Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: LiBr

10 Surface Passivation of Multicrystalline Silicon Solar Cell via Combination of LiBr/Porous Silicon and Grain Boundaies Grooving

Authors: Dimassi Wissem


In this work, we investigate the effect of combination between the porous silicon (PS) layer passivized with Lithium Bromide (LiBr) and grooving of grain boundaries (GB) in multi crystalline silicon. The grain boundaries were grooved in order to reduce the area of these highly recombining regions. Using optimized conditions, grooved GB's enable deep phosphorus diffusion and deep metallic contacts. We have evaluated the effects of LiBr on the surface properties of porous silicon on the performance of silicon solar cells. The results show a significant improvement of the internal quantum efficiency, which is strongly related to the photo-generated current. We have also shown a reduction of the surface recombination velocity and an improvement of the diffusion length after the LiBr process. As a result, the I–V characteristics under the dark and AM1.5 illumination were improved. It was also observed a reduction of the GB recombination velocity, which was deduced from light-beam-induced-current (LBIC) measurements. Such grooving in multi crystalline silicon enables passivization of GB-related defects. These results are discussed and compared to solar cells based on untreated multi crystalline silicon wafers.

Keywords: Multicrystalline silicon, LiBr, porous silicon, passivation

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9 Effect of Lithium Bromide Concentration on the Structure and Performance of Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Membrane for Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Poojan Kothari, Yash Madhani, Chayan Jani, Bharti Saini


The requirements for quality drinking and industrial water are increasing and water resources are depleting. Moreover large amount of wastewater is being generated and dumped into water bodies without treatment. These have made improvement in water treatment efficiency and its reuse, an important agenda. Membrane technology for wastewater treatment is an advanced process and has become increasingly popular in past few decades. There are many traditional methods for tertiary treatment such as chemical coagulation, adsorption, etc. However recent developments in membrane technology field have led to manufacturing of better quality membranes at reduced costs. This along with the high costs of conventional treatment processes, high separation efficiency and relative simplicity of the membrane treatment process has made it an economically viable option for municipal and industrial purposes. Ultrafiltration polymeric membranes can be used for wastewater treatment and drinking water applications. The proposed work focuses on preparation of one such UF membrane - Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) doped with LiBr for wastewater treatment. Majorly all polymeric membranes are hydrophobic in nature. This property leads to repulsion of water and hence solute particles occupy the pores, decreasing the lifetime of a membrane. Thus modification of membrane through addition of small amount of salt such as LiBr helped us attain certain characteristics of membrane, which can then be used for wastewater treatment. The membrane characteristics are investigated through measuring its various properties such as porosity, contact angle and wettability to find out the hydrophilic nature of the membrane and morphology (surface as well as structure). Pure water flux, solute rejection and permeability of membrane is determined by permeation experiments. A study of membrane characteristics with various concentration of LiBr helped us to compare its effectivity.

Keywords: Lithium bromide (LiBr), morphology, permeability, Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), solute rejection, wastewater treatment

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8 The Experimental Measurement of the LiBr Concentration of a Solar Absorption Machine

Authors: N. Hatraf, L. Merabti, Z. Neffah, W. Taane


The excessive consumption of fossil energies (electrical energy) during summer caused by the technological development involves more and more climate warming. In order to reduce the worst impact of gas emissions produced from classical air conditioning, heat driven solar absorption chiller is pretty promising; it consists on using solar as motive energy which is clean and environmentally friendly to provide cold. Solar absorption machine is composed by four components using Lithium Bromide /water as a refrigerating couple. LiBr- water is the most promising in chiller applications due to high safety, high volatility ratio, high affinity, high stability and its high latent heat. The lithium bromide solution is constitute by the salt lithium bromide which absorbs water under certain conditions of pressure and temperature however if the concentration of the solution is high in the absorption chillers; which exceed 70%, the solution will crystallize. The main aim of this article is to study the phenomena of the crystallization and to evaluate how the dependence between the electric conductivity and the concentration which should be controlled.

Keywords: absorption, crystallization, experimental results, lithium bromide solution

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7 A Functional Thermochemical Energy Storage System for Mobile Applications: Design and Performance Analysis

Authors: Jure Galović, Peter Hofmann


Thermochemical energy storage (TCES), as a long-term and lossless energy storage principle, provides a contribution for the reduction of greenhouse emissions of mobile applications, such as passenger vehicles with an internal combustion engine. A prototype of a TCES system, based on reversible sorption reactions of LiBr composite and methanol has been designed at Vienna University of Technology. In this paper, the selection of reactive and inert carrier materials as well as the design of heat exchangers (reactor vessel and evapo-condenser) was reviewed and the cycle stability under real operating conditions was investigated. The performance of the developed system strongly depends on the environmental temperatures, to which the reactor vessel and evapo-condenser are exposed during the phases of thermal conversion. For an integration of the system into mobile applications, the functionality of the designed prototype was proved in numerous conducted cycles whereby no adverse reactions were observed.

