Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 332

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Industrial and Systems Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

332 Library Anxiety among Library and Information Science Students at Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak, Pakistan: A Bostick Approach

Authors: Saeed Ullah Jan, Shafaq, Sumbul


Anxiety is one of the most common emotions and is a normal reaction to danger or a threat. It is a normal reaction to stress and can be beneficial in some situations. It can alert us to dangers and help us prepare and pay attention. The prime aim of this study was to examine the level of anxiety of Library and Information Science students at the Department of Library and Information Science, Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak. A survey method was used for the completion of this study. The response of male respondents was better than female LIS students at the Department of Library and Information Science, Khushal Khan Khattak University Karak. The librarians should have to focus on the information needs of the university students. Special training needs to be arranged for female students to improve their library usage and readership rate.

Keywords: library-anxiety, library anxiety-students, library anxiety -students-Pakistan, stress

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331 Investigating the Dimensions of Perceived Attributions in Making Sense of Failure: An Exploratory Study of Lebanese Entrepreneurs

Authors: Ghiwa Dandach


By challenging the anti-failure bias and contributing to the theoretical territory of the attribution theory, this thesis develops a comprehensive process for entrepreneurial learning from failure. The practical implication of the findings suggests assisting entrepreneurs (current, failing, and nascent) in effectively anticipating and reflecting upon failure. Additionally, the process is suggested to enhance the level of institutional and private (accelerators and financers) support provided to entrepreneurs, the implications of which may improve future opportunities for entrepreneurial success. Henceforth, exploring learning from failure is argued to impact the potential survival of future ventures, subsequently revitalizing the economic contribution of entrepreneurship. This learning process can be enhanced with the cognitive development of causal ascriptions for failure, which eventually impacts learning outcomes. However, the mechanism with which entrepreneurs make sense of failure, reflect on the journey, and transform experience into knowledge is still under-researched. More specifically, the cognitive process of failure attribution is under-explored, majorly in the context of developing economies, calling for a more insightful understanding on how entrepreneurs ascribe failure. Responding to the call for more thorough research in such cultural contexts, this study expands the understanding of the dimensions of failure attributions as perceived by entrepreneurs and the impact of these dimensions on learning outcomes in the Lebanese context. The research adopted the exploratory interpretivism paradigm and collected data from interviews with industry experts first, followed by narratives of entrepreneurs using the qualitative multimethod approach. The holistic and categorical content analysis of narratives, preceded by the thematic analysis of interviews, unveiled how entrepreneurs ascribe failure by developing minor and major dimensions of each failure attribution. The findings have also revealed how each dimension impacts the learning from failure when accompanied by emotional resilience. The thesis concludes that exploring in-depth the dimensions of failure attributions significantly determines the level of learning generated. They are moving beyond the simple categorisation of ascriptions as primary internal or external unveiled how learning may occur with each attribution at the individual, venture, and ecosystem levels. This has further accentuated that a major internal attribution of failure combined with a minor external attribution generated the highest levels of transformative and double-loop learning, emphasizing the role of personal blame and responsibility on enhancing learning outcomes.

Keywords: attribution, entrepreneurship, reflection, sense-making, emotions, learning outcomes, failure, exit

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330 The Role of Logistics Services in Influencing Customer Satisfaction and Reviews in an Online Marketplace

Authors: nafees mahbub, blake tindol, utkarsh shrivastava, kuanchin chen


Online shopping has become an integral part of businesses today. Big players such as Amazon are setting the bar for delivery services, and many businesses are working towards meeting them. However, what happens if a seller underestimates or overestimates the delivery time? Does it translate to consumer comments, ratings, or lost sales? Although several prior studies have investigated the impact of poor logistics on customer satisfaction, that impact of under estimation of delivery times has been rarely considered. The study uses real-time customer online purchase data to study the impact of missed delivery times on satisfaction.


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329 A Cooperative, Autonomous, and Continuously Operating Drone System Offered to Railway and Bridge Industry: The Business Model Behind

Authors: Paolo Guzzini, Emad Samuel M. Ebeid


Bridges and Railways are critical infrastructures. Ensuring safety for transports using such assets is a primary goal as it directly impacts the lives of people. By the way, improving safety could require increased investments in O&M, and therefore optimizing resource usage for asset maintenance becomes crucial. Drones4Safety (D4S), a European project funded under the H2020 Research and Innovation Action (RIA) program, aims to increase the safety of the European civil transport by building a system that relies on 3 main pillars: • Drones operating autonomously in swarm mode; • Drones able to recharge themselves using inductive phenomena produced by transmission lines in the nearby of bridges and railways assets to be inspected; • Data acquired that are analyzed with AI-empowered algorithms for defect detection This paper describes the business model behind this disruptive project. The Business Model is structured in 2 parts: • The first part is focused on the design of the business model Canvas, to explain the value provided by the Drone4safety project; • The second part aims at defining a detailed financial analysis, with the target of calculating the IRR (Internal Return rate) and the NPV (Net Present Value) of the investment in a 7 years plan (2 years to run the project + 5 years post-implementation). As to the financial analysis 2 different points of view are assumed: • Point of view of the Drones4safety company in charge of designing, producing, and selling the new system; • Point of view of the Utility company that will adopt the new system in its O&M practices; Assuming the point of view of the Drones4safety company 3 scenarios were considered: • Selling the drones > revenues will be produced by the drones’ sales; • Renting the drones > revenues will be produced by the rental of the drones (with a time-based model); • Selling the data acquisition service > revenues will be produced by the sales of pictures acquired by drones; Assuming the point of view of a utility adopting the D4S system, a 4th scenario was analyzed taking into account the decremental costs related to the change of operation and maintenance practices. The paper will show, for both companies, what are the key parameters affecting most of the business model and which are the sustainable scenarios.

