Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: A. Anandha Selvan

5 Active Space Debris Removal by Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation

Authors: A. Anandha Selvan, B. Malarvizhi

Abstract:

In recent year the problem of space debris have become very serious. The mass of the artificial objects in orbit increased quite steadily at the rate of about 145 metric tons annually, leading to a total tally of approximately 7000 metric tons. Now most of space debris object orbiting in LEO region about 97%. The catastrophic collision can be mostly occurred in LEO region, where this collision generate the new debris. Thus, we propose a concept for cleaning the space debris in the region of thermosphere by passing the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation to in front of space debris object from the re-orbiter. So in our concept the Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) radiation will create the thermosphere expansion by reacting with atmospheric gas particles. So the drag is produced in front of the space debris object by thermosphere expansion. This drag force is high enough to slow down the space debris object’s relative velocity. Therefore the space debris object gradually reducing the altitude and finally enter into the earth’s atmosphere. After the first target is removed, the re-orbiter can be goes into next target. This method remove the space debris object without catching debris object. Thus it can be applied to a wide range of debris object without regard to their shapes or rotation. This paper discusses the operation of re-orbiter for removing the space debris in thermosphere region.

Keywords: active space debris removal, space debris, LEO, extreme ultraviolet, re-orbiter, thermosphere

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4 Effect of Water Hardness and Free Residual Chlorine on Black Tea Brew

Authors: P. Murugesan, G. Venkateswaran, V. A. Shanmuga Selvan

Abstract:

Water used for brewing tea plays a major role in the quality of tea. Water with higher hardness gives very dark coloured brew. This study was conducted to determine the effect of water hardness and free residual chlorine on the quality of black tea liquor. Theaflavin (TF) and Thearubigin (TR) levels are lower in comparison with the tea brewed in distilled water. At the same time, there is an increase in High Polymerized Substance (HPS) and Total Liquor Colour (TLC). While water with higher hardness has a negative impact on tea brew, water with high concentration of free residual chlorine did not affect the quality of tea brew.

Keywords: Theaflavin, Thearubigin, high polymerised substance, total liquor colour, hardness, residual chlorine

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3 Desodesmus sp.: A Potential Micro Alga to Treat the Textile Wastewater

Authors: Thirunavoukkarasu Manikkannan, Karpanai Selvan Balasubramanian

Abstract:

Textile industry is the one of the most important industrial sector in India. It accounts for 5% of total Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the country. A Textile industry consumes large quantities of water (~250 m3/ton of product) and they generate almost ~90% of wastewater from its consumption. The problem is alarming and requires proper treatment process to acquire dual benefit of Zero Liquid Discharge and no contamination to the environment. Here we describe the process by which the textile wastewater can be reused. We have collected the textile wastewater in and around Ayyampettai area of Tamilnadu, India. Among different microalgal strains used, Desodesmus sp. collected at Manali, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India was able to lessen the colour of the waste water in 12-15 hrs of its growth, COD around 81.7%, Dissolved solid reduction was 28 ± 0.5 %, Suspended solid was reduced to 40.5 ± 0.3 %, Dye degradation was 50-78%. Further, Desodesmus sp. able to achieve the biomass of 0.9 ± 0.2 g/L (dry weight) in two weeks’ time, the Chl a content was 11 mg/L. It infers that this algal strain able to utilize the textile wastewater as source for growth and algal biomass production.

