Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1490

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Energy and Power Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1490 Numerical Assessment of Fire Characteristics with Bodies Engulfed in Hydrocarbon Pool Fire

Authors: Siva Kumar Bathina, Sudheer Siddapureddy

Abstract:

Fires accident becomes even worse when the hazardous equipment like reactors or radioactive waste packages are engulfed in fire. In this work, large-eddy numerical fire simulations are performed using fire dynamic simulator to predict the thermal behavior of such bodies engulfed in hydrocarbon pool fires. A radiatively dominated 0.3 m circular burner with n-heptane as the fuel is considered in this work. The fire numerical simulation results without anybody inside the fire are validated with the reported experimental data. The comparison is in good agreement for different flame properties like predicted mass burning rate, flame height, time-averaged center-line temperature, time-averaged center-line velocity, puffing frequency, the irradiance at the surroundings, and the radiative heat feedback to the pool surface. Cask of different sizes is simulated with SS304L material. The results are independent of the material of the cask simulated as the adiabatic surface temperature concept is employed in this study. It is observed that the mass burning rate increases with the blockage ratio (3% ≤ B ≤ 32%). However, the change in this increment is reduced at higher blockage ratios (B > 14%). This is because the radiative heat feedback to the fuel surface is not only from the flame but also from the cask volume. As B increases, the volume of the cask increases and thereby increases the radiative contribution to the fuel surface. The radiative heat feedback in the case of the cask engulfed in the fire is increased by 2.5% to 31% compared to the fire without cask.

Keywords: adiabatic surface temperature, fire accidents, fire dynamic simulator, radiative heat feedback

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1489 Performance Investigation of Integrated Photovoltaic/Thermal Collectors and Adsorption Cooling System for a Building under the Climate Conditions of Middle East

Authors: Ahmed A. Hassan, Ahmed E. Elwardany, Shinichi Ookawara, Ibrahim I. El-Sharkawy

Abstract:

In this paper, a theoretical investigation of the performance of an integrated system comprising a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) collectors and a silica gel/water-based adsorption cooling system is presented under different climates in the Middle East. The system electrical and thermal energies have been generated using PV/T whilst the cooling power is produced using the adsorption system. The electric power generated is utilized in the building need, and the excess can be delivered to the grid or stored in batteries. Furthermore, the system can provide cooling, electric power, and domestic hot water in the summer. In winter, the system can provide electricity and space heating or domestic hot water supply depending on the user requirement as the chiller will work in heat pump mode. Solar data is already available for different cities in the Middle East, such as Alexandria in Egypt, Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, and Dubai in the United Arab Emirates, which are the cities under investigation in the current study. System performance parameters such as cooling and heating capacities, daily average cooling and heating capacities, cycle COP, and solar COP have been reported.

Keywords: adsorption cooling system, Middle East, photovoltaic/thermal collectors, silica gel/water pair

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1488 Governance of Energy Transitions in Developing States

Authors: Robert Lindner

Abstract:

In recent years a multitude of international efforts, including the United Nations’ aspirational 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, provided a new momentum to facilitate energy access and rural electrification projects to combat energy poverty in developing states in Asia. Rural electrification projects promise to facilitate other sustainable development aims, such as the empowerment of local communities through the creation of economic opportunities or increased disaster resilience. This study applies a multi-governance research framework to study the cases of the ongoing energy system transition in Myanmar and Cambodia. It explores what impact the international aid community, especially multilateral development banks and international development agencies, has on the governance of the transitions and how diverging aid donor interest shape policy making and project planning. The study is based on policy analysis and expert interviews, as well as extensive field research. It critically examines the current development trajectories and the strategies of the stakeholders involved. It concludes that institutional and technological competition between donors, as well as a lack of transparency and inclusion in the project planning and implementation phases, contributes to insufficient coordination in national energy policy making and project implementation at the local level. The study further discusses possible alternative approaches that might help to promote the spread of sustainable energy technologies.

Keywords: energy governance, developing countries, multi-level governance, energy transitions

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1487 Distribution System Modelling: A Holistic Approach for Harmonic Studies

Authors: Stanislav Babaev, Vladimir Cuk, Sjef Cobben, Jan Desmet

Abstract:

The procedures for performing harmonic studies for medium-voltage distribution feeders have become relatively mature topics since the early 1980s. The efforts of various electric power engineers and researchers were mainly focused on handling large harmonic non-linear loads connected scarcely at several buses of medium-voltage feeders. In order to assess the impact of these loads on the voltage quality of the distribution system, specific modeling and simulation strategies were proposed. These methodologies could deliver a reasonable estimation accuracy given the requirements of least computational efforts and reduced complexity. To uphold these requirements, certain analysis assumptions have been made, which became de facto standards for establishing guidelines for harmonic analysis. Among others, typical assumptions include balanced conditions of the study and the negligible impact of impedance frequency characteristics of various power system components. In latter, skin and proximity effects are usually omitted, and resistance and reactance values are modeled based on the theoretical equations. Further, the simplifications of the modelling routine have led to the commonly accepted practice of neglecting phase angle diversity effects. This is mainly associated with developed load models, which only in a handful of cases are representing the complete harmonic behavior of a certain device as well as accounting on the harmonic interaction between grid harmonic voltages and harmonic currents. While these modelling practices were proven to be reasonably effective for medium-voltage levels, similar approaches have been adopted for low-voltage distribution systems. Given modern conditions and massive increase in usage of residential electronic devices, recent and ongoing boom of electric vehicles, and large-scale installing of distributed solar power, the harmonics in current low-voltage grids are characterized by high degree of variability and demonstrate sufficient diversity leading to a certain level of cancellation effects. It is obvious, that new modelling algorithms overcoming previously made assumptions have to be accepted. In this work, a simulation approach aimed to deal with some of the typical assumptions is proposed. A practical low-voltage feeder is modeled in PowerFactory. In order to demonstrate the importance of diversity effect and harmonic interaction, previously developed measurement-based models of photovoltaic inverter and battery charger are used as loads. The Python-based script aiming to supply varying voltage background distortion profile and the associated current harmonic response of loads is used as the core of unbalanced simulation. Furthermore, the impact of uncertainty of feeder frequency-impedance characteristics on total harmonic distortion levels is shown along with scenarios involving linear resistive loads, which further alter the impedance of the system. The comparative analysis demonstrates sufficient differences with cases when all the assumptions are in place, and results indicate that new modelling and simulation procedures need to be adopted for low-voltage distribution systems with high penetration of non-linear loads and renewable generation.

