening peak hours. Only under saturated cycles were considered for this study. Delay was estimated based on the field data. With the help of Simpson’s 1/3 rd rule, delay of under saturated cycles was estimated by measuring the area under the curve of queue length and cycle time. Moreover, the field observed delay was compared with the delay estimated using HCM, Webster, Probabilistic, Taylor’s expansion and Regression methods. The drawbacks of the existing delay estimation methods to be use in Indian heterogeneous traffic conditions were figured out, and best method was proposed. It was observed that direct estimation of delay using field measured data is more accurate than existing conventional and modified methods.

Keywords: delay estimation technique, field delay, heterogeneous traffic, signalised intersection

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16 Correlation Between Diastolic Function and Lower GLS in Hypertensive Patients

Authors: A. Kherraf, S. Ouarrak, L. Azzouzi, R. Habbal


Introduction: Preserved LVEF heart failure is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in hypertensive patients. A strong correlation between impaired diastolic function and longitudinal systolic dysfunction. could have several explanations, first, the diastole is an energy dependent process, especially during its first phase, it also includes active systolic components during the phase of iso volumetric relaxation, in addition, the impairment of the intrinsic myocytic function is part of hypertensive pathology as evidenced by recent studies. METHODS AND MATERIALS: This work consists of performing in a series of 333 hypertensive patients (aged 25 to 75 years) a complete echocardiographic study, including LVEF by Simpson biplane method, the calculation of the indexed left ventricular mass, the analysis of the diastolic function, and finally, the study of the longitudinal deformation of the LV by the technique of speckletracking (calculation of the GLS). Patients with secondary hypertension, leaky or stenosing valve disease, arrhythmia, and a history of coronary insufficiency were excluded from this study. RESULTS: Of the 333 hypertensive patients, 225 patients (67.5%) had impaired diastolic function, of which 60 patients (18%) had high filling pressures. 49.39% had echocardigraphic HVG, Almost all of these patients (60 patients) had low GLS. There is a statistically very significant relationship between lower GLS and increased left ventricular filling pressures in hypertensive patients. These results suggest that increased filling pressures are closely associated with atrioventricular interaction in patients with hypertension, with a strong correlation with impairment of longitudinal systolic function and diastolic function CONCLUSION: Overall, a linear relationship is established between increased left ventricular mass, diastolic dysfunction, and longitudinal LV systolic dysfunction

Keywords: hypertension, diastolic function, left ventricle, heart failure

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15 Empirical Study of Correlation between the Cost Performance Index Stability and the Project Cost Forecast Accuracy in Construction Projects

Authors: Amin AminiKhafri, James M. Dawson-Edwards, Ryan M. Simpson, Simaan M. AbouRizk


Earned value management (EVM) has been introduced as an integrated method to combine schedule, budget, and work breakdown structure (WBS). EVM provides various indices to demonstrate project performance including the cost performance index (CPI). CPI is also used to forecast final project cost at completion based on the cost performance during the project execution. Knowing the final project cost during execution can initiate corrective actions, which can enhance project outputs. CPI, however, is not constant during the project, and calculating the final project cost using a variable index is an inaccurate and challenging task for practitioners. Since CPI is based on the cumulative progress values and because of the learning curve effect, CPI variation dampens and stabilizes as project progress. Although various definitions for the CPI stability have been proposed in literature, many scholars have agreed upon the definition that considers a project as stable if the CPI at 20% completion varies less than 0.1 from the final CPI. While 20% completion point is recognized as the stability point for military development projects, construction projects stability have not been studied. In the current study, an empirical study was first conducted using construction project data to determine the stability point for construction projects. Early findings have demonstrated that a majority of construction projects stabilize towards completion (i.e., after 70% completion point). To investigate the effect of CPI stability on cost forecast accuracy, the correlation between CPI stability and project cost at completion forecast accuracy was also investigated. It was determined that as projects progress closer towards completion, variation of the CPI decreases and final project cost forecast accuracy increases. Most projects were found to have 90% accuracy in the final cost forecast at 70% completion point, which is inlined with findings from the CPI stability findings. It can be concluded that early stabilization of the project CPI results in more accurate cost at completion forecasts.

