Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 195

Search results for: Mary Shelley

195 Creator and Creation: Mary Shelley’s Monstrous ‘Last Men’ in 'Frankenstein' and 'The Last Man'

Authors: Courtney Laurey Davids

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Mary Shelley’s two 19th century novels, the seminal Frankenstein (1818) and the less popular The Last Man (1826) draw on Gothic elements that invite a futuristic questioning and critique of man’s fallibility and propensity to be the author of his own demise be it by transgressing natural law through a scientific endeavour or ‘birthing’ a plague. Recent scholarship about ‘prophetic’ voices in fiction considers The Last Man an influential but overlooked novel deserving of renewed scholarly interest. Through close textual analysis and comparative reading, this paper seeks to explore the continuities (and discontinuities) in thematic concern of creator and creation in Frankenstein and The Last Man, emblematic in the oppositional characters of Victor Frankenstein and the Creature and Adrian, Earl of Windsor and Lionel Verney, his ‘creation’ in The Last Man. It argues that the creator/creation dynamic between Frankenstein and the Creature is to an extent revisited and inverted in Adrian and Verney but presented as no less problematic in The Last Man’s critique of man’s inevitable folly despite nurturing and acceptance of the marginalised figure. Drawing on Romanticism ideals of nature, its foregrounding of a scourging pandemic as punishment for man’s self-dislocation and with nature is a mirroring of Frankenstein and the Creature’s own plague-like deterioration and alienation from self and nature. In a sense, both Verney and the Creature as solitary figures at the novels' denouement are ‘last men’, having learned much about man and society and upon whom the moral injunction rests. In Verney, however, the moral warning coupled with the hope that man can yet be saved offers a different reading perhaps from Frankenstein regarding the creator/creation dichotomy.

Keywords: creator/creation, Frankenstein, Mary Shelley, The Gothic, The Last Man

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194 Hope in the Ruins of 'Ozymandias': Reimagining Temporal Horizons in Felicia Hemans 'the Image in Lava'

Authors: Lauren Schuldt Wilson

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Felicia Hemans’ memorializing of the unwritten lives of women and the consequent allowance for marginalized voices to remember and be remembered has been considered by many critics in terms of ekphrasis and elegy, terms which privilege the question of whether Hemans’ poeticizing can represent lost voices of history or only her poetic expression. Amy Gates, Brian Elliott, and others point out Hemans’ acknowledgement of the self-projection necessary for imaginatively filling the absences of unrecorded histories. Yet, few have examined the complex temporal positioning Hemans inscribes in these moments of self-projection and imaginative historicizing. In poems like ‘The Image in Lava,’ Hemans maps not only a lost past, but also a lost potential future onto the image of a dead infant in its mother’s arms, the discovery and consideration of which moves the imagined viewer to recover and incorporate the ‘hope’ encapsulated in the figure of the infant into a reevaluation of national time embodied by the ‘relics / Left by the pomps of old.’ By examining Hemans’ acknowledgement and response to Percy Bysshe Shelley’s ‘Ozymandias,’ this essay explores how Hemans’ depictions of imaginative historicizing open new horizons of possibility and reevaluate temporal value structures by imagining previously undiscovered or unexplored potentialities of the past. Where Shelley’s poem mocks the futility of national power and time, this essay outlines Hemans’ suggestion of alternative threads of identity and temporal meaning-making which, regardless of historical veracity, exist outside of and against the structures Shelley challenges. Counter to previous readings of Hemans’ poem as celebration of either recovered or poetically constructed maternal love, this essay argues that Hemans offers a meditation on sites of reproduction—both of personal reproductive futurity and of national reproduction of power. This meditation culminates in Hemans’ gesturing towards a method of historicism by which the imagined viewer reinvigorates the sterile, ‘shattered visage’ of national time by forming temporal identity through the imagining of trans-historical hope inscribed on the infant body of the universal, individual subject rather than the broken monument of the king.

Keywords: futurity, national temporalities, reproduction, revisionary histories

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193 The Different Essence of Death in the Elegies of Shelley's Adonais and Lord Tennyson's In Memoriam

Authors: Sulistyaningtyas

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The topic about death and dying is interesting to discuss since it is strongly related to every individual life. As represented in its title, Adonais: An Elegy on the Death of John Keats is a mournful poem written in 1821 by Percy Bysshe Shelley to mourn the loss of young poet John Keats. To compare, In Memoriam A.H.H. is an elegy written in 1850 about the death of Lord Tennyson’s dearest friend, Arthur Henry Hallam. Although both elegies were written to grieve the authors’ loved ones, their grief affects differently to the psychological being of the narrators. Thus, this research aims to examine the essence of death in affecting the narrators psychologically. By using psychoanalytic criticism, this research reveals the different essence of death in the two elegies as the result of the analysis. Moreover, these two elegies also portray the concept of the afterlife, immortality, and the figure of God. In Adonais, the grief of the narrator to Keats leads him to question the very purpose of life. The loss of his favorite poet which makes him feel sorrowful and mad along his 55 stanzas brings him to a higher psychological level to understand himself. He even sees himself as a Christ-like figure, which shows the idea that God is imaginable. Different from Adonais, the narrator of In Memoriam finds something more spiritual by doing his passionate mourning to Hallam. Through some contemplation in his 133 cantos, in the end, he is convinced that the dear one now dwells with a great Spirit who controls the world. He believes that all of the creation in the universe has to follow one law which is set by God. Hence, it can be concluded that death might bring different consequence to the psyche of every living creature.