Keywords: electric power system, harmonic distortion, power quality, public low-voltage network, harmonic modelling

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1486 Optimal Portfolio of Multi-service Provision based on Stochastic Model Predictive Control

Authors: Yifu Ding, Vijay Avinash, Malcolm McCulloch

Abstract:

As the proliferation of decentralized energy systems, the UK power system allows small-scale entities such as microgrids (MGs) to tender multiple energy services including energy arbitrage and frequency responses (FRs). However, its operation requires the balance between the uncertain renewable generations and loads in real-time and has to fulfill their provision requirements of contract services continuously during the time window agreed, otherwise it will be penalized for the under-delivered provision. To hedge against risks due to uncertainties and maximize the economic benefits, we propose a stochastic model predictive control (SMPC) framework to optimize its operation for the multi-service provision. Distinguished from previous works, we include a detailed economic-degradation model of the lithium-ion battery to quantify the costs of different service provisions, as well as accurately describe the changing dynamics of the battery. Considering a branch of load and generation scenarios and the battery aging, we formulate a risk-averse cost function using conditional value at risk (CVaR). It aims to achieve the maximum expected net revenue and avoids severe losses. The framework will be performed on a case study of a PV-battery grid-tied microgrid in the UK with real-life data. To highlight its performance, the framework will be compared with the case without the degradation model and the deterministic formulation.

Keywords: model predictive control (MPC), battery degradation, frequency response, microgrids

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1485 Efficiency Enhancement of Photovoltaic Panels Using an Optimised Air Cooled Heat Sink

Authors: Wisam K. Hussam, Ali Alfeeli

Abstract:

Solar panels that use photovoltaic (PV) cells are popular for converting solar power into electricity. One of the major problems that face the performance of PV panels is the overheating caused by excessive solar radiation and high ambient temperatures, which degrades the efficiency of the PV panels remarkably. To overcome this issue, an aluminum heat sink was used to dissipate unwanted heat from the PV cell. The dimensions of the heat sink were determined considering the optimal fins spacing that fulfills hot climatic conditions. In this study, the effects of cooling on the efficiency and power output of a PV panel were studied experimentally. Two PV modules were used: one without a heat sink, which referred to as the reference module, while the other one with an attached heat sink. The experiments run for 11 hours from 6 am to 5 pm, where temperatures readings in the rear and front of both PV modules were recorded at an interval of 15 minutes by using sensors and an Arduino microprocessor. Results are recorded for both panels simultaneously for analysis, temperate comparison, and for power and efficiency calculations. A maximum increase in the solar to the electrical conversion efficiency of 35% and almost 55% in the power output were achieved with the use of a heat sink, while temperatures at the front and back of the panel were dropped by 9% and 17 %, respectively.

Keywords: photovoltaic cell, natural convection, heat sink, efficiency

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1484 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Triangular Enclosure as an Attic for Different Geometries and Boundary Conditions

Authors: H. Golchoobian, S. Saedodin, M. H. Taheri, A. Sarafraz

Abstract:

In this paper, natural convection in an attic is numerically investigated. The geometry of the problem is considered to be a triangular enclosure. ANSYS Fluent software is used for modeling and numerical solution. This study is for steady state. Four right-angled triangles with height to base ratios of 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25 are considered. The behavior of various parameters related to its performance, including temperature distribution and velocity vectors are evaluated, and graphs for the Nusselt number have been drawn. Also, in this study, the effect of geometric shape of enclosure with different height-to-base ratios has been evaluated for three types of boundary conditions of winter, summer day and one another state. It can be concluded that as the bottom edge temperature and ratio of base to height of the enclosure increases, the convective effects become more prominent and circulation happened.

Keywords: enclosure, natural convection, numerical solution, Nusselt number, triangular

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1483 Modeling and Performance Evaluation of Three Power Generation and Refrigeration Energy Recovery Systems from Thermal Loss of a Diesel Engine in Different Driving Conditions

Authors: H. Golchoobian, M. H. Taheri, S. Saedodin, A. Sarafraz

Abstract:

This paper investigates the possibility of using three systems of organic Rankine auxiliary power generation, ejector refrigeration and absorption to recover energy from a diesel car. The analysis is done for both urban and suburban driving modes that vary from 60 to 120 km/h. Various refrigerants have also been used for organic Rankine and Ejector refrigeration cycles. The capacity was evaluated by Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system in both urban and suburban conditions for cyclopentane and ammonia as refrigerants. Also, for these two driving plans, produced cooling by absorption refrigeration system under variable ambient temperature conditions and in ejector refrigeration system for R123, R134a and R141b refrigerants were investigated.

