Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Juha Toivonen

15 Coherent All-Fiber and Polarization Maintaining Source for CO2 Range-Resolved Differential Absorption Lidar

Authors: Erwan Negre, Ewan J. O'Connor, Juha Toivonen


The need for CO2 monitoring technologies grows simultaneously with the worldwide concerns regarding environmental challenges. To that purpose, we developed a compact coherent all-fiber ranged-resolved Differential Absorption Lidar (RR-DIAL). It has been designed along a tunable 2x1fiber optic switch set to a frequency of 1 Hz between two Distributed FeedBack (DFB) lasers emitting in the continuous-wave mode at 1571.41 nm (absorption line of CO2) and 1571.25 nm (CO2 absorption-free line), with linewidth and tuning range of respectively 1 MHz and 3 nm over operating wavelength. A three stages amplification through Erbium and Erbium-Ytterbium doped fibers coupled to a Radio Frequency (RF) driven Acousto-Optic Modulator (AOM) generates 100 ns pulses at a repetition rate from 10 to 30 kHz with a peak power up to 2.5 kW and a spatial resolution of 15 m, allowing fast and highly resolved CO2 profiles. The same afocal collection system is used for the output of the laser source and the backscattered light which is then directed to a circulator before being mixed with the local oscillator for heterodyne detection. Packaged in an easily transportable box which also includes a server and a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) card for on-line data processing and storing, our setup allows an effective and quick deployment for versatile in-situ analysis, whether it be vertical atmospheric monitoring, large field mapping or sequestration site continuous oversight. Setup operation and results from initial field measurements will be discussed.

Keywords: CO2 profiles, coherent DIAL, in-situ atmospheric sensing, near infrared fiber source

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14 Promoting Non-Formal Learning Mobility in the Field of Youth

Authors: Juha Kettunen


The purpose of this study is to develop a framework for the assessment of research and development projects. The assessment map is developed in this study based on the strategy map of the balanced scorecard approach. The assessment map is applied in a project that aims to reduce the inequality and risk of exclusion of young people from disadvantaged social groups. The assessment map denotes that not only funding but also necessary skills and qualifications should be carefully assessed in the implementation of the project plans so as to achieve the objectives of projects and the desired impact. The results of this study are useful for those who want to develop the implementation of the Erasmus+ Programme and the project teams of research and development projects.

Keywords: non-formal learning, youth work, social inclusion, innovation

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13 Co-Authorship Networks of Scientific Collaboration

Authors: Juha Kettunen


This study analyzes collaborative and networked academic authorship in higher education. The literature review shows evidence that single authorship has made a gradual paradigm shift to joint authorship. The empirical evidence from the Turku University of Applied Sciences indicates that collaborative authorship has notably increased in the last few years. Co-authorship has extended outside the institution to other domestic and international academic organizations. Co-authorship not only increase the merits of academic scholars but builds and maintains networks of research and development. The results of this study help the authors, editors and partners of research and development projects to have a more concrete understanding of how co-authorship has developed and spread beyond higher education institutions.

Keywords: co-authorship, social networking, higher education, research and development

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12 Promoting Innovation Pedagogy in a Capacity Building Project in Indonesia

Authors: Juha Kettunen


This study presents a project that tests and adjusts active European learning and teaching methods in Indonesian universities to increase their external impact on enterprises and other organizations; it also assesses the implementation of the Erasmus+ projects funded by the European Union. The project is based on the approach of innovation pedagogy that responds to regional development needs and integrates applied research and development projects into education to create capabilities for students to participate in development work after graduation. The assessment of the Erasmus+ project resulted in many improvements that can be made to achieve higher quality and innovativeness. The results of this study are useful for those who want to improve the applied research and development projects of higher education institutions.

