Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Jonmichael Weaver

9 Evaluation of the UV Stability of Unidirectional Crossply Ultrahigh-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene Composite

Authors: Jonmichael Weaver, David Miller

Abstract:

Dyneema is an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber created by DSM. This fiber has many applications due to the high tensile strength, low weight, and inability to absorb water. DSM manufactures a non-woven unidirectional cross-ply [0,90]2 lamina, using the Dyneema fiber. Using this lamina system, various thickness panels are created for a 40% lighter weight alternative to Kevlar for the same ballistics protection. Environmental effects on the ply/laminate system alter the material properties, resulting in diminished ultimate performance. Understanding the specific environmental parameters and characterizing the resulting material property degradation is essential for determining the safety and reliability of Dyneema in service. Two laminas were contrasted for their response to accelerated aging by UV, humidity, and temperature cycling. Both lamina contain the same fiber, SK-99, but differ in matrix composition, Dyneema HB-210 employs a polyurethane (PUR) based matrix, and HB-212 contains a rubber-based matrix. Each system was inspected using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) to characterize the material property changes alongside the corresponding composite damage and matrix failure mode over the aging parameters. Overall, resulting in the HB-212 degrading faster compared with the HB-210.

Keywords: dyneema, accelerated aging, polymers, ballistics protection, armor, DSM, kevlar, composites

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8 Organization of the Olfactory System and the Mushroom Body of the Weaver Ant, Oecophylla smaragdina

Authors: Rajashekhar K. Patil, Martin J. Babu

Abstract:

Weaver ants-Oecophylla smaragdina live in colonies that have polymorphic castes. The females which include the queen, major and minor workers are haploid. The individuals of castes are dependent on olfactory cues for carrying out caste-specific behaviour. In an effort to understand whether organizational differences exist to support these behavioural differences, we studied the olfactory system at the level of the sensilla on the antennae, olfactory glomeruli and the Kenyon cells in the mushroom bodies (MB). The MB differ in major and minor workers in terms of their size, with the major workers having relatively larger calyces and peduncle. The morphology of different types of Kenyon cells as revealed by Golgi-rapid staining was studied and the major workers had more dendritic arbors than minor workers. This suggests a greater degree of olfactory processing in major workers. Differences in caste-specific arrangement of sensilla, olfactory glomeruli and celluar architecture of MB indicate a developmental programme that forms basis of differential behaviour.

Keywords: ant, oecophylla, caste, mushroom body

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7 Entomofauna Biodiversity of a Citrus Orchard in Baraki, Algeria

Authors: Ahlem Guerzou, Salheddine Doumandji

Abstract:

Orchards and minimally processed with surrounding hedges form a significant source of biodiversity. These orchards are an entire ecosystem, home to a rich insect fauna associated with the presence of a large diversity of plant species. The values of the richness and diversity rise when the intensity of the chemical protection is reduced emphasizing the importance of such orchard in the conservation of biodiversity. To show the interest hedges fauna perspective, we conducted a study in an orange grove located Baraki surrounded by hedges and windbreaks consist of several plant species. With the sweep net there were the invertebrate fauna of the herbaceous and after a year of inventory was collected consists of a 2177 individuals distributed among 156 species grouped into five classes and 15 orders fauna. Hymenoptera and Diptera are in first place with 34 species (AR% = 19.3%), followed by Coleoptera with 27 species (AR% = 15.3%), Homoptera dominate in the workforce with 735 individuals (AR% = 34.1%). The Shannon-Weaver index calculated reflects a great diversity of population sampled equal to 5.2 bits. The equitability is 0.7, showing a strong trend of balance between the numbers of species present.

Keywords: biodiversity, citrus orchard, reaps net, hedges, Baraki

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6 Growth Analysis in Wheat as Influenced by Water Stress and Variety in Sokoto, Sudan Savannah, Nigeria

Authors: M. B. Sokoto, I. U. Abubakar

Abstract:

The study was carried out on effect of water stress and variety on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), during 2009/10 and 2010/11 dry seasons. The treatments consisted of factorial combination of water stress at three critical growth stage which was imposed by withholding water at (Tillering, Flowering, Grain filling) and Control (No stress) and two varieties (Star 11 TR 77173/SLM and Kauze/Weaver) laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Water stress was assigned to the main-plot while variety was assigned to the sub-plots. Result revealed significant (P<0.05) effect of water stress, water stress at tillering significantly (P<0.05) reduced plant height, LAI, CGR, and NAR. Variety had a significant effect on plant height, LAI, CGR and NAR. In conclusion water stress at tillering was observed to be most critical growth stage in wheat, and water stress at this period should be avoided because it results to decrease in growth components in wheat. Wheat should be sown in November or at least first week of December in this area and other area with similar climate. Star II TR 77173/LM is recommended variety for the area.