Keywords: absorption system, diesel engine, ejector refrigeration, energy recovery, organic Rankine cycle

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1482 Engineered Bio-Coal from Pressed Seed Cake for Removal of 2, 4, 6-Trichlorophenol with Parametric Optimization Using Box–Behnken Method

Authors: Harsha Nagar, Vineet Aniya, Alka Kumari, Satyavathi B.

Abstract:

In the present study, engineered bio-coal was produced from pressed seed cake, which otherwise is non-edible in origin. The production process involves a slow pyrolysis wherein, based on the optimization of process parameters; a substantial reduction in H/C and O/C of 77% was achieved with respect to the original ratio of 1.67 and 0.8, respectively. The bio-coal, so the product was found to have a higher heating value of 29899 kJ/kg with surface area 17 m²/g and pore volume of 0.002 cc/g. The functional characterization of bio-coal and its subsequent modification was carried out to enhance its active sites, which were further used as an adsorbent material for removal of 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) herbicide from the aqueous stream. The point of zero charge for the bio-coal was found to be pH < 3 where its surface is positively charged and attracts anions resulting in the maximum 2, 4, 6-TCP adsorption at pH 2.0. The parametric optimization of the adsorption process was studied based on the Box-Behken design with the desirability approach. The results showed optimum values of adsorption efficiency of 74.04% and uptake capacity of 118.336 mg/g for an initial metal concentration of 250 mg/l and particle size of 0.12 mm at pH 2.0 and 1 g/L of bio-coal loading. Negative Gibbs free energy change values indicated the feasibility of 2,4,6-TCP adsorption on biochar. Decreasing the ΔG values with the rise in temperature indicated high favourability at low temperatures. The equilibrium modeling results showed that both isotherms (Langmuir and Freundlich) accurately predicted the equilibrium data, which may be attributed to the different affinity of the functional groups of bio-coal for 2,4,6-TCP removal. The possible mechanism for 2,4,6-TCP adsorption is found to be physisorption (pore diffusion, p*_p electron donor-acceptor interaction, H-bonding, and van der Waals dispersion forces) and chemisorption (phenolic and amine groups chemical bonding) based on the kinetics data modeling.

Keywords: engineered biocoal, 2, 4, 6-trichlorophenol, box behnken design, biosorption

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1481 Performance and Emissions Analysis of Diesel Engine with Bio-Diesel of Waste Cooking Oils

Authors: Mukesh Kumar, Onkar Singh, Naveen Kumar, Amar Deep

Abstract:

The waste cooking oil is taken as feedstock for biodiesel production. For this research, waste cooking oil is collected from many hotels and restaurants, and then biodiesel is prepared for experimentation purpose. The prepared biodiesel is mixed with mineral diesel in the proportion of 10%, 20%, and 30% to perform tests on a diesel engine. The experimental analysis is carried out at different load conditions to analyze the impact of the blending ratio on the performance and emission parameters. When the blending proportion of biodiesel is increased, then the highest pressure reduces due to the fall in the calorific value of the blended mixture. Experimental analysis shows a promising decrease in nitrogen oxides (NOx). A mixture of 20% biodiesel and mineral diesel is the best negotiation, mixing ratio, and beyond that, a remarkable reduction in the outcome of the performance has been observed.

Keywords: alternative sources, diesel engine, emissions, performance

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1480 Plasma Polymerisation of Amine Thin Coating with a Surface Barrier Discharge at Atmospheric Pressure

Authors: Jumal Ibrahim, Sameer Al-Bataineh, Andrew Michelmore, Jason Whittle

Abstract:

Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma sources for modification and treatment processes have been of much interest in biomedical applications due to their numerous advantages over expensive and complicated vacuum plasmas. They provide convenient means for deposition, etching, and surface functionalization of materials for a wide range of applications. In this article, thin amine rich plasma polymer coatings were deposited from vapors of allylamine onto silicon substrates using an atmospheric pressure surface barrier discharge (SBD). The SBD was operated using an AC power supply capable of delivering (1 to 40 kVpk-pk) at a frequency of 20 to 70 kHz with helium as process gas. Variation of coating properties with plasma operating voltage and precursor flowrate was studied. The effect of the plasma electrode design on coating characteristics was also studied. The plasma polymer coatings were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and Time of flight secondary ion spectrometry after 5, 10 and 15 minutes of deposition to quantify changes in surface structure and chemistry. XPS found an average concentration of the amine functionality (N/C) of the plasma polymeric allylamine film of 2.3 ± 0.5% concentrations with changes in both applied voltage and precursor flowrate. Ellipsometry results showed a thickness variation between 35 – 70 nm across the surface of a deposit. Variation in deposition time contributed very little to the difference in chemical compositions of coatings. This study reveals that the coating layer thickness is influenced by the electrode design of the plasma source. The plasma polymeric allylamine coating was found to possess high surface amine groups, capable of supporting cell adhesion and growth.

Keywords: atmospheric pressure plasma, plasma polymer coating, surface barrier discharge, surface functionalisation

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1479 Energy Management of Hybrid Energy Source Composed of a Fuel Cell and Supercapacitor for an Electric Vehicle

Authors: Mejri Achref

Abstract:

This paper proposes an energy management strategy for an electrical hybrid vehicle which is composed of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell and a supercapacitor storage device. In this paper, the mathematical model for the proposed power train, comprising the PEM Fuel Cell, supercapacitor, boost converter, inverter, and vehicular structure, was modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The proposed algorithm is evaluated for the Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) driving cycle. The obtained results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy in reduction of hydrogen consumption.

Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cell, hybrid vehicle, hydrogen consumption, energy management strategy

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1478 Numerical Simulation of Fracturing Behaviour of Pre-Cracked Crystalline Rock Using a Cohesive Grain-Based Distinct Element Model

Authors: Mahdi Saadat, Abbas Taheri

Abstract:

Understanding the cracking response of crystalline rocks at mineralogical scale is of great importance during the design procedure of mining structures. A grain-based distinct element model (GBM) is employed to numerically study the cracking response of Barre granite at micro- and macro-scales. The GBM framework is augmented with a proposed distinct element-based cohesive model to reproduce the micro-cracking response of the inter- and intra-grain contacts. The cohesive GBM framework is implemented in PFC2D distinct element codes. The microstructural properties of Barre granite are imported in PFC2D to generate synthetic specimens. The microproperties of the model is calibrated against the laboratory uniaxial compressive and Brazilian split tensile tests. The calibrated model is then used to simulate the fracturing behaviour of pre-cracked Barre granite with different flaw configurations. The numerical results of the proposed model demonstrate a good agreement with the experimental counterparts. The GBM framework proposed thus appears promising for further investigation of the influence of grain microstructure and mineralogical properties on the cracking behaviour of crystalline rocks.

Keywords: discrete element modelling, cohesive grain-based model, crystalline rock, fracturing behavior

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1477 Review of Life-Cycle Analysis Applications on Sustainable Building and Construction Sector as Decision Support Tools

Authors: Liying Li, Han Guo

Abstract:

Considering the environmental issues generated by the building sector for its energy consumption, solid waste generation, water use, land use, and global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, this review pointed out to LCA as a decision-support tool to substantially improve the sustainability in the building and construction industry. The comprehensiveness and simplicity of LCA make it one of the most promising decision support tools for the sustainable design and construction of future buildings. This paper contains a comprehensive review of existing studies related to LCAs with a focus on their advantages and limitations when applied in the building sector. The aim of this paper is to enhance the understanding of a building life-cycle analysis, thus promoting its application for effective, sustainable building design and construction in the future. Comparisons and discussions are carried out between four categories of LCA methods: building material and component combinations (BMCC) vs. the whole process of construction (WPC) LCA,attributional vs. consequential LCA, process-based LCA vs. input-output (I-O) LCA, traditional vs. hybrid LCA. Classical case studies are presented, which illustrate the effectiveness of LCA as a tool to support the decisions of practitioners in the design and construction of sustainable buildings. (i) BMCC and WPC categories of LCA researches tend to overlap with each other, as majority WPC LCAs are actually developed based on a bottom-up approach BMCC LCAs use. (ii) When considering the influence of social and economic factors outside the proposed system by research, a consequential LCA could provide a more reliable result than an attributional LCA. (iii) I-O LCA is complementary to process-based LCA in order to address the social and economic problems generated by building projects. (iv) Hybrid LCA provides a more superior dynamic perspective than a traditional LCA that is criticized for its static view of the changing processes within the building’s life cycle. LCAs are still being developed to overcome their limitations and data shortage (especially data on the developing world), and the unification of LCA methods and data can make the results of building LCA more comparable and consistent across different studies or even countries.

Keywords: decision support tool, life-cycle analysis, LCA tools and data, sustainable building design

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1476 GBKMeans: A Genetic Based K-Means Applied to the Capacitated Planning of Reading Units

Authors: Anderson S. Fonseca, Italo F. S. Da Silva, Robert D. A. Santos, Mayara G. Da Silva, Pedro H. C. Vieira, Antonio M. S. Sobrinho, Victor H. B. Lemos, Petterson S. Diniz, Anselmo C. Paiva, Eliana M. G. Monteiro

Abstract:

In Brazil, the National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) establishes that electrical energy companies are responsible for measuring and billing their customers. Among these regulations, it’s defined that a company must bill your customers within 27-33 days. If a relocation or a change of period is required, the consumer must be notified in writing, in advance of a billing period. To make it easier to organize a workday’s measurements, these companies create a reading plan. These plans consist of grouping customers into reading groups, which are visited by an employee responsible for measuring consumption and billing. The creation process of a plan efficiently and optimally is a capacitated clustering problem with constraints related to homogeneity and compactness, that is, the employee’s working load and the geographical position of the consuming unit. This process is a work done manually by several experts who have experience in the geographic formation of the region, which takes a large number of days to complete the final planning, and because it’s human activity, there is no guarantee of finding the best optimization for planning. In this paper, the GBKMeans method presents a technique based on K-Means and genetic algorithms for creating a capacitated cluster that respects the constraints established in an efficient and balanced manner, that minimizes the cost of relocating consumer units and the time required for final planning creation. The results obtained by the presented method are compared with the current planning of a real city, showing an improvement of 54.71% in the standard deviation of working load and 11.97% in the compactness of the groups.

Keywords: capacitated clustering, k-means, genetic algorithm, districting problems

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1475 Development of a Steam or Microwave-Assisted Sequential Salt-Alkali Pretreatment for Sugarcane Leaf Waste

Authors: Preshanthan Moodley

Abstract:

This study compares two different pretreatments for sugarcane leaf waste (SLW): steam salt-alkali (SSA) and microwave salt-alkali (MSA). The two pretreatment types were modelled, optimized, and validated with R² > 0.97. Reducing sugar yields of 1.21g/g were obtained with optimized SSA pretreatment using 1.73M ZnCl₂, 1.36M NaOH and 9.69% solid loading, and 1.17g/g with optimized MSA pretreatment using 1.67M ZnCl₂, 1.52M NaOH at 400W for 10min. A lower pretreatment time (10min) was required for the MSA model (83% lower). The structure of pretreated SLW was assessed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared analysis (FTIR). The optimized SSA and MSA models showed lignin removal of 80.5 and 73% respectively. The MSA pretreatment was further examined on sorghum leaves and Napier grass and showed yield improvements of 1.9- and 2.8-fold compared to recent reports. The developed pretreatment methods demonstrated high efficiency at enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis on various lignocellulosic substrates.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, pretreatment, salt, sugarcane leaves

