Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1646

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Energy and Power Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1646 Study on the Factors that Causes the Malaysian Oil and Gas Equipment (OGSE) Companies being under-Developing

Authors: Low Khee Wai


Lossing of opportunity by Malaysian Oil and Gas Services Equipment (OGSE) companies can be a major issue in developing and sustain Malaysia’s own Oil & Gas Industry. Despite the rapid growth of Oil & Gas industry in Malaysia for the past 40 years, Malaysia still not developing sufficient OGSE companies in order to support its own Oil & Gas Industry. In examining the scenario, this study aims to identify the factors causing the under-developing of OGSE companies in Malaysia. Conceptual Review method were used to analyse the factors that cause the under-development of Malaysia OGSE. The 4 factors identified were Time, Cost, Human Resource and Stakeholder Management. This survey explained the phenomena and the challenge of the industry and translated into the factors that cause the under-developing of OGSE companies in Malaysia. Finally, it should bring awareness to the government, authorities, and stakeholder in order to improve the ecology of Oil & Gas Industry in Malaysia.

Keywords: oil & gas in Malaysia, Malaysia local oil & gas services equipment (OGSE), oil & gas project management, project performance

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1645 Performance Analysis of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Using Direct Torque Control Based ANFIS Controller for Electric Vehicle

Authors: Marulasiddappa H. B., Pushparajesh Viswanathan


Day by day, the uses of internal combustion engines (ICE) are deteriorating because of pollution and less fuel availability. In the present scenario, the electric vehicle (EV) plays a major role in the place of an ICE vehicle. The performance of EVs can be improved by the proper selection of electric motors. Initially, EV preferred induction motors for traction purposes, but due to complexity in controlling induction motor, permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is replacing induction motor in EV due to its advantages. Direct torque control (DTC) is one of the known techniques for PMSM drive in EV to control the torque and speed. However, the presence of torque ripple is the main drawback of this technique. Many control strategies are followed to reduce the torque ripples in PMSM. In this paper, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) controller technique is proposed to reduce torque ripples and settling time. Here the performance parameters like torque, speed and settling time are compared between conventional proportional-integral (PI) controller with ANFIS controller.

Keywords: direct torque control, electric vehicle, torque ripple, PMSM

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1644 Development of an Energy Independant DC Building Demonstrator for Insulated Island Site

Authors: Olivia Bory Devisme, Denis Genon-Catalot, Frederic Alicalapa, Pierre-Olivier Lucas De Peslouan, Jean-Pierre Chabriat


In the context of climate change, it is essential that island territories gain energy autonomy. Currently mostly dependent on fossil fuels, the island of Reunion lo- cated in the Indian Ocean nevertheless has a high potential for solar energy. As the market for photovoltaic panels has been growing in recent years, the issues of energy losses linked to the multiple conversions from direct current to alternating current are emerging. In order to quantify these advantages and disadvantages by a comparative study, this document present the measurements carried out on a direct current test bench, particularly for lighting, ventilation, air condi- tioning and office equipment for the tertiary sector. All equipment is supplied with DC power from energy produced by photovoltaic panels. A weather sta- tion, environmental indoor sensors, and drivers are also used to control energy. Self-consumption is encouraged in order to manage different priorities between user consumption and energy storage in a lithium iron phosphate battery. The measurements are compared to a conventional electrical architecture (DC-AC- DC) for energy consumption, equipment overheating, cost, and life cycle analysis.

Keywords: DC microgrids, solar energy, smart buildings, storage

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1643 Stationary Gas Turbines in Power Generation: Past, Present and Future Challenges

Authors: Michel Moliere


In the next decades, the thermal power generation segment will survive only if it achieves deep mutations, including drastical abatements of CO2 emissions and strong efficiency gains. In this challenging perspective, stationary gas turbines appear as serious candidates to lead the energy transition. Indeed, during the past decades, these turbomachines have made brisk technological advances in terms of efficiency, reliability, fuel flex (including the combustion of hydrogen), and the ability to hybridize with regenrables. It is, therefore, timely to summarize the progresses achieved by gas turbines in the recent past and to examine what are their assets to face the challenges of the energy transition.

Keywords: energy transition, gas turbines, decarbonization, power generation

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1642 Merit Order of Indonesian Coal Mining Sources to Meet the Domestic Power Plants Demand

Authors: Victor Siahaan


Coal still become the most important energy source for electricity generation known for its contribution which take the biggest portion of energy mix that a country has, for example Indonesia. The low cost of electricity generation and quite a lot of resources make this energy still be the first choice to fill the portion of base load power. To realize its significance to produce electricity, it is necessary to know the amount of coal (volume) needed to ensure that all coal power plants (CPP) in a country can operate properly. To secure the volume of coal, in this study, discussion was carried out regarding the identification of coal mining sources in Indonesia, classification of coal typical from each coal mining sources, and determination of the port of loading. By using data above, the sources of coal mining are then selected to feed certain CPP based on the compatibility of the coal typical and the lowest transport cost.

Keywords: merit order, Indonesian coal mine, electricity, power plant

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1641 Study of Pressure and Air Mass Flow Effect on Output Power of PEM Fuel Cell Powertrains in Vehicles and Airplanes- A Simulation-based Approach

Authors: Mahdiye Khorasani, Arjun Vijay, Ali Mashayekh, Christian Trapp


The performance of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) is highly dependent on the pressure and mass flow of media (Hydrogen and air) throughout the cells and the stack. Higher pressure, on the one hand, results in higher output power of the stack but, on the other hand, increases the electrical power demand of the compressor. In this work, a simulation model of a PEMFC system for vehicle and airplane applications is developed. With this new model, the effect of different pressures and air mass flow rates are investigated to discover the optimum operating point in a PEMFC system, and innovative operation strategies are implemented to optimize reactants flow while minimizing electrical power demand of the compressor for optimum performance. Additionally, a fuel cell system test bench is set up, which contains not only all the auxiliary components for conditioning the gases, reactants, and flows but also a dynamic titling table for testing different orientations of the stack to simulate the flight conditions during take-off and landing and off-road-vehicle scenarios. The results of simulation will be tested and validated on the test bench for future works.