Keywords: a swarm of drones, AI, bridges, railways, drones4safety company, utility companies

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328 Design, Research and Culture Change in the Age of Transformation

Authors: Maya Jaber


Climate change is one of the biggest challenges that require immediate attention and mitigation for the continued prosperity of human existence. The transformation will need to occur that is top-down and bottom-up on holistic scales. A new way of thinking will need to be adopted that is innovative, human-centric, and global. Designers and researchers are vital leaders in this movement that can help guide other practitioners in the strategy development, critical thinking process, and alignment of transformative solutions. Holistic critical thinking strategies will be essential to change behaviors and cultures for future generations' survival. This paper will discuss these topics associated with Dr. Jaber's research.

Keywords: environmental social governance (ESG), integral design thinking (IDT), organizational transformation, sustainability management

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327 Knowledge Transfer through Entrepreneurship: From Research at the University to the Consolidation of a Spin-off Company

Authors: Milica Lilic, Marina Rosales Martínez


Academic research cannot be oblivious to social problems and needs, so projects that have the capacity for transformation and impact should have the opportunity to go beyond the University circles and bring benefit to society. Apart from patents and R&D research contracts, this opportunity can be achieved through entrepreneurship as one of the most direct tools to turn knowledge into a tangible product. Thus, as an example of good practices, it is intended to analyze the case of an institutional entrepreneurship program carried out at the University of Seville, aimed at researchers interested in assessing the business opportunity of their research and expanding their knowledge on procedures for the commercialization of technologies used at academic projects. The program is based on three pillars: training, teamwork sessions and networking. The training includes aspects such as product-client fit, technical-scientific and economic-financial feasibility of a spin-off, institutional organization and decision making, public and private fundraising, and making the spin-off visible in the business world (social networks, key contacts, corporate image and ethical principles). On the other hand, the teamwork sessions are guided by a mentor and aimed at identifying research results with potential, clarifying financial needs and procedures to obtain the necessary resources for the consolidation of the spin-off. This part of the program is considered to be crucial in order for the participants to convert their academic findings into a business model. Finally, the networking part is oriented to workshops about the digital transformation of a project, the accurate communication of the product or service a spin-off offers to society and the development of transferable skills necessary for managing a business. This blended program results in the final stage where each team, through an elevator pitch format, presents their research turned into a business model to an experienced jury. The awarded teams get a starting capital for their enterprise and enjoy the opportunity of formally consolidating their spin-off company at the University. Studying the results of the program, it has been shown that many researchers have basic or no knowledge of entrepreneurship skills and different ways to turn their research results into a business model with a direct impact on society. Therefore, the described program has been used as an example to highlight the importance of knowledge transfer at the University and the role that this institution should have in providing the tools to promote entrepreneurship within it. Keeping in mind that the University is defined by three main activities (teaching, research and knowledge transfer), it is safe to conclude that the latter, and the entrepreneurship as an expression of it, is crucial in order for the other two to comply with their purpose.

Keywords: good practice, knowledge transfer, a spin-off company, university

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326 Moving Oman’s Economy to Knowledge-Based Economy: A Study on the Role of SMEs from the Perspective of Experts

Authors: Hanin Suleiman Alqam


The knowledge-based economy, as its name implies relies on knowledge, information and high levels of skills made available for all economic agents. Delving a bit more deeply, the concept of a knowledge-based economy is showcasing four main pillars, which are: Education and Training, Information and Communication Technology, Economic incentives and Institutional regimes, and Research and Development (R&D) and Innovation system. A good number of researches are showing its positive contribution to economic diversification underpinning sustainable development and growth. The present paper aimed at assessing the role of SMEs in moving Oman’s economy from a traditional economy to a knowledge-based economy. To lay down a groundwork that should lead to future studies, the methodology selected is based on exploratory research. Hence, the interview was conducted as a data collection tool. Based on a purposive sampling technique, seven handpicked experts have partaken in the study as they are working in different key organizations considered to be directly or indirectly the backbone of the Omani national economy. A thematic approach is employed for the purpose of data analysis. Results of the study showed that SMEs are not really contributing in the knowledge-based economy due to a lack of awareness about its importance to the country and to the enterprise within SMEs in Oman. However, it was shown that SMEs owners are interested in innovation and are trying to support innovative individuals by attracting them to their enterprises. On the other hand, the results revealed that SMEs' performance in e-solution is still not up to the level as 32% of SMEs only are using e-solutions in their internal processes and procedures like accounting systems. It is recommended to SMEs owners to use new and modern technologies in marketing and customer relation, encourage creativity, research and development, and allow the youth to have opportunities and facilitate the procedure in terms of innovation so that their role in contributing to the knowledge-based economy could be improved.

