Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 554

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Industrial and Systems Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

554 Exploring Male and Female Consumers’ Perceptions of Clothing Retailers’ CSR Initiatives in South Africa

Authors: Gerhard D. Muller, Nadine C. Sonnenberg, Suné Donoghue


This study delves into the intricacies of male and female consumers’ perceptions of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the South African clothing retail sector, a sector experiencing increasing consumption, yet facing significant environmental and social challenges. The aim is to discern between male and female consumers’ perceptions of clothing retailers’ CSR initiatives based on the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) framework, which evaluates organizational sustainability across social, environmental, and economic domains. Methodologically, the study is embedded in a quantitative research paradigm adopting a cross-sectional survey design. A purposive sampling strategy was used to recruit male and female respondents from a diverse South African demographic background. A structured questionnaire was developed and included established consumer CSR perception scales that were adapted for the purposes of this study. The questionnaire was distributed via online platforms. The data collected from the online survey, were split by gender to allow for comparison between male and female consumers’ perceptions of clothing retailers’ CSR initiatives. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on each of the datasets. The EFA for females revealed a five-factor solution, whereas the male EFA presented a six-factor solution, with the notable addition of an Economic Performance dimension. Results indicate subtle differences in the gender groups’ CSR perceptions. While both genders seem to value clothing retailers’ focus on quality services, females seem to have more pronounced perceptions surrounding clothing retailers’ contributions to social and environmental causes. Males, on the other hand, seem to be more discerning in their perceptions surrounding clothing retailers’ support of social and environmental causes. Ethical stakeholder relationships emerged as a shared concern across genders. Still, males presented a distinct factor, Economic Performance, highlighting a gendered divergence in the weighting of economic success and financial performance in CSR evaluation. The implications of these results are multifaceted. Theoretically, the study enriches the discourse on CSR by integrating gender insights into the TBL framework, offering a greater understanding of consumers’ CSR perceptions in the South African clothing retail context. Practically, it provides actionable insights for clothing retailers, suggesting that CSR initiatives should be gender-sensitive and communicate the TBL's elements effectively to resonate with the pertinent concerns of each segment. Additionally, the findings advocate for a contextualized approach to CSR in emerging markets that aligns with local cultural and social differences.

Keywords: consumer perceptions, corporate Social responsibility, gender differentiation, triple bottom line

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553 Analyzing the Impact of Unilever's Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Strategies on Consumer Attitudes and Loyalty in International Markets: A Focus on Sustainable Marketing Practices

Authors: Lydia Nkechi Philip


Due to its well-documented commitment to sustainability across diverse global markets, Unilever, a multinational consumer goods powerhouse, serves as a compelling case study. The study's goal is to critically examine Unilever's CSR initiatives, assessing their alignment with international standards and the impact on consumer perceptions and loyalty. The study investigates how Unilever's CSR practices resonate with consumers in various regions using a mixed-methods approach that includes surveys and interviews. The conceptual framework considers the role of sustainable marketing practices as a bridge builder in the CSR-consumer relationship. The findings are expected to provide valuable insights for businesses seeking to navigate the complex terrain of global markets while remaining ethical and sustainable. As consumers place a higher value on socially responsible brands, this study examines Unilever's CSR impact on consumer behavior. The abstract captures the essence of the study, providing a sneak peek at the methodology, key objectives, and anticipated contributions to our understanding of CSR's role in shaping consumer attitudes and loyalty in the global marketplace.

Keywords: Unilever, consumer loyalty, sustainable marketing practices, consumer loyalties

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552 Authorship Patterns in the Literature on English and Literary Studies of Bayero University, Kano: 2007 – 2017

Authors: Murtala Musa


The purpose of this study was to look at the authorship patterns of Master's Degree Dissertations submitted to the Department of English and Literary Studies at Bayero University in Kano between 2007 and 2017, with the goal of determining the pattern and degree of collaboration between authors. The study was conducted utilizing quantitative research methods and an Ex-post factor research design. A total of 176 copies of Masters Dissertations were examined, yielding a total of 12061 citations. The data collection instrument was a citation analysis checklist created by the researcher. Subramanyam's Law of Collaboration of Authors was used to determine the degree of collaboration among authors using descriptive statistics such as tables, frequency distributions, percentages, and charts. Single-authored publications, followed by double-authored articles, accounted for the majority of the contributions.

Keywords: authorship patterns, bibliometrics, English and Literary studies, citation analysis

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551 Blue Finance: A Systematical Review of the Academic Literature on Investment Streams for Marine Conservation

Authors: David Broussard


This review article delves into the realm of marine conservation finance, addressing the inadequacies in current financial streams from the private sector and the underutilization of existing financing mechanisms. The study emphasizes the emerging field of “blue finance”, which contributes to economic growth, improved livelihoods, and marine ecosystem health. The financial burden of marine conservation projects typically falls on philanthropists and governments, contrary to the polluter-pays principle. However, the private sector’s increasing commitment to NetZero and growing environmental and social responsibility goals prompts the need for alternative funding sources for marine conservation initiatives like marine protected areas. The article explores the potential of utilizing several financing mechanisms like carbon credits and other forms of payment for ecosystem services in the marine context, providing a solution to the lack of private funding for marine conservation. The methodology employed involves a systematic and quantitative approach, combining traditional review methods and elements of meta-analysis. A comprehensive search of the years 2000 - 2023, using relevant keywords on the Scopus platform, resulted in a review of 252 articles. The temporal evolution of blue finance studies reveals a significant increase in annual articles from 2010 to 2022, with notable peaks in 2011 and 2022. Marine Policy, Ecosystem Services, and Frontiers in Marine Science are prominent journals in this field. While the majority of articles focus on payment for ecosystem services, there is a growing awareness of the need for holistic approaches in conservation finance. Utilizing bibliometric techniques, the article showcases the dominant share of payment for ecosystem services in the literature with a focus on blue carbon. The classification of articles based on various criteria, including financing mechanisms and conservation types, aids in categorizing and understanding the diversity of research objectives and perspectives in this complex field of marine conservation finance.