Keywords: cost performance index, earned value management, empirical study, final project cost

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14 Analysis of Non-Coding Genome in Streptococcus pneumoniae for Molecular Epidemiology Typing

Authors: Martynova Alina, Lyubov Buzoleva


Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative agent of pneumonias and meningitids throught all the world. Having high genetic diversity, this microorganism can cause different clinical forms of pneumococcal infections and microbiologically it is really difficult diagnosed by routine methods. Also, epidemiological surveillance requires more developed methods of molecular typing because the recent method of serotyping doesn't allow to distinguish invasive and non-invasive isolates properly. Non-coding genome of bacteria seems to be the interesting source for seeking of highly distinguishable markers to discriminate the subspecies of such a variable bacteria as Streptococcus pneumoniae. Technically, we proposed scheme of discrimination of S.pneumoniae strains with amplification of non-coding region (SP_1932) with the following restriction with 2 types of enzymes of Alu1 and Mn1. Aim: This research aimed to compare different methods of typing and their application for molecular epidemiology purposes. Methods: we analyzed population of 100 strains of S.pneumoniae isolated from different patients by different molecular epidemiology methods such as pulse-field gel electophoresis (PFGE), restriction polymorphism analysis (RFLP) and multilolocus sequence typing (MLST), and all of them were compared with classic typing method as serotyping. The discriminative power was estimated with Simpson Index (SI). Results: We revealed that the most discriminative typing method is RFLP (SI=0,97, there were distinguished 42 genotypes).PFGE was slightly less discriminative (SI=0,95, we identified 35 genotypes). MLST is still the best reference method (SI=1.0). Classic method of serotyping showed quite weak discriminative power (SI=0,93, 24 genotypes). In addition, sensivity of RFLP was 100%, specificity was 97,09%. Conclusion: the most appropriate method for routine epidemiology surveillance is RFLP with non-coding region of Streptococcsu pneumoniae, then PFGE, though in some cases these results should be obligatory confirmed by MLST.

Keywords: molecular epidemiology typing, non-coding genome, Streptococcus pneumoniae, MLST

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13 Implementation of Fuzzy Version of Block Backward Differentiation Formulas for Solving Fuzzy Differential Equations

Authors: Z. B. Ibrahim, N. Ismail, K. I. Othman


Fuzzy Differential Equations (FDEs) play an important role in modelling many real life phenomena. The FDEs are used to model the behaviour of the problems that are subjected to uncertainty, vague or imprecise information that constantly arise in mathematical models in various branches of science and engineering. These uncertainties have to be taken into account in order to obtain a more realistic model and many of these models are often difficult and sometimes impossible to obtain the analytic solutions. Thus, many authors have attempted to extend or modified the existing numerical methods developed for solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) into fuzzy version in order to suit for solving the FDEs. Therefore, in this paper, we proposed the development of a fuzzy version of three-point block method based on Block Backward Differentiation Formulas (FBBDF) for the numerical solution of first order FDEs. The three-point block FBBDF method are implemented in uniform step size produces three new approximations simultaneously at each integration step using the same back values. Newton iteration of the FBBDF is formulated and the implementation is based on the predictor and corrector formulas in the PECE mode. For greater efficiency of the block method, the coefficients of the FBBDF are stored at the start of the program. The proposed FBBDF is validated through numerical results on some standard problems found in the literature and comparisons are made with the existing fuzzy version of the Modified Simpson and Euler methods in terms of the accuracy of the approximated solutions. The numerical results show that the FBBDF method performs better in terms of accuracy when compared to the Euler method when solving the FDEs.