Keywords: knowledge-based economy, SMEs, ICT pillars, research and innovation

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325 Detecting Hate Speech And Cyberbullying Using Natural Language Processing

Authors: Nádia Pereira, Paula Ferreira, Sofia Francisco, Sofia Oliveira, Sidclay Souza, Paula Paulino, Ana Margarida Veiga Simão


Social media has progressed into a platform for hate speech among its users, and thus, there is an increasing need to develop automatic detection classifiers of offense and conflicts to help decrease the prevalence of such incidents. Online communication can be used to intentionally harm someone, which is why such classifiers could be essential in social networks. A possible application of these classifiers is the automatic detection of cyberbullying. Even though identifying the aggressive language used in online interactions could be important to build cyberbullying datasets, there are other criteria that must be considered. Being able to capture the language, which is indicative of the intent to harm others in a specific context of online interaction is fundamental. Offense and hate speech may be the foundation of online conflicts, which have become commonly used in social media and are an emergent research focus in machine learning and natural language processing. This study presents two Portuguese language offense-related datasets which serve as examples for future research and extend the study of the topic. The first is similar to other offense detection related datasets and is entitled Aggressiveness dataset. The second is a novelty because of the use of the history of the interaction between users and is entitled the Conflicts/Attacks dataset. Both datasets were developed in different phases. Firstly, we performed a content analysis of verbal aggression witnessed by adolescents in situations of cyberbullying. Secondly, we computed frequency analyses from the previous phase to gather lexical and linguistic cues used to identify potentially aggressive conflicts and attacks which were posted on Twitter. Thirdly, thorough annotation of real tweets was performed byindependent postgraduate educational psychologists with experience in cyberbullying research. Lastly, we benchmarked these datasets with other machine learning classifiers.

Keywords: aggression, classifiers, cyberbullying, datasets, hate speech, machine learning

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324 Evaluation of Free Technologies as Tools for Business Process Management

Authors: Julio Sotomayor, Daniel Yucra, Jorge Mayhuasca


The article presents an evaluation of free technologies for business process automation, with emphasis only on tools compatible with the general public license (GPL). The compendium of technologies was based on promoting a service-oriented enterprise architecture (SOA) and the establishment of a business process management system (BPMS). The methodology for the selection of tools was Agile UP. This proposal allows businesses to achieve technological sovereignty and independence, in addition to the promotion of service orientation and the development of free software based on components.

Keywords: BPM, BPMS suite, open-source software, SOA, enterprise architecture, business process management

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323 A Serious Game to Upgrade the Learning of Organizational Skills in Nurse Schools

Authors: Benoit Landi, Hervé Pingaud, Jean-Benoit Culie, Michel Galaup


Serious games have been widely disseminated in the field of digital learning. They have proved their utility in improving skills through virtual environments that simulate the field where new competencies have to be improved and assessed. This paper describes how we created CLONE, a serious game whose purpose is to help nurses create an efficient work plan in a hospital care unit. In CLONE, the number of patients to take care of is similar to the reality of their job, going far beyond what is currently practiced in nurse school classrooms. This similarity with the operational field increases proportionally the number of activities to be scheduled. Moreover, very often, the team of nurses is composed of regular nurses and nurse assistants that must share the work with respect to the regulatory obligations. Therefore, on the one hand, building a short-term planning is a complex task with a large amount of data to deal with, and on the other, good clinical practices have to be systematically applied. We present how reference planning has been defined by addressing an optimization problem formulation using the expertise of teachers. This formulation ensures the gameplay feasibility for the scenario that has been produced and enhanced throughout the game design process. It was also crucial to steer a player toward a specific gaming strategy. As one of our most important learning outcomes is a clear understanding of the workload concept, its factual calculation for each caregiver along time and its inclusion in the nurse reasoning during planning elaboration are focal points. We will demonstrate how to modify the game scenario to create a digital environment in which these somewhat abstract principles can be understood and applied. Finally, we give input on an experience we had on a pilot of a thousand undergraduate nursing students.

Keywords: care planning, workload, game design, hospital nurse, organizational skills, digital learning, serious game

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322 Influence of Entrepreneurial Passion in the Relationship between the Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Intention: The Case of Moroccan Students

Authors: Soukaina Boutaky, Abdelhak Sahibeddine


A study was carried out among students who have especially a scientific and technical educational background and who had opportunities to benefit from a program entrepreneurship course of 50 hours; at Higher School of Technology Khenifra, Morocco. This article has as a goal to explain the relationship between entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial intention. The authors chose Bandura’s theory of social cognition as a theoretical framework. The modeling methods equation is adopted to analyze the hypotheses by SMART PLS for 188 students. The results show a strong positive relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial passion. They also reveal that entrepreneurship education affects entrepreneurial intention through the effect of entrepreneurial passion, particularly among women than men. In addition, this study contributes in a theoretical way to the level of the relationship between entrepreneurial education and entrepreneurial passion, and these results provide educators and public decision-makers with advice on the importance of entrepreneurship training based on emotional traits such as passion; which constitutes a key and essential element to encourage young graduates to choose an entrepreneurial career as an alternative option or to develop entrepreneurial passion among the business leaders of tomorrow.

Keywords: entrepreneurship education, entrepreneurial passion, entrepreneurial intention, equation modeling methods

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321 Sustainability in Maritime Transport: Impact of Cruise Ships Routing in Coastal Navigation

Authors: Josip Dorigatti, Tina Perić, Gorana Jelić Mrčelić


This paper makes a review of present researches on sustainable development, sustainable maritime transport and presents the problem of sustainability in the cruise ships industry. It deals with cruise ships' routing in coastal navigation and its impact on sustainability from environmental, economical, and social aspects. A review of researches available on maritime sustainability brings to the attention how sustainability from a maritime transport perspective is still not enough analysed and researched as it is the case in other industries. The paper emphasises how the operational part of the cruising industry, in particular cruise ships routing in coastal navigation, is not yet researched nor analysed from the aspect of sustainability. The author, based on his extensive senior officer experience in the cruising industry, makes an overview of cruise ship routing practice. Accordingly, based on present cruise industry trends, challenges are highlighted from the aspect of sustainable cruise ships routing in coastal navigation.