Keywords: biodiversity offsets, carbon credits, ecosystem services, impact investment, payment for ecosystem services

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550 Transition From Economic Growth-Energy Use to Green Growth-Green Energy Towards Environmental Quality: Evidence from Africa Using Econometric Approaches

Authors: Jackson Niyongabo


This study addresses a notable gap in the existing literature on the relationship between energy consumption, economic growth, and CO₂ emissions, particularly within the African context. While numerous studies have explored these dynamics globally and regionally across various development levels, few have delved into the nuances of regions and income levels specific to African countries. Furthermore, the evaluation of the interplay between green growth policies, green energy technologies, and their impact on environmental quality has been underexplored. This research aims to fill these gaps by conducting a comprehensive analysis of the transition from conventional economic growth and energy consumption to a paradigm of green growth coupled with green energy utilization across the African continent from 1980 to 2018. The study is structured into three main parts: an empirical examination of the long-term effects of energy intensity, renewable energy consumption, and economic growth on CO₂ emissions across diverse African regions and income levels; an estimation of the long-term impact of green growth and green energy use on CO₂ emissions for countries implementing green policies within Africa, as well as at regional and global levels; and a comparative analysis of the impact of green growth policies on environmental degradation before and after implementation. Employing advanced econometric methods and panel estimators, the study utilizes a testing framework, panel unit tests, and various estimators to derive meaningful insights. The anticipated results and conclusions will be elucidated through causality tests, impulse response, and variance decomposition analyses, contributing valuable knowledge to the discourse on sustainable development in the African context.

Keywords: economic growth, green growth, energy consumption, CO₂ emissions, econometric models, green energy

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549 Using Risk Management Indicators in Decision Tree Analysis

Authors: Adel Ali Elshaibani


Risk management indicators augment the reporting infrastructure, particularly for the board and senior management, to identify, monitor, and manage risks. This enhancement facilitates improved decision-making throughout the banking organization. Decision tree analysis is a tool that visually outlines potential outcomes, costs, and consequences of complex decisions. It is particularly beneficial for analyzing quantitative data and making decisions based on numerical values. By calculating the expected value of each outcome, decision tree analysis can help assess the best course of action. In the context of banking, decision tree analysis can assist lenders in evaluating a customer’s creditworthiness, thereby preventing losses. However, applying these tools in developing countries may face several limitations, such as data availability, lack of technological infrastructure and resources, lack of skilled professionals, cultural factors, and cost. Moreover, decision trees can create overly complex models that do not generalize well to new data, known as overfitting. They can also be sensitive to small changes in the data, which can result in different tree structures and can become computationally expensive when dealing with large datasets. In conclusion, while risk management indicators and decision tree analysis are beneficial for decision-making in banks, their effectiveness is contingent upon how they are implemented and utilized by the board of directors, especially in the context of developing countries. It’s important to consider these limitations when planning to implement these tools in developing countries.

Keywords: risk management indicators, decision tree analysis, developing countries, board of directors, bank performance, risk management strategy, banking institutions

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548 Data Access, AI Intensity, and Scale Advantages

Authors: Chuping Lo


This paper presents a simple model demonstrating that ceteris paribus countries with lower barriers to accessing global data tend to earn higher incomes than other countries. Therefore, large countries that inherently have greater data resources tend to have higher incomes than smaller countries, such that the former may be more hesitant than the latter to liberalize cross-border data flows to maintain this advantage. Furthermore, countries with higher artificial intelligence (AI) intensity in production technologies tend to benefit more from economies of scale in data aggregation, leading to higher income and more trade as they are better able to utilize global data.

Keywords: digital intensity, digital divide, international trade, scale of economics

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547 Innovating Electronics Engineering for Smart Materials Marketing

Authors: Muhammad Awais Kiani


The field of electronics engineering plays a vital role in the marketing of smart materials. Smart materials are innovative, adaptive materials that can respond to external stimuli, such as temperature, light, or pressure, in order to enhance performance or functionality. As the demand for smart materials continues to grow, it is crucial to understand how electronics engineering can contribute to their marketing strategies. This abstract presents an overview of the role of electronics engineering in the marketing of smart materials. It explores the various ways in which electronics engineering enables the development and integration of smart features within materials, enhancing their marketability. Firstly, electronics engineering facilitates the design and development of sensing and actuating systems for smart materials. These systems enable the detection and response to external stimuli, providing valuable data and feedback to users. By integrating sensors and actuators into materials, their functionality and performance can be significantly enhanced, making them more appealing to potential customers. Secondly, electronics engineering enables the creation of smart materials with wireless communication capabilities. By incorporating wireless technologies such as Bluetooth or Wi-Fi, smart materials can seamlessly interact with other devices, providing real-time data and enabling remote control and monitoring. This connectivity enhances the marketability of smart materials by offering convenience, efficiency, and improved user experience. Furthermore, electronics engineering plays a crucial role in power management for smart materials. Implementing energy-efficient systems and power harvesting techniques ensures that smart materials can operate autonomously for extended periods. This aspect not only increases their market appeal but also reduces the need for constant maintenance or battery replacements, thus enhancing customer satisfaction. Lastly, electronics engineering contributes to the marketing of smart materials through innovative user interfaces and intuitive control mechanisms. By designing user-friendly interfaces and integrating advanced control systems, smart materials become more accessible to a broader range of users. Clear and intuitive controls enhance the user experience and encourage wider adoption of smart materials in various industries. In conclusion, electronics engineering significantly influences the marketing of smart materials by enabling the design of sensing and actuating systems, wireless connectivity, efficient power management, and user-friendly interfaces. The integration of electronics engineering principles enhances the functionality, performance, and marketability of smart materials, making them more adaptable to the growing demand for innovative and connected materials in diverse industries.