Keywords: block, backward differentiation formulas, first order, fuzzy differential equations

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12 Population Dynamics and Diversity of Beneficial Arthropods in Pummelo (Citrus maxima) under Perennial Peanut, Arachis pintoi Cover Crop

Authors: Larry V. Aceres, Jesryl B. Paulite, Emelie M. Pelicano, J. B. Anciano, J. A. Esteban


Enhancing the population of beneficial arthropods under less diverse agroecosystem is the most sought by many researchers and plant growers. This strategy was done through the establishment of pintoi peanut, Arachis pintoi as live mulch or cover crop in pummelo orchard of the University of Southeastern Philippines (USeP), Mabini, Compostela Valley Province, Philippines. This study was conducted to compare and compute population dynamics and diversity of beneficial arthropods in pummelo in with and without Arachis pintoi cover crop. Data collections were done for the 12-month period (from June 2013 to May 2014) at the pummelo orchard of USeP Mabini Campus, COMVAL Province, Philippines and data were analyzed using the Independent Samples T-Test to compare the effect of the presence and absence of Arachis pintoi on beneficial arthropods incidence in pummelo orchard. Moreover, diversity and family richness analyses were computed using the Margalef’s diversity index for family richness; the Shannon index of general diversity and the evenness index; and the Simpson index of dominance. Results revealed numerically and statistically higher density of important beneficial arthropods such as microhymenopterans, macrohymenopterans, spiders, tachinid flies and ground beetles were recorded in pummelo orchard with Arachis pintoi than from without Arachis pintoi cover crop for the 12-month observation period. Further, the result of the study revealed the high family richness and diversity index with more or less even distribution of individuals within the family and low dominance index were documented in pummelo with Arachis pintoi cover crop than from pummelo without Arachis pintoi cover crop. The study revealed that planting A. pintoi in pummelo orchard could enhance natural enemy populations.

Keywords: Arachis pintoi, cover crop, beneficial arthropods, pummelo

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11 Examining Patterns in Ethnoracial Diversity in Los Angeles County Neighborhoods, 2016, Using Geographic Information System Analysis and Entropy Measure of Diversity

Authors: Joseph F. Cabrera, Rachael Dela Cruz


This study specifically examines patterns that define ethnoracially diverse neighborhoods. Ethnoracial diversity is important as it facilitates cross-racial interactions within neighborhoods which have been theorized to be associated with such outcomes as intergroup harmony, the reduction of racial and ethnic prejudice and discrimination, and increases in racial tolerance. Los Angeles (LA) is an ideal location to study ethnoracial spatial patterns as it is one of the most ethnoracially diverse cities in the world. A large influx of Latinos, as well as Asians, have contributed to LA’s urban landscape becoming increasingly diverse over several decades. Our dataset contains all census tracts in Los Angeles County in 2016 and incorporates Census and ACS demographic and spatial data. We quantify ethnoracial diversity using a derivative of Simpson’s Diversity Index and utilize this measure to test previous literature that suggests Latinos are one of the key drivers of changing ethnoracial spatial patterns in Los Angeles. Preliminary results suggest that there has been an overall increase in ethnoracial diversity in Los Angeles neighborhoods over the past sixteen years. Patterns associated with this trend include decreases in predominantly white and black neighborhoods, increases in predominantly Latino and Asian neighborhoods, and a general decrease in the white populations of the most diverse neighborhoods. A similar pattern is seen in neighborhoods with large Latino increases- a decrease in white population, but with an increase in Asian and black populations. We also found support for previous research that suggests increases in Latino and Asian populations act as a buffer, allowing for black population increases without a sizeable decrease in the white population. Future research is needed to understand the underlying causes involved in many of the patterns and trends highlighted in this study.

Keywords: race, race and interaction, racial harmony, social interaction

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10 Dynamic of an Invasive Insect Gut Microbiome When Facing to Abiotic Stress

Authors: Judith Mogouong, Philippe Constant, Robert Lavallee, Claude Guertin


The emerald ash borer (EAB) is an exotic wood borer insect native from China, which is associated with important environmental and economic damages in North America. Beetles are known to be vectors of microbial communities related to their adaptive capacities. It is now established that environmental stress factors may induce physiological events on the host trees, such as phytochemical changes. Consequently, that may affect the establishment comportment of herbivorous insect. Considering the number of insects collected on ash trees (insects’ density) as an abiotic factor related to stress damage, the aim of our study was to explore the dynamic of EAB gut microbial community genome (microbiome) when facing that factor and to monitor its diversity. Insects were trapped using specific green Lindgren© traps. A gradient of the captured insect population along the St. Lawrence River was used to create three levels of insects’ density (low, intermediate, and high). After dissection, total DNA extracted from insect guts of each level has been sent for amplicon sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS2 region. The composition of microbial communities among sample appeared largely diversified with the Simpson index significantly different across the three levels of density for bacteria. Add to that; bacteria were represented by seven phyla and twelve classes, whereas fungi were represented by two phyla and seven known classes. Using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) based on Bray Curtis distances of 16S rRNA sequences, we observed a significant variation between the structure of the bacterial communities depending on insects’ density. Moreover, the analysis showed significant correlations between some bacterial taxa and the three classes of insects’ density. This study is the first to present a complete overview of the bacterial and fungal communities associated with the gut of EAB base on culture-independent methods, and to correlate those communities with a potential stress factor of the host trees.

