Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Bhavana Kushwaha

16 Benzenepropanamine Analogues as Non-detergent Microbicidal Spermicide for Effective Pre-exposure Prophylaxis

Authors: Veenu Bala, Yashpal S. Chhonker, Bhavana Kushwaha, Rabi S. Bhatta, Gopal Gupta, Vishnu L. Sharma


According to UNAIDS 2013 estimate nearly 52% of all individuals living with HIV are now women of reproductive age (15–44 years). Seventy-five percent cases of HIV acquisition are through heterosexual contacts and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), attributable to unsafe sexual behaviour. Each year, an estimated 500 million people acquire atleast one of four STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomoniasis. Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is exclusively sexually transmitted in adults, accounting for 30% of STI cases and associated with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), vaginitis and pregnancy complications in women. TV infection resulted in impaired vaginal milieu, eventually favoring HIV transmission. In the absence of an effective prophylactic HIV vaccine, prevention of new infections has become a priority. It was thought worthwhile to integrate HIV prevention and reproductive health services including unintended pregnancy protection for women as both are related with unprotected sex. Initially, nonoxynol-9 (N-9) had been proposed as a spermicidal agent with microbicidal activity but on the contrary it increased HIV susceptibility due to surfactant action. Thus, to accomplish an urgent need of novel woman controlled non-detergent microbicidal spermicides benzenepropanamine analogues have been synthesized. At first, five benzenepropanamine-dithiocarbamate hybrids have been synthesized and evaluated for their spermicidal, anti-Trichomonas and anti-fungal activities along with safety profiling to cervicovaginal cells. In order to further enhance the scope of above study benzenepropanamine was hybridized with thiourea as to introduce anti-HIV potential. The synthesized hybrid molecules were evaluated for their reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibition, spermicidal, anti-Trichomonas and antimicrobial activities as well as their safety against vaginal flora and cervical cells. simulated vaginal fluid (SVF) stability and pharmacokinetics of most potent compound versus N-9 was examined in female Newzealand (NZ) rabbits to observe its absorption into systemic circulation and subsequent exposure in blood plasma through vaginal wall. The study resulted in the most promising compound N-butyl-4-(3-oxo-3-phenylpropyl) piperazin-1-carbothioamide (29) exhibiting better activity profile than N-9 as it showed RT inhibition (72.30 %), anti-Trichomonas (MIC, 46.72 µM against MTZ susceptible and MIC, 187.68 µM against resistant strain), spermicidal (MEC, 0.01%) and antifungal activity (MIC, 3.12–50 µg/mL) against four fungal strains. The high safety against vaginal epithelium (HeLa cells) and compatibility with vaginal flora (lactobacillus), SVF stability and least vaginal absorption supported its suitability for topical vaginal application. Docking study was performed to gain an insight into the binding mode and interactions of the most promising compound, N-butyl-4-(3-oxo-3-phenylpropyl) piperazin-1-carbothioamide (29) with HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase. The docking study has revealed that compound (29) interacted with HIV-1 RT similar to standard drug Nevirapine. It may be concluded that hybridization of benzenepropanamine and thiourea moiety resulted into novel lead with multiple activities including RT inhibition. A further lead optimization may result into effective vaginal microbicides having spermicidal, anti-Trichomonas, antifungal and anti-HIV potential altogether with enhanced safety to cervico-vaginal cells in comparison to Nonoxynol-9.

Keywords: microbicidal, nonoxynol-9, reverse transcriptase, spermicide

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15 Stress Variation around a Circular Hole in Functionally Graded Plate under Bending

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Mayank Kushwaha


The influence of material property variation on stress concentration factor (SCF) due to the presence of a circular hole in a functionally graded material (FGM) plate is studied in this paper. A numerical method based on complex variable theory of elasticity is used to investigate the problem. To achieve the material property, variation plate is decomposed into a number of rings. In this research work, Young's modulus is assumed to be varying exponentially and it is found that stress concentration factor can be reduced by increasing Young’s modulus progressively away from the hole.