Keywords: sustainable development, maritime transport, cruise shipping, cruise ship routes, coastal navigation

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320 The Use of Budgeting as an Effective Management Tool for Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Perspective from South Africa

Authors: Abongile Zweni, Grate Moyo, Ricardo Peters, Bingwen Yan


Budgets are one of the most important tools that organisations, big or small, need to use as management tools. When organisations, particularly Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs), do not use budgets, they are bound to fail in their infancy stage. The aim of this study was to assess whether or not SMMEs in South Africa used budgets as an effective management tool during the COVID-19 pandemic. For the purposes of this study, data was collected using an online questionnaire (survey). This study used the quantitative research approach. The study used descriptive statistics to analyse the research question. The study found that most SMMEs did not use budgets during the COVID-19 pandemic; one of the reasons, amongst others, was that most of them had to close down during the lockdown, and some of them did not even qualify for government bailout or government grants.

Keywords: budget management, SMMEs, COVID-19, South Africa

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319 Comparison the Anchoring Effect Application in Employee Management in Silesian Voivodeship with Prague, Moravian-Silesian Region and Vysočina Region

Authors: Omar Ameir, Jakub Chlopecký, Jaroslav Hubáček


Behavioral aspects are very important for successful human resource management. This fact is becoming more and more apparent. Therefore, the paperdeals with behaviora leconomics, human resource management, and theenterpriseswith 100+ employees. More precisely, thepaperfocuses on the degree of the anchoring effect, i.e. the degree of the use of the instruments for influencing and persuasionthatmanagersapply to manage their employees. This paper builds on the results of previous researches and further develops these results. The authors used the questionnaire to identify how much the anchoring effect is applied in enterprise with 100+ employees. The main goal of the paper is to compare the anchoring effect application in employee management in SilesianVoivodeship (Polish region) with three Czech regions which are Prague, Moravian-Silesian region, and Vysočina region. The comparison applies to enterprises with 100+ employees. The second goal of the paper is to find out how tentheanchoring effectisused in the SilesianVoivodeship. The authors set one hypothesis and the result soft the paper rejected it. The basic assumption led the authors of this paper to this research. The authors predicted that managers of SilesianVoivodeshipcompanies use anchoring methods less often than the three regions mentioned above, i.ethemanagersof Prague companies, themanagersofMoravian-Silesian region companies, and themanagersofVysočina region companies. Confirmation or rejection of the above mentioned assumptions discussed in more detail.

Keywords: anchoring effect, behavioral economics, enterprises with 100+ employees, nescience of the anchoring

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318 Theoretical Comparisons and Empirical Illustration of Malmquist, Hicks–Moorsteen, and Luenberger Productivity Indices

Authors: Fatemeh Abbasi, Sahand Daneshvar


Productivity is one of the essential goals of companies to improve performance, which as a strategy-oriented method, determines the basis of the company's economic growth. The history of productivity goes back centuries, but most researchers defined productivity as the relationship between a product and the factors used in production in the early twentieth century. Productivity as the optimal use of available resources means that "more output using less input" can increase companies' economic growth and prosperity capacity. Also, having a quality life based on economic progress depends on productivity growth in that society. Therefore, productivity is a national priority for any developed country. There are several methods for calculating productivity growth measurements that can be divided into parametric and non-parametric methods. Parametric methods rely on the existence of a function in their hypotheses, while non-parametric methods do not require a function based on empirical evidence. One of the most popular non-parametric methods is Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which measures changes in productivity over time. The DEA evaluates the productivity of decision-making units (DMUs) based on mathematical models. This method uses multiple inputs and outputs to compare the productivity of similar DMUs such as banks, government agencies, companies, airports, Etc. Non-parametric methods are themselves divided into the frontier and non frontier approaches. The Malmquist productivity index (MPI) proposed by Caves, Christensen, and Diewert (1982), the Hicks–Moorsteen productivity index (HMPI) proposed by Bjurek (1996), or the Luenberger productivity indicator (LPI) proposed by Chambers (2002) are powerful tools for measuring productivity changes over time. This study will compare the Malmquist, Hicks–Moorsteen, and Luenberger indices theoretically and empirically based on DEA models and review their strengths and weaknesses.

Keywords: data envelopment analysis, Hicks–Moorsteen productivity index, Leuenberger productivity indicator, malmquist productivity index

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317 The Impact of Spirituality on the Voluntary Simplicity LifeStyle Tendency: An Explanatory Study on Turkish Consumers

