Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 149

Search results for: Pareto optimality

149 The Application of Pareto Local Search to the Single-Objective Quadratic Assignment Problem

Authors: Abdullah Alsheddy

Abstract:

This paper presents the employment of Pareto optimality as a strategy to help (single-objective) local search escaping local optima. Instead of local search, Pareto local search is applied to solve the quadratic assignment problem which is multi-objectivized by adding a helper objective. The additional objective is defined as a function of the primary one with augmented penalties that are dynamically updated.

Keywords: Pareto optimization, multi-objectivization, quadratic assignment problem, local search

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148 A Hybrid Tabu Search Algorithm for the Multi-Objective Job Shop Scheduling Problems

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk

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In this paper, a hybrid Tabu Search (TS) algorithm is suggested for the multi-objective job shop scheduling problems (MO-JSSPs). The algorithm integrates several shifting bottleneck based neighborhood structures with the Giffler & Thompson algorithm, which improve efficiency of the search. Diversification and intensification are provided with local and global left shift algorithms application and also new semi-active, active, and non-delay schedules creation. The suggested algorithm is tested in the MO-JSSPs benchmarks from the literature based on the Pareto optimality concept. Different performances criteria are used for the multi-objective algorithm evaluation. The proposed algorithm is able to find the Pareto solutions of the test problems in shorter time than other algorithm of the literature.

Keywords: tabu search, heuristics, job shop scheduling, multi-objective optimization, Pareto optimality

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
147 A Hybrid Pareto-Based Swarm Optimization Algorithm for the Multi-Objective Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk

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In this paper, a new hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm is proposed for the multi-objective flexible job shop scheduling problem that is very important and hard combinatorial problem. The Pareto approach is used for solving the multi-objective problem. Several new local search heuristics are integrated into an algorithm based on the critical block concept to enhance the performance of the algorithm. The algorithm is compared with the recently published multi-objective algorithms based on benchmarks selected from the literature. Several metrics are used for quantifying performance and comparison of the achieved solutions. The algorithms are also compared based on the Weighting summation of objectives approach. The proposed algorithm can find the Pareto solutions more efficiently than the compared algorithms in less computational time.

Keywords: swarm-based optimization, local search, Pareto optimality, flexible job shop scheduling, multi-objective optimization

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146 A Flexible Pareto Distribution Using α-Power Transformation

Authors: Shumaila Ehtisham

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In Statistical Distribution Theory, considering an additional parameter to classical distributions is a usual practice. In this study, a new distribution referred to as α-Power Pareto distribution is introduced by including an extra parameter. Several properties of the proposed distribution including explicit expressions for the moment generating function, mode, quantiles, entropies and order statistics are obtained. Unknown parameters have been estimated by using maximum likelihood estimation technique. Two real datasets have been considered to examine the usefulness of the proposed distribution. It has been observed that α-Power Pareto distribution outperforms while compared to different variants of Pareto distribution on the basis of model selection criteria.

Keywords: α-power transformation, maximum likelihood estimation, moment generating function, Pareto distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
145 BIASS in the Estimation of Covariance Matrices and Optimality Criteria

Authors: Juan M. Rodriguez-Diaz

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The precision of parameter estimators in the Gaussian linear model is traditionally accounted by the variance-covariance matrix of the asymptotic distribution. However, this measure can underestimate the true variance, specially for small samples. Traditionally, optimal design theory pays attention to this variance through its relationship with the model's information matrix. For this reason it seems convenient, at least in some cases, adapt the optimality criteria in order to get the best designs for the actual variance structure, otherwise the loss in efficiency of the designs obtained with the traditional approach may be very important.