Keywords: stress concentration, circular hole, FGM plate, bending

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14 Analysis of Slip Flow Heat Transfer between Asymmetrically Heated Parallel Plates

Authors: Hari Mohan Kushwaha, Santosh Kumar Sahu


In the present study, analysis of heat transfer is carried out in the slip flow region for the fluid flowing between two parallel plates by employing the asymmetric heat fluxes at surface of the plates. The flow is assumed to be hydrodynamically and thermally fully developed for the analysis. The second order velocity slip and viscous dissipation effects are considered for the analysis. Closed form expressions are obtained for the Nusselt number as a function of Knudsen number and modified Brinkman number. The limiting condition of the present prediction for Kn = 0, Kn2 = 0, and Brq1 = 0 is considered and found to agree well with other analytical results.

Keywords: Knudsen number, modified Brinkman number, slip flow, velocity slip

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13 Eco-Friendly Natural Dyes from Butea monosperma and Their Application on Cotton Fabric

Authors: Archna Mall, Neelam Agrawal, Hari O. Saxena, Bhavana Sharma


Butea monosperma occurs widely throughout central Indian states. Eco-friendly natural dyes were isolated in aqueous medium from leaves, bark and flowers of this plant. These dyes were used for dyeing on cotton fabric using various chemical (potassium aluminium sulphate, potassium dichromate, ferrous sulphate, stannous chloride & tannic acid) and natural mordants (rinds of Terminallia bellerica & Terminalia chebula fruits and shells of Prunus dulcis & Juglans regia nuts). Dyeing was carried out using the pre-mordanting technique. Large range of beautiful shades in terms of hue and darkness were recorded because of varying mordant concentrations and combinations. More importantly dyed fabrics registered varying the degree of colour fastness properties to washing (1-3, colour change and 4-5, colour staining), light (2-4), rubbing (4-5, dry and 3-5, wet) and perspiration (1-4, colour change and 4-5, colour staining). Thus, along with flowers which are traditionally known for natural dyes, the leaves and bark may also find their place in textile industries.

Keywords: Butea monosperma, cotton, mordants, natural dyes

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12 Indentifying Critical Factors Influencing Timeshare Purchases in India

Authors: Shivam Kushwaha, Veena Bansal


Timeshare refers to real estate that is owned simultaneously by many, for a specified time in a year, for a specified numbers of years and is maintained and managed by an agency. Timeshare falls under the umbrella of tourism and is often used for vacation. Timeshare industry has attracted significantly less number of customers in India as compared to the US and Europe. In more than 40 years of existence of timeshare industry, it has not been able to grow its roots among Indian customers. The purpose of the study: To explore perception of Indian customers towards the adoption of timeshare segment of the hospitality industry and identify the factors. Source of data: Survey has been done on existing owners of holidays memberships, resorts or those who at least tourism experience in their past purchases. Methodology: Logistic Regression is used to predict binary responses of the customers based on identified critical factors which might influence timeshare purchases. Result: The study identified four factors: discretionary income, exchange options, ownership pride, risk, and measured their influence on intention to purchases in India. It is recognized that is all four variables are statistically significant while explaining in purchase intentions of customers in India.

Keywords: timeshare, holiday, tourism, customer perception, intent to use, Indian tourism

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11 Artificial Reproduction System and Imbalanced Dataset: A Mendelian Classification

Authors: Anita Kushwaha


We propose a new evolutionary computational model called Artificial Reproduction System which is based on the complex process of meiotic reproduction occurring between male and female cells of the living organisms. Artificial Reproduction System is an attempt towards a new computational intelligence approach inspired by the theoretical reproduction mechanism, observed reproduction functions, principles and mechanisms. A reproductive organism is programmed by genes and can be viewed as an automaton, mapping and reducing so as to create copies of those genes in its off springs. In Artificial Reproduction System, the binding mechanism between male and female cells is studied, parameters are chosen and a network is constructed also a feedback system for self regularization is established. The model then applies Mendel’s law of inheritance, allele-allele associations and can be used to perform data analysis of imbalanced data, multivariate, multiclass and big data. In the experimental study Artificial Reproduction System is compared with other state of the art classifiers like SVM, Radial Basis Function, neural networks, K-Nearest Neighbor for some benchmark datasets and comparison results indicates a good performance.