Keywords: air mass flow effect, optimization of operation, pressure effect, PEMFC system, PEMFC system simulation

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1640 Solar Photovoltaic Driven Air-Conditioning for Commercial Buildings: A Case of Botswana

Authors: Taboka Motlhabane, Pradeep Sahoo


The global demand for cooling has grown exponentially over the past century to meet economic development and social needs, accounting for approximately 10% of the global electricity consumption. As global temperatures continue to rise, the demand for cooling and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment is set to rise with it. The increased use of HVAC equipment has significantly contributed to the growth of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions which aid the climate crisis- one of the biggest challenges faced by the current generation. The need to address emissions caused directly by HVAC equipment and electricity generated to meet the cooling or heating demand is ever more pressing. Currently, developed countries account for the largest cooling and heating demand, however developing countries are anticipated to experience a huge increase in population growth in 10 years, resulting in a shift in energy demand. Developing countries, which are projected to account for nearly 60% of the world's GDP by 2030, are rapidly building infrastructure and economies to meet their growing needs and meet these projections. Cooling, a very energy-intensive process that can account for 20 % to 75% of a building's energy, depending on the building's use. Solar photovoltaic (PV) driven air-conditioning offers a great cost-effective alternative for adoption in both residential and non-residential buildings to offset grid electricity, particularly in countries with high irradiation, such as Botswana. This research paper explores the potential of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic vapor-compression air-conditioning system for the Peter-Smith herbarium at the Okavango Research Institute (ORI) University of Botswana campus in Maun, Botswana. The herbarium plays a critical role in the collection and preservation of botanical data, dating back over 100 years, with pristine collection from the Okavango Delta, a UNESCO world heritage site and serves as a reference and research site. Due to the herbarium’s specific needs, it operates throughout the day and year in an attempt to maintain a constant herbarium temperature of 16°𝐶. The herbarium model studied simulates a variable-air-volume HVAC system with a system rating of 30 kW. Simulation results show that the HVAC system accounts for 68.9% of the building's total electricity at 296 509.60 kWh annually. To offset the grid electricity, a 175.1 kWp nominal power rated PV system requiring 416 modules to match the required power, covering an area of 928 m2 is used to meet the HVAC system annual needs. An economic assessment using PVsyst found that for an installation priced with average solar PV prices in Botswana totalled to be 787 090.00 BWP, with annual operating costs of 30 500 BWP/year. With self-project financing, the project is estimated to have recouped its initial investment within 6.7 years. At an estimated project lifetime of 20 years, the Net Present Value is projected at 1 565 687.00 BWP with a ROI of 198.9%, with 74 070.67 tons of CO2 saved at the end of the project lifetime. This study investigates the performance of the HVAC system to meet the indoor air comfort requirements, the annual PV system performance, and the building model has been simulated using DesignBuilder Software.

Keywords: vapor compression refrigeration, solar cooling, renewable energy, herbarium

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1639 Effect of N2-cold Plasma Treatment of Carbon Supports on the Activity of Pt3Pd3Sn2/C Towards the Dimethyl Ether Oxidation

Authors: Medhanie Gebremedhin Gebru, Alex Schechter


Dimethyl ether (DME) possesses several advantages over other small organic molecules such as methanol, ethanol, and ammonia in terms of providing higher energy density, being less toxic, and having lower Nafion membrane crossover. However, the absence of an active and stable catalyst has been the bottleneck that hindered the commercialization of direct DME fuel cells. A Vulcan XC72 carbon-supported ternary metal catalyst, Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂/C is reported to have yielded the highest specific power density (90 mW mg-¹PGM) as compared to other catalysts tested fordirect DME fuel cell (DDMEFC). However, the micropores and sulfur groups present in Vulcan XC72 hinder the fuel utilization by causing Pt agglomeration and sulfur poisoning. Vulcan XC72 having a high carbon sp³ hybridization content, is also prone to corrosion. Therefore, carbon supports such as multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT), black pearl 2000 (BP2000), and their cold N2 plasma-treated counterpartswere tested to further enhance the activity of the catalyst, and the outputs with these carbons were compared with the originally used support. Detailed characterization of the pristine and carbon supports was conducted. Electrochemical measurements in three-electrode cells and laboratory prototype fuel cells were conducted.Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂/BP2000 exhibited excellent performance in terms of electrochemical active surface area (ECSA), peak current density (jp), and DME oxidation charge (Qoxi). The effect of the plasma activation on the activity improvement was observed only in the case of MWCNT while having little or no effect on the other carbons. A Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂ supported on the optimized mixture of carbons containing 75% plasma-activated MWCNT and 25% BP2000 (Pt₃Pd₃Sn₂/75M25B) provided the highest reported power density of 117 mW mg-1PGM using an anode loading of1.55 mgPGMcm⁻².