Keywords: elegy, comparative study, psychoanalytic criticism, the essence of death

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192 Traveling Abroad and the Construction of British Identity and Culture in Selected Women Writers: Lady Elizabeth Craven's A Journey Through the Crimea to Constantinople (1789) and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu's Embassy Letters (1716-1718)

Authors: Raja Al-Khalili

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Traveling abroad for British citizens in the eighteenth century was usually performed for two reasons. The first major form was for administering the expanding realm of the British Empire and its need for officials in governing the natives and facilitating the work of business companies. The other form of travel was for pleasure and involved a manifestation of wealth. This form of travel was a prelude for the modern industry of tourism and usually involved a tour of Europe and the Mediterranean. In both forms of travel the British encountered a myriad of cultures. Travel had fostered a sense of pride and confirmed an ethnocentric view of British superiority, but it also brought a critical self-examination of belonging to a colonial empire that thrives on the weaknesses of other nations. Women writers in particular have sought in the travels a kind of self-exploration of the nature of social patriarchy in a diversity of cultures. Both Lady Elizabeth Craven in A Journey through the Crimea to Constantinople (1789) and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu in Embassy Letters (1716-1718) have observed the culture of the Ottomans and then pursued to reflect on the social role of women in England.

Keywords: travel writing, Elizabeth Craven, Lady Mary Wortley, patriarchy

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191 Living the Religious of the Virgin Mary (RVM) Educational Mission: A Grounded Theory Approach

Authors: Violeta Juanico

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While there was a statement made by the RVM Education Ministry Commission that its strength is its Ignacian identity, shaped by the Ignacian spirituality that permeates the school community leading to a more defined RVM school culture, there has been no empirical study made in terms of a clear and convincing conceptual framework on how the RVM Educational mission is lived in the Religious of the Virgin Mary (RVM) learning institutions to the best of author’s knowledge. This dissertation is an attempt to come up with a substantive theory that supports and explains the stakeholders’ experiences with the RVM educational mission in the Philippines. Participants that represent the different stakeholders ranging from students to administrators were interviewed. The expressions and thoughts of the participants were initially coded and analyzed using the Barney Glaser’s original grounded theory methodology to find out how the RVM mission is lived in the field of education.

Keywords: catholic education, grounded theory, lived experience, RVM educational mission

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190 Modelling Medieval Vaults: Digital Simulation of the North Transept Vault of St Mary, Nantwich, England

Authors: N. Webb, A. Buchanan

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Digital and virtual heritage is often associated with the recreation of lost artefacts and architecture; however, we can also investigate works that were not completed, using digital tools and techniques. Here we explore physical evidence of a fourteenth-century Gothic vault located in the north transept of St Mary’s church in Nantwich, Cheshire, using existing springer stones that are built into the walls as a starting point. Digital surveying tools are used to document the architecture, followed by an analysis process to hypothesise and simulate possible design solutions, had the vault been completed. A number of options, both two-dimensionally and three-dimensionally, are discussed based on comparison with examples of other contemporary vaults, thus adding another specimen to the corpus of vault designs. Dissemination methods such as digital models and 3D prints are also explored as possible resources for demonstrating what the finished vault might have looked like for heritage interpretation and other purposes.

Keywords: digital simulation, heritage interpretation, medieval vaults, virtual heritage, 3d scanning

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189 The Co-Existence of Multidominance and Movement in the Syntax of Chinese Bi-Comparatives