Keywords: bio-inspired computation, nature- inspired computation, natural computing, data mining

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10 The Role of Trust in International Relations– Examining India’s Gujaral Doctrine and South Asian Politics

Authors: Bhavana Mahajan


International Relations is a discipline of paradoxes. The State is the dominant political institution, yet little attention has been accorded to why individual countries behave the way they do with the theoretical analysis dismissing the State as a reactionary monolith – thus States either play to “quest for power” or to “systemic” forces. However, States do behave as and are influenced by agents when interacting with international structures as well as with other states. While questions on “competitive power politics” and “trust” have been examined and developed to a fair extent by International Relations theorists in the post 1990s period, their application to the domain of South Asian politics is limited and little research, if any, examines the conduct of foreign policy beyond rational choice. This paper is an initial attempt to marry these theoretical insights with the foreign policy exercised by India especially the case of the “Gujral Doctrine, as one of “non-reciprocal accommodation”. Ignoring the view that such a policy move can be viewed as political “feinting” or deception, it is noteworthy that India even made the first move in terms of defining its role as one who “trusts” rather than one who “seeks” to trust, given the country’s geo-strategic context and threat perceptions.

Keywords: India’s foreign policy, South Asia, social constructivism, English school, trusting relationships, Gujral Doctrine, rationality

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9 Bacterial Cellulose: A New Generation Antimicrobial Wound Dressing Biomaterial

Authors: Bhavana V. Mohite, Satish V. Patil


Bacterial cellulose (BC) is an alternative for plant cellulose (PC) that prevents global warming leads to preservation of nature. Although PC and BC have the same chemical structure, BC is superior with its properties like its size, purity, porosity, degree of polymerization, crystallinity and water holding capacity, thermal stability etc. On this background the present study focus production and applications of BC as antimicrobial wound dressing material. BC was produced by Gluconoacetobacter hansenii (strain NCIM 2529) under shaking condition and statistically enhanced upto 7.2 g/l from 3.0 g/l. BC was analyzed for its physico mechanical, structural and thermal characteristics. BC produced at shaking condition exhibits more suitable properties in support to its high performance applications. The potential of nano silver impregnated BC was determined for sustained release modern antimicrobial wound dressing material by swelling ratio, mechanical properties and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. BC in nanocomposite form with other synthetic polymer like PVA shows improvement in its properties such as swelling ratio (757% to 979%) and sustainable release of antibacterial agent. The high drug loading and release potential of BC was evidenced in support to its nature as antimicrobial wound dressing material. The nontoxic biocompatible nature of BC was confirmed by MTT assay on human epidermal cells with 90% cell viability that allows its application as a regenerative biomaterial. Thus, BC as a promising new generation antimicrobial wound dressing material was projected.

Keywords: agitated culture, biopolymer, gluconoacetobacter hansenii, nanocomposite

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8 Sensitivity Enhancement in Graphene Based Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Biosensor

Authors: Angad S. Kushwaha, Rajeev Kumar, Monika Srivastava, S. K. Srivastava


A lot of research work is going on in the field of graphene based SPR biosensor. In the conventional SPR based biosensor, graphene is used as a biomolecular recognition element. Graphene adsorbs biomolecules due to carbon based ring structure through sp2 hybridization. The proposed SPR based biosensor configuration will open a new avenue for efficient biosensing by taking the advantage of Graphene and its fascinating nanofabrication properties. In the present study, we have studied an SPR biosensor based on graphene mediated by Zinc Oxide (ZnO) and Gold. In the proposed structure, prism (BK7) base is coated with Zinc Oxide followed by Gold and Graphene. Using the waveguide approach by transfer matrix method, the proposed structure has been investigated theoretically. We have analyzed the reflectance versus incidence angle curve using He-Ne laser of wavelength 632.8 nm. Angle, at which the reflectance is minimized, termed as SPR angle. The shift in SPR angle is responsible for biosensing. From the analysis of reflectivity curve, we have found that there is a shift in SPR angle as the biomolecules get attached on the graphene surface. This graphene layer also enhances the sensitivity of the SPR sensor as compare to the conventional sensor. The sensitivity also increases by increasing the no of graphene layer. So in our proposed biosensor we have found minimum possible reflectivity with optimum level of sensitivity.