Keywords: gut microbiome, DNA, 16S rRNA sequences, emerald ash borer

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9 Satellite Images to Determine Levels of Fire Severity in a Native Chilean Forest: Assessing the Responses of Soil Mesofauna Diversity to a Fire Event

Authors: Carolina Morales, Ricardo Castro-Huerta, Enrique A. Mundaca


The edaphic fauna is the main factor involved in the transformation of nutrients and soil decomposition processes. Edaphic organisms are highly sensitive to soil disturbances, which normally causes changes in the composition and abundance of such organisms. Fire is known to be a disturbing factor since it affects the physical, chemical and biological properties of the soil and the whole ecosystem. During the summer (December-March) of 2017, Chile suffered the major fire events recorded in its modern history, which affected a vast area and a number of ecosystem types. The objective of this study was first to use remote sensing satellite images and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) to assess and identify levels of fire severity in disturbed areas and to compare the responses of the soil mesofauna diversity among such areas. We identified four areas (treatments) with an ascending level of severity, namely: mild, medium, high severity, and free of fire. A non-affected patch of forest was established as a control. Three samples from each treatment were collected in the form of a soil cube (10x10x10 cm). Edaphic mesofauna was obtained from each sample through the Berlese-Tullgren funnel method. Collected specimens were quantified and identified, using the RTU (Recognisable Taxonomic Unit) criterion. Diversity was analysed using inferential statistics to compare Simpson and Shannon-Wiener indexes across treatments. As predicted, the unburned forest patch (control) exhibited higher diversity values than the treatments. Significantly higher diversity values were recorded in those treatments subjected to lower fire severity. We conclude that remote sensing zoning is an adequate tool to identify different levels of fire severity and that an edaphic mesofauna is a group of organisms that qualify as good bioindicators for monitoring soil recovery after fire events.

Keywords: bioindicator, Chile, fire severity level, soil

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8 Repurposing Dairy Manure Solids as a Non- Polluting Fertilizer and the Effects on Nutrient Recovery in Tomatoes (Solanum Lycopersicum)

Authors: Devon Simpson


Recycled Manure Solids (RMS), attained via centrifugation from Canadian dairy farms, were synthesized into a non-polluting fertilizer by bonding micronutrients (Fe, Zn, and Mn) to cellulose fibers and then assessed for the effectiveness of nutrient recovery in tomatoes. Manure management technology is critical for improving the sustainability of agroecosystems and has the capacity to offer a truly circular economy. The ability to add value to manure byproducts offers an opportunity for economic benefits while generating tenable solutions to livestock waste. The dairy industry is under increasing pressure from new environmental protections such as government restrictions on manure applications, limitations on herd size as well as increased product demand from a growing population. Current systems use RMS as bedding, so there is a lack of data pertaining to RMS use as a fertilizer. This is because of nutrient distribution, where most nutrients are retained in the liquid effluent of the solid-liquid separation. A literature review on the physical and chemical properties of dairy manure further revealed more data for raw manure than centrifuged solids. This research offers an innovative perspective and a new avenue of exploration in the use of RMS. Manure solids in this study were obtained directly from dairy farms in Salmon Arm and Abbotsford, British Columbia, and underwent physical, chemical, and biological characterizations pre- and post-synthesis processing. Samples were sent to A&L labs Canada for analysis. Once characterized and bonded to micronutrients, the effect of synthesized RMS on nutrient recovery in tomatoes was studied in a greenhouse environment. The agricultural research package ‘agricolae’ for R was used for experimental design and data analysis. The growth trials consisted of a randomized complete block design (RCBD) that allowed for analysis of variance (ANOVA). The primary outcome was to measure nutrient uptake, and this was done using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (IC-PMS) to analyze the micronutrient content of both the tissue and fruit of the tomatoes. It was found that treatments containing bonded dairy manure solids had an increased micronutrient concentration. Treatments with bonded dairy manure solids also saw an increase in yield, and a brix analysis showed higher sugar content than the untreated control and a grower standard.

