Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: HSCT

6 HLA-DPB1 Matching on the Outcome of Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Authors: Shi-xia Xu, Zai-wen Zhang, Ru-xue Chen, Shan Zhou, Xiang-feng Tang

Abstract:

Objective: The clinical influence of HLA-DPB1 mismatches on clinical outcome of HSCT is less clear. This is the first meta-analysis to study the HLA-DPB1 matching statues on clinical outcomes after unrelated donor HSCT. Methods: We searched the CIBMTR, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and related databases (1995.01–2017.06) for all relevant articles. Comparative studies were used to investigate the HLA-DPB1 loci mismatches on clinical outcomes after unrelated donor HSCT, such as the disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival, GVHD, relapse, and transplant-related mortality (TRM). We performed meta-analysis using Review Manager 5.2 software and funnel plot to assess the bias. Results: At first, 1246 articles were retrieved, and 18 studies totaling 26368 patients analyzed. Pooled comparisons of studies found that the HLA-DPB1 mismatched group had a lower rate of DFS than the DPB1-matched group, and lower OS in non-T cell depleted transplantation. The DPB1 mismatched group has a higher incidence of aGVHD and more severe ( ≥ III degree) aGvHD, lower rate of relapse and higher TRM. Moreover, compared with 1-antigen mismatch, 2-antigen mismatched led to a higher risk of TRM and lower relapse rate. Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicated HLA-DPB1 has important influence on survival and transplant-related complications during unrelated donor HSCT and HLA-DPB1 donor selection strategies have been proposed based on a personalized algorithm.

Keywords: human leukocyte antigen, DPB1, transplant, meta-analysis, outcome

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5 Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin as an Early Marker of Acute Kidney Injury in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Patients

Authors: Sara Ataei, Maryam Taghizadeh-Ghehi, Amir Sarayani, Asieh Ashouri, Amirhossein Moslehi, Molouk Hadjibabaie, Kheirollah Gholami

Abstract:

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients with an incidence of 21–73%. Prevention and early diagnosis reduces the frequency and severity of this complication. Predictive biomarkers are of major importance to timely diagnosis. Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a widely investigated novel biomarker for early diagnosis of AKI. However, no study assessed NGAL for AKI diagnosis in HSCT patients. Methods: We performed further analyses on gathered data from our recent trial to evaluate the performance of urine NGAL (uNGAL) as an indicator of AKI in 72 allogeneic HSCT patients. AKI diagnosis and severity were assessed using Risk–Injury–Failure–Loss–End-stage renal disease and AKI Network criteria. We assessed uNGAL on days -6, -3, +3, +9 and +15. Results: Time-dependent Cox regression analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between uNGAL and AKI occurrence. (HR=1.04 (1.008-1.07), P=0.01). There was a relation between uNGAL day +9 to baseline ratio and incidence of AKI (unadjusted HR=.1.047(1.012-1.083), P<0.01). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for day +9 to baseline ratio was 0.86 (0.74-0.99, P<0.01) and a cut-off value of 2.62 was 85% sensitive and 83% specific in predicting AKI. Conclusions: Our results indicated that increase in uNGAL augmented the risk of AKI and the changes of day +9 uNGAL concentrations from baseline could be of value for predicting AKI in HSCT patients. Additionally uNGAL changes preceded serum creatinine rises by nearly 2 days.

Keywords: acute kidney injury, hemtopoietic stem cell transplantation, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, Receiver-operating characteristic curve

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4 The Impact of Total Parenteral Nutrition on Pediatric Stem Cell Transplantation and Its Complications

Authors: R. Alramyan, S. Alsalamah, R. Alrashed, R. Alakel, F. Altheyeb, M. Alessa

Abstract:

Background: Nutritional support with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is usually commenced with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. However, it has its benefits and risks. Complications related to central venous catheter such as infections, and metabolic disturbances, including abnormal liver function, is usually of concern in such patients. Methods: A retrospective charts review of all pediatric patients who underwent HSCT between the period 2015-2018 in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Patients' demographics, types of conditioning, type of nutrition, and patients' outcomes were collected. Statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS version 22. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe categorical variables. Mean, and standard deviation were used for continuous variables. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered as statically significant. Results: a total of 162 HSCTs were identified during the period mentioned. Indication of allogenic transplant included hemoglobinopathy in 50 patients (31%), acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 21 patients (13%). TPN was used in 96 patients (59.30%) for a median of 14 days, nasogastric tube feeding (NGT) in 16 (9.90%) patients for a median of 11 days, and 71 of patients (43.80%) were able to tolerate oral feeding. Out of the 96 patients (59.30%) who were dependent on TPN, 64 patients (66.7%) had severe mucositis in comparison to 17 patients (25.8%) who were either on NGT or tolerated oral intake. (P-value= 0.00). Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) was seen in 14 patients (14.6%) who were receiving TPN compared to none in non-TPN patients (P=value 0.001). Moreover, majority of patients who had SOS received myeloablative conditioning therapy for non-malignant disease (hemoglobinopathy). However, there were no statistically significant differences in Graft-vs-Host Disease (both acute and chronic), bacteremia, and patient outcome between both groups. Conclusions: Nutritional support using TPN is used in majority of patients, especially post-myeloablative conditioning associated with severe mucositis. TPN was associated with VOD, especially in hemoglobinopathy patients who received myeloablative therapy. This may emphasize on use of preventative measures such as fluid restriction, use of diuretics, or defibrotide in high-risk patients.

Keywords: hematopoeitic stem cell transplant, HSCT, stem cell transplant, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, total parenteral nutrition

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3 Co-Culture with Murine Stromal Cells Enhances the In-vitro Expansion of Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Response to Low Concentrations of Trans-Resveratrol

Authors: Mariyah Poonawala, Selvan Ravindran, Anuradha Vaidya

Abstract:

Despite much progress in understanding the regulatory factors and cytokines that support the maturation of the various cell lineages of the hematopoietic system, factors that govern the self-renewal and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is still a grey area of research. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has evolved over the years and gained tremendous importance in the treatment of both malignant and non-malignant diseases. However, factors such as graft rejection and multiple organ failure have challenged HSCT from time to time, underscoring the urgent need for development of milder processes for successful hematopoietic transplantation. An emerging concept in the field of stem cell biology states that the interactions between the bone-marrow micro-environment and the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is essential for regulation, maintenance, commitment and proliferation of stem cells. Understanding the role of mesenchymal stromal cells in modulating the functionality of HSCs is, therefore, an important area of research. Trans-resveratrol has been extensively studied for its various properties to combat and prevent cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases etc. The aim of the present study was to understand the effect of trans-resveratrol on HSCs using single and co-culture systems. We have used KG1a cells since it is a well accepted hematopoietic stem cell model system. Our preliminary experiments showed that low concentrations of trans-resveratrol stimulated the HSCs to undergo proliferation whereas high concentrations of trans-resveratrol did not stimulate the cells to proliferate. We used a murine fibroblast cell line, M210B4, as a stromal feeder layer. On culturing the KG1a cells with M210B4 cells, we observed that the stimulatory as well as inhibitory effects of trans-resveratrol at low and high concentrations respectively, were enhanced. Our further experiments showed that low concentration of trans-resveratrol reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) whereas high concentrations increased the oxidative stress in KG1a cells. We speculated that perhaps the oxidative stress was imposing inhibitory effects at high concentration and the same was confirmed by performing an apoptotic assay. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis and growth kinetic experiments provided evidence that low concentration of trans-resveratrol reduced the doubling time of the cells. Our hypothesis is that perhaps at low concentration of trans-resveratrol the cells get pushed into the G0/G1 phase and re-enter the cell cycle resulting in their proliferation, whereas at high concentration the cells are perhaps arrested at G2/M phase or at cytokinesis and therefore undergo apoptosis. Liquid Chromatography-Quantitative-Time of Flight–Mass Spectroscopy (LC-Q-TOF MS) analyses indicated the presence of trans-resveratrol and its metabolite(s) in the supernatant of the co-cultured cells incubated with high concentration of trans-resveratrol. We conjecture that perhaps the metabolites of trans-resveratrol are responsible for the apoptosis observed at the high concentration. Our findings may shed light on the unsolved problems in the in vitro expansion of stem cells and may have implications in the ex vivo manipulation of HSCs for therapeutic purposes.