Keywords: biosensor, sensitivity, surface plasmon resonance, transfer matrix method

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7 Production, Optimization, Characterization, and Kinetics of a Partially Purified Laccase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus and Its Application in Swift Bioremediation of Azo Dyes

Authors: Ankita Kushwaha, M. P. Singh


Background: In the present investigation the efficiency of laccase (benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase, EC from Pleurotus citrinopileatus was assessed for the decolorization of azo dyes. Aim: Enzyme production, characterization and kinetics of a partially purified laccase from Pleurotus citrinopileatus were determined for its application in bioremediation of azo dyes. Methods & Results: Laccase has been partially purified by using 80% ammonium sulphate solution. Total activity, total protein, specific activity and purification fold for partially purified laccase were found to be 40.38U, 293.33mg/100ml, 0.91U/mg and 2.84, respectively. The pH and temperature optima of laccase were 5.0 and 50ºC, respectively, while the enzyme was most stable at pH 4.0 and temperature 30ºC when exposed for one hour. The Km of the partially purified laccase for substrates guaiacol, DMP (2,6-dimethoxyphenol) and syringaldazine (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde azine) were 60, 95 and 26, respectively. This laccase has been tested for the use in the bioremediation of azo dyes in the absence of mediator molecules. Two dyes namely congo red and bromophenol blue were tested. Discussion: It was observed that laccase enzyme was very effective in the decolorization of these two dyes. More than 80% decolorization was observed within half an hour even in the absence of mediator and their lower Km value indicates that efficiency of the enzyme is very high. The results were promising due to quicker decolorization in the absence of mediators showing that it can be used as a valuable biocatalyst for quick bioremediation of azo dyes. Conclusion: The enzymatic properties of laccase from P. citrinopileatus should be considered for a potential environmental (biodegradation and bioremediation) or industrial applications.

Keywords: azo dyes, decolorization, laccase, P.citrinopileatus

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6 Revisiting the Surgical Approaches to Decompression in Quadrangular Space Syndrome: A Cadaveric Study

Authors: Sundip Charmode, Simmi Mehra, Sudhir Kushwaha, Shalom Philip, Pratik Amrutiya, Ranjna Jangal


Introduction: Quadrangular space syndrome involves compression of the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral artery and its management in few cases, requires surgical decompression. The current study reviews the surgical approaches used in the decompression of neurovascular structures and presents our reflections and recommendations. Methods: Four human cadavers, in the Department of Anatomy were used for dissection of the Axillae and the Scapular region by the senior residents of the Department of Anatomy and Department of Orthopedics, who dissected quadrangular space in the eight upper limbs, using anterior and posterior surgical approaches. Observations: Posterior approach to identify the quadrangular space and secure its contents was recognized as the easier and much quicker method by both the Anatomy and Orthopedic residents, but it may result in increased postoperative morbidity. Whereas the anterior (Delto-pectoral) approach involves more skill but reduces postoperative morbidity. Conclusions: Anterior (Delto-pectoral) approach with suggested modifications can prove as an effective method in surgical decompression of quadrangular space syndrome. The authors suggest more cadaveric studies to facilitate anatomists and surgeons with the opportunities to practice and evaluate older and newer surgical approaches.

Keywords: surgical approach, anatomical approach, decompression, axillary nerve, quadrangular space

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5 Perception of Faculties Towards Online Teaching-Learning Activities during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study at a Tertiary Care Center in Eastern Nepal

Authors: Deependra Prasad Sarraf, Gajendra Prasad Rauniar, Robin Maskey, Rajiv Maharjan, Ashish Shrestha, Ramayan Prasad Kushwaha


Objectives: To assess the perception of faculties towards online teaching-learning activities conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic and to identify barriers and facilitators to conducting online teaching-learning activities in our context. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among faculties at B. P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences using a 26-item semi-structured questionnaire. A Google Form was prepared, and its link was sent to the faculties via email. Descriptive statistics were calculated, and findings were presented as tables and graphs. Results: Out of 158 faculties, the majority were male (66.46%), medical faculties (85.44%), and assistant professors (46.84%). Only 16 (10.13%) faculties had received formal training regarding preparing and/or delivering online teaching learning activities. Out of 158, 133 (84.18%) faculties faced technical and internet issues. The most common advantage and disadvantage of online teaching learning activities perceived by the faculties were ‘not limited to time or place’ (94.30%) and ‘lack of interaction with the students’ (82.28%), respectively. Majority (94.3%) of them had a positive perception towards online teaching-learning activities conducted during COVID-19 pandemic. Slow internet connection (91.77%) and frequent electricity interruption (82.91%) were the most common perceived barriers to online teaching-learning. Conclusions: Most of the faculties had a positive perception towards online teaching-learning activities. Academic leaders and stakeholders should provide uninterrupted internet and electricity connectivity, training on online teaching-learning platform, and timely technical support.

Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic, faculties, medical education, perception

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4 Assessing Significance of Correlation with Binomial Distribution

Authors: Vijay Kumar Singh, Pooja Kushwaha, Prabhat Ranjan, Krishna Kumar Ojha, Jitendra Kumar


Present day high-throughput genomic technologies, NGS/microarrays, are producing large volume of data that require improved analysis methods to make sense of the data. The correlation between genes and samples has been regularly used to gain insight into many biological phenomena including, but not limited to, co-expression/co-regulation, gene regulatory networks, clustering and pattern identification. However, presence of outliers and violation of assumptions underlying Pearson correlation is frequent and may distort the actual correlation between the genes and lead to spurious conclusions. Here, we report a method to measure the strength of association between genes. The method assumes that the expression values of a gene are Bernoulli random variables whose outcome depends on the sample being probed. The method considers the two genes as uncorrelated if the number of sample with same outcome for both the genes (Ns) is equal to certainly expected number (Es). The extent of correlation depends on how far Ns can deviate from the Es. The method does not assume normality for the parent population, fairly unaffected by the presence of outliers, can be applied to qualitative data and it uses the binomial distribution to assess the significance of association. At this stage, we would not claim about the superiority of the method over other existing correlation methods, but our method could be another way of calculating correlation in addition to existing methods. The method uses binomial distribution, which has not been used until yet, to assess the significance of association between two variables. We are evaluating the performance of our method on NGS/microarray data, which is noisy and pierce by the outliers, to see if our method can differentiate between spurious and actual correlation. While working with the method, it has not escaped our notice that the method could also be generalized to measure the association of more than two variables which has been proven difficult with the existing methods.

Keywords: binomial distribution, correlation, microarray, outliers, transcriptome

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3 A Comparative Study of Linearly Graded and without Graded Photonic Crystal Structure

Authors: Rajeev Kumar, Angad Singh Kushwaha, Amritanshu Pandey, S. K. Srivastava


Photonic crystals (PCs) have attracted much attention due to its electromagnetic properties and potential applications. In PCs, there is certain range of wavelength where electromagnetic waves are not allowed to pass are called photonic band gap (PBG). A localized defect mode will appear within PBG, due to change in the interference behavior of light, when we create a defect in the periodic structure. We can also create different types of defect structures by inserting or removing a layer from the periodic layered structure in two and three-dimensional PCs. We can design microcavity, waveguide, and perfect mirror by creating a point defect, line defect, and palanar defect in two and three- dimensional PC structure. One-dimensional and two-dimensional PCs with defects were reported theoretically and experimentally by Smith et al.. in conventional photonic band gap structure. In the present paper, we have presented the defect mode tunability in tilted non-graded photonic crystal (NGPC) and linearly graded photonic crystal (LGPC) using lead sulphide (PbS) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the infrared region. A birefringent defect layer is created in NGPC and LGPC using potassium titany phosphate (KTP). With the help of transfer matrix method, the transmission properties of proposed structure is investigated for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. NGPC and LGPC without defect layer is also investigated. We have found that a photonic band gap (PBG) arises in the infrared region. An additional defect layer of KTP is created in NGPC and LGPC structure. We have seen that an additional transmission mode appers in PBG region. It is due to the addition of defect layer. We have also seen the effect, linear gradation in thickness, angle of incidence, tilt angle, and thickness of defect layer, on PBG and additional transmission mode. We have observed that the additional transmission mode and PBG can be tuned by changing the above parameters. The proposed structure may be used as channeled filter, optical switches, monochromator, and broadband optical reflector.

Keywords: defect modes, graded photonic crystal, photonic crystal, tilt angle

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2 Mapping the Urban Catalytic Trajectory for 'Convention and Exhibition' Projects: A Case of India International Convention and Expo Centre, New Delhi