Keywords: correlated observations, information matrix, optimality criteria, variance-covariance matrix

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144 The Generalized Pareto Distribution as a Model for Sequential Order Statistics

Authors: Mahdy ‎Esmailian, Mahdi ‎Doostparast, Ahmad ‎Parsian

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‎In this article‎, ‎sequential order statistics (SOS) censoring type II samples coming from the generalized Pareto distribution are considered‎. ‎Maximum likelihood (ML) estimators of the unknown parameters are derived on the basis of the available multiple SOS data‎. ‎Necessary conditions for existence and uniqueness of the derived ML estimates are given‎. Due to complexity in the proposed likelihood function‎, ‎a useful re-parametrization is suggested‎. ‎For illustrative purposes‎, ‎a Monte Carlo simulation study is conducted and an illustrative example is analysed‎.

Keywords: bayesian estimation‎, generalized pareto distribution‎, ‎maximum likelihood estimation‎, sequential order statistics

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143 Optimization of Fourth Order Discrete-Approximation Inclusions

Authors: Elimhan N. Mahmudov

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The paper concerns the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality for Cauchy problem of fourth order discrete (PD) and discrete-approximate (PDA) inclusions. The main problem is formulation of the fourth order adjoint discrete and discrete-approximate inclusions and transversality conditions, which are peculiar to problems including fourth order derivatives and approximate derivatives. Thus the necessary and sufficient conditions of optimality are obtained incorporating the Euler-Lagrange and Hamiltonian forms of inclusions. Derivation of optimality conditions are based on the apparatus of locally adjoint mapping (LAM). Moreover in the application of these results we consider the fourth order linear discrete and discrete-approximate inclusions.

Keywords: difference, optimization, fourth, approximation, transversality

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142 A Novel Guided Search Based Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithm

Authors: A. Baviskar, C. Sandeep, K. Shankar

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Solving Multi-objective Optimization Problems requires faster convergence and better spread. Though existing Evolutionary Algorithms (EA's) are able to achieve this, the computation effort can further be reduced by hybridizing them with innovative strategies. This study is focuses on converging to the pareto front faster while adapting the advantages of Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm-II (SPEA-II) for a better spread. Two different approaches based on optimizing the objective functions independently are implemented. In the first method, the decision variables corresponding to the optima of individual objective functions are strategically used to guide the search towards the pareto front. In the second method, boundary points of the pareto front are calculated and their decision variables are seeded to the initial population. Both the methods are applied to different constrained and unconstrained multi-objective test functions. It is observed that proposed guided search based algorithm gives better convergence and diversity than several well-known existing algorithms (such as NSGA-II and SPEA-II) in considerably less number of iterations.

Keywords: boundary points, evolutionary algorithms (EA's), guided search, strength pareto evolutionary algorithm-II (SPEA-II)

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
141 Modeling of Maximum Rainfall Using Poisson-Generalized Pareto Distribution in Kigali, Rwanda

Authors: Emmanuel Iyamuremye

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Extreme rainfall events have caused significant damage to agriculture, ecology, and infrastructure, disruption of human activities, injury, and loss of life. They also have significant social, economic, and environmental consequences because they considerably damage urban as well as rural areas. Early detection of extreme maximum rainfall helps to implement strategies and measures, before they occur, hence mitigating the consequences. Extreme value theory has been used widely in modeling extreme rainfall and in various disciplines, such as financial markets, the insurance industry, failure cases. Climatic extremes have been analyzed by using either generalized extreme value (GEV) or generalized Pareto (GP) distributions, which provides evidence of the importance of modeling extreme rainfall from different regions of the world. In this paper, we focused on Peak Over Thresholds approach, where the Poisson-generalized Pareto distribution is considered as the proper distribution for the study of the exceedances. This research also considers the use of the generalized Pareto (GP) distribution with a Poisson model for arrivals to describe peaks over a threshold. The research used statistical techniques to fit models that used to predict extreme rainfall in Kigali. The results indicate that the proposed Poisson-GP distribution provides a better fit to maximum monthly rainfall data. Further, the Poisson-GP models are able to estimate various return levels. The research also found a slow increase in return levels for maximum monthly rainfall for higher return periods, and further, the intervals are increasingly wider as the return period is increasing.