Keywords: aoecosystems, dairy manure, micronutrient fertilizer, manure management, nutrient recovery, nutrient recycling, recycled manure solids, regenerative agricugrlture, sustainable farming

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7 Saving Lives from a Laptop: How to Produce a Live Virtual Media Briefing That Will Inform, Educate, and Protect Communities in Crisis

Authors: Cory B. Portner, Julie A. Grauert, Lisa M. Stromme, Shelby D. Anderson, Franji H. Mayes


Introduction: WASHINGTON state in the Pacific Northwest of the United States is internationally known for its technology industry, fisheries, agriculture, and vistas. On January 21, 2020, Washington state also became known as the first state with a confirmed COVID-19 case in the United States, thrusting the state into the international spotlight as the world came to grips with the global threat of this disease presented. Tourism is Washington state’s fourth-largest industry. Tourism to the state generates over 1.8 billion dollars (USD) in local and state tax revenue and employs over 180,000 people. Communicating with residents, stakeholders, and visitors on the status of disease activity, prevention measures, and response updates was vital to stopping the pandemic and increasing compliance and awareness. Significance: In order to communicate vital public health updates, guidance implementation, and safety measures to the public, the Washington State Department of Health established routine live virtual media briefings to reach audiences via social media, internet television, and broadcast television. Through close partnership with regional broadcast news stations and the state public affairs news network, the Washington State Department of Health hosted 95 media briefings from January 2020 through September 2022 and continues to regularly host live virtual media briefings to accommodate the needs of the public and media. Methods: Our methods quickly evolved from hosting briefings in the cement closet of a military base to being able to produce and stream the briefings live from any home-office location. The content was tailored to the hot topic of the day and to the reporter's questions and needs. Virtual media briefings hosted through inexpensive or free platforms online are extremely cost-effective: the only mandatory components are WiFi, a laptop, and a monitor. There is no longer a need for a fancy studio or expensive production software to achieve the goal of communicating credible, reliable information promptly. With minimal investment and a small learning curve, facilitators and panelists are able to host highly produced and engaging media availabilities from their living rooms. Results: The briefings quickly developed a reputation as the best source for local and national journalists to get the latest and most factually accurate information about the pandemic. In the height of the COVID-19 response, 135 unique media outlets logged on to participate in the briefing. The briefings typically featured 4-5 panelists, with as many as 9 experts in attendance to provide information and respond to media questions. Preparation was always a priority: Public Affairs staff for the Washington State Department of Health produced over 170 presenter remarks, including guidance on talking points for 63 expert guest panelists. Implication For Practice: Information is today’s most valuable currency. The ability to disseminate correct information urgently and on a wide scale is the most effective tool in crisis communication. Due to our role as the first state with a confirmed COVID-19 case, we were forced to develop the most accurate and effective way to get life-saving information to the public. The cost-effective, web-based methods we developed can be applied in any crisis to educate and protect communities under threat, ultimately saving lives from a laptop.

Keywords: crisis communications, public relations, media management, news media

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6 The Comparison of Bird’s Population between Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest with Adjacent Secondary Indigenous Forest in Universiti Malaysia Sabah

Authors: Jephte Sompud, Emily A. Gilbert, Andy Russel Mojiol, Cynthia B. Sompud, Alim Biun