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1474 Estimation of Synchronous Machine Synchronizing and Damping Torque Coefficients

Authors: Khaled M. EL-Naggar

Abstract:

Synchronizing and damping torque coefficients of a synchronous machine can give a quite clear picture for machine behavior during transients. These coefficients are used as a power system transient stability measurement. In this paper, a crow search optimization algorithm is presented and implemented to study the power system stability during transients. The algorithm makes use of the machine responses to perform the stability study in time domain. The problem is formulated as a dynamic estimation problem. An objective function that minimizes the error square in the estimated coefficients is designed. The method is tested using practical system with different study cases. Results are reported and a thorough discussion is presented. The study illustrates that the proposed method can estimate the stability coefficients for the critical stable cases where other methods may fail. The tests proved that the proposed tool is an accurate and reliable tool for estimating the machine coefficients for assessment of power system stability.

Keywords: optimization, estimation, synchronous, machine, crow search

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1473 The Potential of Potato and Maize Based Snacks as Fire Accelerants

Authors: E. Duffin, L. Brownlow

Abstract:

Arson is a crime which can provide exceptional problems to forensic specialists. Its destructive nature makes evidence much harder to find, especially when used to cover up another crime. There is a consistent potential threat of arsonists seeking new and easier ways to set fires. Existing research in this field primarily focuses on the use of accelerants such as petrol, with less attention to other more accessible and harder to detect materials. This includes the growing speculation of potato and maize-based snacks being used as fire accelerants. It was hypothesized that all ‘crisp-type’ snacks in foil packaging had the potential to act as accelerants and would burn readily in the various experiments. To test this hypothesis, a series of small lab-based experiments were undertaken, igniting samples of the snacks. Factors such as ingredients, shape, packaging and calorific value were all taken into consideration. The time (in seconds) spent on fire by the individual snacks was recorded. It was found that all of the snacks tested burnt for statistically similar amounts of time with a p-value of 0.0157. This was followed with a large mock real-life scenario using packets of crisps on fire and car seats to investigate as to the possibility of these snacks being verifiable tools to the arsonist. Here, three full packets of crisps were selected based on variations in burning during the lab experiments. They were each lit with a lighter to initiate burning, then placed onto a car seat to be timed and observed with video cameras. In all three cases, the fire was significant and sustained by the 200-second mark. On the basis of this data, it was concluded that potato and maize-based snacks were viable accelerants of fire. They remain an effective method of starting fires whilst being cheap, accessible, non-suspicious and non-detectable. The results produced supported the hypothesis that all ‘crisp-type’ snacks in foil packaging (that had been tested) had the potential to act as accelerants and would burn readily in the various experiments. This study serves to raise awareness and provide a basis for research and prevention of arson regarding maize and potato-based snacks as fire accelerants.

Keywords: arson, crisps, fires, food

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1472 Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Saim Iftikhar Awan, Farhan Ali

Abstract:

Wind power has now become one of the most important resources of renewable energy. The machine which extracts kinetic energy from wind is wind turbine. This work is all about the electrical power analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine to check the efficiency of different configurations of wind turbines to get maximum output and comparison of experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results. Different experiments have been performed to obtain that configuration with the help of which we can get the maximum electrical power output by changing the different parameters like the number of blades, blade shape, wind speed, etc. in first step experimentation is done, and then the similar configuration is designed in 3D CAD software. After a series of experiments, it has been found that the turbine with four blades at an angle of 75° gives maximum power output and increase in wind speed increases the power output. The models designed on CAD software are imported on ANSYS-FLUENT to predict mechanical power. This mechanical power is then converted into electrical power, and the results were approximately the same in both cases. In the end, a comparison has been done to compare the results of experiments and ANSYS-FLUENT.

Keywords: computational analysis, power efficiency, wind energy, wind turbine

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1471 Numerical Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer in an Adsorbent Bed for Different Working Pairs

Authors: N. Allouache, O. Rahli

Abstract:

Solar radiation is by far the largest and the most world’s abundant, clean, and permanent energy source. In recent years, many promising technologies have been developed to harness the sun's energy. These technologies help in environmental protection, economizing energy, and sustainable development, which are the major issues of the world. One of these important technologies is the solar refrigerating machines that make use of either absorption or adsorption technologies. In this present work, the adsorbent bed is modelized and optimized using different working pairs, such as zeolite-water, silica gel-water, activated carbon-ammonia, calcium chlorid-ammonia, activated carbon fiber- methanol and activated carbon AC35-methanol. The results show that the enhancement of the heat and mass transfer depends on the properties of the working pair; the performances of the adsorption cycle are essentially influenced by the choice of the adsorbent-adsorbate pair. The system can operate successfully for optimal parameters such as the evaporator, condenser, and generating temperatures. The activated carbon is the best adsorbent due to its high surface area and micropore volume.