Keywords: exceedances, extreme value theory, generalized Pareto distribution, Poisson generalized Pareto distribution

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140 Optimality Conditions and Duality for Semi-Infinite Mathematical Programming Problems with Equilibrium Constraints, Using Convexificators

Authors: Shashi Kant Mishra

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In this paper, we consider semi-infinite mathematical programming problems with equilibrium constraints (SIMPEC). We establish necessary and sufficient optimality conditions for the SIMPEC, using convexificators. We study the Wolfe type dual problem for the SIMPEC under the ∂∗convexity assumptions. A Mond-Weir type dual problem is also formulated and studied for the SIMPEC under the ∂∗-convexity, ∂∗-pseudoconvexity and ∂∗quasiconvexity assumptions. Weak duality theorems are established to relate the SIMPEC and two dual programs in the framework of convexificators. Further, strong duality theorems are obtained under generalized standard Abadie constraint qualification (GS-ACQ).

Keywords: mathematical programming problems with equilibrium constraints, optimality conditions, semi-infinite programming, convexificators

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139 Optimum Stratification of a Skewed Population

Authors: D. K. Rao, M. G. M. Khan, K. G. Reddy

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The focus of this paper is to develop a technique of solving a combined problem of determining Optimum Strata Boundaries (OSB) and Optimum Sample Size (OSS) of each stratum, when the population understudy is skewed and the study variable has a Pareto frequency distribution. The problem of determining the OSB is formulated as a Mathematical Programming Problem (MPP) which is then solved by dynamic programming technique. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the computational details of the proposed method. The proposed technique is useful to obtain OSB and OSS for a Pareto type skewed population, which minimizes the variance of the estimate of population mean.

Keywords: stratified sampling, optimum strata boundaries, optimum sample size, pareto distribution, mathematical programming problem, dynamic programming technique

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138 Performance Evaluation of Karanja Oil Based Biodiesel Engine Using Modified Genetic Algorithm

Authors: G. Bhushan, S. Dhingra, K. K. Dubey

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This paper presents the evaluation of performance (BSFC and BTE), combustion (Pmax) and emission (CO, NOx, HC and smoke opacity) parameters of karanja biodiesel in a single cylinder, four stroke, direct injection diesel engine by considering significant engine input parameters (blending ratio, compression ratio and load torque). Multi-objective optimization of performance, combustion and emission parameters is also carried out in a karanja biodiesel engine using hybrid RSM-NSGA-II technique. The pareto optimum solutions are predicted by running the hybrid RSM-NSGA-II technique. Each pareto optimal solution is having its own importance. Confirmation tests are also conducted at randomly selected few pareto solutions to check the authenticity of the results.

Keywords: genetic algorithm, rsm, biodiesel, karanja

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
137 Critical Analysis of Heat Exchanger Cycle for its Maintainability Using Failure Modes and Effect Analysis and Pareto Analysis

Authors: Sayali Vyas, Atharva Desai, Shreyas Badave, Apurv Kulkarni, B. Rajiv

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The Failure Modes and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is an efficient evaluation technique to identify potential failures in products, processes, and services. FMEA is designed to identify and prioritize failure modes. It proves to be a useful method for identifying and correcting possible failures at its earliest possible level so that one can avoid consequences of poor performance. In this paper, FMEA tool is used in detection of failures of various components of heat exchanger cycle and to identify critical failures of the components which may hamper the system’s performance. Further, a detailed Pareto analysis is done to find out the most critical components of the cycle, the causes of its failures, and possible recommended actions. This paper can be used as a checklist which will help in maintainability of the system.

Keywords: FMEA, heat exchanger cycle, Ishikawa diagram, pareto analysis, RPN (Risk Priority Number)

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136 A Hybrid Distributed Algorithm for Multi-Objective Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk

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In this paper, a hybrid distributed algorithm has been suggested for multi-objective dynamic flexible job shop scheduling problem. The proposed algorithm is high level, in which several algorithms search the space on different machines simultaneously also it is a hybrid algorithm that takes advantages of the artificial intelligence, evolutionary and optimization methods. Distribution is done at different levels and new approaches are used for design of the algorithm. Apache spark and Hadoop frameworks have been used for the distribution of the algorithm. The Pareto optimality approach is used for solving the multi-objective benchmarks. The suggested algorithm that is able to solve large-size problems in short times has been compared with the successful algorithms of the literature. The results prove high speed and efficiency of the algorithm.