Keywords: electronics engineering, smart materials, marketing, power management

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546 Liquid Waste Management in Cluster Development

Authors: Abheyjit Singh, Kulwant Singh


There is a gradual depletion of the water table in the earth's crust, and it is required to converse and reduce the scarcity of water. This is only done by rainwater harvesting, recycling of water and by judicially consumption/utilization of water and adopting unique treatment measures. Domestic waste is generated in residential areas, commercial settings, and institutions. Waste, in general, is unwanted, undesirable, and nevertheless an inevitable and inherent product of social, economic, and cultural life. In a cluster, a need-based system is formed where the project is designed for systematic analysis, collection of sewage from the cluster, treating it and then recycling it for multifarious work. The liquid waste may consist of Sanitary sewage/ Domestic waste, Industrial waste, Storm waste, or Mixed Waste. The sewage contains both suspended and dissolved particles, and the total amount of organic material is related to the strength of the sewage. The untreated domestic sanitary sewage has a BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) of 200 mg/l. TSS (Total Suspended Solids) about 240 mg/l. Industrial Waste may have BOD and TSS values much higher than those of sanitary sewage. Another type of impurities of wastewater is plant nutrients, especially when there are compounds of nitrogen N phosphorus P in the sewage; raw sanitary contains approx. 35 mg/l Nitrogen and 10 mg/l of Phosphorus. Finally, the pathogen in the waste is expected to be proportional to the concentration of facial coliform bacteria. The coliform concentration in raw sanitary sewage is roughly 1 billion per liter. The system of sewage disposal technique has been universally applied to all conditions, which are the nature of soil formation, Availability of land, Quantity of Sewage to be disposed of, The degree of treatment and the relative cost of disposal technique. The adopted Thappar Model (India) has the following designed parameters consisting of a Screen Chamber, a Digestion Tank, a Skimming Tank, a Stabilization Tank, an Oxidation Pond and a Water Storage Pond. The screening Chamber is used to remove plastic and other solids, The Digestion Tank is designed as an anaerobic tank having a retention period of 8 hours, The Skimming Tank has an outlet that is kept 1 meter below the surface anaerobic condition at the bottom and also help in organic solid remover, Stabilization Tank is designed as primary settling tank, Oxidation Pond is a facultative pond having a depth of 1.5 meter, Storage Pond is designed as per the requirement. The cost of the Thappar model is Rs. 185 Lakh per 3,000 to 4,000 population, and the Area required is 1.5 Acre. The complete structure will linning as per the requirement. The annual maintenance will be Rs. 5 lakh per year. The project is useful for water conservation, silage water for irrigation, decrease of BOD and there will be no longer damage to community assets and economic loss to the farmer community by inundation. There will be a healthy and clean environment in the community.

Keywords: collection, treatment, utilization, economic

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545 Influencer Endorsement - Consumer Purchase Intention In Social Media Marketing

Authors: Izian Idris


Social media marketing, including influencer marketing, is an ongoing phenomenon, and most companies, as well as industries, are finding it crucial to implement social media marketing in their marketing strategies. However, social media influencer marketing still needs to be explored, and further research on this area needs to be carried out to fully understand the importance of social media influencer marketing on impacting consumer purchase decisions. Influencer endorsement has becoming a trend to grab users’ attention these days. Thus, the aim of this research paper is to explore the attributes of social media influencers/ influencer as the endorser that impact consumer purchase intentions. The attributes that will be investigated include attitude homophily, physical attractiveness and social attractiveness. Following this, the elaboration likelihood model from the theory of persuasion is implemented to this research to further examine the influence of social media influencer attributes on consumer purchase intentions. This study will be able to help marketers, businesses and researchers to understand the attributes of social media influencers as the endorser that will impact consumer purchase intentions and allows for businesses to enhance their strategies to better cater to their target market.

Keywords: social media, influencer endorsement, consumer purchase intention, marketing

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544 Balanced Scorecard (BSC) Project : A Methodological Proposal for Decision Support in a Corporate Scenario

Authors: David de Oliveira Costa, Miguel Ângelo Lellis Moreira, Carlos Francisco Simões Gomes, Daniel Augusto de Moura Pereira, Marcos dos Santos


Strategic management is a fundamental process for global companies that intend to remain competitive in an increasingly dynamic and complex market. To do so, it is necessary to maintain alignment with their principles and values. The Balanced Scorecard (BSC) proposes to ensure that the overall business performance is based on different perspectives (financial, customer, internal processes, and learning and growth). However, relying solely on the BSC may not be enough to ensure the success of strategic management. It is essential that companies also evaluate and prioritize strategic projects that need to be implemented to ensure they are aligned with the business vision and contribute to achieving established goals and objectives. In this context, the proposition involves the incorporation of the SAPEVO-M multicriteria method to indicate the degree of relevance between different perspectives. Thus, the strategic objectives linked to these perspectives have greater weight in the classification of structural projects. Additionally, it is proposed to apply the concept of the Impact & Probability Matrix (I&PM) to structure and ensure that strategic projects are evaluated according to their relevance and impact on the business. By structuring the business's strategic management in this way, alignment and prioritization of projects and actions related to strategic planning are ensured. This ensures that resources are directed towards the most relevant and impactful initiatives. Therefore, the objective of this article is to present the proposal for integrating the BSC methodology, the SAPEVO-M multicriteria method, and the prioritization matrix to establish a concrete weighting of strategic planning and obtain coherence in defining strategic projects aligned with the business vision. This ensures a robust decision-making support process.