Keywords: adsorbent bed, heat and mass transfer, numerical analysis, working pairs

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1470 Incorporating Circular Economy into Passive Design Strategies in Tropical Nigeria

Authors: Noah G. Akhimien, Eshrar Latif

Abstract:

The natural environment is in need for an urgent rescue due to dilapidation and recession of resources. Passive design strategies have proven to be one of the effective ways to reduce CO2 emissions and to improve building performance. On the other hand, there is a huge drop in material availability due to poor recycling culture. Consequently, building waste pose environmental hazard due to unrecycled building materials from construction and deconstruction. Buildings are seen to be material banks for a circular economy, therefore incorporating circular economy into passive housing will not only safe guide the climate but also improve resource efficiency. The study focuses on incorporating a circular economy in passive design strategies for an affordable energy and resource efficient residential building in Nigeria. Carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is still on the increase as buildings are responsible for a significant amount of this emission globally. Therefore, prompt measures need to be taken to combat the effect of global warming and associated threats. Nigeria is rapidly growing in human population, resources on the other hand have receded greatly, and there is an abrupt need for recycling even in the built environment. It is necessary that Nigeria responds to these challenges effectively and efficiently considering building resource and energy. Passive design strategies were assessed using simulations to obtain qualitative and quantitative data which were inferred to case studies as it relates to the Nigeria climate. Building materials were analysed using the ReSOLVE model in order to explore possible recycling phase. This provided relevant information and strategies to illustrate the possibility of circular economy in passive buildings. The study offers an alternative approach, as it is the general principle for the reworking of an economy on ecological lines in passive housing and by closing material loops in circular economy.

Keywords: building, circular, efficiency, environment, sustainability

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1469 Optimal Design of the Power Generation Network in California: Moving towards 100% Renewable Electricity by 2045

Authors: Wennan Long, Yuhao Nie, Yunan Li, Adam Brandt

Abstract:

To fight against climate change, California government issued the Senate Bill No. 100 (SB-100) in 2018 September, which aims at achieving a target of 100% renewable electricity by 2045. A capacity expansion problem is formulated in this case study using a mixed-integer non-linear programming model. The optimal locations and capacities of the potential renewable power plants (i.e., solar, wind, biomass, geothermal and hydropower), the phase-out schedule of existing fossil-based power plants and the transmission of electricity across the entire network are determined with the minimal total cost. The results show that renewable electricity contribution could increase to 85.9% by 2030 and reach 100% by 2045. Fossil-based power plants will be totally phased out around 2037, and solar (~54%) and wind (~34%) will finally become the most dominant renewable energy resources in California electricity mix.

Keywords: 100% renewable electricity, California, capacity expansion, mixed integer non-linear programming

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1468 Voltage and Frequency Regulation Using the Third-Party Mid-Size Battery

Authors: Roghieh A. Biroon, Zoleikha Abdollahi

Abstract:

The recent growth of renewables, e.g., solar panels, batteries, and electric vehicles (EVs) in residential and small commercial sectors, has potential impacts on the stability and operation of power grids. Considering approximately 50 percent share of the residential and the commercial sectors in the electricity demand market, the significance of these impacts, and the necessity of addressing them are more highlighted. Utilities and power system operators should manage the renewable electricity sources integration with power systems in such a way to extract the most possible advantages for the power systems. The most common effect of high penetration level of the renewables is the reverse power flow in the distribution feeders when the customers generate more power than their needs. The reverse power flow causes voltage rise and thermal issues in the power grids. To overcome the voltage rise issues in the distribution system, several techniques have been proposed including reducing transformers short circuit resistance and feeder impedance, installing autotransformers/voltage regulators along the line, absorbing the reactive power by distributed generators (DGs), and limiting the PV and battery sizes. In this study, we consider a medium-scale battery energy storage to manage the power energy and address the aforementioned issues on voltage deviation and power loss increase. We propose an optimization algorithm to find the optimum size and location for the battery. The optimization for the battery location and size is so that the battery maintains the feeder voltage deviation and power loss at a certain desired level. Moreover, the proposed optimization algorithm controls the charging/discharging profile of the battery to absorb the negative power flow from residential and commercial customers in the feeder during the peak time and sell the power back to the system during the off-peak time. The proposed battery regulates the voltage problem in the distribution system while it also can play frequency regulation role in islanded microgrids. This battery can be regulated and controlled by the utilities or a third-party ancillary service provider for the utilities to reduce the power system loss and regulate the distribution feeder voltage and frequency in standard level.

Keywords: ancillary services, battery, distribution system and optimization

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1467 Commissioning, Test and Characterization of Low-Tar Biomass Gasifier for Rural Applications and Small-Scale Plant

Authors: M. Mashiur Rahman, Ulrik Birk Henriksen, Jesper Ahrenfeldt, Maria Puig Arnavat

Abstract:

Using biomass gasification to make producer gas is one of the promising sustainable energy options available for small scale plant and rural applications for power and electricity. Tar content in producer gas is the main problem if it is used directly as a fuel. A low-tar biomass (LTB) gasifier of approximately 30 kW capacity has been developed to solve this. Moving bed gasifier with internal recirculation of pyrolysis gas has been the basic principle of the LTB gasifier. The gasifier focuses on the concept of mixing the pyrolysis gases with gasifying air and burning the mixture in separate combustion chamber. Five tests were carried out with the use of wood pellets and wood chips separately, with moisture content of 9-34%. The LTB gasifier offers excellent opportunities for handling extremely low-tar in the producer gas. The gasifiers producer gas had an extremely low tar content of 21.2 mg/Nm³ (avg.) and an average lower heating value (LHV) of 4.69 MJ/Nm³. Tar content found in different tests in the ranges of 10.6-29.8 mg/Nm³. This low tar content makes the producer gas suitable for direct use in internal combustion engine. Using mass and energy balances, the average gasifier capacity and cold gas efficiency (CGE) observed 23.1 kW and 82.7% for wood chips, and 33.1 kW and 60.5% for wood pellets, respectively. Average heat loss in term of higher heating value (HHV) observed 3.2% of thermal input for wood chips and 1% for wood pellets, where heat loss was found 1% of thermal input in term of enthalpy. Thus, the LTB gasifier performs better compared to typical gasifiers in term of heat loss. Equivalence ratio (ER) in the range of 0.29 to 0.41 gives better performance in terms of heating value and CGE. The specific gas production yields at the above ER range were in the range of 2.1-3.2 Nm³/kg. Heating value and CGE changes proportionally with the producer gas yield. The average gas compositions (H₂-19%, CO-19%, CO₂-10%, CH₄-0.7% and N₂-51%) obtained for wood chips are higher than the typical producer gas composition. Again, the temperature profile of the LTB gasifier observed relatively low temperature compared to typical moving bed gasifier. The average partial oxidation zone temperature of 970°C observed for wood chips. The use of separate combustor in the partial oxidation zone substantially lowers the bed temperature to 750°C. During the test, the engine was started and operated completely with the producer gas. The engine operated well on the produced gas, and no deposits were observed in the engine afterwards. Part of the producer gas flow was used for engine operation, and corresponding electrical power was found to be 1.5 kW continuously, and maximum power of 2.5 kW was also observed, while maximum generator capacity is 3 kW. A thermodynamic equilibrium model is good agreement with the experimental results and correctly predicts the equilibrium bed temperature, gas composition, LHV of the producer gas and ER with the experimental data, when the heat loss of 4% of the energy input is considered.

Keywords: biomass gasification, low-tar biomass gasifier, tar elimination, engine, deposits, condensate

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1466 Optimization of Solar Rankine Cycle by Exergy Analysis and Genetic Algorithm

Authors: R. Akbari, M. A. Ehyaei, R. Shahi Shavvon

Abstract:

Nowadays, solar energy is used for energy purposes such as the use of thermal energy for domestic, industrial and power applications, as well as the conversion of the sunlight into electricity by photovoltaic cells. In this study, the thermodynamic simulation of the solar Rankin cycle with phase change material (paraffin) was first studied. Then energy and exergy analyses were performed. For optimization, a single and multi-objective genetic optimization algorithm to maximize thermal and exergy efficiency was used. The parameters discussed in this paper included the effects of input pressure on turbines, input mass flow to turbines, the surface of converters and collector angles on thermal and exergy efficiency. In the organic Rankin cycle, where solar energy is used as input energy, the fluid selection is considered as a necessary factor to achieve reliable and efficient operation. Therefore, silicon oil is selected for a high-temperature cycle and water for a low-temperature cycle as an operating fluid. The results showed that increasing the mass flow to turbines 1 and 2 would increase thermal efficiency, while it reduces and increases the exergy efficiency in turbines 1 and 2, respectively. Increasing the inlet pressure to the turbine 1 decreases the thermal and exergy efficiency, and increasing the inlet pressure to the turbine 2 increases the thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency. Also, increasing the angle of the collector increased thermal efficiency and exergy. The thermal efficiency of the system was 22.3% which improves to 33.2 and 27.2% in single-objective and multi-objective optimization, respectively. Also, the exergy efficiency of the system was 1.33% which has been improved to 1.719 and 1.529% in single-objective and multi-objective optimization, respectively. These results showed that the thermal and exergy efficiency in a single-objective optimization is greater than the multi-objective optimization.

Keywords: exergy analysis, genetic algorithm, rankine cycle, single and multi-objective function

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1465 Performance Validation of Model Predictive Control for Electrical Power Converters of a Grid Integrated Oscillating Water Column

Authors: G. Rajapakse, S. Jayasinghe, A. Fleming

Abstract:

This paper aims to experimentally validate the control strategy used for electrical power converters in grid integrated oscillating water column (OWC) wave energy converter (WEC). The particular OWC’s unidirectional air turbine-generator output power results in discrete large power pulses. Therefore, the system requires power conditioning prior to integrating to the grid. This is achieved by using a back to back power converter with an energy storage system. A Li-Ion battery energy storage is connected to the dc-link of the back-to-back converter using a bidirectional dc-dc converter. This arrangement decouples the system dynamics and mitigates the mismatch between supply and demand powers. All three electrical power converters used in the arrangement are controlled using finite control set-model predictive control (FCS-MPC) strategy. The rectifier controller is to regulate the speed of the turbine at a set rotational speed to uphold the air turbine at a desirable speed range under varying wave conditions. The inverter controller is to maintain the output power to the grid adhering to grid codes. The dc-dc bidirectional converter controller is to set the dc-link voltage at its reference value. The software modeling of the OWC system and FCS-MPC is carried out in the MATLAB/Simulink software using actual data and parameters obtained from a prototype unidirectional air-turbine OWC developed at Australian Maritime College (AMC). The hardware development and experimental validations are being carried out at AMC Electronic laboratory. The designed FCS-MPC for the power converters are separately coded in Code Composer Studio V8 and downloaded into separate Texas Instrument’s TIVA C Series EK-TM4C123GXL Launchpad Evaluation Boards with TM4C123GH6PMI microcontrollers (real-time control processors). Each microcontroller is used to drive 2kW 3-phase STEVAL-IHM028V2 evaluation board with an intelligent power module (STGIPS20C60). The power module consists of a 3-phase inverter bridge with 600V insulated gate bipolar transistors. Delta standard (ASDA-B2 series) servo drive/motor coupled to a 2kW permanent magnet synchronous generator is served as the turbine-generator. This lab-scale setup is used to obtain experimental results. The validation of the FCS-MPC is done by comparing these experimental results to the results obtained by MATLAB/Simulink software results in similar scenarios. The results show that under the proposed control scheme, the regulated variables follow their references accurately. This research confirms that FCS-MPC fits well into the power converter control of the OWC-WEC system with a Li-Ion battery energy storage.