Keywords: distributed algorithms, apache-spark, Hadoop, flexible dynamic job shop scheduling, multi-objective optimization

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135 Taguchi Approach for the Optimization of the Stitching Defects of Knitted Garments

Authors: Adel El-Hadidy

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For any industry, the production and quality management or wastages reductions have major impingement on overall factory economy. This work discusses the quality improvement of garment industry by applying Pareto analysis, cause and effect diagram and Taguchi experimental design. The main purpose of the work is to reduce the stitching defects, which will also minimize the rejection and reworks rate. Application of Pareto chart, fish bone diagram and Process Sigma Level/and or Performance Level tools helps solving those problems on priority basis. Among all, only sewing, defects are responsible form 69.3% to 97.3 % of total defects. Process Sigma level has been improved from 0.79 to 1.3 and performance rate improved, from F to D level. The results showed that the new set of sewing parameters was superior to the original one. It can be seen that fabric size has the largest effect on the sewing defects and that needle size has the smallest effect on the stitching defects.

Keywords: garment, sewing defects, cost of rework, DMAIC, sigma level, cause and effect diagram, Pareto analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
134 Multi-Objective Optimization in Carbon Abatement Technology Cycles (CAT) and Related Areas: Survey, Developments and Prospects

Authors: Hameed Rukayat Opeyemi, Pericles Pilidis, Pagone Emanuele

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An infinitesimal increase in performance can have immense reduction in operating and capital expenses in a power generation system. Therefore, constant studies are being carried out to improve both conventional and novel power cycles. Globally, power producers are constantly researching on ways to minimize emission and to collectively downsize the total cost rate of power plants. A substantial spurt of developmental technologies of low carbon cycles have been suggested and studied, however they all have their limitations and financial implication. In the area of carbon abatement in power plants, three major objectives conflict: The cost rate of the plant, Power output and Environmental impact. Since, an increase in one of this parameter directly affects the other. This poses a multi-objective problem. It is paramount to be able to discern the point where improving one objective affects the other. Hence, the need for a Pareto-based optimization algorithm. Pareto-based optimization algorithm helps to find those points where improving one objective influences another objective negatively and stops there. The application of Pareto-based optimization algorithm helps the user/operator/designer make an informed decision. This paper sheds more light on areas that multi-objective optimization has been applied in carbon abatement technologies in the last five years, developments and prospects.

Keywords: gas turbine, low carbon technology, pareto optimal, multi-objective optimization

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133 Multi-Objective Random Drift Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm Based on RDPSO and Crowding Distance Sorting

Authors: Yiqiong Yuan, Jun Sun, Dongmei Zhou, Jianan Sun

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In this paper, we presented a Multi-Objective Random Drift Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (MORDPSO-CD) based on RDPSO and crowding distance sorting to improve the convergence and distribution with less computation cost. MORDPSO-CD makes the most of RDPSO to approach the true Pareto optimal solutions fast. We adopt the crowding distance sorting technique to update and maintain the archived optimal solutions. Introducing the crowding distance technique into MORDPSO can make the leader particles find the true Pareto solution ultimately. The simulation results reveal that the proposed algorithm has better convergence and distribution

Keywords: multi-objective optimization, random drift particle swarm optimization, crowding distance sorting, pareto optimal solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
132 VaR or TCE: Explaining the Preferences of Regulators

Authors: Silvia Faroni, Olivier Le Courtois, Krzysztof Ostaszewski

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While a lot of research concentrates on the merits of VaR and TCE, which are the two most classic risk indicators used by financial institutions, little has been written on explaining why regulators favor the choice of VaR or TCE in their set of rules. In this paper, we investigate the preferences of regulators with the aim of understanding why, for instance, a VaR with a given confidence level is ultimately retained. Further, this paper provides equivalence rules that explain how a given choice of VaR can be equivalent to a given choice of TCE. Then, we introduce a new risk indicator that extends TCE by providing a more versatile weighting of the constituents of probability distribution tails. All of our results are illustrated using the generalized Pareto distribution.