Authors: Yaqing Hu

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This paper puts forward a syntactic analysis involving multidominance and rightward movement in Chinese bi-comparatives, as in 'Yuehan bi Mali gao (John is taller than Mary).' It is argued here that the predicate of comparison is a shared constituent in two small clauses, namely one for the target and one for the standard; and then it moves rightward to form a degree phrase with the comparative morpheme. This proposal comes from four aspects. First, the example above can also be expressed in this way, 'A: Yuehan he Mali, shui gao? (John and Mary, who is taller?) B: Yuehan gao./Yuehan geng gao. (John is taller).' This shows that the gradable adjective is predicated of the target. In addition, according to a constraint on Chinese bi-comparatives, namely the target and the standard must be arguments of the predicate simultaneously, it is not unreasonable to assume that the gradable adjective may also be predicated of the standard. Second, subcomparatives are totally disallowed in Chinese, as in '*zhe-zhang zhuozi bi zhe-zhang yizi kuan chang. (This table is longer than this chair is wide.)' In order to save it from ungrammaticality, the target and the standard should be compared along the same dimension denoted by the gradable adjective. It may follow that in Chinese comparatives, having equal roles in the same eventuality, the target and the standard bear the same thematic relationship with the predicate of comparison. Third, verb-copy can appear in Chinese bi-comparatives, as in 'Yuehan qi ma bi Mali qi ma qi de kuai. (John rides horses faster than Mary does.)' The predicate qi seems to form a small clause with both the target and the standard. This might be supporting evidence that both the target and the standard share the predicate of comparison. Fourth, Chinese comparatives do have comparative morphemes, as in 'Yuehan bi Mali geng gao. (John is taller than Mary)', which is semantically equivalent to the first example above. Thus, it follows that one feature of Chinese comparative morphemes is that they can remain overt or covert in the syntax, which will not affect semantics. This further shows that comparative morphemes in bi-comparatives may not be able to saturate the degree argument denoted by the predicate of comparison due to its optionality in the structure. These four aspects present a challenge to the Direct Analysis used in Chinese comparatives since this approach would presume that the target and the standard somehow show independency with the predicate in the syntax. Meanwhile, this study also rejects the previous analysis of multidomiance in bi-comparatives in which the degree phrase comprised of the comparative morpheme and the gradable adjective may be shared by the standard when the comparative morpheme is covert. This syntactic analysis proposed in this study will therefore offer a different perspective of how to treat degree phrase in Chinese comparatives and may offer evidence to argue whether there is degree phrase movement in bi-comparatives as in its English counterparts.

Keywords: Chinese comparatives, degree phrase, movement, multidominance, syntactic analysis

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188 Writing the Roaming Female Self: Identity and Romantic Selfhood in Mary Wollstonecraft’s Letters Written during a Short Stay in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway (1796)

Authors: Kalyani Gandhi

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The eighteenth century in Britain saw a great burst of activity in writing (letters, journals, newspapers, essays); often these modes of writing had a public-spirited bent in-step with the prevailing intellectual atmosphere. Mary Wollstonecraft was one of the leading intellectuals of that period who utilized letter writing to convey her thoughts on the exciting political developments of the late eighteenth century. Fusing together her anxieties and concerns about humanity in general and herself in particular, Wollstonecraft’s views of the world around her are filtered through the lens of her subjectivity. Thus, Wollstonecraft’s letters covered a wide range of topics on both the personal and political level (for the two are often entwined in Wollstonecraft’s characteristic style of analysis) such as sentiment, gender, nature, peasantry, the class system, the legal system, political duties and rights of both rulers and subjects, death, immortality, religion, family and education. Therefore, this paper intends to examine the manner in which Wollstonecraft utilizes letter-writing to constitute and develop Romantic self-hood, understand the world around her and illustrate her ideas on the political and social happenings in Europe. The primary text analyzed will be Mary Wollstonecraft's Letters Written During a Short Stay in Sweden, Denmark and Norway (1796) and the analysis of this text will be supplemented by researching 18th-century British letter writing culture, with a special emphasis on the epistolary habits of women. Within this larger framework, this paper intends to examine the manner in which this hybrid of travel and epistolary writing aided Mary Wollstonecraft's expression on Romantic selfhood and how it was complicated by ideas of gender. This paper reveals Wollstonecraft's text to be wrought with anxiety about the world around her and within her; thus, the personal-public nature of the epistolary format particularly suits her characteristic point of view that looks within and without. That is to say, Wollstonecraft’s anxieties about gender and self, are as much about the women she sees in the world around her as much as they are about her young daughter and herself. Wollstonecraft constantly explores and examines this anxiety within the different but interconnected realms of politics, economics, history and society. In fact, it is her complex technique of entwining these aforementioned concerns with a closer look at interpersonal relationships among men and women (she often mentions specific anecdotes and instances) that make Wollstonecraft's Letters so engaging and insightful. Thus, Wollstonecraft’s Letters is an exemplar of British Romantic writing due to the manner in which it explores the bond between the individual and society. Mary Wollstonecraft's nuances this exploration by incorporating her concerns about women and the playing out of gender in society. Thus, Wollstonecraft’s Letters is an invaluable contribution to the field of British Romanticism, particularly as it offers crucial insight on female Romantic writing that can broaden and enrich the current academic understanding of the field.

Keywords: British romanticism, letters, feminism, travel writing

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187 The Role of Spiritual Experience, Gerotranscendence and Social Engagement on Successful Aging among Incarcerated Filipino Elderly: A Structural Equation Model

Authors: Les Paul Valdez, Rowena Manzarate, Joseph Carl Lunizo, Mary Thereze Mabaquiao, Mary Deo Luigi Mabunay

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Background: Across the literature, varying definitions of successful aging can be found. As a result, several determinants have been associated with successful aging. However, there is a paucity of literature exploring the relationship between successful aging and factors such as spiritual experience, gerotranscendence, and social engagement. Objective: Thus, this study purports to ascertain the relationship between and among spiritual experience, gerotranscendence, social engagement and successful aging. Methods: The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES), Social Engagement Scale (SES), Gerotranscendence Scale Revised (GS-R) and Expectations Regarding Aging (ERA) were fielded to 349 incarcerated elderly to measure spiritual experience, social engagement, gerotranscendence and successful aging respectively. Data was analyzed using Structural Equation Modelling through AMOS 21. The hypothesized model was evaluated using the goodness of fit and parsimony indices. Results: Social engagement (β= .179, p=.128) and spiritual experience (β= .375, p=.262) contribute to successful aging through the mediating effect of gerotranscendence (β= .973, p=.718). Conclusion: Today more than ever, healthcare providers in penal institutions are challenged to ensure that incarcerated elderly are socially and spiritually engaged; and have high levels of gerotranscendence.