Keywords: DME, DDMEFC, ternary metal catalyst, carbon support, plasma activation

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1638 Iron Doping Enhanced Photocatalytic Nitrogen Fixation Performance of WO₃ with Three-Dimensionally Orderd Macroporous Structure

Authors: Xiaoling Ren, Guidong Yang


Ammonia, as one of the largest-volume industrial chemicals, is mostly produced by century-old Haber-Bosch process with extreme conditionsand high-cost. Under the circumstance, researchersarededicated in finding new ways to replace the Haber-Bosch process. Photocatalytic nitrogen fixation is a promising sustainable, clear and green strategy for ammonia synthesis, butit is still a big challenge due to the high activation energy for nitrogen. It is essential to develop an efficient photocatalyst for making this approach industrial application. Constructing chemisorption active sites through defect engineering can be defined as an effective and reliable means to improve nitrogen activation by forming the extraordinary coordination environment and electronic structure. Besides, the construction of three-dimensionally orderdmacroporous (3DOM) structured photocatalyst is considered to be one of effectivestrategiesto improve the activity due to it canincrease the diffusion rate of reactants in the interior, which isbeneficial to the mass transfer process of nitrogen molecules in photocatalytic nitrogen reduction. Herein, Fe doped 3DOM WO₃(Fe-3DOM WO₃) without noble metal cocatalysts is synthesized by a polystyrene-template strategy, which is firstly used for photocatalytic nitrogen fixation. To elucidate the chemical nature of the dopant, the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysiswas conducted. The pure 3DOM WO₃ has a monoclinic type crystal structure. And no additional peak is observed in Fe doped 3DOM WO₃, indicating that the incorporation of Fe atoms did not result in a secondary phase formation. In order to confirm the morphologies of Fe-3DOM WO₃and 3DOM WO₃, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed. The synthesized Fe-3DOM WO₃and 3DOM WO₃ both exhibit a highly ordered three dimensional inverse opal structure with interconnected pores. From high-resolution TEM image of Fe-3DOM WO₃, the ordered lattice fringes with a spacing of 3.84 Å can be assigned to the (001) plane of WO₃, which is consistent with the XRD results. Finally, the photocatalytic nitrogen reduction performance of 3DOM WO₃ and Fe doped 3DOM WO₃with various Fe contents were examined. As a result, both Fe-3DOM WO₃ samples achieve higher ammonia production rate than that of pure 3DOM WO₃, indicating that the doped Fe plays a critical role in the photocatalytic nitrogen fixation performance. To verify the reaction process upon N2 reduction on the Fe-3DOM WO₃, in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier-transform spectroscopy was employed to monitor the intermediates. The in-situ DRIFTS spectra of Fe-3DOM WO₃ exhibit the increased signals with the irradiation time from 0–60min in the N2 atmosphere. The above results prove that nitrogen is gradually hydrogenated to produce ammonia over Fe-3DOM WO₃. Thiswork would enrich our knowledge in designing efficient photocatalystsfor photocatalytic nitrogen reduction.

Keywords: ammonia, photocatalytic, nitrogen fixation, Fe doped 3DOM WO₃

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1637 Reliability of Eyewitness Statements in Fire and Explosion Investigations

Authors: Jeff Colwell, Benjamin Knox


While fire and explosion incidents are often observed by eyewitnesses, the weight that fire investigators should place on those observations in their investigations is a complex issue. There is no doubt that eyewitness statements can be an important component to an investigation, particularly when other evidence is sparse, as is often the case when damage to the scene is severe. However, it is well known that eyewitness statements can be incorrect for a variety of reasons, including deception. In this paper, we reviewed factors that can have an effect on the complex processes associated with the perception, retention, and retrieval of an event. We then review the accuracy of eyewitness statements from unique criminal and civil incidents, including fire and explosion incidents, in which the accuracy of the statements could be independently evaluated. Finally, the motives for deceptive eyewitness statements are described, along with techniques that fire and explosion investigators can employ, to increase the accuracy of the eyewitness statements that they solicit.

Keywords: fire, explosion, eyewitness, reliability

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1636 Retrofitting Cement Plants with Oxyfuel Technology for Carbon Capture

Authors: Peloriadi Konstantina, Fakis Dimitris, Grammelis Panagiotis


Methods for carbon capture and storage (CCS) can play a key role in the reduction of industrial CO₂ emissions, especially in the cement industry, which accounts for 7% of global emissions. Cement industries around the world have committed to address this problem by reaching carbon neutrality by the year 2050. The aim of the work to be presented was to contribute to the decarbonization strategy by integrating the 1st generation oxyfuel technology in cement production plants. This technology has been shown to improve fuel efficiency while providing one of the most cost-effective solutions when compared to other capture methods. A validated simulation of the cement plant was thus used as a basis to develop an oxyfuel retrofitted cement process. The process model for the oxyfuel technology is developed on the ASPEN (Advanced System for Process Engineering) PLUSTM simulation software. This process consists of an Air Separation Unit (ASU), an oxyfuel cement plant with coal and alternative solid fuel (ASF) as feedstock, and a carbon dioxide processing unit (CPU). A detailed description and analysis of the CPU will be presented, including the findings of a literature review and simulation results, regarding the effects of flue gas impurities during operation. Acknowledgment: This research has been conducted in the framework of the EU funded AC2OCEM project, which investigates first and the second generation oxyfuel concepts.

Keywords: oxyfuel technology, carbon capture and storage, CO₂ processing unit, cement, aspen plus

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1635 Numerical Performance Evaluation of a Savonius Wind Turbines Using Resistive Torque Modeling

Authors: Guermache Ahmed Chafik, Khelfellah Ismail, Ait-Ali Takfarines


The Savonius vertical axis wind turbine is characterized by sufficient starting torque at low wind speeds, simple design and does not require orientation to the wind direction; however, the developed power is lower than other types of wind turbines such as Darrieus. To increase these performances several studies and researches have been developed, such as optimizing blades shape, using passive controls and also minimizing power losses sources like the resisting torque due to friction. This work aims to estimate the performance of a Savonius wind turbine introducing a User Defined Function to the CFD model analyzing resisting torque. This User Defined Function is developed to simulate the action of the wind speed on the rotor; it receives the moment coefficient as an input to compute the rotational velocity that should be imposed on computational domain rotating regions. The rotational velocity depends on the aerodynamic moment applied on the turbine and the resisting torque, which is considered a linear function. Linking the implemented User Defined Function with the CFD solver allows simulating the real functioning of the Savonius turbine exposed to wind. It is noticed that the wind turbine takes a while to reach the stationary regime where the rotational velocity becomes invariable; at that moment, the tip speed ratio, the moment and power coefficients are computed. To validate this approach, the power coefficient versus tip speed ratio curve is compared with the experimental one. The obtained results are in agreement with the available experimental results.