Keywords: generalized pareto distribution, generalized tail conditional expectation, regulator preferences, risk measure

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
131 Proposal of Optimality Evaluation for Quantum Secure Communication Protocols by Taking the Average of the Main Protocol Parameters: Efficiency, Security and Practicality

Authors: Georgi Bebrov, Rozalina Dimova

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In the field of quantum secure communication, there is no evaluation that characterizes quantum secure communication (QSC) protocols in a complete, general manner. The current paper addresses the problem concerning the lack of such an evaluation for QSC protocols by introducing an optimality evaluation, which is expressed as the average over the three main parameters of QSC protocols: efficiency, security, and practicality. For the efficiency evaluation, the common expression of this parameter is used, which incorporates all the classical and quantum resources (bits and qubits) utilized for transferring a certain amount of information (bits) in a secure manner. By using criteria approach whether or not certain criteria are met, an expression for the practicality evaluation is presented, which accounts for the complexity of the QSC practical realization. Based on the error rates that the common quantum attacks (Measurement and resend, Intercept and resend, probe attack, and entanglement swapping attack) induce, the security evaluation for a QSC protocol is proposed as the minimum function taken over the error rates of the mentioned quantum attacks. For the sake of clarity, an example is presented in order to show how the optimality is calculated.

Keywords: quantum cryptography, quantum secure communcation, quantum secure direct communcation security, quantum secure direct communcation efficiency, quantum secure direct communcation practicality

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130 On the Design of Robust Governors of Steam Power Systems Using Polynomial and State-Space Based H∞ Techniques: A Comparative Study

Authors: Rami A. Maher, Ibraheem K. Ibraheem

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This work presents a comparison study between the state-space and polynomial methods for the design of the robust governor for load frequency control of steam turbine power systems. The robust governor is synthesized using the two approaches and the comparison is extended to include time and frequency domains performance, controller order, and uncertainty representation, weighting filters, optimality and sub-optimality. The obtained results are represented through tables and curves with reasons of similarities and dissimilarities.

Keywords: robust control, load frequency control, steam turbine, H∞-norm, system uncertainty, load disturbance

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
129 Analysis of Labor Effectiveness at Green Tea Dry Sorting Workstation for Increasing Tea Factory Competitiveness

Authors: Bayu Anggara, Arita Dewi Nugrahini, Didik Purwadi

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Dry sorting workstation needs labor to produce green tea in Gambung Tea Factory. Observation results show that there is labor who are not working at the moment and doing overtime jobs to meet production targets. The measurement of the level of labor effectiveness has never been done before. The purpose of this study is to determine the level of labor effectiveness and provide recommendations for improvement based on the results of the Pareto diagram and Ishikawa diagram. The method used to measure the level of labor effectiveness is Overall Labor Effectiveness (OLE). OLE had three indicators which are availability, performance, and quality. Recommendations are made based on the results of the Pareto diagram and Ishikawa diagram for indicators that do not meet world standards. Based on the results of the study, the OLE value was 68.19%. Recommendations given to improve labor performance are adding mechanics, rescheduling rest periods, providing special training for labor, and giving rewards to labor. Furthermore, the recommendations for improving the quality of labor are procuring water content measuring devices, create material standard policies, and rescheduling rest periods.

Keywords: Ishikawa diagram, labor effectiveness, OLE, Pareto diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
128 Controlled Chemotherapy Strategy Applied to HIV Model

Authors: Shohel Ahmed, Md. Abdul Alim, Sumaiya Rahman

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Optimal control can be helpful to test and compare different vaccination strategies of a certain disease. The mathematical model of HIV we consider here is a set of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) describing the interactions of CD4+T cells of the immune system with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). As an early treatment setting, we investigate an optimal chemotherapy strategy where control represents the percentage of effect the chemotherapy has on the system. The aim is to obtain a new optimal chemotherapeutic strategy where an isoperimetric constraint on the chemotherapy supply plays a crucial role. We outline the steps in formulating an optimal control problem, derive optimality conditions and demonstrate numerical results of an optimal control for the model. Numerical results illustrate how such a constraint alters the optimal vaccination schedule and its effect on cell-virus interactions.