Keywords: elderly, Filipino, gerotranscendence, social engagement, spiritual experience, successful aging

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186 Phylogenetic Investigations Of The Convergent Evolution Of Fishing Behaviour In The Spider Family Pisauridae

Authors: Shelley Edwards, William Rawson, Khanyisile Buthelezi

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Pisauridae is a diverse family of spiders distributed widely across the globe. These spiders remain vastly understudied on a molecular level, most notably within the African members. The fishing trait seen within some of these spiders is a unique behavioural adaption. We aim to determine the genetic relationships of South African Pisauridae across the family through a multigene approach, bringing insight into the diversification and evolution of this group. Global distribution within these lineages is likely due to them including specialist and generalist species, limiting possible geographical barriers. While the African lineage, consisting of only fishing spiders from the genus Nilus, could experience greater barriers. A lack of structuring was seen in the Nilus. It is plausible that this is a result of introgression within the mitochondrial genes, as has been seen in Dolomedes. We also investigated whether the fishing behaviour in various Pisauridae genera are due to ancestral character retention and loss or due to independent convergent evolution of the behaviour.

Keywords: introgression, pisauridae, convergent evolution, fishing behaviour

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185 Primary Fallopian Tube Carcinoma: A Case Report

Authors: Mary Abigail T. Ty, Mary Jocelyn Yu-Laygo, Jocelyn Z. Mariano

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This is a case of L.S.T., a 61 year old, G6P4 (3124) who presented with a one month history of intermittent, brownish, watery, non foul smelling vaginal discharge. There were no other accompanying symptoms. On rectovaginal examination, a palpable adnexal mass on the left was appreciated, with the lower border measuring 3 cm. The mass was non-tender, had irregular borders and solid areas. On transvaginal sonography, it revealed a left pelvic mass measuring 3 x 4 x 2 cm, with a Sassone score of 9. It had vascularization. The primary consideration was Ovarian Newgrowth, probably malignant in nature. CA-125 results were slightly elevated at 43.2 u/ml (NV: 0-35 u/ml). After intraoperative evaluation, the left fallopian tube was converted into a 9 x 4.5 x 3 cm bulbous cystic mass with solid areas. On cut section, the ampullary portion of the fallopian tube contained necrotic and friable looking tissues. Specimen was sent for frozen section and results revealed adenocarcinoma of the left fallopian tube. Patient subsequently underwent complete surgical staging with unremarkable post-operative course. The Surg Ico pathologic diagnosis was G6P4 (3124) Fallopian tube serous cystadenocarcinoma stage 1. The mean incidence of PFTC is 3.6 per million women yearly. This is associated with a generally low survival rate. The primary diagnosis is very difficult to establish because only 0–10% of patients suffering from PFTC are diagnosed pre-operatively. Symptoms play a very important role in the discovery of this disease, because there will be no presentation to the hospital without symptoms. The most common of which may be vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, a palpable mass and ascites. A conglomerate of manifestations may be encountered, but not at all times. This is termed hydrops tubae profluens where there is presence of colicky pain with relief from intermittent passage of serosanguinous vaginal discharge. The significance of this report is to emphasize the rarity of the case and how the dilemma in the diagnosis is almost always present despite ancillary procedures.

Keywords: fallopian tube carcinoma, prognosis, rare, risk factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
184 Topological Indices of Some Graph Operations

Authors: U. Mary

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Let be a graph with a finite, nonempty set of objects called vertices together with a set of unordered pairs of distinct vertices of called edges. The vertex set is denoted by and the edge set by. Given two graphs and the wiener index of, wiener index for the splitting graph of a graph, the first Zagreb index of and its splitting graph, the 3-steiner wiener index of, the 3-steiner wiener index of a special graph are explored in this paper.

Keywords: complementary prism graph, first Zagreb index, neighborhood corona graph, steiner distance, splitting graph, steiner wiener index, wiener index

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183 Methodologies for Management of Sustainable Tourism: A Case Study in Jalapão/to/Brazil

Authors: Mary L. G. S. Senna, Veruska C. Dutra, Afonso R. Aquino

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The study is in application and analysis of two tourism management tools that can contribute to making public managers decision: the Barometer of Tourism Sustainability (BTS) and the Ecological Footprint (EF). The results have shown that BTS allows you to have an integrated view of the tourism system, awakening to the need for planning of appropriate actions so that it can achieve the positive scale proposed (potentially sustainable). Already the methodology of ecological tourism footprint is an important tool to measure potential impacts generated by tourism to tourist reality.