Authors: Bhavana Gulaty, Arshia Chaudhri


Great civic projects contribute integrally to a city, and every city undergoes a recurring cycle of urban transformations and regeneration by their insertion. The M.I.C.E. (Meetings, Incentives, Convention and Exhibitions) industry is the forbearer of one category of such catalytic civic projects. Through a specific focus on M.I.C.E. destinations, this paper illustrates the multifarious dimensions that urban catalysts impact the city on S.P.U.R. (Seed. Profile. Urbane. Reflections), the theoretical framework of this paper aims to unearth these dimensions in the realm of the COEX (Convention & Exhibition) biosphere. The ‘COEX Biosphere’ is the filter of such catalysts being ecosystems unto themselves. Like a ripple in water, the impact of these strategic interventions focusing on art, culture, trade, and promotion expands right from the trigger; the immediate context to the region and subsequently impacts the global scale. These ripples are known to bring about significant economic, social, and political and network changes. The COEX inventory in the Asian context has one such prominent addition; the proposed India International Convention and Exhibition Centre (IICC) at New Delhi. It is envisioned to be the largest facility in Asia currently and would position India on the global M.I.C.E map. With the first phase of the project scheduled to open for use in the end of 2019, this flagship project of the Government of India is projected to cater to a peak daily footfall of 3,20,000 visitors and estimated to generate 5,00,000 jobs. While the economic benefits are yet to manifest in real time and ‘Good design is good business’ holds true, for the urban transformation to be meaningful, the benefits have to go beyond just a balance sheet for the city’s exchequer. This aspect has been found relatively unexplored in research on these developments. The methodology for investigation will comprise of two steps. The first will be establishing an inventory of the global success stories and associated benefits of COEX projects over the past decade. The rationale for capping the timeframe is the significant paradigm shift that has been observed in their recent conceptualization; for instance ‘Innovation Districts’ conceptualised in the city of Albuquerque that converges into the global economy. The second step would entail a comparative benchmarking of the projected transformations by IICC through a toolkit of parameters. This is posited to yield a matrix that can form the test bed for mapping the catalytic trajectory for projects in the pipeline globally. As a ready reckoner, it purports to be a catalyst to substantiate decision making in the planning stage itself for future projects in similar contexts.

Keywords: catalysts, COEX, M.I.C.E., urban transformations

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1 Participatory Action Research for Sustainability with Special Focus on Student Initiatives

Authors: Soni T. L.


Sustainable environmental stress is a major concern which needs immediate attention. This paper is an attempt to present participatory action research for sustainable agriculture. Being first and best culture, agriculture protects and improves the natural environment, the social and economic conditions of people, and safeguards the health and welfare of all groups. During course of time agriculture turned to agribusiness, then the values are not safeguarded. Moreover, in today’s busy life many are not taking efforts to take part in agriculture production. Then children are not getting the opportunity to understand agriculture and farming practices. So student initiatives are vital to make them aware. Here the programmes structured by the researcher come under the auspicious of National Service Scheme, a student-centered educational programme, organized by Ministry of Youth Affairs, Government of India. The twin objectives of the study are to examine the role of student initiatives for sustainable agriculture and the role of participatory action research in student initiatives. SWOT analysis is made to study strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities. The Methodology adopted is Participatory Action Research. The method is participatory in a sense there is collaboration through participation. The method is action, there is lab land experiences which is real. The method is research that there is documented lessons and creation of new knowledge. Plan of action cover measures adopted and strategies taken i.e., bhavana – kalpana – yojana – sadhana. Through the team effort, the team was successful in converting more than 10 hectares of barren land into cultivable land within and outside the campus. Team efforts of students saved a huge amount of labour cost and produced a huge quantity of organic output and the team was also successful in creating 1000 rain pits in the premises of College for rainwater harvesting. The findings include conveyance of the Message: Food Production is superior to Food donation. Moreover, the study fostered good work ethic and social responsibility among students. Students undertake innovative programmes underlying social and environmental issues and participants got increased opportunities to interact with local and less privileged and acquired increased awareness about real-life experiences which make them confident to interact with people and it resulted in the strengthening of social capital- cooperation, team spirit, social commitment among students. Participants promoted sustainable domestic efforts and ultimately environmental protection is ensured. Finally, there is recognition to the team, institution and the researcher at the university level, state level and at the national level. The learned lessons are, if the approach is good, the response is good and success generates success. Participatory action research is empowering experience for practitioners, focusing the combined time, energy and creativity of a committed group we should lead so many programmes which makes the institution centre of excellence. Authorities should take necessary steps for the Inclusion of community development activities in the curriculum. Action research is problem, client and action centered. So, we must adapt and adopt, coordinates and correlates measures which preserve and conserve the environment.

Keywords: participatory action research, student initiatives, sustainable development, sustainability

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