Keywords: MCDA process, prioritization problematic, corporate strategy, multicriteria method

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543 Competency Profiling for Organizational Absorptive Capacity Development

Authors: Chulatep Senivongse


This research explores the correlation between individual competencies and absorptive capacity within organizations. Absorptive Capacity denotes a company's proficiency in acquiring, assimilating, and effectively utilizing external knowledge to capitalize on business opportunities. Competency, on the other hand, encompasses the individual aptitudes necessary for efficient task execution. This study investigates into the reciprocal connection between absorptive capacity and individual competencies, showing how the latter contribute to the former's growth within an organization. The study reveals four key competency domains: Learning Capability, Business Orientation, Self-Orientation, and Social Intelligence, forming a framework for evaluating the competencies required at various stages of absorptive capacity. The alignment of competency development with specific stage requisites is shown to enhance absorptive capacity, providing invaluable insights for management, particularly HR professionals, in shaping and overseeing competency development, fostering absorptive capacity growth, and supporting the organization's strategic expansion.

Keywords: competency management, competency assessment, absorptive capacity development, human capital development, knowledge management

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542 Consumer’s Behavioral Responses to Corporate Social Responsibility Marketing: Mediating Impact of Customer Trust, Emotions, Brand Image, and Brand Attitude

Authors: Yasir Ali Soomro


Companies that demonstrate corporate social responsibilities (CSR) are more likely to withstand any downturn or crises because of the trust built with stakeholders. Many firms are utilizing CSR marketing to improve the interactions with their various stakeholders, mainly the consumers. Most previous research on CSR has focused on the impact of CSR on customer responses and behaviors toward a company. As online food ordering and grocery shopping remains inevitable. This study will investigate structural relationships among consumer positive emotions (CPE) and negative emotions (CNE), Corporate Reputation (CR), Customer Trust (CT), Brand Image (BI), and Brand attitude (BA) on behavioral outcomes such as Online purchase intention (OPI) and Word of mouth (WOM) in retail grocery and food restaurants setting. Hierarchy of Effects Model will be used as theoretical, conceptual framework. The model describes three stages of consumer behavior: (i) cognitive, (ii) affective, and (iii) conative. The study will apply a quantitative method to test the hypotheses; a self-developed questionnaire with non-probability sampling will be utilized to collect data from 500 consumers belonging to generation X, Y, and Z residing in KSA. The study will contribute by providing empirical evidence to support the link between CSR and customer affective and conative experiences in Saudi Arabia. The theoretical contribution of this study will be empirically tested comprehensive model where CPE, CNE, CR, CT, BI, and BA act as mediating variables between the perceived CSR & Online purchase intention (OPI) and Word of mouth (WOM). Further, the study will add more to how the emotional/ psychological process mediates in the CSR literature, especially in the Middle Eastern context. The proposed study will also explain the effect of perceived CSR marketing initiatives directly and indirectly on customer behavioral responses.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, corporate reputation, consumer emotions, loyalty, online purchase intention, word-of-mouth, structural equation modeling

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541 Demographic Factors’ Influence on Creativity Level of Undergraduate Agricultural Students

Authors: Mbulaheni Mavhungu


The purpose of this research is to determine the influence of gender, area raised, family business status and field of study on the creativity level of undergraduate agricultural students. The research adopted a quantitative approach in which hypotheses were statistically tested using structural equation modelling based on the survey data using a self-administered questionnaire (n=421) from various institutions of higher learning in South Africa. The study revealed that gender and field of study have no significant effect on the creativity level of agricultural students. The findings further revealed that family business status and the area where agricultural students were raised significantly influence the creativity level of agricultural students. The findings suggest that gender and field of study cannot be regarded as useful for evaluating students’ creativity levels. In contrast, family business status and the area where agricultural students were raised can be helpful to assess students’ creativity levels. The findings will help institutions of higher learning and policymakers to strengthen entrepreneurship curricula to foster creativity in different fields of study at institutions of higher learning. Based on the research findings, the present study can be extended in several directions, e.g. students from Economics, Humanities or Business faculties, for further research to determine the influence of demographic factors on the creativity level of students in these fields. This research contributes to the creativity literature on entrepreneurship by understanding the role of demographic factors on agricultural students’ perceptions and the framework of the conditions that shape their creativity level.

Keywords: age, area raised, creativity, entrepreneurship, family business status, field of study

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540 Developing Women Entrepreneurial Leadership: 'From Vision to Practice

Authors: Saira Maqbool, Qaisara Parveen, Muhammad Arshad Dahar


Improving females' involvement in management and enterprises in Pakistan requires the development of female entrepreneurs as leaders. Entrepreneurial education aims for providing students the knowledge, aptitudes and motivation to energize innovative accomplishment in various settings. Assortments of venture instruction are advertised at all stages of mentoring, from fundamental or discretionary institutes through graduate institutional platforms. The business enterprise will be considered the procedure by which a looming business visionary or business person pursues after openings without respect to the resources they directly regulate. This entails the ability of the business visionary to join every single other generation. This study explores the relationship between developing Women's Leadership skills and Entrepreneurship Education The essential reason for this consider was to analyze the role of Entrepreneurship Edification (EE) towards women's Leadership and develop entrepreneurial intentions among students. The major goal of this study was to foster entrepreneurial attitudes among PMAS Arid Agriculture University undergraduate students concerning their choice to work for themselves. This study focuses on the motivation and interest of female students in the social sciences to build entrepreneurial leadership skills. The quantitative analysis used a true-experimental, pretest-posttest control group research design. Female undergraduate students from PMAS Arid Agriculture University made up the study population. For entrepreneurial activity, a training module has been created. The students underwent a three-week training program at PMAS Arid Agriculture University, where they learned about entrepreneurial leadership abilities. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and T-tests. The findings indicated that students acquired entrepreneurial leadership skills and intentions after training. They have decided to launch their businesses as leaders. It is advised that other PMAS Arid Agriculture University departments use the training module and course outline because the research's usage of them has important results.