Authors: Esna B. Buğday, Niray Tunçel


Spirituality has a motivational influence on consumers' psychological states, lifestyles, and behavioral intentions. Spirituality refers to the feeling that there is a divine power greater than ourselves and a connection among oneself, others, nature, and the sacred. In addition, spirituality concerns the human soul and spirit against the material and physical world and consists of three dimensions: self-discovery, relationships, and belief in a higher power. Of them, self-discovery is to explore the meaning and the purpose in life. Relationships refer to the awareness of connection among human beings and nature as well as respect for them. In addition, higher power represents the transcendent aspect of spirituality, which means to believe in a holly power that creates all the systems in the universe. Furthermore, voluntary simplicity lifestyle is (1) to adopt a simple lifestyle by minimizing the attachment to and the consumption of the material things and possessions, (2) to have an ecological awareness respecting to all living creatures, and (3) to express the desire for exploring and developing the inner life. Voluntary simplicity is a multi-dimensional construct that consists of a desire for a voluntarily simple life (e.g., avoiding excessive consumption), cautious attitudes in shopping (e.g., not buying unnecessary products), acceptance of self-sufficiency (e.g., being a self-sufficient individual), and rejection of highly developed functions of products (e.g., preference for simple functioned products). One of the main reasons for living simply is to sustain a spiritual life as voluntary simplicity provides the space for achieving psychological and spiritual growth, cultivating self-reliance since a voluntary simplifier frees themselves from the overwhelming externals and takes control of their daily lives. From this point of view, it is expected that people with a strong sense of spirituality will be likely to adopt a simple lifestyle. In this respect, the study aims to examine the impact of spirituality on consumers' voluntary simple lifestyle tendencies. As consumers' consumption attitudes and behaviors depend on their lifestyles, exploring the factors that lead them to embrace voluntary simplicity significantly predicts their purchase behavior. In this respect, this study presents empirical research based on a data set collected from 478 Turkish consumers through an online survey. First, exploratory factor analysis is applied to the data to reveal the dimensions of spirituality and voluntary simplicity scales. Second, confirmatory factor analysis is conducted to assess the measurement model. Last, the hypotheses are analyzed using partial least square structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results confirm that spirituality's self-discovery and relationships dimensions positively impact both cautious shopping and self-sufficiency dimensions of voluntary simplicity. In contrast, belief in a higher power does not significantly influence consumers' voluntary simplicity tendencies. Even though there has been theoretical support drawing a positive relationship between spirituality and voluntary simplicity, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this has not been empirically tested in the literature before. Hence, this study contributes to the current knowledge by analyzing the direct influence of spirituality on consumers' voluntary simplicity tendencies. Additionally, analyzing this impact for the consumers of an emerging market is another contribution to the literature.

Keywords: spirituality, voluntary simplicity, self-sufficiency, conscious shopping, Turkish consumers

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316 Novel Marketing Strategy To Increase Sales Revenue For SMEs Through Social Media

Authors: Kruti Dave


Social media marketing is an essential component of 21st-century business. Social media platforms enable small and medium-sized businesses to enhance brand recognition, generate leads and sales. However, the research on social media marketing is still fragmented and focuses on specific topics, such as effective communication techniques. Since the various ways in which social media impacts individuals and companies alike, the authors of this article focus on the origin, impacts, and current state of Social Media, emphasizing their significance as customer empowerment agents. It illustrates their potential and current responsibilities as part of the corporate business strategy and also suggests several methods to engage them as marketing tools. The focus of social media marketing ranges from defenders to explorers, the culture of Social media marketing encompasses the poles of conservatism and modernity, social media marketing frameworks lie between hierarchies and networks, and its management goes from autocracy to anarchy. This research proposes an integrative framework for small and medium-sized businesses through social media, and the influence of the same will be measured. This strategy will help industry experts to understand this new era. We propose an axiom: Social Media is always a function of marketing as a revenue generator.

Keywords: social media, marketing strategy, media marketing, brand awareness, customer engagement, revenue generator, brand recognition

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315 Sustainability Adoption Barriers in Small and Mid-size Enterprises (SEMs)

Authors: L.Vaz, L. Ferreira, R. Aparício, J. Pedro, M. Franco


This article concerns a qualitative analysis, through an interview, regarding “Sustainability Adoption Barriers in SMEs.” To begin with, the article provides a state-of-the-art overview through fifty-seven articles initially extracted from the Scopus database. The articles were analyzed, and four main clusters emerged in the literature: 1) sustainability and small and medium-sized companies; 2) sustainable business models; 3) sustainability practices adoption procedures, and 4) adoption difficulties on sustainability practices. Utilizing interviews as a methodology, the article seeks to strengthen knowledge regarding sustainability practices, their barriers and the sustainable procedures adopted by SMEs in a Portuguese context. The results demonstrate that the literature agrees with this case study, where there are numerous sustainable practices, yet, due to financial, political, cultural, and technological factors, barriers emerge in the adoption process. By comparing the literature findings with the conducted interviews of interior Portuguese SMEs, this article develops a contribution to the scientific community through a captivating, intuitive and motivating way.

Keywords: barriers, practices, business model, green

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314 Applying Maslow’s Theory for Business Analysis

Authors: Ashish Adike


Business analysis is the process of understanding complex business requirements and transforming them into a user-friendly solution. In order to meet the increasing needs of business, there has been an evolution of technologies like artificial intelligence, 3D printing, augmented reality, etc. This paper presents the evolution of business needs in the form of a pyramid and the importance of business analysis at each stage in order to better provide a solution to the business challenges. The paper draws an analogy to basic Maslow’s theory of human needs (although there have been some developments to the theory lately) and compares it to the evolution of business needs and the role of business analysis at each stage with a stage-by-stage comparison of Maslow’s pyramid of needs. The five evolving stages of requirements are data capture bottom of the pyramid), data security, system integration, user experience, and analytical capabilities (top of the pyramid). As we progress from bottom to top of the pyramid, the responsibility of business analysis to make recommendations to elicit the requirements from the users increases.