Keywords: dynamic applications, LiBr composite, methanol, performance of TCES system, sorption process, thermochemical energy storage

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6 Determination of Bromides, Chlorides and Fluorides in Case of Their Joint Presence in Ion-Conducting Electrolyte

Authors: V. Golubeva, O. Vakhnina, I. Konopkina, N. Gerasimova, N. Taturina, K. Zhogova


To improve chemical current sources, the ion-conducting electrolytes based on Li halides (LiCl-KCl, LiCl-LiBr-KBr, LiCl-LiBr-LiF) are developed. It is necessary to have chemical analytical methods for determination of halides to control the electrolytes technology. The methods of classical analytical chemistry are of interest, as they are characterized by high accuracy. Using these methods is a difficult task because halides have similar chemical properties. The objective of this work is to develop a titrimetric method for determining the content of bromides, chlorides, and fluorides in their joint presence in an ion-conducting electrolyte. In accordance with the developed method of analysis to determine fluorides, electrolyte sample is dissolved in diluted HCl acid; fluorides are titrated by La(NO₃)₃ solution with potentiometric indication of equivalence point, fluoride ion-selective electrode is used as sensor. Chlorides and bromides do not form a hardly soluble compound with La and do not interfere in result of analysis. To determine the bromides, the sample is dissolved in a diluted H₂SO₄ acid. The bromides are oxidized with a solution of KIO₃ to Br₂, which is removed from the reaction zone by boiling. Excess of KIO₃ is titrated by iodometric method. The content of bromides is calculated from the amount of KIO₃ spent on Br₂ oxidation. Chlorides and fluorides are not oxidized by KIO₃ and do not interfere in result of analysis. To determine the chlorides, the sample is dissolved in diluted HNO₃ acid and the total content of chlorides and bromides is determined by method of visual mercurometric titration with diphenylcarbazone indicator. Fluorides do not form a hardly soluble compound with mercury and do not interfere with determination. The content of chlorides is calculated taking into account the content of bromides in the sample of electrolyte. The validation of the developed analytical method was evaluated by analyzing internal reference material with known chlorides, bromides and fluorides content. The analytical method allows to determine chlorides, bromides and fluorides in case of their joint presence in ion-conducting electrolyte within the range and with relative total error (δ): for bromides from 60.0 to 65.0 %, δ = ± 2.1 %; for chlorides from 8.0 to 15.0 %, δ = ± 3.6 %; for fluorides from 5.0 to 8.0%, ± 1.5% . The analytical method allows to analyze electrolytes and mixtures that contain chlorides, bromides, fluorides of alkali metals and their mixtures (K, Na, Li).

Keywords: bromides, chlorides, fluorides, ion-conducting electrolyte

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5 Working Fluids in Absorption Chillers: Investigation of the Use of Deep Eutectic Solvents

Authors: L. Cesari, D. Alonso, F. Mutelet


The interest in cold production has been on the increase in absorption chillers for many years. In fact, the absorption cycles replace the compressor and thus reduce electrical consumption. The devices also allow waste heat generated through industrial activities to be recovered and cooled to a moderate temperature in accordance with regulatory guidelines. Many working fluids were investigated but could not compete with the commonly used {H2O + LiBr} and {H2O + NH3} to author’s best knowledge. Yet, the corrosion, toxicity and crystallization phenomena of these mixtures prevent the development of the absorption technology. This work investigates the possible use of a glyceline deep eutectic solvent (DES) and CO2 as working fluid in an absorption chiller. To do so, good knowledge of the mixtures is required. Experimental measurements (vapor-liquid equilibria, density, and heat capacity) were performed to complete the data lacking in the literature. The performance of the mixtures was quantified by the calculation of the coefficient of performance (COP). The results show that working fluids containing DES + CO2 are an interesting alternative and lead to different trails of working mixtures for absorption and chiller.

Keywords: absorption devices, deep eutectic solvent, energy valorization, experimental data, simulation

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4 Thermodynamic Analysis of a Vapor Absorption System Using Modified Gouy-Stodola Equation

Authors: Gulshan Sachdeva, Ram Bilash


In this paper, the exergy analysis of vapor absorption refrigeration system using LiBr-H2O as working fluid is carried out with the modified Gouy-Stodola approach rather than the classical Gouy-Stodola equation and effect of varying input parameters is also studied on the performance of the system. As the modified approach uses the concept of effective temperature, the mathematical expressions for effective temperature have been formulated and calculated for each component of the system. Various constraints and equations are used to develop program in EES to solve these equations. The main aim of this analysis is to determine the performance of the system and the components having major irreversible loss. Results show that exergy destruction rate is considerable in absorber and generator followed by evaporator and condenser. There is an increase in exergy destruction in generator, absorber and condenser and decrease in the evaporator by the modified approach as compared to the conventional approach. The value of exergy determined by the modified Gouy Stodola equation deviates maximum i.e. 26% in the generator as compared to the exergy calculated by the classical Gouy-Stodola method.