Keywords: wheat, growth, water stress, variety, Sudan savannah

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5 Offset Dependent Uniform Delay Mathematical Optimization Model for Signalized Traffic Network Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

Authors: Tahseen Saad, Halim Ceylan, Jonathan Weaver, Osman Nuri Çelik, Onur Gungor Sahin

Abstract:

A new concept of uniform delay offset dependent mathematical optimization problem is derived as the main objective for this study using a differential evolution algorithm. To control the coordination problem, which depends on offset selection and to estimate uniform delay based on the offset choice in a traffic signal network. The assumption is the periodic sinusoidal function for arrival and departure patterns. The cycle time is optimized at the entry links and the optimized value is used in the non-entry links as a common cycle time. The offset optimization algorithm is used to calculate the uniform delay at each link. The results are illustrated by using a case study and are compared with the canonical uniform delay model derived by Webster and the highway capacity manual’s model. The findings show new model minimizes the total uniform delay to almost half compared to conventional models. The mathematical objective function is robust. The algorithm convergence time is fast.

Keywords: area traffic control, traffic flow, differential evolution, sinusoidal periodic function, uniform delay, offset variable

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4 Empowerment Model: A Strategy for Supporting Creative Economy through Traditional Weaving in Anajiaka Village

Authors: Sita Yuliastuti Amijaya, Wiyatiningsih Wiyatiningsih, Paulus Bawole

Abstract:

Weaving skills were not originally a way to earn money for the traditional people on Sumba Island. Weaving is a leisure activity carried out between farming and caring for families. It is quite understandable if the weavers are women. At this time, weaving crafts become a unique potential inherent in an area, so that the weaver women also have the potential to drive economic activity in regional tourism sector. This study aims to measure the sustainability of traditional weaving business activities in Anajiaka Village, Umbu Ratu Nggay Barat, Central Sumba Regency, which is able to support the creative economy. The analysis was performed using qualitative descriptive methods by comparing the criteria of smart living and smart economy in the study of smart city. This study found that business sustainability will be better maintained if it is bound in a joint commitment, for example by forming a group of craftsmen. Other challenges besides the commitment of the group members are aspects of local government support and related agencies, in the form of guidance, funding, and promotion. In addition, fabric order targets, maintaining family and community balance, are recognized as obstacles for craftsmen. The modern marketing model is not yet mastered by the craftsmen group, so it needs assistance for future development.

Keywords: agriculture, craftsmen, creativepreneur, smart economy, smart living

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3 Flying Women in Chinese Folklore – Male Narrator’s Rejection of Gender Role Division in Patriarchal Societies

Authors: Emma H. Zhang

Abstract:

In Women Who Fly (2018), Serinity Young connects tales and legends of flying women in Greco-Roman, Indo-European, Mesopotamian, and Asian cultures with ancient matriarchal bird goddesses and argues that tales of flying women are reminiscent of the rituals and rites related to the worship of goddesses in pre-patriarchal times and that flying women, including swan maidens, harpies, fairies, and witches are “abnormal women” because they reject patriarchal order, defy, and desert their domestic roles. Tales of flying women in Chinese folklore, exemplified by the story of The Cowherd and the Weaver Girl, replicated in countless tales that depicts the courtship between a mortal man and a divine or magical woman suggest otherwise. In these tales, the divine woman exhibits idealized Confucian femininity and fulfills the needs of the male protagonist by providing him with marriage, children, social status, and financial affluence. This paper argues that the flying women in Chinese folklores are not a symbol of defiance but are exemplars that embodyideal Confucian femininity. These tales are instead a reflection of male rejection of gender division in patriarchal societies. The male protagonists, like the male storytellers, reject the necessity to pursue and provide for women in courtship and marriage. Though these tales show their authors’ and readers’ discontent with gender role division, they do not subvert the patriarchal social order but rather offers an escape through fantasy.