Keywords: Maslows Theory, requirements analysis, pyramid of needs, business analysis

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313 Consumers Rights during COVID-19 Pandemic Time: Evidence from Libya

Authors: Sabri Gabran Mohammed Elkrghli, Salah A. Mohamed Abdulgader


Given the emergence and the spreading of the Covid-19 pandemic that swept the globe, it was necessary to address the issue of consumer rights in such unprecedented circumstances. Libyan consumers have been targeted in this study with the aim to measure their attitudes towards the extent to which their rights, as consumers of foodstuff, have been secured during the Covid-19 pandemic. The recommended sample size was randomly selected (384) local participants. Out of this number, only a validated number of (267) responses were deemed valid for the analysis phase. The instrument of this research was developed based on the extant published literature on consumer rights. The study concluded with a set of key results; the most important result is that consumer rights of foodstuffs were below the satisfactory level. Theoretical and practical implications have emerged from the study. The most important implication is that customers of foodstuffs need more protection in Libya. This issue should be given greater importance, especially in the light of contemporary environmental challenges such as the outbreak of Covid-19. Designing and conducting global and local awareness campaigns is another significant advice suggested by this study. Finally, the research concluded with limitations and put forward some future avenues.

Keywords: consumers rights, foodstuffs, COVID-19, Libya

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312 A Goal-Oriented Approach for Supporting Input/Output Factor Determination in the Regulation of Brazilian Electricity Transmission

Authors: Bruno de Almeida Vilela, Heinz Ahn, Ana Lúcia Miranda Lopes, Marcelo Azevedo Costa


Benchmarking public utilities such as transmission system operators (TSOs) is one of the main strategies employed by regulators in order to fix monopolistic companies’ revenues. Since 2007 the Brazilian regulator has been utilizing Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to benchmark TSOs. Despite the application of DEA to improve the transmission sector’s efficiency, some problems can be pointed out, such as the high price of electricity in Brazil; the limitation of the benchmarking only to operational expenses (OPEX); the absence of variables that represent the outcomes of the transmission service; and the presence of extremely low and high efficiencies. As an alternative to the current concept of benchmarking the Brazilian regulator uses, we propose a goal-oriented approach. Our proposal supports input/output selection by taking traditional organizational goals and measures as a basis for the selection of factors for benchmarking purposes. As the main advantage, it resolves the classical DEA problems of input/output selection, undesirable and dual-role factors. We also provide a demonstration of our goal-oriented concept regarding service quality. As a result, most TSOs’ efficiencies in Brazil might improve when considering quality as important in their efficiency estimation.

Keywords: decision making, goal-oriented benchmarking, input/output factor determination, TSO regulation

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311 Multi-Level Framework for Effective Use of Stock Ordering System: Case Study of Small Enterprises in Kgautswane

Authors: Lethamaga Tladi, Ray Kekwaletswe


This study sought to conceptualise a multi-level framework for the effective use of stock ordering system in small enterprises in a rural area context. The interpretive research methodology has been used to enable the researcher to analyse, in-depth, and the subjective meanings of small enterprises’ employees in using the stock ordering system. The empirical data was collected from 13 small enterprises’ employees as participants through semi-structured interviews and observations. Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) approach was used to analyse the small enterprises’ employee’s own account of lived experiences in relations to stock ordering system use in terms of their relatedness to, and cognitive engagement with. A case study of Kgautswane, a rural area in Limpopo Province, South Africa, served as a social context where the phenomenon manifested. Technology-Organisation-Environment Theory (TOE), Technology-to-Performance Chain Model (TPC), and Representation Theory (RT) underpinned this study. In this multi-level study, the findings revealed that; At the organisational level, the effective use of stock ordering system was found to be associated with the organisational performance gains such as efficiency, productivity, quality, competitiveness, and market share. Equally so, at the individual level, the effective use of stock ordering system minimised the end-user’s efforts and time to accomplish their tasks, which yields improved individual performance. The Multi-level framework for effective use of stock ordering system was presented.

Keywords: effective use, multi-dimensions of use, multi-level of use, multi-level research, small enterprises, stock ordering system

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310 The Impact of the Corona Virus Outbreak Crisis on Startups

Authors: Mohammad Mehdizadeh, Sara Miri


Due to the recent events surrounding the global health crisis and the spread of the coronavirus (COVID-19), the activities of many businesses and start-up companies have been disrupted. It solves many economic problems and can reduce unemployment in countries because governments can take advantage of their potential without direct investment. However, with the help of their innovative ideas and new technologies, these companies can develop and grow the economy. But it is essential to consider that there will be no guarantee of their success in the event of unforeseen events, as the coronavirus outbreak in the last two years has seriously damaged these companies and, like other businesses, challenges and stagnation have started. The startup companies' challenge in the face of coronavirus begins with its impact on customers. Changing customer behavior can affect their products and distribution channels. On the other hand, to prevent countless losses in this crisis, startup companies require creative solutions to address challenges in various areas of human capital, supply chain management, sales and marketing, and so on. Therefore, all business leaders must consider and plan for the current crisis and the future; after overcoming these conditions and returning to regular business routines, it will no longer be an option, and new situations will prevail in a competitive environment. The essential strategies for developing and growing startups during the Coronavirus outbreak can be connecting with the global startup ecosystem, hosting webinars, providing podcasts and free question and answer sessions, mentoring services to growing teams, and consulting pointed out this to firms for digitalization.