Keywords: business, entrepreneurial, intentions, leadership, women

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539 The Signaling Power of ESG Accounting in Sub-Sahara Africa: A Dynamic Model Approach

Authors: Haruna Maama


Environmental, social and governance (ESG) reporting is gaining considerable attention despite being voluntary. Meanwhile, it consumes resources to provide ESG reporting, raising a question of its value relevance. The study examined the impact of ESG reporting on the market value of listed firms in SSA. The annual and integrated reports of 276 listed sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) firms. The integrated reporting scores of the firm were analysed using a content analysis method. A multiple regression estimation technique using a GMM approach was employed for the analysis. The results revealed that ESG has a positive relationship with firms’ market value, suggesting that investors are interested in the ESG information disclosure of firms in SSA. This suggests that extensive ESG disclosures are attempts by firms to obtain the approval of powerful social, political and environmental stakeholders, especially institutional investors. Furthermore, the market value analysis evidence is consistent with signalling theory, which postulates that firms provide integrated reports as a signal to influence the behaviour of stakeholders. This finding reflects the value placed on investors' social, environmental and governance disclosures, which affirms the views that conventional investors would care about the social, environmental and governance issues of their potential or existing investee firms. Overall, the evidence is consistent with the prediction of signalling theory. In the context of this theory, integrated reporting is seen as part of firms' overall competitive strategy to influence investors' behaviour. The findings of this study make unique contributions to knowledge and practice in corporate reporting.

Keywords: environmental accounting, ESG accounting, signalling theory, sustainability reporting, sub-saharan Africa

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538 Simulation of Government Management Model to Increase Financial Productivity System Using Govpilot

Authors: Arezou Javadi


The use of algorithmic models dependent on software calculations and simulation of new government management assays with the help of specialized software had increased the productivity and efficiency of the government management system recently. This has caused the management approach to change from the old bitch & fix model, which has low efficiency and less usefulness, to the capable management model with higher efficiency called the partnership with resident model. By using Govpilot TM software, the relationship between people in a system and the government was examined. The method of two tailed interaction was the outsourcing of a goal in a system, which is formed in the order of goals, qualified executive people, optimal executive model, and finally, summarizing additional activities at the different statistical levels. The results showed that the participation of people in a financial implementation system with a statistical potential of P≥5% caused a significant increase in investment and initial capital in the government system with maximum implement project in a smart government.

Keywords: machine learning, financial income, statistical potential, govpilot

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537 Time Management in the Public Sector in Nigeria

Authors: Sunny Ewankhiwimen Aigbomian


Time, is a scarce resource and in everything we do, time is required to accomplish any given task. The need for this presentation is predicated on the way majority of Nigerian especially in the public sector operators see “Time Management”. Time as resources cannot be regained if lost or managed badly. As a significant aspect of human life it should be handled with diligence and utmost seriousness if the public sector is to function as a coordinated entity. In our homes, private life and offices, we schedule different things to ensure that some things do not go the unexpected. When it comes to service delivery on the part of government, it ought to be more serious because government is all about effect and efficient service delivery and “Time” is a significant variable necessary to successful accomplishment. The need for Nigerian government to re-examine time management in her public sector with a view of repositioning the sector to be able to compete well with other public sectors in the world. The peculiarity of Time management in Public Sector in Nigerian context as examined and some useful recommendations of immerse assistance proffered.

Keywords: Nigeria, public sector, time management, task

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536 Countering the Bullwhip Effect by Absorbing It Downstream in the Supply Chain

Authors: Geng Cui, Naoto Imura, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Takahiro Ezaki


The bullwhip effect, which refers to the amplification of demand variance as one moves up the supply chain, has been observed in various industries and extensively studied through analytic approaches. Existing methods to mitigate the bullwhip effect, such as decentralized demand information, vendor-managed inventory, and the Collaborative Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishment System, rely on the willingness and ability of supply chain participants to share their information. However, in practice, information sharing is often difficult to realize due to privacy concerns. The purpose of this study is to explore new ways to mitigate the bullwhip effect without the need for information sharing. This paper proposes a 'bullwhip absorption strategy' (BAS) to alleviate the bullwhip effect by absorbing it downstream in the supply chain. To achieve this, a two-stage supply chain system was employed, consisting of a single retailer and a single manufacturer. In each time period, the retailer receives an order generated according to an autoregressive process. Upon receiving the order, the retailer depletes the ordered amount, forecasts future demand based on past records, and places an order with the manufacturer using the order-up-to replenishment policy. The manufacturer follows a similar process. In essence, the mechanism of the model is similar to that of the beer game. The BAS is implemented at the retailer's level to counteract the bullwhip effect. This strategy requires the retailer to reduce the uncertainty in its orders, thereby absorbing the bullwhip effect downstream in the supply chain. The advantage of the BAS is that upstream participants can benefit from a reduced bullwhip effect. Although the retailer may incur additional costs, if the gain in the upstream segment can compensate for the retailer's loss, the entire supply chain will be better off. Two indicators, order variance and inventory variance, were used to quantify the bullwhip effect in relation to the strength of absorption. It was found that implementing the BAS at the retailer's level results in a reduction in both the retailer's and the manufacturer's order variances. However, when examining the impact on inventory variances, a trade-off relationship was observed. The manufacturer's inventory variance monotonically decreases with an increase in absorption strength, while the retailer's inventory variance does not always decrease as the absorption strength grows. This is especially true when the autoregression coefficient has a high value, causing the retailer's inventory variance to become a monotonically increasing function of the absorption strength. Finally, numerical simulations were conducted for verification, and the results were consistent with our theoretical analysis.