Keywords: bird goddess, folklore, gender role division, patriarchy

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2 The Role of Polyphenolic Compounds in the Alpha Amylase and Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitory Potentials of Extracts from the Leaves of Acalypha godseffiana from Eastern Nigeria: An in-vitro Study

Authors: A. K. Asekunowo, A O. T. Asafa, O. O. Okoh, O. T. Asekun, O. B. Familoni

Abstract:

Background: Acalypha godseffiana is an important plant used both as an ornamental and herbs; its leaves are employed in management of diseases such as diabetics in Eastern Nigeria. Aim: The correlations of the polyphenolic compounds in the hypoglycemic potential of different extracts of leaves of A. godseffiana and their safety profile on cell lines were investigated. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical compositions and antioxidants potentials were determined using adopted methods. An in vitro approach was employed in determining the hypoglycemic potentials of the extracts on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. The Line weaver-Burke plot was used to evaluate the mechanisms of Inhibition mechanisms of the enzymes. Results and Conclusions: Antioxidants results revealed that total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the acetone extract (IC50: 0.34 mg/mL) showed better activity compared to the standards (silymarine 0.52 mg/mL; gallic acid 0.51 mg/mL). In-vitro hypoglycemic activity of the extracts confirmed that acetone extract demonstrated strong and mild inhibitory potential against α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively. The observed activity was concentration-dependent with IC50 values of 2.33 and 0.13 mg/mL. The observed hypoglycemic and anti-oxidant potentials of acetone extract A. godseffiana correlate to its high polyphenolic contents which include phenols (133.20 mg gallic acid g-1), flavonoid (350.60 mg quercetin g-1) and tannins (264.67 mg catechin g-1). The mechanisms of action exhibited by acetone extract of A. godseffiana were mixed non-competitive and uncompetitive; which can be attributed to its inhibitory properties on α-amylase and α-glucosidase respectively. This effect would cause reduction in the rate at which starch hydrolyse, boost palliated glucose levels; hence, making acetone extract of A. godseffiana a potential anti-hypoglycemic alternative.

Keywords: Acalypha godeseffiana, acetone extract, anti-hypoglycemia, antioxidant, phytochemicals

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1 Uncovering Geometrical Ideas in Weaving: An Ethnomathematical Approaches to School Pedagogy

Authors: Jaya Bishnu Pradhan

Abstract:

Weaving mat is one of the common activities performed in different community generally in the rural part of Nepal. Mat weavers’ practice mathematical ideas and concepts implicitly in order to perform their job. This study is intended to uncover the mathematical ideas embedded in mat weaving that can help teachers and students for the teaching and learning of school geometry. The ethnographic methodology was used to uncover and describe the beliefs, values, understanding, perceptions, and attitudes of the mat weavers towards mathematical ideas and concepts in the process of mat weaving. A total of 4 mat weavers, two mathematics teachers and 12 students from grade level 6-8, who are used to participate in weaving, were selected for the study. The whole process of the mat weaving was observed in a natural setting. The classroom observation and in-depth interview were taken with the participants with the help of interview guidelines and observation checklist. The data obtained from the field were categorized according to the themes regarding mathematical ideas embedded in the weaving activities, and its possibilities in teaching learning of school geometry. In this study, the mathematical activities in different sectors of their lives, their ways of understanding the natural phenomena, and their ethnomathematical knowledge were analyzed with the notions of pluralism. From the field data, it was found that the mat weaver exhibited sophisticated geometrical ideas in the process of construction of frame of mat. They used x-test method for confirming if the mat is rectangular. Mat also provides a good opportunity to understand the space geometry. A rectangular form of mat may be rolled up when it is not in use and can be converted to a cylindrical form, which usually can be used as larder so as to reserve food grains. From the observation of the situations, this cultural experience enables students to calculate volume, curved surface area and total surface area of the cylinder. The possibilities of incorporation of these cultural activities and its pedagogical use were observed in mathematics classroom. It is argued that it is possible to use mat weaving activities in the teaching and learning of school geometry.

Keywords: ethnography, ethnomathematics, geometry, mat weaving, school pedagogy

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