Keywords: barometer of tourism sustainability, ecological footprint of tourism, Jalapão/Brazil, sustainable tourism

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182 Protecting the Health of Astronauts: Enhancing Occupational Health Monitoring and Surveillance for Former NASA Astronauts to Understand Long-Term Outcomes of Spaceflight-Related Exposures

Authors: Meredith Rossi, Lesley Lee, Mary Wear, Mary Van Baalen, Bradley Rhodes

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The astronaut community is unique, and may be disproportionately exposed to occupational hazards not commonly seen in other communities. The extent to which the demands of the astronaut occupation and exposure to spaceflight-related hazards affect the health of the astronaut population over the life course is not completely known. A better understanding of the individual, population, and mission impacts of astronaut occupational exposures is critical to providing clinical care, targeting occupational surveillance efforts, and planning for future space exploration. The ability to characterize the risk of latent health conditions is a significant component of this understanding. Provision of health screening services to active and former astronauts ensures individual, mission, and community health and safety. Currently, the NASA-Johnson Space Center (JSC) Flight Medicine Clinic (FMC) provides extensive medical monitoring to active astronauts throughout their careers. Upon retirement, astronauts may voluntarily return to the JSC FMC for an annual preventive exam. However, current retiree monitoring includes only selected screening tests, representing an opportunity for augmentation. The potential long-term health effects of spaceflight demand an expanded framework of testing for former astronauts. The need is two-fold: screening tests widely recommended for other aging populations are necessary to rule out conditions resulting from the natural aging process (e.g., colonoscopy, mammography); and expanded monitoring will increase NASA’s ability to better characterize conditions resulting from astronaut occupational exposures. To meet this need, NASA has begun an extensive exploration of the overall approach, cost, and policy implications of expanding the medical monitoring of former NASA astronauts under the Astronaut Occupational Health program. Increasing the breadth of monitoring services will ultimately enrich the existing evidence base of occupational health risks to astronauts. Such an expansion would therefore improve the understanding of the health of the astronaut population as a whole, and the ability to identify, mitigate, and manage such risks in preparation for deep space exploration missions.

Keywords: astronaut, long-term health, NASA, occupational health, surveillance

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181 A Metaheuristic for the Layout and Scheduling Problem in a Job Shop Environment

Authors: Hernández Eva Selene, Reyna Mary Carmen, Rivera Héctor, Barragán Irving

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We propose an approach that jointly addresses the layout of a facility and the scheduling of a sequence of jobs. In real production, these two problems are interrelated. However, they are treated separately in the literature. Our approach is an extension of the job shop problem with transportation delay, where the location of the machines is selected among possible sites. The model minimizes the makespan, using the short processing times rule with two algorithms; the first one considers all the permutations for the location of machines, and the second only a heuristic to select some specific permutations that reduces computational time. Some instances are proved and compared with literature.

Keywords: layout problem, job shop scheduling problem, concurrent scheduling and layout problem, metaheuristic

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180 Music in Religion Culture of the Georgian Pentecostals

Authors: Nino Naneishvili

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The study of religious minorities and their musical culture has attracted scant academic attention in Georgia. Within wider Georgian society, it would seem that the focus of discourse to date has been on the traditional orthodox religion and its musical expression, with other forms of religious expression regarded as intrinsically less valuable. The goal of this article is to study Georgia's different religious and musical picture which, this time, is presented on the example of the Pentecostals. The first signs of the Pentecostal movement originated at the end of the 19th Century in the USA, and first appeared in Georgia as early as 1914. An ethnomusicological perspective allows the use of anthropological and sociological approaches. The basic methodology is an ethnographic method. This involved attending religious services, observation, in-depth interviews and musical material analysis. This analysis, based on a combined use of various theoretical and methodological approaches, reveals that Georgian Pentecostals, apart from polyphonic singing, are characterised by “ bi-musicality.“ This phenomenon together with Georgian three part polyphony combines vocalisation within “social polyphony.“ The concept of back stage and front stage is highlighted. Chanters also try to express national identity. In some cases however it has been observed that they abandon or conceal certain musical forms of expression which are considered central to Georgian identity. The famous hymn “Thou art a Vineyard” is a case in point. The reason given for this omission within the Georgian Pentecostal church is that within Pentecostal doctrine, God alone is the object of worship. Therefore there is no veneration of Saints as representatives of the Divine. In some cases informants denied the existence of this hymn, and others explain that the meaning conveyed to the Vineyard is that of Jesus Christ and not the Virgin Mary. Others stated that they loved Virgin Mary and were therefore free to sing this song outside church circles. The results of this study illustrates that one of the religious minorities in Georgia, the Pentecostals, are characterised by a deviation in musical thinking from Homo Polyphonicus. They actively change their form of musical worship to secondary ethno hearing – bi-musicality. This outcome is determined by both new religious thinking and the process of globalization. A significant principle behind this form of worship is the use of forms during worship which are acceptable and accessible to all. This naturally leads to the development of modern forms. Obtained material does not demonstrate a connection between traditional religious music in general. Rather, it constitutes an independent domain.