Keywords: resistant torque modeling, Savonius wind turbine, user-defined function, vertical axis wind turbine performances

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1634 GaAsBi as a Layer for Quadruple-Junction Solar Cell

Authors: Tianrui Wang, John David, Thomas Walther, Yuchen LIU, Ming Yan


Multi-junction solar cells are a new generation of solar cells composed of multiple semiconductor material sub-cells with different bandgaps. They have the advantages of high efficiency and high stability and have been used in high-end markets such as the aerospace field. The most common multi-cell solar cell on the market today is a triple-junction solar cell composed of GaInP/GaAs/Ge, which has a bandgap of 1.9/1.42/0.66 eV. In this project, through the analysis of the doping of group V element bismuth into GaAs, it is found that the current generated by GaAsBi may fit well with a traditional GaInP/GaAs/Ge cell, but the dark current limits its efficiency growth. Therefore, it is necessary to do more research on reducing the dark current of GaAsBi.

Keywords: Bismuth, multi-junction solar cell, photovoltaics, III-V compounds

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1633 Dual Metal Organic Framework Derived N-Doped Fe3C Nanocages Decorated with Ultrathin ZnIn2S4 Nanosheets for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation

Authors: D. Amaranatha Reddy


Highly efficient and stable co-catalysts materials is of great important for boosting photo charge carrier’s separation, transportation efficiency, and accelerating the catalytic reactive sites of semiconductor photocatalysts. As a result, it is of decisive importance to fabricate low price noble metal free co-catalysts with high catalytic reactivity, but it remains very challenging. Considering this challenge here, dual metal organic frame work derived N-Doped Fe3C nanocages have been rationally designed and decorated with ultrathin ZnIn2S4 nanosheets for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen generation. The fabrication strategy precisely integrates co-catalyst nanocages with ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor nanosheets by providing tightly interconnected nano-junctions and helps to suppress the charge carrier’s recombination rate. Furthermore, constructed highly porous hybrid structures expose ample active sites for catalytic reduction reactions and harvest visible light more effectively by light scattering. As a result, fabricated nanostructures exhibit superior solar driven hydrogen evolution rate (9600 µmol/g/h) with an apparent quantum efficiency of 3.6 %, which is relatively higher than the Pt noble metal co-catalyst systems and earlier reported ZnIn2S4 based nanohybrids. We believe that the present work promotes the application of sulfide based nanostructures in solar driven hydrogen production.

Keywords: photocatalysis, water splitting, hydrogen fuel production, solar-driven hydrogen

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1632 Development of All-in-One Solar Kit

Authors: Azhan Azhar, Mohammed Sakib, Zaurez Ahmad


The energy we receive from the sun is known as solar energy, and it is a reliable, long-lasting, eco-friendly and the most widely used energy source in the 21st century. It is. There are several techniques for harnessing solar energy, and we are all seeing large utility-scale projects to collect maximum amperes from the sun using current technologies. Solar PV is now on the rise as a means of harvesting energy from the sun. Moving a step further, our project is focused on designing an All-in-one portable Solar Energy based solution. We considered the minimum load conditions and evaluated the requirements of various devices utilized in this study to resolve the power requirements of small stores, hawkers, or travelers.

Keywords: DOD-depth of discharge, pulse width modulation charge controller, renewable energy, solar PV- solar photovoltaic

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1631 Optimized Passive Heating for Multifamily Dwellings

Authors: Joseph Bostick


A method of decreasing the heating load of HVAC systems in a single-dwelling model of a multifamily building, by controlling movable insulation through the optimization of flux, time, surface incident solar radiation, and temperature thresholds. Simulations are completed using a co-simulation between EnergyPlus and MATLAB as an optimization tool to find optimal control thresholds. Optimization of the control thresholds leads to a significant decrease in total heating energy expenditure.

Keywords: energy plus, MATLAB, simulation, energy efficiency

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1630 Land Suitability Analysis Based on Ecosystems Service Approach for Wind Farm Location in South-Central Chile: Net Primary Production as Proxy

Authors: Yenisleidy Martínez-Martínez, Yannay Casas-Ledón, Jo Dewulf


Wind power constitutes a cleaner energy source with smaller unfavorable impacts on the environment than fossil fuels. Its development could be an alternative to fight climate change while meeting energy demands. However, wind energy development requires first determining the existing potential and areas with aptitude. Also, potential socio-economic and environmental impacts should be analyzed to prevent social rejection of this technology. In this context, this work performs a suitability assessment on a GIS environment to locate suitable areas for wind energy expansion in South-Central Chile. In addition, suitable areas were characterized in terms of potential goods and services to be produced as a proxy for analyzing potential impacts and trade-offs. First, layers of annual wind speed were generated as they represent the resource potential and layers representing previous defined territorial constraints were created. Zones depicting territorial constraints were removed from resource measurement layers to identify suitable sites. Then, the appropriation of the primary production in suitable sites was determined to measure potential ecosystem services derived from human interventions in those areas. Results show that approximately 52% of the total surface of the study area has a good aptitude to install wind farms. In this area, provisioning services like food crops production, timber, and other forest resources like firewood play a key role in the regional economy and thus are the main cause of human interventions. This is reflected by human appropriation of the primary production values of 0.71 KgC/m2.yr, 0.36 KgC/m2.yr and 0.14 KgC/m2.yr respectively. In this sense, wind energy development could be compatible with croplands, which is the predominant land use in suitable areas and provide farmers with cheaper energy and extra incomes. Also, studies have reported changes in local temperature associated with wind turbines, which could be beneficial to crop growth. The results obtained in this study prove to be useful for identifying available areas for wind development, which could be very useful in decision-making processes related to energy planning.