Keywords: exergy analysis, Gouy-Stodola, refrigeration, vapor absorption

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3 Multi-Objective Optimization of a Solar-Powered Triple-Effect Absorption Chiller for Air-Conditioning Applications

Authors: Ali Shirazi, Robert A. Taylor, Stephen D. White, Graham L. Morrison


In this paper, a detailed simulation model of a solar-powered triple-effect LiBr–H2O absorption chiller is developed to supply both cooling and heating demand of a large-scale building, aiming to reduce the fossil fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in building sector. TRNSYS 17 is used to simulate the performance of the system over a typical year. A combined energetic-economic-environmental analysis is conducted to determine the system annual primary energy consumption and the total cost, which are considered as two conflicting objectives. A multi-objective optimization of the system is performed using a genetic algorithm to minimize these objectives simultaneously. The optimization results show that the final optimal design of the proposed plant has a solar fraction of 72% and leads to an annual primary energy saving of 0.69 GWh and annual CO2 emissions reduction of ~166 tonnes, as compared to a conventional HVAC system. The economics of this design, however, is not appealing without public funding, which is often the case for many renewable energy systems. The results show that a good funding policy is required in order for these technologies to achieve satisfactory payback periods within the lifetime of the plant.

Keywords: economic, environmental, multi-objective optimization, solar air-conditioning, triple-effect absorption chiller

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2 Modeling and Performance Analysis of an Air-Cooled Absorption Chiller

Authors: A. Roukbi, B. Draoui


Due to the high cost and the environmental problems caused by the conventional air-conditioning systems, various researches are being increasingly focused on thermal comfort in the building sector integrating renewable energy sources, particularly solar energy. For that purpose, this study aims to present a modeling and performance analysis of a direct air-cooled Water/LiBr absorption chiller. The chiller is considered to be coupled to a small residential building at an arid zone situated in south Algeria. The system is modeled with TRNSYS simulation program. The main objective is to study the feasibility of the chosen system in arid zones and to apply a simplified method to predict the performance of the system by mean of the characteristic equation approach tacking in account the influence of the climatic conditions of the considered site, the collector area and storage volume of the hot water tank on the performance of the installation. First, the results of the system modeling are compared with an experimental data from the open literature and the developed model is then validated. In another hand, a parametric study is performed to analyze the performance of the direct air-cooled absorption chiller at the operating conditions of interest for the present study. Thus, the obtained results has shown that the studied system can present a good alternative for cooling systems in arid zones since the cooling load is roughly in phase with solar availability.

Keywords: absorption chiller, air-cooled, arid zone, thermal comfort

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1 Modelling of Air-Cooled Adiabatic Membrane-Based Absorber for Absorption Chillers Using Low Temperature Solar Heat

Authors: M. Venegas, M. De Vega, N. García-Hernando


Absorption cooling chillers have received growing attention over the past few decades as they allow the use of low-grade heat to produce the cooling effect. The combination of this technology with solar thermal energy in the summer period can reduce the electricity consumption peak due to air-conditioning. One of the main components, the absorber, is designed for simultaneous heat and mass transfer. Usually, shell and tubes heat exchangers are used, which are large and heavy. Cooling water from a cooling tower is conventionally used to extract the heat released during the absorption and condensation processes. These are clear inconvenient for the generalization of the absorption technology use, limiting its benefits in the contribution to the reduction in CO2 emissions, particularly for the H2O-LiBr solution which can work with low heat temperature sources as provided by solar panels. In the present work a promising new technology is under study, consisting in the use of membrane contactors in adiabatic microchannel mass exchangers. The configuration here proposed consists in one or several modules (depending on the cooling capacity of the chiller) that contain two vapour channels, separated from the solution by adjacent microporous membranes. The solution is confined in rectangular microchannels. A plastic or synthetic wall separates the solution channels between them. The solution entering the absorber is previously subcooled using ambient air. In this way, the need for a cooling tower is avoided. A model of the configuration proposed is developed based on mass and energy balances and some correlations were selected to predict the heat and mass transfer coefficients. The concentration and temperatures along the channels cannot be explicitly determined from the set of equations obtained. For this reason, the equations were implemented in a computer code using Engineering Equation Solver software, EES™. With the aim of minimizing the absorber volume to reduce the size of absorption cooling chillers, the ratio between the cooling power of the chiller and the absorber volume (R) is calculated. Its variation is shown along the solution channels, allowing its optimization for selected operating conditions. For the case considered the solution channel length is recommended to be lower than 3 cm. Maximum values of R obtained in this work are higher than the ones found in optimized horizontal falling film absorbers using the same solution. Results obtained also show the variation of R and the chiller efficiency (COP) for different ambient temperatures and desorption temperatures typically obtained using flat plate solar collectors. The configuration proposed of adiabatic membrane-based absorber using ambient air to subcool the solution is a good technology to reduce the size of the absorption chillers, allowing the use of low temperature solar heat and avoiding the need for cooling towers.

Keywords: adiabatic absorption, air-cooled, membrane, solar thermal energy

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