Keywords: Georgia, globalization, music, pentecostal

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179 The Processing of Implicit Stereotypes in Contexts of Reading, Using Eye-Tracking and Self-Paced Reading Tasks

Authors: Magali Mari, Misha Muller

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The present study’s objectives were to determine how diverse implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information and linguistic inferential processes, such as presupposition accommodation. When reading a text, one constructs a representation of the described situation, which is then updated, according to new outputs and based on stereotypes inscribed within society. If the new output contradicts stereotypical expectations, the representation must be corrected, resulting in longer reading times. A similar process occurs in cases of linguistic inferential processes like presupposition accommodation. Presupposition accommodation is traditionally regarded as fast, automatic processing of background information (e.g., ‘Mary stopped eating meat’ is quickly processed as Mary used to eat meat). However, very few accounts have investigated if this process is likely to be influenced by domains of social cognition, such as implicit stereotypes. To study the effects of implicit stereotypes on presupposition accommodation, adults were recorded while they read sentences in French, combining two methods, an eye-tracking task and a classic self-paced reading task (where participants read sentence segments at their own pace by pressing a computer key). In one condition, presuppositions were activated with the French definite articles ‘le/la/les,’ whereas in the other condition, the French indefinite articles ‘un/une/des’ was used, triggering no presupposition. Using a definite article presupposes that the object has already been uttered and is thus part of background information, whereas using an indefinite article is understood as the introduction of new information. Two types of stereotypes were under examination in order to enlarge the scope of stereotypes traditionally analyzed. Study 1 investigated gender stereotypes linked to professional occupations to replicate previous findings. Study 2 focused on nationality-related stereotypes (e.g. ‘the French are seducers’ versus ‘the Japanese are seducers’) to determine if the effects of implicit stereotypes on reading are generalizable to other types of implicit stereotypes. The results show that reading is influenced by the two types of implicit stereotypes; in the two studies, the reading pace slowed down when a counter-stereotype was presented. However, presupposition accommodation did not affect participants’ processing of information. Altogether these results show that (a) implicit stereotypes affect the processing of written information, regardless of the type of stereotypes presented, and (b) that implicit stereotypes prevail over the superficial linguistic treatment of presuppositions, which suggests faster processing for treating social information compared to linguistic information.

Keywords: eye-tracking, implicit stereotypes, reading, social cognition

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178 Religious Diversity, Tolerance, and Understanding: Strategies to Restore Peace in Nigeria

Authors: Aboekwe, Mary Emilia

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Nigeria is a country with different ethnic groups and diverse religious affiliations. Owing to these differences, there continue to arise at various points and times conflicts. Lives and unquantifiable amounts of property have been lost as a result. It is the aim of this paper to show that despite these diverse religious affiliations, there can be unity and peace. The paper using a phenomenological approach, argues that religion is fundamentally oriented towards peace. Hence, one who is truly religious is to be disposed towards peaceful coexistence. This paper advocates tolerance, respect, appreciation, love, willingness to cooperate, accepting other persons with all they have in common but their differences as well. In other words, there is need for dialogue between the religions, involving inter-religious conference and possible inter-religious prayer services.

Keywords: dialogue, diversity, tolerance, understanding.

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177 'Internationalization': Discussing the Ethics of the Global North Developing Social Work Courses for the Global South

Authors: Mary Goitom, Maria Liegghio

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In this paper, we critically explore the ethics of Schools of Social Work from the global North developing courses for programs within the Global South. In it, we discuss our experiences of partnering with the University of Guyana to develop and teach graduate courses in a newly formed Masters of Social Work program. Under the umbrella of our university’s goal for 'internationalization', that is, developing and establishing global and local collaborations for teaching, research and scholarship, we bring into question whether a new form of academic imperialism is occurring under the guise of global citizenship and social justice.

Keywords: academic imperialism, global north and south, internationalization, social work education

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176 A Correlational Study: Dark Triad and Self-Restraint among Criminology Students

Authors: Mary Heather Lee T. Walker, Audilon Benjamin Madamba, Mizheal Vstrechnny Vidal, Rogelio Angeles, John Rhey Banag, Lorraine Martin

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Criminology students are the future police officers of the country that plays a major role in protecting the citizens. Their behavior must be thoroughly assessed before given a badge of responsibility. Therefore, it is important to highlight their Dark Triad that is composed of Machiavellianism, Narcissism, and Psychopathy which are considered to be controversial variables in the present while self-restraint is considered to be their way of controlling themselves especially in their line of work. The researchers used convenience and random sampling and found the respondents from a private school. Thus, the study’s aim is to determine whether there is a relationship among these variables. Machiavellianism and Psychopathy is linked to Self-Restraint except Narcissism. There are lots of factors that resulted into this.