Keywords: chemotherapy of HIV, optimal control involving ODEs, optimality conditions, Pontryagin’s maximum principle

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127 Multi-Objective Optimal Design of a Cascade Control System for a Class of Underactuated Mechanical Systems

Authors: Yuekun Chen, Yousef Sardahi, Salam Hajjar, Christopher Greer

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This paper presents a multi-objective optimal design of a cascade control system for an underactuated mechanical system. Cascade control structures usually include two control algorithms (inner and outer). To design such a control system properly, the following conflicting objectives should be considered at the same time: 1) the inner closed-loop control must be faster than the outer one, 2) the inner loop should fast reject any disturbance and prevent it from propagating to the outer loop, 3) the controlled system should be insensitive to measurement noise, and 4) the controlled system should be driven by optimal energy. Such a control problem can be formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem such that the optimal trade-offs among these design goals are found. To authors best knowledge, such a problem has not been studied in multi-objective settings so far. In this work, an underactuated mechanical system consisting of a rotary servo motor and a ball and beam is used for the computer simulations, the setup parameters of the inner and outer control systems are tuned by NSGA-II (Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm), and the dominancy concept is used to find the optimal design points. The solution of this problem is not a single optimal cascade control, but rather a set of optimal cascade controllers (called Pareto set) which represent the optimal trade-offs among the selected design criteria. The function evaluation of the Pareto set is called the Pareto front. The solution set is introduced to the decision-maker who can choose any point to implement. The simulation results in terms of Pareto front and time responses to external signals show the competing nature among the design objectives. The presented study may become the basis for multi-objective optimal design of multi-loop control systems.

Keywords: cascade control, multi-Loop control systems, multiobjective optimization, optimal control

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126 An Application of Modified M-out-of-N Bootstrap Method to Heavy-Tailed Distributions

Authors: Hannah F. Opayinka, Adedayo A. Adepoju

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This study is an extension of a prior study on the modification of the existing m-out-of-n (moon) bootstrap method for heavy-tailed distributions in which modified m-out-of-n (mmoon) was proposed as an alternative method to the existing moon technique. In this study, both moon and mmoon techniques were applied to two real income datasets which followed Lognormal and Pareto distributions respectively with finite variances. The performances of these two techniques were compared using Standard Error (SE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The findings showed that mmoon outperformed moon bootstrap in terms of smaller SEs and RMSEs for all the sample sizes considered in the two datasets.

Keywords: Bootstrap, income data, lognormal distribution, Pareto distribution

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125 On the Optimality of Blocked Main Effects Plans

Authors: Rita SahaRay, Ganesh Dutta

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In this article, experimental situations are considered where a main effects plan is to be used to study m two-level factors using n runs which are partitioned into b blocks, not necessarily of same size. Assuming the block sizes to be even for all blocks, for the case n ≡ 2 (mod 4), optimal designs are obtained with respect to type 1 and type 2 optimality criteria in the class of designs providing estimation of all main effects orthogonal to the block effects. In practice, such orthogonal estimation of main effects is often a desirable condition. In the wider class of all available m two level even sized blocked main effects plans, where the factors do not occur at high and low levels equally often in each block, E-optimal designs are also characterized. Simple construction methods based on Hadamard matrices and Kronecker product for these optimal designs are presented.