Keywords: co-culture system, hematopoietic micro-environment, KG1a cell line, M210B4 cell line, trans-resveratrol

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2 CCR5 as an Ideal Candidate for Immune Gene Therapy and Modification for the Induced Resistance to HIV-1 Infection

Authors: Alieh Farshbaf, Tayyeb Bahrami

Abstract:

Introduction: Cc-chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5) is known as a main co-receptor in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Many studies showed 32bp deletion (Δ32) in CCR5 gene, provide natural resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygous individuals. Inducing the resistance mechanism by CCR5 in HIV-1 infected patients eliminated many problems of highly-active-anti retroviral therapy (HAART) drugs like as low safety, side-effects and virus rebounding from latent reservoirs. New treatments solved some restrictions that are based on gene modification and cell therapy. Literature review: The stories of the “Berlin and Boston patients” showed autologous hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (HSCT) could provide effective cure of HIV-1 infected patients. Furthermore, gene modification by zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) demonstrated another successful result again. Despite the other studies for gene therapy by ∆32 genotype, there is another mutation -CCR5 ∆32/m303- that provides HIV-1 resistant. It is a heterozygote genotype for ∆32 and T→A point mutation at nucleotide 303. These results approved the key role of CCR5 gene. Conclusion: Recent studies showed immune gene therapy and cell therapy could provide effective cure for refractory disease like as HIV. Eradication of HIV-1 from immune system was not observed by HAART, because of reloading virus genome from latent reservoirs after stopping them. It is showed that CCR5 could induce natural resistant to HIV-1 infection by the new approaches based on stem cell transplantation and gene modifying.

Keywords: CCR5, HIV-1, stem cell, immune gene therapy, gene modification

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1 Cut-Off of CMV Cobas® Taqman® (CAP/CTM Roche®) for Introduction of Ganciclovir Pre-Emptive Therapy in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

Authors: B. B. S. Pereira, M. O. Souza, L. P. Zanetti, L. C. S. Oliveira, J. R. P. Moreno, M. P. Souza, V. R. Colturato, C. M. Machado

Abstract:

Background: The introduction of prophylactic or preemptive therapies has effectively decreased the CMV mortality rates after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). CMV antigenemia (pp65) or quantitative PCR are methods currently approved for CMV surveillance in pre-emptive strategies. Commercial assays are preferred as cut-off levels defined by in-house assays may vary among different protocols and in general show low reproducibility. Moreover, comparison of published data among different centers is only possible if international standards of quantification are included in the assays. Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the first international standard for CMV detection. The real time PCR COBAS Ampliprep/ CobasTaqMan (CAP/CTM) (Roche®) was developed using the WHO standard for CMV quantification. However, the cut-off for the introduction of antiviral has not been determined yet. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study to determine: 1) the sensitivity and specificity of the new CMV CAP/CTM test in comparison with pp65 antigenemia to detect episodes of CMV infection/reactivation, and 2) the cut-off of viral load for introduction of ganciclovir (GCV). Pp65 antigenemia was performed and the corresponding plasma samples were stored at -20°C for further CMV detection by CAP/CTM. Comparison of tests was performed by kappa index. The appearance of positive antigenemia was considered the state variable to determine the cut-off of CMV viral load by ROC curve. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 19 (SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA.). Results: Thirty-eight patients were included and followed from August 2014 through May 2015. The antigenemia test detected 53 episodes of CMV infection in 34 patients (89.5%), while CAP/CTM detected 37 episodes in 33 patients (86.8%). AG and PCR results were compared in 431 samples and Kappa index was 30.9%. The median time for first AG detection was 42 (28-140) days, while CAP/CTM detected at a median of 7 days earlier (34 days, ranging from 7 to 110 days). The optimum cut-off value of CMV DNA was 34.25 IU/mL to detect positive antigenemia with 88.2% of sensibility, 100% of specificity and AUC of 0.91. This cut-off value is below the limit of detection and quantification of the equipment which is 56 IU/mL. According to CMV recurrence definition, 16 episodes of CMV recurrence were detected by antigenemia (47.1%) and 4 (12.1%) by CAP/CTM. The duration of viremia as detected by antigenemia was shorter (60.5% of the episodes lasted ≤ 7 days) in comparison to CAP/CTM (57.9% of the episodes lasting 15 days or more). This data suggests that the use of antigenemia to define the duration of GCV therapy might prompt early interruption of antiviral, which may favor CMV reactivation. The CAP/CTM PCR could possibly provide a safer information concerning the duration of GCV therapy. As prolonged treatment may increase the risk of toxicity, this hypothesis should be confirmed in prospective trials. Conclusions: Even though CAP/CTM by ROCHE showed great qualitative correlation with the antigenemia technique, the fully automated CAP/CTM did not demonstrate increased sensitivity. The cut-off value below the limit of detection and quantification may result in delayed introduction of pre-emptive therapy.

Keywords: antigenemia, CMV COBAS/TAQMAN, cytomegalovirus, antiviral cut-off

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