Keywords: net primary productivity, provisioning services, suitability assessment, wind energy

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1629 Agro-Industrial Waste as a Source of Catalyst Production

Authors: Brenda Cecilia Ledesma, Andrea Beltramone


This work deals with the bio-waste valorization approach for catalyst development, the use of products derived from biomass as raw material and the obtaining of biofuels. In this research, activated carbons were synthesized from the orange peel using different synthesis conditions. With the activated carbons obtained with the best structure and texture, PtIr bimetallic catalysts were prepared. Carbon activation was carried out through a chemical process with phosphoric acid as an activating agent, varying the acid concentration, the ratio substrate/activating agent and time of contact between them. The best support was obtained using a carbonization time of 1 h, the temperature of carbonization of 470oC, the phosphoric acid concentration of 50 wt.% and a BET area of 1429 m2/g. Subsequently, the metallic nanoparticles were deposited in the activated carbon to use the solid as a catalytic material for the hydrogenation of HMF to 2,5-DMF. The catalyst presented an excellent performance for biofuels generation.

Keywords: orange peel, bio-waste valorization, platinum, iridium, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural

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1628 Stability of the Wellhead in the Seabed in One of the Marine Reservoirs of Iran

Authors: Mahdi Aghaei, Saeid Jamshidi, Mastaneh Hajipour


Effective factors on the mechanical wellbore stability are divided in to two categories: 1) Controllable factors, 2) Uncontrollable factors. The purpose of geo-mechanical modeling of wells is to determine the limit of controlled parameters change based on the stress regime at each point and by solving the governing equations the pore-elastic environment around the well. In this research, the mechanical analysis of wellbore stability was carried out for Soroush oilfield. For this purpose, the geo-mechanical model of the field is made using available data. This model provides the necessary parameters for obtaining the distribution of stress around the wellbore. Initially, a basic model was designed to perform various analysis, based on obtained data, using Abaqus software. All of the subsequent sensitivity analysis such as sensitivity analysis on porosity, permeability, etc. was done on the same basic model. The results obtained from these analysis gives various result such as: with the constant geomechanical parameters, and sensitivity analysis on porosity permeability is ineffective. After the most important parameters affecting the wellbore stability and instability are geo-mechanical parameters.

Keywords: wellbore stability, movement, stress, instability

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1627 Comparison between Bernardi’s Equation and Heat Flux Sensor Measurement as Battery Heat Generation Estimation Method

Authors: Marlon Gallo, Eduardo Miguel, Laura Oca, Eneko Gonzalez, Unai Iraola


The heat generation of an energy storage system is an essential topic when designing a battery pack and its cooling system. Heat generation estimation is used together with thermal models to predict battery temperature in operation and adapt the design of the battery pack and the cooling system to these thermal needs guaranteeing its safety and correct operation. In the present work, a comparison between the use of a heat flux sensor (HFS) for indirect measurement of heat losses in a cell and the widely used and simplified version of Bernardi’s equation for estimation is presented. First, a Li-ion cell is thermally characterized with an HFS to measure the thermal parameters that are used in a first-order lumped thermal model. These parameters are the equivalent thermal capacity and the thermal equivalent resistance of a single Li-ion cell. Static (when no current is flowing through the cell) and dynamic (making current flow through the cell) tests are conducted in which HFS is used to measure heat between the cell and the ambient, so thermal capacity and resistances respectively can be calculated. An experimental platform records current, voltage, ambient temperature, surface temperature, and HFS output voltage. Second, an equivalent circuit model is built in a Matlab-Simulink environment. This allows the comparison between the generated heat predicted by Bernardi’s equation and the HFS measurements. Data post-processing is required to extrapolate the heat generation from the HFS measurements, as the sensor records the heat released to the ambient and not the one generated within the cell. Finally, the cell temperature evolution is estimated with the lumped thermal model (using both HFS and Bernardi’s equation total heat generation) and compared towards experimental temperature data (measured with a T-type thermocouple). At the end of this work, a critical review of the results obtained and the possible mismatch reasons are reported. The results show that indirectly measuring the heat generation with HFS gives a more precise estimation than Bernardi’s simplified equation. On the one hand, when using Bernardi’s simplified equation, estimated heat generation differs from cell temperature measurements during charges at high current rates. Additionally, for low capacity cells where a small change in capacity has a great influence on the terminal voltage, the estimated heat generation shows high dependency on the State of Charge (SoC) estimation, and therefore open circuit voltage calculation (as it is SoC dependent). On the other hand, with indirect measuring the heat generation with HFS, the resulting error is a maximum of 0.28ºC in the temperature prediction, in contrast with 1.38ºC with Bernardi’s simplified equation. This illustrates the limitations of Bernardi’s simplified equation for applications where precise heat monitoring is required. For higher current rates, Bernardi’s equation estimates more heat generation and consequently, a higher predicted temperature. Bernardi´s equation accounts for no losses after cutting the charging or discharging current. However, HFS measurement shows that after cutting the current the cell continues generating heat for some time, increasing the error of Bernardi´s equation.