Keywords: business, COVID-19, digitalization, startups

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309 Employers’ Perspective on Female Graduate Employability in Nigeria

Authors: Temitope Faloye


In today’s changing job market economy, most employers of labor want employees who are employable and possess relevant skills. Graduates need to possess generic skills due to the continually changing nature of the job market, which requires adaptive coping strategies. Most employers of labor complain that graduates are not employable, which is one of the major factors causing a high rate of graduate unemployment in Nigeria. However, the number of unemployed females is higher than that of unemployed males; hence gender difference is linked to the employability of graduates. The human capital theory is considered an appropriate theory for this study. A qualitative approach will be used to provide answers to the research questions. Therefore, the research study aims to investigate the employers’ perspective on female graduate employability in Nigeria.

Keywords: graduate employability, generic skills, graduate unemployment, gender

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308 Literary Imagination and Leadership: Lessons From the Classroom

Authors: Naor Cohen


In recent years, business schools made teaching ethical leadership a higher priority. Greater attention to moral and ethical concepts and reasoning processes may prove beneficial to future business leaders. But with a shift in focus, there is a need for a shift in pedagogy. This paper explores an imaginative literature-based pedagogy in the teaching of ethical leadership. An imaginative literature-based pedagogy uses works of fiction to help students build moral analysis and moral judgment capabilities through a rigorous assessment of the moral soundness of actions, motivations, rationales, and consequences portrayed in works of fiction. Business students enrolled in 4 leadership senior-level courses were assigned the White Tiger: A Novel by Aravind Adiga as their main course reading. Students' engagement was measured as a three-factor construct exploring cognitive engagement, behavioural engagement and emotional engagement. In addition, students' final papers were analyzed using thematic content analysis. This paper will present the results of this analysis and argue that incorporating fiction into the leadership curriculum allows students to explore the dire consequences of avoiding countervailing interests, engaging in dishonesty and engaging in moral puffery-based leadership.

Keywords: ethical leadership, empathetic imagination, business education, pedagogy, fiction

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307 Cognitive Models of Health Marketing Communication in the Digital Era: Psychological Factors, Challenges, and Implications

Authors: Panas Gerasimos, Kotidou Varvara, Halkiopoulos Constantinos, Gkintoni Evgenia


As a result of growing technology and briefing by the internet, users resort to the internet and subsequently to the opinion of an expert. In many cases, they take control of their health in their hand and make a decision without the contribution of a doctor. According to that, this essay intends to analyze the confidence of searching health issues on the internet. For the fulfillment of this study, there has been a survey among doctors in order to find out the reasons a patient uses the internet about their health problems and the consequences that health information could lead by searching on the internet, as well. Specifically, the results regarding the research of the users demonstrate: a) the majority of users make use of the internet about health issues once or twice a month, b) individuals that possess chronic disease make health search on the internet more frequently, c) the most important topics that the majority of users usually search are pathological, dietary issues and the search of issues that are associated with doctors and hospitals. However, it observed that topic search varies depending on the users’ age, d) the most common sources of information concern the direct contact with doctors, as there is a huge preference from the majority of users over the use of the electronic form for their briefing and e) it has been observed that there is large lack of knowledge about e-health services. From the doctor's point of view, the following conclusions occur: a) almost all doctors use the internet as their main source of information, b) the internet has great influence over doctors’ relationship with the patients, c) in many cases a patient first makes a visit to the internet and then to the doctor, d) the internet significantly has a psychological impact on patients in order to for them to reach a decision, e) the most important reason users choose the internet instead of the health professional is economic, f) the negative consequence that emerges is inaccurate information, g) and the positive consequences are about the possibility of online contact with the doctor and contributes to the easy comprehension of the doctor, as well. Generally, it’s observed from both sides that the use of the internet in health issues is intense, which declares that the new means the doctors have at their disposal, produce the conditions for radical changes in the way of providing services and in the doctor-patient relationship.

Keywords: cognitive models, health marketing, e-health, psychological factors, digital marketing, e-health services

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306 Consumer Cognitive Models of Vaccine Attitudes: Behavioral Informed Strategies Promoting Vaccination Policy in Greece

Authors: Halkiopoulos Constantinos, Koutsopoulou Ioanna, Gkintoni Evgenia, Antonopoulou Hera


Immunization appears to be an essential part of health care service in times of pandemics such as covid-19 and aims not only to protect the health of the population but also the health and sustainability of the economies of the countries affected. It is reported that more than 3.44 billion doses have been administered so far, which accounts for 45 doses for 100 people. Vaccination programs in various countries have been promoted and accepted by people differently and therefore they proceeded in different ways and speed; most countries directing them towards people with vulnerable chronic or recent health statuses. Large scale restriction measures or lockdown, personal protection measures such as masks and gloves and a decrease in leisure and sports activities were also implemented around the world as part of the protection health strategies against the covid-19 pandemic. This research aims to present an analysis based on variations on people’s attitudes towards vaccination based on demographic, social and epidemiological characteristics, and health status on the one hand and perception of health, health satisfaction, pain, and quality of life on the other hand. 1500 Greek e-consumers participated in the research, mainly through social media who took part in an online-based survey voluntarily. The questionnaires included demographic, social and medical characteristics of the participants, and questions asking people’s willingness to be vaccinated and their opinion on whether there should be a vaccine against covid-19. Other stressor factors were also reported in the questionnaires and participants’ loss of someone close due to covid-19, or staying at home quarantine due to being infected from covid-19. WHOQUOL-BREF and GLOBAL PSYCHOTRAUMA SCREEN- GPS were used with kind permission from WHO and from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies in this study. Attitudes towards vaccination varied significantly related to aging, level of education, health status and consumer behavior. Health professionals’ attitudes also varied in relation to age, level of education, profession, health status and consumer needs. Vaccines have been the most common technological aid of human civilization so far in the fight against viruses. The results of this study can be used for health managers and digital marketers of pharmaceutical companies and also other staff involved in vaccination programs and for designing health policy immunization strategies during pandemics in order to achieve positive attitudes towards vaccination and larger populations being vaccinated in shorter periods of time after the break out of pandemic. Health staff needs to be trained, aided and supervised to go through with vaccination programs and to be protected through vaccination programs themselves. Feedback in each country’s vaccination program, short backs, deficiencies and delays should be addressed and worked out.