Keywords: higher education, innovations, social network, project management

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11 Quality and Quantity in the Strategic Network of Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Juha Kettunen


The study analyzes the quality and the size of the strategic network of higher education institutions and the concept of fitness for purpose in quality assurance. It also analyses the transaction costs of networking that have consequences on the number of members in the network. Empirical evidence is presented from the Consortium on Applied Research and Professional Education, which is a European strategic network of six higher education institutions. The results of the study support the argument that the number of members in the strategic network should be relatively small to provide high-quality results. The practical importance is that networking has been able to promote international research and development projects. The results of this study are important for those who want to design and improve international networks in higher education.

Keywords: higher education, network, research and development, strategic management

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10 Quality and Quantity in the Strategic Network of Higher Education Institutions

Authors: Juha Kettunen


This study analyzes the quality and the size of the strategic network of higher education institutions. The study analyses the concept of fitness for purpose in quality assurance. It also analyses the transaction costs of networking that have consequences on the number of members in the network. Empirical evidence is presented of the Consortium on Applied Research and Professional Education, which is a European strategic network of six higher education institutions. The results of the study support the argument that the number of members in the strategic network should be relatively small to provide high quality results. The practical importance is that networking has been able to promote international research and development projects. The results of this study are important for those who want to design and improve international networks in higher education.

Keywords: balanced scorecard, higher education, social networking, strategic planning

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9 Evaluation of Top-down and Bottom-up Leadership Development Programs in a Finnish Company

Authors: Kati Skarp, Keijo Varis, Juha Kettunen


The purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate the top-down and bottom-up leadership development programs focused on human capital that improve the performance of a company. This study reports on the external top-down leadership development program supported by a consulting company and the internal participatory action research of the bottom-up program. The sickness rate and the lost time incident failure rate decreased and the ideas produced for cost savings improved, leading to increased earnings during the top-down program. The estimated cost savings potential of the bottom-up program was 3.8 million euro based on the cost savings of meeting habits, maintenance practices and the way of working in production. The results of this study are useful for those who plan and evaluate leadership development and human capital productivity consultation programs to improve the performance of a company.

Keywords: leadership, development, human resources, company, indicators, evaluation

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8 Development of β-Ti Alloy Powders for Additive Manufacturing for Application in Patient-Specific Orthopedic Implants

Authors: Eugene Ivanov, Eduardo del-Rio, Igor Kapchenko, Maija Nystrӧm, Juha Kotila


Series of low modulus beta Ti alloy billets and powders can be produced in commercial quantities using a combination of electron beam melting (EBM) and EIGA atomization processes. In the present study, TNZT alloy powder was produced and processed in the EOSINT M290 laser sintering system to produce parts for mechanical testing. Post heat treatments such as diffusion annealing to reduce internal stresses or hot isostatic pressing to remove closed pores were not applied. The density can visually be estimated to be > 99,9 %. According to EDS study Nb, Zr, and Ta are distributed homogeneously throughout the printed sample. There are no indications for any segregation or chemical inhomogeneity, i.e. variation of the element distribution. These points to the fact that under the applied experimental conditions the melt generated by the laser rapidly cools down in the SLM (Selective Laser Melting) process. The selective laser sintering yielded dense structures with relatively good surface quality. The mechanical properties, especially the elongation (24%) along with tensile strength ( > 500MPa) and modulus of elasticity (~60GPa), were found to be promising compared to titanium alloys in general.

Keywords: beta titanium alloys, additive manufacturing, powder, implants

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7 Concentration of Waste Waters by Enzyme-Assisted Low-Temperature Evaporation