Keywords: dc-dc bidirectional converter, finite control set-model predictive control, Li-ion battery energy storage, oscillating water column, wave energy converter

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1464 The Influence of Bentonite on the Rheology of Geothermal Grouts

Authors: A. N. Ghafar, O. A. Chaudhari, W. Oettel, P. Fontana

Abstract:

This study is a part of the EU project GEOCOND-Advanced materials and processes to improve performance and cost-efficiency of shallow geothermal systems and underground thermal storage. In heat exchange boreholes, to improve the heat transfer between the pipes and the surrounding ground, the space between the pipes and the borehole wall is normally filled with geothermal grout. Traditionally, bentonite has been a crucial component in most commercially available geothermal grouts to assure the required stability and impermeability. The investigations conducted in the early stage of this project during the benchmarking tests on some commercial grouts showed considerable sensitivity of the rheological properties of the tested grouts to the mixing parameters, i.e., mixing time and velocity. Further studies on this matter showed that bentonite, which has been one of the important constituents in most grout mixes, was probably responsible for such behavior. Apparently, proper amount of shear should be applied during the mixing process to sufficiently activate the bentonite. The higher the amount of applied shear the more the activation of bentonite, resulting in change in the grout rheology. This explains why, occasionally in the field applications, the flow properties of the commercially available geothermal grouts using different mixing conditions (mixer type, mixing time, mixing velocity) are completely different than expected. A series of tests were conducted on the grout mixes, with and without bentonite, using different mixing protocols. The aim was to eliminate/reduce the sensitivity of the rheological properties of the geothermal grouts to the mixing parameters by replacing bentonite with polymeric (non-clay) stabilizers. The results showed that by replacing bentonite with a proper polymeric stabilizer, the sensitivity of the grout mix on mixing time and velocity was to a great extent diminished. This can be considered as an alternative for the developers/producers of geothermal grouts to provide enhanced materials with less uncertainty in obtained results in the field applications.

Keywords: flow properties, geothermal grout, mixing time, mixing velocity, rheological properties

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1463 Engineering Optimization Using Two-Stage Differential Evolution

Authors: K. Y. Tseng, C. Y. Wu

Abstract:

This paper employs a heuristic algorithm to solve engineering problems including truss structure optimization and optimal chiller loading (OCL) problems. Two different type algorithms, real-valued differential evolution (DE) and modified binary differential evolution (MBDE), are successfully integrated and then can obtain better performance in solving engineering problems. In order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm, this study adopts each one testing case of truss structure optimization and OCL problems to compare the results of other heuristic optimization methods. The result indicates that the proposed algorithm can obtain similar or better solution in comparing with previous studies.

Keywords: differential evolution, Truss structure optimization, optimal chiller loading, modified binary differential evolution

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1462 Maximum Power Point Tracking Using Fuzzy Logic Control for a Stand-Alone PV System with PI Controller for Battery Charging Based on Evolutionary Technique

Authors: Mohamed A. Moustafa Hassan, Omnia S .S. Hussian, Hany M. Elsaved

Abstract:

This paper introduces the application of Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) to extract the Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) from the PV panel. In addition, the proportional integral (PI) controller is used to be the strategy for battery charge control according to acceptable performance criteria. The parameters of the PI controller have been tuned via Modified Adaptive Accelerated Coefficient Particle Swarm Optimization (MAACPSO) technique. The simulation results, using MATLAB/Simulink tools, show that the FLC technique has advantages for use in the MPPT problem, as it provides a fast response under changes in environmental conditions such as radiation and temperature. In addition, the use of PI controller based on MAACPSO results in a good performance in terms of controlling battery charging with constant voltage and current to execute rapid charging.

Keywords: battery charging, fuzzy logic control, maximum power point tracking, PV system, PI controller, evolutionary technique

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1461 Phosphate Capture from Sewage by Hafnium-Modified Fe₃O₄@SiO₂ Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles: Adsorption Capacity, Selectivity, Reusability Analysis and Mechanistic Insights

Authors: Qian Zhao

Abstract:

With global increasing demand for phosphorus and intensively depleting reserves, it is urgent need to explore innovative approaches towards capturing phosphate from sewage, which is also an effective way to reduce phosphate contamination and avoid eutrophication of water bodies. In the present article, the superparamagnetic nano-sorbents containing Fe₃O₄ core and hafnium-modified MgAl/MgFe layered double hydroxides shell (abbreviated as MgAlHf-NP and MgFeHf-NP) was developed using a simple and low-cost synthesis protocol. The obtained Hf-coated nano-materials showed well-defined crystal structure and sufficient saturation magnetization and exhibited higher adsorption capacity for phosphate. Meanwhile, high selectivity was also confirmed since coexisting foreign anions and biomacromolecules showed little competitive effect on phosphate adsorption. The enhancement via doping with Hf should be explained by the stronger ligand complexation built by the pair of hard acid Hf ion and hard base phosphate that matched up the bonding preferences. Sufficient OH⁻ concentration and clear pH shift during the desorption/regeneration allowed for regeneration rate of higher than 90% after 5 cycles of adsorption desorption. This article attempts to provide a competitive candidate for phosphate-capture, which is highly effective, easily separable and repeatedly usable.

Keywords: phosphate recovery, nanoparticles, superparamagnetic, adsorption, reusability

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