Keywords: lithium-ion battery, heat flux sensor, heat generation, thermal characterization

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1626 Real-World PM, PN and NOx Emission Differences among DOC+CDPF Retrofit Diesel-, Diesel- And Natural Gas-Fueled Bus

Authors: Zhiwen Yang, Jingyuan Li, Zhenkai Xie, Jian Ling, Jiguang Wang, Mengliang Li


To reflect the effects of different emission control strategies, such as retrofitting after-treatment system and replacing with natural gas-fueled vehicles, on particle number (PN), particle mass (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions emitted by urban bus, a portable emission measurement system (PEMS) was employed herein to conduct real-world driving emission measurements on a diesel oxidation catalytic converter (DOC) and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (CDPF) retrofitting China IV diesel bus, a China IV diesel bus, and a China V natural gas bus. The results show that both tested diesel buses possess markedly advantages in NOx emission control when compared to the lean-burn natural gas bus equipped without any NOx after-treatment system. As to PN and PM, only the DOC+CDPF retrofitting diesel bus exhibits enormous benefits on emission control relate to the natural gas bus, especially the normal diesel bus. Meanwhile, the differences in PM and PN emissions between retrofitted and normal diesel buses generally increase with the increase in vehicle-specific power (VSP). Furthermore, the differences in PM emissions, especially those in the higher VSP ranges, are more significant than those in PN. In addition, the maximum peak PN particle size (32 nm) of the retrofitted diesel bus was significantly lower than that of the normal diesel bus (100 nm). These phenomena indicate that the CDPF retrofitting can effectively reduce diesel bus exhaust particle emissions, especially those with large particle sizes.

Keywords: CDPF, diesel, natural gas, real-world emissions

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1625 Electrodynamic Principles for Generation and Wireless Transfer of Energy

Authors: Steven D. P. Moore


An electrical discharge in the air induces an electromagnetic (EM) wave capable of wireless transfer, reception, and conversion back into electrical discharge at a distant location. Following Norton’s ground wave principles, EM wave radiation (EMR) runs parallel to the Earth’s surface. Energy in an EMR wave can move through the air and be focused to create a spark at a distant location, focused by a receiver to generate a local electrical discharge. This local discharge can be amplified and stored but also has the propensity to initiate another EMR wave. In addition to typical EM waves, lightning is also associated with atmospheric events, trans-ionospheric pulse pairs, the most powerful natural EMR signal on the planet. With each lightning strike, regardless of global position, it generates naturally occurring pulse-pairs that are emitted towards space within a narrow cone. An EMR wave can self-propagate, travel at the speed of light, and, if polarized, contain vector properties. If this reflective pulse could be directed by design through structures that have increased probabilities for lighting strikes, it could theoretically travel near the surface of the Earth at light speed towards a selected receiver for local transformation into electrical energy. Through research, there are several influencing parameters that could be modified to model, test, and increase the potential for adopting this technology towards the goal of developing a global grid that utilizes natural sources of energy.

Keywords: electricity, sparkgap, wireless, electromagnetic

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1624 CFD Experiments for the Modeling of Heavy Oil Wells: Determining the Necessity to Solve up to the Viscous Fingering Scale

Authors: Andres Pinilla, Miguel Asuaje, Nicolas Ratkovich


One of the newest alternatives to improve heavy oil production is the accurate prediction of multiphase flows near the wellbore. One of the most powerful technologies is numerical simulations based on the full set of the Navier-Stokes equations. Despite this advanced modeling technique is computationally expensive, its resolution is more precise than conventional technologies used to simulate multiphase flow in porous media. Solutions based on the full set of the Navier-Stokes equations can easily solve up to the viscous fingering scale. Nevertheless, it must be worth questioning if it is indispensable to simulate multiphase flows in porous media up to this scale to predict the movement of the fluids near the wellbore. This study demonstrates the predictive capabilities of numerical simulations based on the full set of the Navier-Stokes equations to simulate heavy oil horizontal wells. The results show a description of the movement of the fluids near the wellbore with unprecedented detail. Moreover, this study addresses whether it is necessary to solve up to the viscous fingering scale for the practical purpose of improving heavy oil production efficiency. A series of numerical experiments using a commercial CFD code is conducted to answer this question. The numerical model is first verified and validated against experimental data of a heavy oil horizontal well located in the Llano basin, Colombia-Venezuela. Two validation alternatives are considered. The first one is a history match considering a homogeneous reservoir. The second one considers a heterogeneous porous media, implementing rock properties measured from experimental well-logging. This second alternative emulates the real behavior of the heavy oil well without requiring to conduct a history match. Then, the numerical model is modified to implement an advanced spatial discretization scheme, an adaptive mesh, capable of refining the mesh in the heavy oil-water interface to solve up to the viscous fingering scale. The numerical experiments between fixed and adaptive meshes are compared. Then, it is determined if it is imperative to solve up to the viscous fingering scale after comparing the resolution of the movement of the fluids, the prediction of the breakthrough event, and computational costs.

Keywords: Navier-Stokes, viscous fingering, unstable displacements, multiphase flow in porous media

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1623 A Key Parameter in Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Plant Design and Operation

Authors: Yongjian Gu


Ocean thermal energy is one of the ocean energy sources. It is a renewable, sustainable, and green energy source. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) applies the ocean temperature gradient between the warmer surface seawater and the cooler deep seawater to run a heat engine and produce a useful power output. Unfortunately, the ocean temperature gradient is not big. Even in the tropical and equatorial regions, the surface water temperature can only reach up to 28oC and the deep water temperature can be as low as 4oC. The thermal efficiency of the OTEC plants, therefore, is low. In order to improve the plant thermal efficiency by using the limited ocean temperature gradient, some OTEC plants use the method of adding more equipment for better heat recovery, such as heat exchangers, pumps, etc. Obviously, the method will increase the plant's complexity and cost. The more important impact of the method is the additional equipment needs to consume power too, which may have an adverse effect on the plant net power output, in turn, the plant thermal efficiency. In the paper, the author first describes varied OTEC plants and the practice of using the method of adding more equipment for improving the plant's thermal efficiency. Then the author proposes a parameter, plant back works ratio ϕ, for measuring if the added equipment is appropriate for the plant thermal efficiency improvement. Finally, in the paper, the author presents examples to illustrate the application of the back work ratio ϕ as a key parameter in the OTEC plant design and operation.