Authors: Ahokas Mikko, Taskila Sanna, Varrio Kalle, Tanskanen Juha


The present research aimed at the development of an energy efficient process for the concentration of starchy waste waters. The selected principle is mechanical vapor recompression evaporation (MVR) which leads to concentrated solid material and evaporated water phase. Evaporation removes water until a certain viscosity limit is reached. Materials with high viscosity cannot be concentrated using standard evaporators due to limitations of pumps and other constraints, such as wetting. Control of viscosity is thus essential for efficient evaporation. This applies especially to fluids in which due starch or other compounds the viscosity tends to increase via removal of water. In the present research, the effect of enzymes on evaporation of highly viscous starch industry waste waters was investigated. Wastewater samples were received from starch industry at pH of 4.8. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for the investigation of factor effects on the behaviour of concentrate during evaporation. The RSM was prepared using quadratic face-centered central composite design (CCF). The evaporation performance was evaluated by monitoring the viscosity of fluid during processing. Based on viscosity curves, the addition of glucoamylase reduced the viscosity during evaporation. This assumption was confirmed by CCF, suggesting that the use of starch decomposing glucoamylase allowed evaporation of the starchy wastewater to a relatively high total solid concentration without a detrimental increase in the viscosity. The results suggest that use of enzymes for reduction of viscosity during the evaporation allows more effective concentration of the wastewater and thereby recovery of potable water.

Keywords: viscous, wastewater, treatment, evaporation, concentration

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6 Local People’s Livelihoods and Coping Strategies in the Wake of a Co-management System in the Campo Ma'an National Park, Cameroon

Authors: Nchanji Yvonne Kiki, Mala William Armand, Nchanji Eileen Bogweh, Ramcilovik-Suominen Sabaheta, Kotilainen Juha


The Campo Ma'an National Park was created as part of an environmental and biodiversity compensation for the Chad-Cameroon Oil Pipeline Project, which was meant to help alleviate poverty and boost the livelihood of rural communities around the area. This paper examines different strategies and coping mechanisms employed by the indigenous people and local communities to deal with the national and internationally driven conservation policies and initiatives in the case of the Campo Ma'an National Park. While most literature on park management/co-management/nature conservation has focused on the negative implications for local peoples’ livelihoods, fewer studies have investigated the strategies of local people to respond to these policies and renegotiate their position in a way that enables them to continue their traditional livelihoods using the existing local knowledge systems. This study contributes to the current literature by zooming into not only the impacts of nature conservation policies but also the local individual and collective strategies and responses to such policies and initiatives. We employ a qualitative research approach using ethnomethodology and a convivial lens to analyze data collected from October to November 2018. We find that conservation policies have worsened some existing livelihoods on the one hand and constrained livelihood improvement of indigenous people and local communities (IPLC) on the other hand. Nonetheless, the IPLC has devised individual and collective coping mechanisms to deal with these conservation interventions and the negative effects they have caused. Upon exploring these mechanisms and their effectiveness, this study proposes a management approach to conservation centered on both people and nature, based on indigenous and local people's knowledge and practices, promoting nature for and by humans and strengthening both livelihood and conservation. We take inspiration from the convivial conservation approach and thinking by Bucher and Fletcher.

Keywords: conservation policies, national park management, indigenous and local people’s experiences, livelihoods, local knowledge, coping strategies, conviviality

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5 Systems Intelligence in Management (High Performing Organizations and People Score High in Systems Intelligence)

Authors: Raimo P. Hämäläinen, Juha Törmänen, Esa Saarinen


Systems thinking has been acknowledged as an important approach in the strategy and management literature ever since the seminal works of Ackhoff in the 1970´s and Senge in the 1990´s. The early literature was very much focused on structures and organizational dynamics. Understanding systems is important but making improvements also needs ways to understand human behavior in systems. Peter Senge´s book The Fifth Discipline gave the inspiration to the development of the concept of Systems Intelligence. The concept integrates the concepts of personal mastery and systems thinking. SI refers to intelligent behavior in the context of complex systems involving interaction and feedback. It is a competence related to the skills needed in strategy and the environment of modern industrial engineering and management where people skills and systems are in an increasingly important role. The eight factors of Systems Intelligence have been identified from extensive surveys and the factors relate to perceiving, attitude, thinking and acting. The personal self-evaluation test developed consists of 32 items which can also be applied in a peer evaluation mode. The concept and test extend to organizations too. One can talk about organizational systems intelligence. This paper reports the results of an extensive survey based on peer evaluation. The results show that systems intelligence correlates positively with professional performance. People in a managerial role score higher in SI than others. Age improves the SI score but there is no gender difference. Top organizations score higher in all SI factors than lower ranked ones. The SI-tests can also be used as leadership and management development tools helping self-reflection and learning. Finding ways of enhancing learning organizational development is important. Today gamification is a new promising approach. The items in the SI test have been used to develop an interactive card game following the Topaasia game approach. It is an easy way of engaging people in a process which both helps participants see and approach problems in their organization. It also helps individuals in identifying challenges in their own behavior and in improving in their SI.