Keywords: design matrix, Hadamard matrix, Kronecker product, type 1 criteria, type 2 criteria

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124 Multi Objective Simultaneous Assembly Line Balancing and Buffer Sizing

Authors: Saif Ullah, Guan Zailin, Xu Xianhao, He Zongdong, Wang Baoxi

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Assembly line balancing problem is aimed to divide the tasks among the stations in assembly lines and optimize some objectives. In assembly lines the workload on stations is different from each other due to different tasks times and the difference in workloads between stations can cause blockage or starvation in some stations in assembly lines. Buffers are used to store the semi-finished parts between the stations and can help to smooth the assembly production. The assembly line balancing and buffer sizing problem can affect the throughput of the assembly lines. Assembly line balancing and buffer sizing problems have been studied separately in literature and due to their collective contribution in throughput rate of assembly lines, balancing and buffer sizing problem are desired to study simultaneously and therefore they are considered concurrently in current research. Current research is aimed to maximize throughput, minimize total size of buffers in assembly line and minimize workload variations in assembly line simultaneously. A multi objective optimization objective is designed which can give better Pareto solutions from the Pareto front and a simple example problem is solved for assembly line balancing and buffer sizing simultaneously. Current research is significant for assembly line balancing research and it can be significant to introduce optimization approaches which can optimize current multi objective problem in future.

Keywords: assembly line balancing, buffer sizing, Pareto solutions

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123 Analytical Hierarchical Process for Multi-Criteria Decision-Making

Authors: Luis Javier Serrano Tamayo

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This research on technology makes a first approach to the selection of an amphibious landing ship with strategic capabilities, through the implementation of a multi-criteria model using Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP), in which a significant group of alternatives of latest technology has been considered. The variables were grouped at different levels to match design and performance characteristics, which affect the lifecycle as well as the acquisition, maintenance and operational costs. The model yielded an overall measure of effectiveness and an overall measure of cost of each kind of ship that was compared each other inside the model and showed in a Pareto chart. The modeling was developed using the Expert Choice software, based on AHP method.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, multi-criteria decision-making, Pareto analysis, Colombian Marine Corps, projection operations, expert choice, amphibious landing ship

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122 Price Compensation Mechanism with Unmet Demand for Public-Private Partnership Projects

Authors: Zhuo Feng, Ying Gao

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Public-private partnership (PPP), as an innovative way to provide infrastructures by the private sector, is being widely used throughout the world. Compared with the traditional mode, PPP emerges largely for merits of relieving public budget constraint and improving infrastructure supply efficiency by involving private funds. However, PPP projects are characterized by large scale, high investment, long payback period, and long concession period. These characteristics make PPP projects full of risks. One of the most important risks faced by the private sector is demand risk because many factors affect the real demand. If the real demand is far lower than the forecasting demand, the private sector will be got into big trouble because operating revenue is the main means for the private sector to recoup the investment and obtain profit. Therefore, it is important to study how the government compensates the private sector when the demand risk occurs in order to achieve Pareto-improvement. This research focuses on price compensation mechanism, an ex-post compensation mechanism, and analyzes, by mathematical modeling, the impact of price compensation mechanism on payoff of the private sector and consumer surplus for PPP toll road projects. This research first investigates whether or not price compensation mechanisms can obtain Pareto-improvement and, if so, then explores boundary conditions for this mechanism. The research results show that price compensation mechanism can realize Pareto-improvement under certain conditions. Especially, to make the price compensation mechanism accomplish Pareto-improvement, renegotiation costs of the government and the private sector should be lower than a certain threshold which is determined by marginal operating cost and distortionary cost of the tax. In addition, the compensation percentage should match with the price cut of the private investor when demand drops. This research aims to provide theoretical support for the government when determining compensation scope under the price compensation mechanism. Moreover, some policy implications can also be drawn from the analysis for better risk-sharing and sustainability of PPP projects.