Keywords: ocean thermal energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), OTEC plant, plant back work ratio ϕ

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1622 Drone Swarm Routing and Scheduling for Off-shore Wind Turbine Blades Inspection

Authors: Mohanad Al-Behadili, Xiang Song, Djamila Ouelhadj, Alex Fraess-Ehrfeld


In off-shore wind farms, turbine blade inspection accessibility under various sea states is very challenging and greatly affects the downtime of wind turbines. Maintenance of any offshore system is not an easy task due to the restricted logistics and accessibility. The multirotor unmanned helicopter is of increasing interest in inspection applications due to its manoeuvrability and payload capacity. These advantages increase when many of them are deployed simultaneously in a swarm. Hence this paper proposes a drone swarm framework for inspecting offshore wind turbine blades and nacelles so as to reduce downtime. One of the big challenges of this task is that when operating a drone swarm, an individual drone may not have enough power to fly and communicate during missions and it has no capability of refueling due to its small size. Once the drone power is drained, there are no signals transmitted and the links become intermittent. Vessels equipped with 5G masts and small power units are utilised as platforms for drones to recharge/swap batteries. The research work aims at designing a smart energy management system, which provides automated vessel and drone routing and recharging plans. To achieve this goal, a novel mathematical optimisation model is developed with the main objective of minimising the number of drones and vessels, which carry the charging stations, and the downtime of the wind turbines. There are a number of constraints to be considered, such as each wind turbine must be inspected once and only once by one drone; each drone can inspect at most one wind turbine after recharging, then fly back to the charging station; collision should be avoided during the drone flying; all wind turbines in the wind farm should be inspected within the given time window. We have developed a real-time Ant Colony Optimisation (ACO) algorithm to generate real-time and near-optimal solutions to the drone swarm routing problem. The schedule will generate efficient and real-time solutions to indicate the inspection tasks, time windows, and the optimal routes of the drones to access the turbines. Experiments are conducted to evaluate the quality of the solutions generated by ACO.

Keywords: drone swarm, routing, scheduling, optimisation model, ant colony optimisation

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1621 Climate Change Effects in a Mediterranean Island and Streamflow Changes for a Small Basin Using Euro-Cordex Regional Climate Simulations Combined with the SWAT Model

Authors: Pier Andrea Marras, Daniela Lima, Pedro Matos Soares, Rita Maria Cardoso, Daniela Medas, Elisabetta Dore, Giovanni De Giudici


Climate change effects on the hydrologic cycle are the main concern for the evaluation of water management strategies. Climate models project scenarios of precipitation changes in the future, considering greenhouse emissions. In this study, the EURO-CORDEX (European Coordinated Regional Downscaling Experiment) climate models were first evaluated in a Mediterranean island (Sardinia) against observed precipitation for a historical reference period (1976-2005). A weighted multi-model ensemble (ENS) was built, weighting the single models based on their ability to reproduce observed rainfall. Future projections (2071-2100) were carried out using the 8.5 RCP emissions scenario to evaluate changes in precipitations. ENS was then used as climate forcing for the SWAT model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), with the aim to assess the consequences of such projected changes on streamflow and runoff of two small catchments located in the South-West Sardinia. Results showed that a decrease of mean rainfall values, up to -25 % at yearly scale, is expected for the future, along with an increase of extreme precipitation events. Particularly in the eastern and southern areas, extreme events are projected to increase by 30%. Such changes reflect on the hydrologic cycle with a decrease of mean streamflow and runoff, except in spring, when runoff is projected to increase by 20-30%. These results stress that the Mediterranean is a hotspot for climate change, and the use of model tools can provide very useful information to adopt water and land management strategies to deal with such changes.

Keywords: EURO-CORDEX, climate change, hydrology, SWAT model, Sardinia, multi-model ensemble

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1620 Investigation of a Single Feedstock Particle during Pyrolysis in Fluidized Bed Reactors via X-Ray Imaging Technique

Authors: Stefano Iannello, Massimiliano Materazzi


Fluidized bed reactor technologies are one of the most valuable pathways for thermochemical conversions of biogenic fuels due to their good operating flexibility. Nevertheless, there are still issues related to the mixing and separation of heterogeneous phases during operation with highly volatile feedstocks, including biomass and waste. At high temperatures, the volatile content of the feedstock is released in the form of the so-called endogenous bubbles, which generally exert a “lift” effect on the particle itself by dragging it up to the bed surface. Such phenomenon leads to high release of volatile matter into the freeboard and limited mass and heat transfer with particles of the bed inventory. The aim of this work is to get a better understanding of the behaviour of a single reacting particle in a hot fluidized bed reactor during the devolatilization stage. The analysis has been undertaken at different fluidization regimes and temperatures to closely mirror the operating conditions of waste-to-energy processes. Beechwood and polypropylene particles were used to resemble the biomass and plastic fractions present in waste materials, respectively. The non-invasive X-ray technique was coupled to particle tracking algorithms to characterize the motion of a single feedstock particle during the devolatilization with high resolution. A high-energy X-ray beam passes through the vessel where absorption occurs, depending on the distribution and amount of solids and fluids along the beam path. A high-speed video camera is synchronised to the beam and provides frame-by-frame imaging of the flow patterns of fluids and solids within the fluidized bed up to 72 fps (frames per second). A comprehensive mathematical model has been developed in order to validate the experimental results. Beech wood and polypropylene particles have shown a very different dynamic behaviour during the pyrolysis stage. When the feedstock is fed from the bottom, the plastic material tends to spend more time within the bed than the biomass. This behaviour can be attributed to the presence of the endogenous bubbles, which drag effect is more pronounced during the devolatilization of biomass, resulting in a lower residence time of the particle within the bed. At the typical operating temperatures of thermochemical conversions, the synthetic polymer softens and melts, and the bed particles attach on its outer surface, generating a wet plastic-sand agglomerate. Consequently, this additional layer of sand may hinder the rapid evolution of volatiles in the form of endogenous bubbles, and therefore the establishment of a poor drag effect acting on the feedstock itself. Information about the mixing and segregation of solid feedstock is of prime importance for the design and development of more efficient industrial-scale operations.