Keywords: gamification, management competence, organizational learning, systems thinking

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4 Extraction of Scandium (Sc) from an Ore with Functionalized Nanoporous Silicon Adsorbent

Authors: Arezoo Rahmani, Rinez Thapa, Juha-Matti Aalto, Petri Turhanen, Jouko Vepsalainen, Vesa-PekkaLehto, Joakim Riikonen


Production of Scandium (Sc) is a complicated process because Sc is found only in low concentrations in ores and the concentration of Sc is very low compared with other metals. Therefore, utilization of typical extraction processes such as solvent extraction is problematic in scandium extraction. The Adsorption/desorption method can be used, but it is challenging to prepare materials, which have good selectivity, high adsorption capacity, and high stability. Therefore, efficient and environmentally friendly methods for Sc extraction are needed. In this study, the nanoporous composite material was developed for extracting Sc from an Sc ore. The nanoporous composite material offers several advantageous properties such as large surface area, high chemical and mechanical stability, fast diffusion of the metals in the material and possibility to construct a filter out of the material with good flow-through properties. The nanoporous silicon material was produced by first stabilizing the surfaces with a silicon carbide layer and then functionalizing the surface with bisphosphonates that act as metal chelators. The surface area and porosity of the material were characterized by N₂ adsorption and the morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The bisphosphonate content of the material was studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The concentration of metal ions in the adsorption/desorption experiments was measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The maximum capacity of the material was 25 µmol/g Sc at pH=1 and 45 µmol/g Sc at pH=3, obtained from adsorption isotherm. The selectivity of the material towards Sc in artificial solutions containing several metal ions was studied at pH one and pH 3. The result shows good selectivity of the nanoporous composite towards adsorption of Sc. Scandium was less efficiently adsorbed from solution leached from the ore of Sc because of excessive amounts of iron (Fe), aluminum (Al) and titanium (Ti) which disturbed the adsorption process. For example, the concentration of Fe was more than 4500 ppm, while the concentration of Sc was only three ppm, approximately 1500 times lower. Precipitation methods were developed to lower the concentration of the metals other than Sc. Optimal pH for precipitation was found to be pH 4. The concentration of Fe, Al and Ti were decreased by 99, 70, 99.6%, respectively, while the concentration of Sc decreased only 22%. Despite the large reduction in the concentration of other metals, more work is needed to further increase the relative concentration of Sc compared with other metals to efficiently extract it using the developed nanoporous composite material. Nevertheless, the developed material may provide an affordable, efficient and environmentally friendly method to extract Sc on a large scale.

Keywords: adsorption, nanoporous silicon, ore solution, scandium

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3 Reliability of 2D Motion Analysis System for Sagittal Plane Lower Limb Kinematics during Running

Authors: Seyed Hamed Mousavi, Juha M. Hijmans, Reza Rajabi, Ron Diercks, Johannes Zwerver, Henk van der Worp