Keywords: criminology, dark triad, self-restraint, students

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175 The Role of Identifications in Women Psychopathology

Authors: Mary Gouva, Elena Dragioti, Evangelia Kotrsotsiou

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Family identification has the potential to play a very decisive role in psychopathology. In this study we aimed to investigate the impact of family identifications on female psychopathology. A community sample of 101 women (mean age 20.81 years, SD = 0.91 ranged 20-25) participated to the present study. The girls completed a) the Symptom Check-List Revised (SCL-90) and b) questionnaire concerning socio-demographic information and questions for family identifications. The majority of women reported that they matched to the father in terms of identifications (47.1%). Age and birth order were not contributed on family identifications (F(5) =2.188, p=.062 and F(3)=1.244, p=.299 respectively). Multivariate analysis by using MANCOVA found statistical significant associations between family identifications and domains of psychopathology as provided by SCL-90 (P<05). Our results highlight the role of identifications especially on father and female psychopathology as well as replicate the Freudian perception about the female Oedipus complex.

Keywords: family identification, psychoanalysis, psychopathology, women

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174 A Redesigned Pedagogy in Introductory Programming Reduces Failure and Withdrawal Rates by Half

Authors: Said Fares, Mary Fares

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It is well documented that introductory computer programming courses are difficult and that failure rates are high. The aim of this project was to reduce the high failure and withdrawal rates in learning to program. This paper presents a number of changes in module organization and instructional delivery system in teaching CS1. Daily out of class help sessions and tutoring services were applied, interactive lectures and laboratories, online resources, and timely feedback were introduced. Five years of data of 563 students in 21 sections was collected and analyzed. The primary results show that the failure and withdrawal rates were cut by more than half. Student surveys indicate a positive evaluation of the modified instructional approach, overall satisfaction with the course and consequently, higher success and retention rates.

Keywords: failure rate, interactive learning, student engagement, CS1

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
173 Analysis of the Main Concepts and Discussions Involving Sustainable Tourism

Authors: Veruska C. Dutra, Mary L. G. S. Senna

Abstract:

The development of tourism is on the use of landscapes, natural or constructed, which involves a number of factors that contribute to the deterioration of nature. Tourist activity coupled with sustainable development has led to the emergence of many questions about these terms, since they are not well defined in this sense through literature searches. The present study was to analyze the main concepts and discussions involving sustainable tourism, providing reflections that can cause answers about one of the main questions in today's activity sector on whether its sustainability is a myth or reality. The methodology of this study is discussions, theoretical studies and bibliographic research. The results showed that the scholars who address the issue, often leave uncertainty about some discussions that demonstrate that there are still many studies to be conducted in order to prove that the claims so as to form the basis of what will be Tourism sustainable.

Keywords: tourism, sustainability, development, discussions

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172 Experimental Validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics Used for Pharyngeal Flow Patterns during Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Authors: Pragathi Gurumurthy, Christina Hagen, Patricia Ulloa, Martin A. Koch, Thorsten M. Buzug

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Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder where the patient suffers a disturbed airflow during sleep due to partial or complete occlusion of the pharyngeal airway. Recently, numerical simulations have been used to better understand the mechanism of pharyngeal collapse. However, to gain confidence in the solutions so obtained, an experimental validation is required. Therefore, in this study an experimental validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) used for the study of human pharyngeal flow patterns during OSA is performed. A stationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equation solved using the finite element method was used to numerically study the flow patterns in a computed tomography-based human pharynx model. The inlet flow rate was set to 250 ml/s and such that a flat profile was maintained at the inlet. The outlet pressure was set to 0 Pa. The experimental technique used for the validation of CFD of fluid flow patterns is phase contrast-MRI (PC-MRI). Using the same computed tomography data of the human pharynx as in the simulations, a phantom for the experiment was 3 D printed. Glycerol (55.27% weight) in water was used as a test fluid at 25°C. Inflow conditions similar to the CFD study were simulated using an MRI compatible flow pump (CardioFlow-5000MR, Shelley Medical Imaging Technologies). The entire experiment was done on a 3 T MR system (Ingenia, Philips) with 108 channel body coil using an RF-spoiled, gradient echo sequence. A comparison of the axial velocity obtained in the pharynx from the numerical simulations and PC-MRI shows good agreement. The region of jet impingement and recirculation also coincide, therefore validating the numerical simulations. Hence, the experimental validation proves the reliability and correctness of the numerical simulations.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, experimental validation, phase contrast-MRI, obstructive sleep apnea

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171 Stochastic Simulation of Random Numbers Using Linear Congruential Method

Authors: Melvin Ballera, Aldrich Olivar, Mary Soriano

Abstract:

Digital computers nowadays must be able to have a utility that is capable of generating random numbers. Usually, computer-generated random numbers are not random given predefined values such as starting point and end points, making the sequence almost predictable. There are many applications of random numbers such business simulation, manufacturing, services domain, entertainment sector and other equally areas making worthwhile to design a unique method and to allow unpredictable random numbers. Applying stochastic simulation using linear congruential algorithm, it shows that as it increases the numbers of the seed and range the number randomly produced or selected by the computer becomes unique. If this implemented in an environment where random numbers are very much needed, the reliability of the random number is guaranteed.