Naturally regenerated acacia forest and secondary indigenous forest forms some of the urban forests in Sabah. Naturally regenerated acacia trees are usually seen along the road that exists as forest islands. Acacia tree is not an indigenous tree species in Sabah that was introduced in the 1960’s as fire breakers that eventually became one of the preferred trees for forest plantation for paper and pulp production. Due to its adaptability to survive even in impoverished soils and poor-irrigated land, this species has rapidly spread throughout Sabah through natural regeneration. Currently, there is a lack of study to investigate the bird population in the naturally regenerated acacia forest. This study is important because it shed some light on the role of naturally regenerated acacia forest on bird’s population, as bird is known to be a good bioindicator forest health. The aim of this study was to document the bird’s population in naturally regenerated acacia forest with that adjacent secondary indigenous forest. The study site for this study was at Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) Campus. Two forest types in the campus were chosen as a study site, of which were naturally regenerated Acacia Forest and adjacent secondary indigenous forest, located at the UMS Hill. A total of 21 sampling days were conducted in each of the forest types. The method used during this study was solely mist nets with three pockets. Whenever a bird is caught, it is extracted from the net to be identified and measurements were recorded in a standard data sheet. Mist netting was conducted from 6 morning until 5 evening. This study was conducted between February to August 2014. Birds that were caught were ring banded to initiate a long-term study on the understory bird’s population in the Campus The data was analyzed using descriptive analysis, diversity indices, and t-test. The bird population diversity at naturally regenerated Acacia forest with those at the secondary indigenous forest was calculated using two common indices, of which were Shannon-Wiener and Simpson diversity index. There were 18 families with 33 species that were recorded from both sites. The number of species recorded at the naturally regenerated acacia forest was 26 species while at the secondary indigenous forest were 19 species. The Shannon diversity index for Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest and secondary indigenous forests were 2.87 and 2.46. The results show that there was very significantly higher species diversity at the Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest as opposed to the secondary indigenous forest (p<0.001). This suggests that Naturally Regenerated Acacia forest plays an important role in urban bird conservation. It is recommended that Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forests should be considered as an established urban forest conservation area as they do play a role in biodiversity conservation. More future studies in Naturally Regenerated Acacia Forest should be encouraged to determine the status and value of biodiversity conservation of this ecosystem.

Keywords: naturally regenerated acacia forest, bird population diversity, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, biodiversity conservation

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5 The M Health Paradigm for the Chronic Care Management of Obesity: New Opportunities in Clinical Psychology and Medicine

Authors: Gianluca Castelnuovo, Gian Mauro Manzoni, Giada Pietrabissa, Stefania Corti, Emanuele Giusti, Roberto Cattivelli, Enrico Molinari, Susan Simpson


Obesity is currently an important public health problem of epidemic proportions (globesity). Moreover Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is typically connected with obesity, even if not occurring exclusively in conjunction with overweight conditions. Typically obesity with BED requires a longer term treatment in comparison with simple obesity. Rehabilitation interventions that aim at improving weight-loss, reducing obesity-related complications and changing dysfunctional behaviors, should ideally be carried out in a multidisciplinary context with a clinical team composed of psychologists, dieticians, psychiatrists, endocrinologists, nutritionists, physiotherapists, etc. Long-term outpatient multidisciplinary treatments are likely to constitute an essential aspect of rehabilitation, due to the growing costs of a limited inpatient approach. Internet-based technologies can improve long-term obesity rehabilitation within a collaborative approach. The new m health (m-health, mobile health) paradigm, defined as clinical practices supported by up to date mobile communication devices, could increase compliance- engagement and contribute to a significant cost reduction in BED and obesity rehabilitation. Five psychological components need to be considered for successful m Health-based obesity rehabilitation in order to facilitate weight-loss.1) Self-monitoring. Portable body monitors, pedometers and smartphones are mobile and, therefore, can be easily used, resulting in continuous self-monitoring. 2) Counselor feedback and communication. A functional approach is to provide online weight-loss interventions with brief weekly or monthly counselor or psychologist visits. 3) Social support. A group treatment format is typically preferred for behavioral weight-loss interventions. 4) Structured program. Technology-based weight-loss programs incorporate principles of behavior therapy and change with structured weekly protocolos including nutrition, exercise, stimulus control, self-regulation strategies, goal-setting. 5) Individually tailored program. Interventions specifically designed around individual’s goals typically record higher rates of adherence and weight loss. Opportunities and limitations of m health approach in clinical psychology for obesity and BED are discussed, taking into account future research directions in this promising area.