Keywords: bullwhip effect, supply chain management, inventory management, demand forecasting, order-to-up policy

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535 The Impact of AI on Consumers’ Morality: An Empirical Evidence

Authors: Mingxia Zhu, Matthew Tingchi Liu


AI grows gradually in the market with its efficiency and accuracy, influencing people’s perceptions, attitude, and even consequential behaviors. Current study extends prior research by focusing on AI’s impact on consumers’ morality. First, study 1 tested individuals’ believes about AI and human’s moral perceptions and people’s attribution of moral worth to AI and human. Moral perception refers to a computational system an entity maintains to detect and identify moral violations, while moral worth here denotes whether individual regard an entity as worthy of moral treatment. To identify the effect of AI on consumers’ morality, two studies were employed. Study 1 is a within-subjects survey, while study 2 is an experimental study. In the study 1, one hundred and forty participants were recruited through online survey company in China (M_age = 27.31 years, SD = 7.12 years; 65% female). The participants were asked to assign moral perception and moral worth to AI and human. A paired samples t-test reveals that people generally regard that human has higher moral perception (M_Human = 6.03, SD = .86) than AI (M_AI = 2.79, SD = 1.19; t(139) = 27.07, p < .001; Cohen’s d = 1.41). In addition, another paired samples t-test results showed that people attributed higher moral worth to the human personnel (M_Human = 6.39, SD = .56) compared with AIs (M_AI = 5.43, SD = .85; t(139) = 12.96, p < .001; d = .88). In the next study, two hundred valid samples were recruited from survey company in China (M_age = 27.87 years, SD = 6.68 years; 55% female) and the participants were randomly assigned to two conditions (AI vs. human). After viewing the stimuli of human versus AI, participants are informed that one insurance company would determine the price purely based on their declaration. Therefore, their open-ended answers were coded into ethical, honest behavior and unethical, dishonest behavior according to the design of prior literature. A Chi-square analysis revealed that 64% of the participants would immorally lie towards AI insurance inspector while 42% of participants reported deliberately lower mileage facing with human inspector (χ^2 (1) = 9.71, p = .002). Similarly, the logistic regression results suggested that people would significantly more likely to report fraudulent answer when facing with AI (β = .89, odds ratio = 2.45, Wald = 9.56, p = .002). It is demonstrated that people would be more likely to behave unethically in front of non-human agents, such as AI agent, rather than human. The research findings shed light on new practical ethical issues in human-AI interaction and address the important role of human employees during the process of service delivery in the new era of AI.

Keywords: AI agent, consumer morality, ethical behavior, human-AI interaction

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534 Development of Medical Intelligent Process Model Using Ontology Based Technique

Authors: Emmanuel Chibuogu Asogwa, Tochukwu Sunday Belonwu


An urgent demand for creative solutions has been created by the rapid expansion of medical knowledge, the complexity of patient care, and the requirement for more precise decision-making. As a solution to this problem, the creation of a Medical Intelligent Process Model (MIPM) utilizing ontology-based appears as a promising way to overcome this obstacle and unleash the full potential of healthcare systems. The development of a Medical Intelligent Process Model (MIPM) using ontology-based techniques is motivated by a lack of quick access to relevant medical information and advanced tools for treatment planning and clinical decision-making, which ontology-based techniques can provide. The aim of this work is to develop a structured and knowledge-driven framework that leverages ontology, a formal representation of domain knowledge, to enhance various aspects of healthcare. Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM) were adopted in the design of the system as we desired to build a usable and evolvable application. For effective implementation of this work, we used the following materials/methods/tools: the medical dataset for the test of our model in this work was obtained from Kaggle. The ontology-based technique was used with Confusion Matrix, MySQL, Python, Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), Hypertext Preprocessor (PHP), Cascaded Style Sheet (CSS), JavaScript, Dreamweaver, and Fireworks. According to test results on the new system using Confusion Matrix, both the accuracy and overall effectiveness of the medical intelligent process significantly improved by 20% compared to the previous system. Therefore, using the model is recommended for healthcare professionals.

Keywords: ontology-based, model, database, OOADM, healthcare

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533 Online Marketing Benefits and Developments

Authors: Reda Farouk Hapashi Beshai


Online marketing has become the main focus of most degree programs as the Internet has become the most important information tool in tourism marketing. Tourism is a sector that depends on reputation. Potential travelers who are new to a destination face many risks when making a decision. An accurate assessment of a destination's reputation helps minimize the risk of an unsatisfactory travel experience. However, only limited research has been conducted on the reputation of the tourist destination. Given the importance of reputation in the travel sector, this study aims to 1) develop a destination reputation model and 2) Evaluate the broadcaster's approach to Internet marketing tactics. 3) Assess the reputational impact of various Internet marketing tactics. and 4) Assess the potential of using internet marketing tactics to manage your destination's online reputation. This study is based on the interpretive approach of epistemological research and uses four research methods: interview, survey, content analysis, and experimentation to achieve the research goals.

Keywords: tourism business, internet, online social networks, tourism services, ICT higher education, marketing, eye-camera, visual perceptions

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532 Decolonizing Print Culture and Bibliography Through Digital Visualizations of Artists’ Books at the University of Miami

Authors: Alejandra G. Barbón, José Vila, Dania Vazquez


This study seeks to contribute to the advancement of library and archival sciences in the areas of records management, knowledge organization, and information architecture, particularly focusing on the enhancement of bibliographical description through the incorporation of visual interactive designs aimed to enrich the library users’ experience. In an era of heightened awareness about the legacy of hiddenness across special and rare collections in libraries and archives, along with the need for inclusivity in academia, the University of Miami Libraries has embarked on an innovative project that intersects the realms of print culture, decolonization, and digital technology. This proposal presents an exciting initiative to revitalize the study of Artists’ Books collections by employing digital visual representations to decolonize bibliographic records of some of the most unique materials and foster a more holistic understanding of cultural heritage. Artists' Books, a dynamic and interdisciplinary art form, challenge conventional bibliographic classification systems, making them ripe for the exploration of alternative approaches. This project involves the creation of a digital platform that combines multimedia elements for digital representations, interactive information retrieval systems, innovative information architecture, trending bibliographic cataloging and metadata initiatives, and collaborative curation to transform how we engage with and understand these collections. By embracing the potential of technology, we aim to transcend traditional constraints and address the historical biases that have influenced bibliographic practices. In essence, this study showcases a groundbreaking endeavor at the University of Miami Libraries that seeks to not only enhance bibliographic practices but also confront the legacy of hiddenness across special and rare collections in libraries and archives while strengthening conventional bibliographic description. By embracing digital visualizations, we aim to provide new pathways for understanding Artists' Books collections in a manner that is more inclusive, dynamic, and forward-looking. This project exemplifies the University’s dedication to fostering critical engagement, embracing technological innovation, and promoting diverse and equitable classifications and representations of cultural heritage.