Keywords: fluidized bed, pyrolysis, waste feedstock, X-ray

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1619 BI- And Tri-Metallic Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Iodide Decomposition

Authors: Sony, Ashok N. Bhaskarwar


Production of hydrogen from a renewable raw material without any co-synthesis of harmful greenhouse gases is the current need for sustainable energy solutions. The sulfur-iodine (SI) thermochemical cycle, using intermediate chemicals, is an efficient process for producing hydrogen at a much lower temperature than that required for the direct splitting of water. No net byproduct forms in the cycle. Hydrogen iodide (HI) decomposition is a crucial reaction in this cycle, as the product, hydrogen, forms only in this step. It is an endothermic, reversible, and equilibrium-limited reaction. The theoretical equilibrium conversion at 550°C is just a meagre of 24%. There is a growing interest, therefore, in enhancing the HI conversion to near-equilibrium values at lower reaction temperatures and by possibly improving the rate. The reaction is relatively slow without a catalyst, and hence catalytic decomposition of HI has gained much significance. Bi-metallic Ni-Co, Ni-Mn, Co-Mn, and tri-metallic Ni-Co-Mn catalysts over zirconia support were tested for HI decomposition reaction. The catalysts were synthesized via a sol-gel process wherein Ni was 3wt% in all the samples, and Co and Mn had equal weight ratios in the Co-Mn catalyst. Powdered X-ray diffraction and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area characterizations indicated the polycrystalline nature and well-developed mesoporous structure of all the samples. The experiments were performed in a vertical laboratory-scale packed bed reactor made of quartz, and HI (55 wt%) was fed along with nitrogen at a WHSV of 12.9 hr⁻¹. Blank experiments at 500°C for HI decomposition suggested conversion of less than 5%. The activities of all the different catalysts were checked at 550°C, and the highest conversion of 23.9% was obtained with the tri-metallic 3Ni-Co-Mn-ZrO₂ catalyst. The decreasing order of the performance of catalysts could be expressed as: 3Ni-Co-Mn-ZrO₂ > 3Ni-2Co-ZrO₂ > 3Ni-2Mn-ZrO₂ > 2.5Co-2.5Mn-ZrO₂. The tri-metallic catalyst remained active till 360 mins at 550°C without any observable drop in its activity/stability. Among the explored catalyst compositions, the tri-metallic catalyst certainly has a better performance for HI conversion when compared to the bi-metallic ones. Owing to their low costs and ease of preparation, these trimetallic catalysts could be used for large-scale hydrogen production.

Keywords: sulfur-iodine cycle, hydrogen production, hydrogen iodide decomposition, bi-, and tri-metallic catalysts

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1618 Methodology of Choosing Technology and Sizing of the Hybrid Energy Storage Based on Cost-benefit Analysis

Authors: Krzysztof Rafał, Weronika Radziszewska, Hubert Biedka, Oskar Grabowski, Krzysztof Mik


We present a method to choose energy storage technologies and their parameters for the economic operation of a microgrid. A grid-connected system with local loads and PV generation is assumed, where an energy storage system (ESS) is attached to minimize energy cost by providing energy balancing and arbitrage functionalities. The ESS operates in a hybrid configuration and consists of two unique technologies operated in a coordinated way. Based on given energy profiles and economical data a model calculates financial flow for ESS investment, including energy cost and ESS depreciation resulting from degradation. The optimization strategy proposes a hybrid set of two technologies with their respective power and energy ratings to minimize overall system cost in a given timeframe. Results are validated through microgrid simulations using real-life input profiles.

Keywords: energy storage, hybrid energy storage, cost-benefit analysis, microgrid, battery sizing

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1617 Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Binder-free Trimetallic Phosphate Nanosheets

Authors: Iftikhar Hussain, Muhammad Ahmad, Xi Chen, Li Yuxiang


Transition metal phosphides and phosphates are newly emerged electrode material candidates in energy storage devices. For the first time, we report uniformly distributed, interconnected, and well-aligned two-dimensional nanosheets made from trimetallic Zn-Co-Ga phosphate (ZCGP) electrode materials with preserved crystal phase. It is found that the ZCGP electrode material exhibits about 2.85 and 1.66 times higher specific capacity than mono- and bimetallic phosphate electrode materials at the same current density. The trimetallic ZCGP electrode exhibits superior conductivity, lower internal resistance (IR) drop, and high Coulombic efficiency compared to mono- and bimetallic phosphate. The charge storage mechanism is studied for mono- bi- and trimetallic electrode materials, which illustrate the diffusion-dominated battery-type behavior. By means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, ZCGP shows superior metallic conductivity due to the modified exchange splitting originating from 3d-orbitals of Co atoms in the presence of Zn and Ga. Moreover, a hybrid supercapacitor (ZCGP//rGO) device is engineered, which delivered a high energy density (ED) of 40 W h kg⁻¹ and a high-power density (PD) of 7,745 W kg⁻¹, lighting 5 different colors of light emitting diodes (LEDs). These outstanding results confirm the promising battery-type electrode materials for energy storage applications.

Keywords: trimetallic phosphate, nanosheets, DFT calculations, hybrid supercapacitor, binder-free, synergistic effect

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