Introduction: Running is one of the most popular sports activity among people. Improper sagittal plane ankle, knee and hip kinematics are considered to be associated with the increase of injury risk in runners. Motion assessing smart-phone applications are increasingly used to measure kinematics both in the field and laboratory setting, as they are cheaper, more portable, accessible, and easier to use relative to 3D motion analysis system. The aims of this study are 1) to compare the results of 3D gait analysis system and CE; 2) to evaluate the test-retest and intra-rater reliability of coach’s eye (CE) app for the sagittal plane hip, knee, and ankle angles in the touchdown and toe-off while running. Method: Twenty subjects participated in this study. Sixteen reflective markers and cluster markers were attached to the subject’s body. Subjects were asked to run at a self-selected speed on a treadmill. Twenty-five seconds of running were collected for analyzing kinematics of interest. To measure sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle joint angles at touchdown (TD) and toe off (TO), the mean of first ten acceptable consecutive strides was calculated for each angle. A smartphone (Samsung Note5, android) was placed on the right side of the subject so that whole body was simultaneously filmed with 3D gait system during running. All subjects repeated the task with the same running speed after a short interval of 5 minutes in between. The CE app, installed on the smartphone, was used to measure the sagittal plane hip, knee and ankle joint angles at touchdown and toe off the stance phase. Results: Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess test-retest and intra-rater reliability. To analyze the agreement between 3D and 2D outcomes, the Bland and Altman plot was used. The values of ICC were for Ankle at TD (TRR=0.8,IRR=0.94), ankle at TO (TRR=0.9,IRR=0.97), knee at TD (TRR=0.78,IRR=0.98), knee at TO (TRR=0.9,IRR=0.96), hip at TD (TRR=0.75,IRR=0.97), hip at TO (TRR=0.87,IRR=0.98). The Bland and Altman plots displaying a mean difference (MD) and ±2 standard deviation of MD (2SDMD) of 3D and 2D outcomes were for Ankle at TD (MD=3.71,+2SDMD=8.19, -2SDMD=-0.77), ankle at TO (MD=-1.27, +2SDMD=6.22, -2SDMD=-8.76), knee at TD (MD=1.48, +2SDMD=8.21, -2SDMD=-5.25), knee at TO (MD=-6.63, +2SDMD=3.94, -2SDMD=-17.19), hip at TD (MD=1.51, +2SDMD=9.05, -2SDMD=-6.03), hip at TO (MD=-0.18, +2SDMD=12.22, -2SDMD=-12.59). Discussion: The ability that the measurements are accurately reproduced is valuable in the performance and clinical assessment of outcomes of joint angles. The results of this study showed that the intra-rater and test-retest reliability of CE app for all kinematics measured are excellent (ICC ≥ 0.75). The Bland and Altman plots display that there are high differences of values for ankle at TD and knee at TO. Measuring ankle at TD by 2D gait analysis depends on the plane of movement. Since ankle at TD mostly occurs in the none-sagittal plane, the measurements can be different as foot progression angle at TD increases during running. The difference in values of the knee at TD can depend on how 3D and the rater detect the TO during the stance phase of running.

Keywords: reliability, running, sagittal plane, two dimensional

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2 Rapid, Direct, Real-Time Method for Bacteria Detection on Surfaces

Authors: Evgenia Iakovleva, Juha Koivisto, Pasi Karppinen, J. Inkinen, Mikko Alava


Preventing the spread of infectious diseases throughout the worldwide is one of the most important tasks of modern health care. Infectious diseases not only account for one fifth of the deaths in the world, but also cause many pathological complications for the human health. Touch surfaces pose an important vector for the spread of infections by varying microorganisms, including antimicrobial resistant organisms. Further, antimicrobial resistance is reply of bacteria to the overused or inappropriate used of antibiotics everywhere. The biggest challenges in bacterial detection by existing methods are non-direct determination, long time of analysis, the sample preparation, use of chemicals and expensive equipment, and availability of qualified specialists. Therefore, a high-performance, rapid, real-time detection is demanded in rapid practical bacterial detection and to control the epidemiological hazard. Among the known methods for determining bacteria on the surfaces, Hyperspectral methods can be used as direct and rapid methods for microorganism detection on different kind of surfaces based on fluorescence without sampling, sample preparation and chemicals. The aim of this study was to assess the relevance of such systems to remote sensing of surfaces for microorganisms detection to prevent a global spread of infectious diseases. Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli with different concentrations (from 0 to 10x8 cell/100µL) were detected with hyperspectral camera using different filters as visible visualization of bacteria and background spots on the steel plate. A method of internal standards was applied for monitoring the correctness of the analysis results. Distances from sample to hyperspectral camera and light source are 25 cm and 40 cm, respectively. Each sample is optically imaged from the surface by hyperspectral imaging system, utilizing a JAI CM-140GE-UV camera. Light source is BeamZ FLATPAR DMX Tri-light, 3W tri-colour LEDs (red, blue and green). Light colors are changed through DMX USB Pro interface. The developed system was calibrated following a standard procedure of setting exposure and focused for light with λ=525 nm. The filter is ThorLabs KuriousTM hyperspectral filter controller with wavelengths from 420 to 720 nm. All data collection, pro-processing and multivariate analysis was performed using LabVIEW and Python software. The studied human eye visible and invisible bacterial stains clustered apart from a reference steel material by clustering analysis using different light sources and filter wavelengths. The calculation of random and systematic errors of the analysis results proved the applicability of the method in real conditions. Validation experiments have been carried out with photometry and ATP swab-test. The lower detection limit of developed method is several orders of magnitude lower than for both validation methods. All parameters of the experiments were the same, except for the light. Hyperspectral imaging method allows to separate not only bacteria and surfaces, but also different types of bacteria, such as Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis. Developed method allows skipping the sample preparation and the use of chemicals, unlike all other microbiological methods. The time of analysis with novel hyperspectral system is a few seconds, which is innovative in the field of microbiological tests.