Keywords: decolonizing bibliographic cataloging frameworks, digital visualizations information architecture platforms, collaborative curation and inclusivity for records management, engagement and accessibility increasing interaction design and user experience

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531 The Influence of Celebrity Endorsement on Consumers’ Attitude and Purchas Intention Towards Skincare Products in Malaysia

Authors: Tew Leh Ghee


The study's goal is to determine how celebrity endorsement affects Malaysian consumers' attitudes and intentions to buy skincare products. Since customers now largely rely on celebrity endorsement to influence purchasing decisions in almost every business, celebrity endorsement is not, in reality, a new phenomenon. Even though the market for skincare products has a vast potential to be exploited, corporations have yet to seize this niche via celebrity endorsement. Basically, there hasn't been much study done to recognize the significance of celebrity endorsement in this industry. This research combined descriptive and quantitative methods with a self-administered survey as the primary data-gathering tool. All of the characteristics under study were measured using a 5-point Likert scale, and the questionnaire was written in English. A convenience sample method was used to choose respondents, and 360 sets of valid questionnaires were gathered for the study's statistical analysis. Preliminary statistical analyses were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences). The backdrop of the respondents' demographics was examined using descriptive analysis. All concept assessments' validity and reliability were examined using exploratory factor analysis, item-total statistics, and reliability statistics. Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used, respectively, to assess relationships and impacts between the variables under study. The research showed that, apart from competence, celebrity endorsements of skincare products in Malaysia had a favorable impact on attitudes and purchase intentions as evaluated by attractiveness and dependability. The research indicated that the most significant element influencing attitude and buy intention was the credibility of a celebrity endorsement. The study offered implications in order to provide potential improvements of celebrity endorsement in skincare goods in Malaysia. The study's last portion includes its limits and ideas for the future.

Keywords: trustworthiness, influential, phenomenon, celebrity emdorsement

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530 Rethinking Entrepreneurship Education as a Remedy for Graduates Unemployment in Nigeria

Authors: Chinwe Susan Oguejiofor, Daniel Osamwonyi Iyioha


Over the last two decades, Nigeria has witnessed an upsurge in graduate unemployment occasioned by the lack of industries and proliferation of tertiary institutions churning out thousands of graduates every year to compete for the few available job space. The astronomical rise in the unemployment rate amongst Nigerian graduates however, is principally assumed to be the defective curricula of the universities and other tertiary institutions whose focus is on training for white-collar jobs. Although graduate unemployment has become a global scourge, its adverse economic impact is believed to be more in developing economies like Nigeria with a huge young population within the working age who cannot seem to find gainful employment to make out a respectable livelihood. Thus, higher institutions especially Universities found itself under pressure and intense competition to produce graduates who can think outside the box and create jobs; hence there was the need to focus on instilling hands-on practical job skills into their students that will make them job creators rather than job seekers on graduation. In the same vein stakeholders in education have continued to lend their voices to the philosophy that the undergraduate curricula should be completely overhauled to accomodate the development of hand-on practical skills and innovative capacity relevant to creating solutions to societal problems. In a bid to correct this anomaly, the Federal Government of Nigeria in conjunction with the Ministry of Commerce, Industry and Investment inaugurated a programme tagged “University Entrepreneurship Development Programme” (UNEDEP) whose objective was basically to promote self-employment among the youth right from the institutions of higher learning. But the question is whether the objectives of the programme have actually been achieved. Despite the inclusion in Nigerian educational curriculum close to two decades now,, one wonder if the essence has been aborted. Thus, the paper focused on the concept of entrepreneurship education, objectives of entrepreneurship education, Graduates unemployment, rethinking entrepreneurship education programme in tertiary institution for employment generation , role of entrepreneurship in job creation, challenges of entrepreneurship education in tertiary institution in Nigeria, conclusion and recommendations were drawn accordingly.

Keywords: rethinking, entrepreneurship education, remedy, unemployment, job creation

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529 Greening the Academic Library: Analysis of the Effectiveness of Sustainable Online Services Towards Reducing the Environmental Impact of Academic Libraries

Authors: George Clifford Yamson


As institutions across the world become more focused on sustainability, academic libraries are considering ways to reduce their environmental impact. One strategy is the use of sustainable online services, which can reduce the need for physical materials and transportation. This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of sustainable online services in reducing the environmental impact of academic libraries. Using a mixed-methods approach, the survey will be used to solicit information from library staff and users to gather data on their attitudes towards sustainable online services and their usage patterns. A comparative analysis will be conducted on the costs of traditional library services versus sustainable online services. The findings of this study will contribute to the growing body of literature on green academic libraries and provide insights into the potential of sustainable online services to reduce the environmental impact of academic libraries.