Keywords: obesity, rehabilitation, out-patient, new technologies, tele medicine, tele care, m health, clinical psychology, psychotherapy, chronic care management

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4 Foodborne Outbreak Calendar: Application of Time Series Analysis

Authors: Ryan B. Simpson, Margaret A. Waskow, Aishwarya Venkat, Elena N. Naumova


The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that 31 known foodborne pathogens cause 9.4 million cases of these illnesses annually in US. Over 90% of these illnesses are associated with exposure to Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora, Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, Shiga-Toxin Producing E.Coli (STEC), Vibrio, and Yersinia. Contaminated products contain parasites typically causing an intestinal illness manifested by diarrhea, stomach cramping, nausea, weight loss, fatigue and may result in deaths in fragile populations. Since 1998, the National Outbreak Reporting System (NORS) has allowed for routine collection of suspected and laboratory-confirmed cases of food poisoning. While retrospective analyses have revealed common pathogen-specific seasonal patterns, little is known concerning the stability of those patterns over time and whether they can be used for preventative forecasting. The objective of this study is to construct a calendar of foodborne outbreaks of nine infections based on the peak timing of outbreak incidence in the US from 1996 to 2017. Reported cases were abstracted from FoodNet for Salmonella (135115), Campylobacter (121099), Shigella (48520), Cryptosporidium (21701), STEC (18022), Yersinia (3602), Vibrio (3000), Listeria (2543), and Cyclospora (758). Monthly counts were compiled for each agent, seasonal peak timing and peak intensity were estimated, and the stability of seasonal peaks and synchronization of infections was examined. Negative Binomial harmonic regression models with the delta-method were applied to derive confidence intervals for the peak timing for each year and overall study period estimates. Preliminary results indicate that five infections continue to lead as major causes of outbreaks, exhibiting steady upward trends with annual increases in cases ranging from 2.71% (95%CI: [2.38, 3.05]) in Campylobacter, 4.78% (95%CI: [4.14, 5.41]) in Salmonella, 7.09% (95%CI: [6.38, 7.82]) in E.Coli, 7.71% (95%CI: [6.94, 8.49]) in Cryptosporidium, and 8.67% (95%CI: [7.55, 9.80]) in Vibrio. Strong synchronization of summer outbreaks were observed, caused by Campylobacter, Vibrio, E.Coli and Salmonella, peaking at 7.57 ± 0.33, 7.84 ± 0.47, 7.85 ± 0.37, and 7.82 ± 0.14 calendar months, respectively, with the serial cross-correlation ranging 0.81-0.88 (p < 0.001). Over 21 years, Listeria and Cryptosporidium peaks (8.43 ± 0.77 and 8.52 ± 0.45 months, respectively) have a tendency to arrive 1-2 weeks earlier, while Vibrio peaks (7.8 ± 0.47) delay by 2-3 weeks. These findings will be incorporated in the forecast models to predict common paths of the spread, long-term trends, and the synchronization of outbreaks across etiological agents. The predictive modeling of foodborne outbreaks should consider long-term changes in seasonal timing, spatiotemporal trends, and sources of contamination.

Keywords: foodborne outbreak, national outbreak reporting system, predictive modeling, seasonality

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3 Concussion: Clinical and Vocational Outcomes from Sport Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: Jack Nash, Chris Simpson, Holly Hurn, Ronel Terblanche, Alan Mistlin


