Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Erwan Negre

3 Coherent All-Fiber and Polarization Maintaining Source for CO2 Range-Resolved Differential Absorption Lidar

Authors: Erwan Negre, Ewan J. O'Connor, Juha Toivonen

Abstract:

The need for CO2 monitoring technologies grows simultaneously with the worldwide concerns regarding environmental challenges. To that purpose, we developed a compact coherent all-fiber ranged-resolved Differential Absorption Lidar (RR-DIAL). It has been designed along a tunable 2x1fiber optic switch set to a frequency of 1 Hz between two Distributed FeedBack (DFB) lasers emitting in the continuous-wave mode at 1571.41 nm (absorption line of CO2) and 1571.25 nm (CO2 absorption-free line), with linewidth and tuning range of respectively 1 MHz and 3 nm over operating wavelength. A three stages amplification through Erbium and Erbium-Ytterbium doped fibers coupled to a Radio Frequency (RF) driven Acousto-Optic Modulator (AOM) generates 100 ns pulses at a repetition rate from 10 to 30 kHz with a peak power up to 2.5 kW and a spatial resolution of 15 m, allowing fast and highly resolved CO2 profiles. The same afocal collection system is used for the output of the laser source and the backscattered light which is then directed to a circulator before being mixed with the local oscillator for heterodyne detection. Packaged in an easily transportable box which also includes a server and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) card for on-line data processing and storing, our setup allows an effective and quick deployment for versatile in-situ analysis, whether it be vertical atmospheric monitoring, large field mapping or sequestration site continuous oversight. Setup operation and results from initial field measurements will be discussed.

Keywords: CO2 profiles, coherent DIAL, in-situ atmospheric sensing, near infrared fiber source

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2 Improving Collective Health and Social Care through a Better Consideration of Sex and Gender: Analytical Report by the French National Authority for Health

Authors: Thomas Suarez, Anne-Sophie Grenouilleau, Erwan Autin, Alexandre Biosse-Duplan, Emmanuelle Blondet, Laurence Chazalette, Marie Coniel, Agnes Dessaigne, Sylvie Lascols, Andrea Lasserre, Candice Legris, Pierre Liot, Aline Metais, Karine Petitprez, Christophe Varlet, Christian Saout

Abstract:

Background: The role of biological sex and gender identity -whether assigned or chosen- as health determinants are far from a recent discovery: several reports have stressed out how being a woman or a man could affect health on various scales. However, taking it into consideration beyond stereotypes and rigid binary assumptions still seems to be a work in progress. Method: The report is a synthesis on a variety of specific topics, each of which was studied by a specialist from the French National Authority for Health (HAS), through an analysis of existing literature on both healthcare policy construction process and instruments (norms, data analysis, clinical trials, guidelines, and professional practices). This work also implied a policy analysis of French recent public health laws and a retrospective study of guidelines with a gender mainstreaming approach. Results: The analysis showed that though sex and gender were well-known determinants of health, their consideration by both public policy and health operators was often incomplete, as it does not incorporate how sex and gender interact, as well as how they interact with other factors. As a result, the health and social care systems and their professionals tend to reproduce some stereotypical and inadequate habits. Though the data available often allows to take sex and gender into consideration, such data is often underused in practice guidelines and policy formulation. Another consequence is a lack of inclusiveness towards transgender or intersex persons. Conclusions: This report first urges for raising awareness of all the actors of health, in its broadest definition, that sex and gender matter beyond first-look conclusions. It makes a series of recommendations in order to reshape policy construction in the health sector on the one hand and to design public health instruments to make them more inclusive regarding sex and gender on the other hand. The HAS finally committed to integrate sex and gender preoccupations in its workings methods, to be a driving force in the spread of these concerns.

Keywords: biological sex, determinants of health, gender, healthcare policy instruments, social accompaniment

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
1 Solid State Drive End to End Reliability Prediction, Characterization and Control

Authors: Mohd Azman Abdul Latif, Erwan Basiron

Abstract:

A flaw or drift from expected operational performance in one component (NAND, PMIC, controller, DRAM, etc.) may affect the reliability of the entire Solid State Drive (SSD) system. Therefore, it is important to ensure the required quality of each individual component through qualification testing specified using standards or user requirements. Qualification testing is time-consuming and comes at a substantial cost for product manufacturers. A highly technical team, from all the eminent stakeholders is embarking on reliability prediction from beginning of new product development, identify critical to reliability parameters, perform full-blown characterization to embed margin into product reliability and establish control to ensure the product reliability is sustainable in the mass production. The paper will discuss a comprehensive development framework, comprehending SSD end to end from design to assembly, in-line inspection, in-line testing and will be able to predict and to validate the product reliability at the early stage of new product development. During the design stage, the SSD will go through intense reliability margin investigation with focus on assembly process attributes, process equipment control, in-process metrology and also comprehending forward looking product roadmap. Once these pillars are completed, the next step is to perform process characterization and build up reliability prediction modeling. Next, for the design validation process, the reliability prediction specifically solder joint simulator will be established. The SSD will be stratified into Non-Operating and Operating tests with focus on solder joint reliability and connectivity/component latent failures by prevention through design intervention and containment through Temperature Cycle Test (TCT). Some of the SSDs will be subjected to the physical solder joint analysis called Dye and Pry (DP) and Cross Section analysis. The result will be feedbacked to the simulation team for any corrective actions required to further improve the design. Once the SSD is validated and is proven working, it will be subjected to implementation of the monitor phase whereby Design for Assembly (DFA) rules will be updated. At this stage, the design change, process and equipment parameters are in control. Predictable product reliability at early product development will enable on-time sample qualification delivery to customer and will optimize product development validation, effective development resource and will avoid forced late investment to bandage the end-of-life product failures. Understanding the critical to reliability parameters earlier will allow focus on increasing the product margin that will increase customer confidence to product reliability.

Keywords: e2e reliability prediction, SSD, TCT, solder joint reliability, NUDD, connectivity issues, qualifications, characterization and control

Procedia PDF Downloads 62