Keywords: sustainability, environmental sustainability, academic libraries, green printing, green copying, online services

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528 Effects of Recognition of Customer Feedback on Relationships between Emotional Labor and Job Satisfaction

Authors: Kiyoko Yoshimura, Yasunobu Kino


Focusing on professional call centers where workers with expertise perform services, this study aims to clarify the relationships between emotional labor and job satisfaction and the effects of recognition of customer feedback. Since the professional call center operators consist of professional license holders (qualification holders) and those who do not (non-holders), the following three points are analyzed in the two groups by using covariance structure analysis and simultaneous multi-population analysis: 1) the relationship between emotional labor and job satisfaction, 2) customer feedback and job satisfaction, and 3) the intermediation effect between the emotional labor of customer feedback and job satisfaction. The following results are obtained: i) no direct effect is found between job satisfaction and emotional labor for qualification holders and non-holders, ii) for qualification holders and non-holders, recognition of positive feedback and recognition of negative feedback had positive and negative effects on job satisfaction, respectively, iii) for qualification and non-holders, "consideration for colleagues" influences job satisfaction by recognizing positive feedback, and iv) only for qualification holders, the factors "customer-oriented emotional expression" and "emotional disharmony" have a positive and negative effect on job satisfaction, respectively, through recognition of positive feedback and recognition of negative feedback.

Keywords: call center, emotional labor, professional service, job satisfaction, customer feedback

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527 Sustainable Packaging and Consumer Behavior in a Customer Experience: A Neuromarketing Perspective

Authors: Francesco Pinci


This study focuses on sustainability and consumer behavior in relation to packaging aesthetics. It investigates the significance of product packaging as a potent marketing tool with a specific emphasis on commercially available pasta as a case study. The research delves into the visual components of packaging, encompassing aspects such as color, shape, packaging material, and logo design. The findings of this study hold particular relevance for food and beverage companies as they seek to gain a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing consumer purchasing decisions. Furthermore, the study places a significant emphasis on the sustainability aspects of packaging, exploring how eco-friendly and environmentally conscious packaging choices can impact consumer preferences and behaviors. The insights generated from this research contribute to a more sustainable approach to packaging practices and inform marketers on the effective integration of sustainability principles in their branding strategies. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the dynamic interplay between aesthetics, sustainability, and consumer behavior, offering practical implications for businesses seeking to align their packaging practices with sustainable and consumer-centric approaches. In this study, packaging designs and images from the website of Eataly US.Eataly is one of the leading distributors of authentic Italian pasta worldwide, and its website serves as a rich source of packaging visuals and product representations. By analyzing the packaging and images showcased on the Eataly website, the study gained valuable insights into consumer behavior and preferences regarding pasta packaging in the context of sustainability and aesthetics.

Keywords: consumer behaviour, sustainability, food marketing, neuromarketing

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526 Dielectric Properties of NdTi₍₀.₅₋ₓ₎GeₓMo₀.₅O₄ Ceramics at Microwave Frequency

Authors: Yih-Chien Chen, Tse-Lung Lin


The microwave characteristics of NdTi₍₀.₅₋ₓ₎GeₓMo₀.₅O₄ are studied to determine the feasibility of their use in the liquid sensor. The microwave characteristics of NdTi₍₀.₅₋ₓ₎GeₓMo₀.₅O₄ are determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. The permittivity (𝜀r) of NdTi₍₀.₄₉₎Ge₀.₀₁Mo₀.₅O₄ that is sintered at 1425 ℃ for 4 h is 17.6, the unloaded quality factor (Qu×f) is 33,400 GHz, and it has a temperature coefficient at the resonance frequency (TCF) of -30.7 ppm/℃. The proposed liquid sensor is at the 5G FR1 bands.

Keywords: NdTi₍₀.₅₋ₓ₎GeₓMo₀.₅O₄, X-ray diffraction pattern, permittivity, Unloaded quality factor

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525 Freecycle - Community Participation in Recycle and Its Possibilities of Being Replicated in the Industry

Authors: Ananya Banerjee


Context: This research focuses on the concept of freecycle, which is based on the idea that one person's trash can be another person's treasure. The study explores community-based freecycle through a social media group and examines the potential for replicating this model in the industry to enhance reuse and recycling efforts. Research Aim: The aim of this study is to understand the impact and community appetite for reuse through freecycling. Additionally, it aims to explore the feasibility of replicating this model in the industry to promote reuse and recycling. Methodology: The research employs a case study methodology, which involves collecting data from a social media group engaged in freecycling. Both quantitative inputs, such as participation data, and qualitative observations are gathered over a period of one hundred and twenty-five days. The study then transitions to qualitative methodology through systematic enquiry to investigate the current practices of freecycling and explore future possibilities. Findings: The study found that recycling through freecycle was highly efficient for both categorized and uncategorized goods within a small community of approximately twenty-five thousand members. Active community participation in reuse and recycling was observed, indicating a strong appetite for this approach. The findings also suggest the potential for replicating this model in the industry to facilitate a more sustainable economy. Theoretical Importance: This research contributes to the understanding of the efficacy of community-based freecycle initiatives in promoting reuse and recycling. Furthermore, it highlights the theoretical significance of replicating this model in the industry, potentially leading to reduced industrial and household waste. Data Collection and Analysis Procedures: Data for this study were collected by gathering group participation data from the social media freecycle group. Quantitative inputs, such as the number of goods recycled, were analysed to assess the efficiency of freecycle. Qualitative observations were made to understand community behaviour and attitudes towards reuse and recycling. The data were then systematically analysed to identify insights and patterns. Questions Addressed: This study addresses two main questions: 1) What is the impact and appetite for reuse in the community through freecycling? and 2) Is it possible to replicate this model in the industry to enhance reuse and recycling? Conclusion: The research concludes that community-based freecycle initiatives have a significant impact on recycling and reuse. The findings suggest that replicating this model in the industry can contribute to a more sustainable economy by increasing reuse and reducing waste. Implementing sustainability champions within organizations may facilitate the adoption of freecycling practices and make the reuse process more efficient. As a result, both societal and industrial efforts towards recycling and waste reduction can be strengthened. Overall, this study highlights the potential for freecycling to be a valuable tool in promoting sustainability at various levels.

Keywords: circular economy, recycle, new model, industry use, community behaviour

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