Keywords: Desodesmus sp., microalgae, textile, treatment, wastewater

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2 Hydrodynamics and Heat Transfer Characteristics of a Solar Thermochemical Fluidized Bed Reactor

Authors: Selvan Bellan, Koji Matsubara, Nobuyuki Gokon, Tatsuya Kodama, Hyun Seok-Cho

Abstract:

In concentrated solar thermal industry, fluidized-bed technology has been used to produce hydrogen by thermochemical two step water splitting cycles, and synthetic gas by gasification of coal coke. Recently, couple of fluidized bed reactors have been developed and tested at Niigata University, Japan, for two-step thermochemical water splitting cycles and coal coke gasification using Xe light, solar simulator. The hydrodynamic behavior of the gas-solid flow plays a vital role in the aforementioned fluidized bed reactors. Thus, in order to study the dynamics of dense gas-solid flow, a CFD-DEM model has been developed; in which the contact forces between the particles have been calculated by the spring-dashpot model, based on the soft-sphere method. Heat transfer and hydrodynamics of a solar thermochemical fluidized bed reactor filled with ceria particles have been studied numerically and experimentally for beam-down solar concentrating system. An experimental visualization of particles circulation pattern and mixing of two-tower fluidized bed system has been presented. Simulation results have been compared with experimental data to validate the CFD-DEM model. Results indicate that the model can predict the particle-fluid flow of the two-tower fluidized bed reactor. Using this model, the key operating parameters can be optimized.

Keywords: solar reactor, CFD-DEM modeling, fluidized bed, beam-down solar concentrating system

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1 Co-Culture with Murine Stromal Cells Enhances the In-vitro Expansion of Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Response to Low Concentrations of Trans-Resveratrol

Authors: Mariyah Poonawala, Selvan Ravindran, Anuradha Vaidya

Abstract:

Despite much progress in understanding the regulatory factors and cytokines that support the maturation of the various cell lineages of the hematopoietic system, factors that govern the self-renewal and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is still a grey area of research. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has evolved over the years and gained tremendous importance in the treatment of both malignant and non-malignant diseases. However, factors such as graft rejection and multiple organ failure have challenged HSCT from time to time, underscoring the urgent need for development of milder processes for successful hematopoietic transplantation. An emerging concept in the field of stem cell biology states that the interactions between the bone-marrow micro-environment and the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is essential for regulation, maintenance, commitment and proliferation of stem cells. Understanding the role of mesenchymal stromal cells in modulating the functionality of HSCs is, therefore, an important area of research. Trans-resveratrol has been extensively studied for its various properties to combat and prevent cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases etc. The aim of the present study was to understand the effect of trans-resveratrol on HSCs using single and co-culture systems. We have used KG1a cells since it is a well accepted hematopoietic stem cell model system. Our preliminary experiments showed that low concentrations of trans-resveratrol stimulated the HSCs to undergo proliferation whereas high concentrations of trans-resveratrol did not stimulate the cells to proliferate. We used a murine fibroblast cell line, M210B4, as a stromal feeder layer. On culturing the KG1a cells with M210B4 cells, we observed that the stimulatory as well as inhibitory effects of trans-resveratrol at low and high concentrations respectively, were enhanced. Our further experiments showed that low concentration of trans-resveratrol reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) whereas high concentrations increased the oxidative stress in KG1a cells. We speculated that perhaps the oxidative stress was imposing inhibitory effects at high concentration and the same was confirmed by performing an apoptotic assay. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis and growth kinetic experiments provided evidence that low concentration of trans-resveratrol reduced the doubling time of the cells. Our hypothesis is that perhaps at low concentration of trans-resveratrol the cells get pushed into the G0/G1 phase and re-enter the cell cycle resulting in their proliferation, whereas at high concentration the cells are perhaps arrested at G2/M phase or at cytokinesis and therefore undergo apoptosis. Liquid Chromatography-Quantitative-Time of Flight–Mass Spectroscopy (LC-Q-TOF MS) analyses indicated the presence of trans-resveratrol and its metabolite(s) in the supernatant of the co-cultured cells incubated with high concentration of trans-resveratrol. We conjecture that perhaps the metabolites of trans-resveratrol are responsible for the apoptosis observed at the high concentration. Our findings may shed light on the unsolved problems in the in vitro expansion of stem cells and may have implications in the ex vivo manipulation of HSCs for therapeutic purposes.

Keywords: co-culture system, hematopoietic micro-environment, KG1a cell line, M210B4 cell line, trans-resveratrol

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