Keywords: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, hyperspectral imaging, microorganisms detection

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1 Cloud-Based Multiresolution Geodata Cube for Efficient Raster Data Visualization and Analysis

Authors: Lassi Lehto, Jaakko Kahkonen, Juha Oksanen, Tapani Sarjakoski


The use of raster-formatted data sets in geospatial analysis is increasing rapidly. At the same time, geographic data are being introduced into disciplines outside the traditional domain of geoinformatics, like climate change, intelligent transport, and immigration studies. These developments call for better methods to deliver raster geodata in an efficient and easy-to-use manner. Data cube technologies have traditionally been used in the geospatial domain for managing Earth Observation data sets that have strict requirements for effective handling of time series. The same approach and methodologies can also be applied in managing other types of geospatial data sets. A cloud service-based geodata cube, called GeoCubes Finland, has been developed to support online delivery and analysis of most important geospatial data sets with national coverage. The main target group of the service is the academic research institutes in the country. The most significant aspects of the GeoCubes data repository include the use of multiple resolution levels, cloud-optimized file structure, and a customized, flexible content access API. Input data sets are pre-processed while being ingested into the repository to bring them into a harmonized form in aspects like georeferencing, sampling resolutions, spatial subdivision, and value encoding. All the resolution levels are created using an appropriate generalization method, selected depending on the nature of the source data set. Multiple pre-processed resolutions enable new kinds of online analysis approaches to be introduced. Analysis processes based on interactive visual exploration can be effectively carried out, as the level of resolution most close to the visual scale can always be used. In the same way, statistical analysis can be carried out on resolution levels that best reflect the scale of the phenomenon being studied. Access times remain close to constant, independent of the scale applied in the application. The cloud service-based approach, applied in the GeoCubes Finland repository, enables analysis operations to be performed on the server platform, thus making high-performance computing facilities easily accessible. The developed GeoCubes API supports this kind of approach for online analysis. The use of cloud-optimized file structures in data storage enables the fast extraction of subareas. The access API allows for the use of vector-formatted administrative areas and user-defined polygons as definitions of subareas for data retrieval. Administrative areas of the country in four levels are available readily from the GeoCubes platform. In addition to direct delivery of raster data, the service also supports the so-called virtual file format, in which only a small text file is first downloaded. The text file contains links to the raster content on the service platform. The actual raster data is downloaded on demand, from the spatial area and resolution level required in each stage of the application. By the geodata cube approach, pre-harmonized geospatial data sets are made accessible to new categories of inexperienced users in an easy-to-use manner. At the same time, the multiresolution nature of the GeoCubes repository facilitates expert users to introduce new kinds of interactive online analysis operations.

Keywords: cloud service, geodata cube, multiresolution, raster geodata

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