Keywords: stochastic simulation, random numbers, linear congruential algorithm, pseudorandomness

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170 Hand Motion Trajectory Analysis for Dynamic Hand Gestures Used in Indian Sign Language

Authors: Daleesha M. Viswanathan, Sumam Mary Idicula

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Dynamic hand gestures are an intrinsic component in sign language communication. Extracting spatial temporal features of the hand gesture trajectory plays an important role in a dynamic gesture recognition system. Finding a discrete feature descriptor for the motion trajectory based on the orientation feature is the main concern of this paper. Kalman filter algorithm and Hidden Markov Models (HMM) models are incorporated with this recognition system for hand trajectory tracking and for spatial temporal classification, respectively.

Keywords: orientation features, discrete feature vector, HMM., Indian sign language

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169 The Relevance of Sustainability Skills for International Students

Authors: Mary Panko, Rashika Sharma

Abstract:

Sustainability often appears to be an unfamiliar concept to many international students that enrol in a New Zealand technological degree. Lecturers’ experiences with classroom interactions and evaluation of assessments indicate that studying the concept enlightens and enhances international students understanding of sustainability. However, in most cases, even after studying sustainability in their degree programme, students are not given an opportunity to practice and apply this concept into their professions in their home countries. Therefore, using a qualitative approach, the academics conducted research to determine the change in international students understanding of sustainability before and after their enrolment in an Applied Technology degree. The research also aimed to evaluate if international students viewed sustainability of relevance to their professions and whether the students felt that they will be provided with an opportunity to apply their knowledge about sustainability in the industry. The findings of the research are presented in this paper.

Keywords: education for sustainability, international students, vocational education

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168 A Correlational Study between Parentification and Memory Retention among Parentified Female Adolescents: A Neurocognitive Perspective on Parentification

Authors: Mary Dorothy Roxas, Jeian Mae Dungca, Reginald Agor, Beatriz Figueroa, Lennon Andre Patricio, Honey Joy Cabahug

Abstract:

Parentification occurs when children are expected to provide instrumental or emotional caregiving within the family. It was found that parentification has the latter effect on adolescents’ cognitive and emotional vulnerability. Attachment theory helps clarify the process of parentification as it involves the relationship between the child and the parent. Carandang theory of “taga-salo” helps explain parentification in the Philippines setting. The present study examined the potential risk of parentification on adolescent’s memory retention by hypothesizing that there is a correlation between the two. The research was conducted with 249 female adolescents ages 12-24, residing in Valenzuela City. Results indicated that there is a significant inverse correlation between parentification and memory retention.

Keywords: memory retention, neurocognitive, parentification, stress

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167 A Mixed Methods Study: Evaluation of Experiential Learning Techniques throughout a Nursing Curriculum to Promote Empathy

Authors: Joan Esper Kuhnly, Jess Holden, Lynn Shelley, Nicole Kuhnly

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Empathy serves as a foundational nursing principle inherent in the nurse’s ability to form those relationships from which to care for patients. Evidence supports, including empathy in nursing and healthcare education, but there is limited data on what methods are effective to do so. Building evidence supports experiential and interactive learning methods to be effective for students to gain insight and perspective from a personalized experience. The purpose of this project is to evaluate learning activities designed to promote the attainment of empathic behaviors across 5 levels of the nursing curriculum. Quantitative analysis will be conducted on data from pre and post-learning activities using the Toronto Empathy Questionnaire. The main hypothesis, that simulation learning activities will increase empathy, will be examined using a repeated measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) on Pre and Post Toronto Empathy Questionnaire scores for three simulation activities (Stroke, Poverty, Dementia). Pearson product-moment correlations will be conducted to examine the relationships between continuous demographic variables, such as age, credits earned, and years practicing, with the dependent variable of interest, Post Test Toronto Empathy Scores. Krippendorff’s method of content analysis will be conducted to identify the quantitative incidence of empathic responses. The researchers will use Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method to describe the students’ simulation experience and understand its impact on caring and empathy behaviors employing bracketing to maintain objectivity. The results will be presented, answering multiple research questions. The discussion will be relevant to results and educational pedagogy in the nursing curriculum as they relate to the attainment of empathic behaviors.

Keywords: curriculum, empathy, nursing, simulation

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166 Integrating Wearable Devices in Real-Time Computer Applications of Petrochemical Systems

Authors: Paul B Stone, Subhashini Ganapathy, Mary E. Fendley, Layla Akilan

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As notifications become more common through mobile devices, it is important to understand the impact of wearable devices on the improved user experience of man-machine interfaces. This study examined the use of a wearable device for a real-time system using a computer-simulated petrochemical system. The key research question was to determine how using the information provided by the wearable device can improve human performance through measures of situational awareness and decision making. Results indicate that there was a reduction in response time when using the watch, and there was no difference in situational awareness. Perception of using the watch was positive, with 83% of users finding value in using the watch and receiving haptic feedback.

Keywords: computer applications, haptic feedback, petrochemical systems, situational awareness, wearable technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 131