Keywords: consumer behavior, cognitive models, vaccination policy, pandemic, Covid-19, Greece

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305 A Personality-Based Behavioral Analysis on eSports

Authors: Halkiopoulos Constantinos, Gkintoni Evgenia, Koutsopoulou Ioanna, Antonopoulou Hera


E-sports and e-gaming have emerged in recent years since the increase in internet use have become universal and e-gamers are the new reality in our homes. The excessive involvement of young adults with e-sports has already been revealed and the adverse consequences have been reported in researches in the past few years, but the issue has not been fully studied yet. The present research is conducted in Greece and studies the psychological profile of video game players and provides information on personality traits, habits and emotional status that affect online gamers’ behaviors in order to help professionals and policy makers address the problem. Three standardized self-report questionnaires were administered to participants who were young male and female adults aged from 19-26 years old. The Profile of Mood States (POMS) scale was used to evaluate people’s perceptions of their everyday life mood; the personality features that can trace back to people’s habits and anticipated reactions were measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) was used to measure which cognitive (gamers’ beliefs) and emotional parameters (gamers’ emotional abilities) mainly affected/ predicted gamers’ behaviors and leisure time activities?/ gaming behaviors. Data mining techniques were used to analyze the data, which resulted in machine learning algorithms that were included in the software package R. The research findings attempt to designate the effect of personality traits, emotional status and emotional intelligence influence and correlation with e-sports, gamers’ behaviors and help policy makers and stakeholders take action, shape social policy and prevent the adverse consequences on young adults. The need for further research, prevention and treatment strategies is also addressed.

Keywords: e-sports, e-gamers, personality traits, POMS, emotional intelligence, data mining, R

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304 Sexting Phenomenon in Educational Settings: A Data Mining Approach

Authors: Koutsopoulou Ioanna, Gkintoni Evgenia, Halkiopoulos Constantinos, Antonopoulou Hera


Recent advances in Internet Computer Technology (ICT) and the ever-increasing use of technological equipment amongst adolescents and young adults along with unattended access to the internet and social media and uncontrolled use of smart phones and PCs have caused social problems like sexting to emerge. The main purpose of the present article is first to present an analytic theoretical framework of sexting as a recent social phenomenon based on studies that have been conducted the last decade or so; and second to investigate Greek students’ and also social network users, sexting perceptions and to record how often social media users exchange sexual messages and to retrace demographic variables predictors. Data from 1,000 students were collected and analyzed and all statistical analysis was done by the software package WEKA. The results indicate among others, that the use of data mining methods is an important tool to draw conclusions that could affect decision and policy making especially in the field and related social topics of educational psychology. To sum up, sexting lurks many risks for adolescents and young adults students in Greece and needs to be better addressed in relevance to the stakeholders as well as society in general. Furthermore, policy makers, legislation makers and authorities will have to take action to protect minors. Prevention strategies based on Greek cultural specificities are being proposed. This social problem has raised concerns in recent years and will most likely escalate concerns in global communities in the future.

Keywords: educational ethics, sexting, Greek sexters, sex education, data mining

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303 Blockchain: Institutional and Technological Disruptions in the Public Sector

Authors: Maria Florencia Ferrer, Saulo Fabiano Amancio-Vieira


The use of the blockchain in the public sector is present today and no longer the future of disruptive institutional and technological models. There are still some cultural barriers and resistance to the proper use of its potential. This research aims to present the strengths and weaknesses of using a public-permitted and distributed network in the context of the public sector. Therefore, bibliographical/documentary research was conducted to raise the main aspects of the studied platform, focused on the use of the main demands of the public sector. The platform analyzed was LACChain, which is a global alliance composed of different actors in the blockchain environment, led by the Innovation Laboratory of the Inter-American Development Bank Group (IDB Lab) for the development of the blockchain ecosystem in Latin America and the Caribbean. LACChain provides blockchain infrastructure, which is a distributed ratio technology (DLT). The platform focuses on two main pillars: community and infrastructure. It is organized as a consortium for the management and administration of an infrastructure classified as public, following the ISO typologies (ISO / TC 307). It is, therefore, a network open to any participant who agrees with the established rules, which are limited to being identified and complying with the regulations. As benefits can be listed: public network (open to all), decentralized, low transaction cost, greater publicity of transactions, reduction of corruption in contracts / public acts, in addition to improving transparency for the population in general. It is also noteworthy that the platform is not based on cryptocurrency and is not anonymous; that is, it is possible to be regulated. It is concluded that the use of record platforms, such as LACChain, can contribute to greater security on the part of the public agent in the migration process of their informational applications.

Keywords: blockchain, LACChain, public sector, technological disruptions

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