There is an increasing incidence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) cases throughout sport and with this, a growing interest from governing bodies to ensure these are managed appropriately and player welfare is prioritised. The Berlin consensus statement on concussion in sport recommends a multidisciplinary approach when managing those patients who do not have full resolution of mTBI symptoms. There are as of yet no standardised guideline to follow in the treatment of complex cases mTBI in athletes. The aim of this project was to analyse the outcomes, both clinical and vocational, of all patients admitted to the mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI) service at the UK’s Defence Military Rehabilitation Centre Headley Court between 1st June 2008 and 1st February 2017, as a result of a sport induced injury, and evaluate potential predictive indicators of outcome. Patients were identified from a database maintained by the mTBI service. Clinical and occupational outcomes were ascertained from medical and occupational employment records, recorded prospectively, at time of discharge from the mTBI service. Outcomes were graded based on the vocational independence scale (VIS) and clinical documentation at discharge. Predictive indicators including referral time, age at time of injury, previous mental health diagnosis and a financial claim in place at time of entry to service were assessed using logistic regression. 45 Patients were treated for sport-related mTBI during this time frame. Clinically 96% of patients had full resolution of their mTBI symptoms after input from the mTBI service. 51% of patients returned to work at their previous vocational level, 4% had ongoing mTBI symptoms, 22% had ongoing physical rehabilitation needs, 11% required mental health input and 11% required further vestibular rehabilitation. Neither age, time to referral, pre-existing mental health condition nor compensation seeking had a significant impact on either vocational or clinical outcome in this population. The vast majority of patients reviewed in the mTBI clinic had persistent symptoms which could not be managed in primary care. A consultant-led, multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and management of mTBI has resulted in excellent clinical outcomes in these complex cases. High levels of symptom resolution suggest that this referral and treatment pathway is successful and is a model which could be replicated in other organisations with consultant led input. Further understanding of both predictive and individual factors would allow clinicians to focus treatments on those who are most likely to develop long-term complications following mTBI. A consultant-led, multidisciplinary service ensures a large number of patients will have complete resolution of mTBI symptoms after sport-related mTBI. Further research is now required to ascertain the key predictive indicators of outcome following sport-related mTBI.

Keywords: brain injury, concussion, neurology, rehabilitation, sports injury

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2 Global Evidence on the Seasonality of Enteric Infections, Malnutrition, and Livestock Ownership

Authors: Aishwarya Venkat, Anastasia Marshak, Ryan B. Simpson, Elena N. Naumova


Livestock ownership is simultaneously linked to improved nutritional status through increased availability of animal-source protein, and increased risk of enteric infections through higher exposure to contaminated water sources. Agrarian and agro-pastoral households, especially those with cattle, goats, and sheep, are highly dependent on seasonally various environmental conditions, which directly impact nutrition and health. This study explores global spatiotemporally explicit evidence regarding the relationship between livestock ownership, enteric infections, and malnutrition. Seasonal and cyclical fluctuations, as well as mediating effects, are further examined to elucidate health and nutrition outcomes of individual and communal livestock ownership. The US Agency for International Development’s Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund’s Multi-Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) provide valuable sources of household-level information on anthropometry, asset ownership, and disease outcomes. These data are especially important in data-sparse regions, where surveys may only be conducted in the aftermath of emergencies. Child-level disease history, anthropometry, and household-level asset ownership information have been collected since DHS-V (2003-present) and MICS-III (2005-present). This analysis combines over 15 years of survey data from DHS and MICS to study 2,466,257 children under age five from 82 countries. Subnational (administrative level 1) measures of diarrhea prevalence, mean livestock ownership by type, mean and median anthropometric measures (height for age, weight for age, and weight for height) were investigated. Effects of several environmental, market, community, and household-level determinants were studied. Such covariates included precipitation, temperature, vegetation, the market price of staple cereals and animal source proteins, conflict events, livelihood zones, wealth indices and access to water, sanitation, hygiene, and public health services. Children aged 0 – 6 months, 6 months – 2 years, and 2 – 5 years of age were compared separately. All observations were standardized to interview day of year, and administrative units were harmonized for consistent comparisons over time. Geographically weighted regressions were constructed for each outcome and subnational unit. Preliminary results demonstrate the importance of accounting for seasonality in concurrent assessments of malnutrition and enteric infections. Household assets, including livestock, often determine the intensity of these outcomes. In many regions, livestock ownership affects seasonal fluxes in malnutrition and enteric infections, which are also directly affected by environmental and local factors. Regression analysis demonstrates the spatiotemporal variability in nutrition outcomes due to a variety of causal factors. This analysis presents a synthesis of evidence from global survey data on the interrelationship between enteric infections, malnutrition, and livestock. These results provide a starting point for locally appropriate interventions designed to address this nexus in a timely manner and simultaneously improve health, nutrition, and livelihoods.

Keywords: diarrhea, enteric infections, households, livestock, malnutrition, seasonality

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