Keywords: infrastructure, price compensation mechanism, public-private partnership, renegotiation

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121 Analysis of the Statistical Characterization of Significant Wave Data Exceedances for Designing Offshore Structures

Authors: Rui Teixeira, Alan O’Connor, Maria Nogal

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The statistical theory of extreme events is progressively a topic of growing interest in all the fields of science and engineering. The changes currently experienced by the world, economic and environmental, emphasized the importance of dealing with extreme occurrences with improved accuracy. When it comes to the design of offshore structures, particularly offshore wind turbines, the importance of efficiently characterizing extreme events is of major relevance. Extreme events are commonly characterized by extreme values theory. As an alternative, the accurate modeling of the tails of statistical distributions and the characterization of the low occurrence events can be achieved with the application of the Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) methodology. The POT methodology allows for a more refined fit of the statistical distribution by truncating the data with a minimum value of a predefined threshold u. For mathematically approximating the tail of the empirical statistical distribution the Generalised Pareto is widely used. Although, in the case of the exceedances of significant wave data (H_s) the 2 parameters Weibull and the Exponential distribution, which is a specific case of the Generalised Pareto distribution, are frequently used as an alternative. The Generalized Pareto, despite the existence of practical cases where it is applied, is not completely recognized as the adequate solution to model exceedances over a certain threshold u. References that set the Generalised Pareto distribution as a secondary solution in the case of significant wave data can be identified in the literature. In this framework, the current study intends to tackle the discussion of the application of statistical models to characterize exceedances of wave data. Comparison of the application of the Generalised Pareto, the 2 parameters Weibull and the Exponential distribution are presented for different values of the threshold u. Real wave data obtained in four buoys along the Irish coast was used in the comparative analysis. Results show that the application of the statistical distributions to characterize significant wave data needs to be addressed carefully and in each particular case one of the statistical models mentioned fits better the data than the others. Depending on the value of the threshold u different results are obtained. Other variables of the fit, as the number of points and the estimation of the model parameters, are analyzed and the respective conclusions were drawn. Some guidelines on the application of the POT method are presented. Modeling the tail of the distributions shows to be, for the present case, a highly non-linear task and, due to its growing importance, should be addressed carefully for an efficient estimation of very low occurrence events.

Keywords: extreme events, offshore structures, peak-over-threshold, significant wave data

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120 Pareto Optimal Material Allocation Mechanism

Authors: Peter Egri, Tamas Kis

Abstract:

Scheduling problems have been studied by the algorithmic mechanism design research from the beginning. This paper is focusing on a practically important, but theoretically rather neglected field: the project scheduling problem where the jobs connected by precedence constraints compete for various nonrenewable resources, such as materials. Although the centralized problem can be solved in polynomial-time by applying the algorithm of Carlier and Rinnooy Kan from the Eighties, obtaining materials in a decentralized environment is usually far from optimal. It can be observed in practical production scheduling situations that project managers tend to cache the required materials as soon as possible in order to avoid later delays due to material shortages. This greedy practice usually leads both to excess stocks for some projects and materials, and simultaneously, to shortages for others. The aim of this study is to develop a model for the material allocation problem of a production plant, where a central decision maker—the inventory—should assign the resources arriving at different points in time to the jobs. Since the actual due dates are not known by the inventory, the mechanism design approach is applied with the projects as the self-interested agents. The goal of the mechanism is to elicit the required information and allocate the available materials such that it minimizes the maximal tardiness among the projects. It is assumed that except the due dates, the inventory is familiar with every other parameters of the problem. A further requirement is that due to practical considerations monetary transfer is not allowed. Therefore a mechanism without money is sought which excludes some widely applied solutions such as the Vickrey–Clarke–Groves scheme. In this work, a type of Serial Dictatorship Mechanism (SDM) is presented for the studied problem, including a polynomial-time algorithm for computing the material allocation. The resulted mechanism is both truthful and Pareto optimal. Thus the randomization over the possible priority orderings of the projects results in a universally truthful and Pareto optimal randomized mechanism. However, it is shown that in contrast to problems like the many-to-many matching market, not every Pareto optimal solution can be generated with an SDM. In addition, no performance guarantee can be given compared to the optimal solution, therefore this approximation characteristic is investigated with experimental study. All in all, the current work studies a practically relevant scheduling problem and presents a novel truthful material allocation mechanism which eliminates the potential benefit of the greedy behavior that negatively influences the outcome. The resulted allocation is also shown to be Pareto optimal, which is the most widely used criteria describing a necessary condition for a reasonable solution.

Keywords: material allocation, mechanism without money, polynomial-time mechanism, project scheduling

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