Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1952

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Energy and Power Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1952 Russian pipeline natural gas export strategy under uncertainty

Authors: Koryukaeva Ksenia, Jinfeng Sun

Abstract:

Europe has been a traditional importer of Russian natural gas for more than 50 years. In 2021, Russian state-owned company Gazprom supplied about a third of all gas consumed in Europe. The Russia-Europe mutual dependence in terms of natural gas supplies has been causing many concerns about the energy security of the two sides for a long period of time. These days the issue has become more urgent than ever considering recent Russian invasion in Ukraine followed by increased large-scale geopolitical conflicts, making the future of Russian natural gas supplies and global gas markets as well highly uncertain. Hence, the main purpose of this study is to get insight into the possible futures of Russian pipeline natural gas exports by a scenario planning method based on Monte-Carlo simulation within LUSS model framework, and propose Russian pipeline natural gas export strategies based on the obtained scenario planning results. The scenario analysis revealed that recent geopolitical disputes disturbed the traditional, longstanding model of Russian pipeline gas exports, and, as a result, the prospects and the pathways for Russian pipeline gas on the world markets will differ significantly from those before 2022. Specifically, our main findings show, that (i) the events of 2022 generated many uncertainties for the long-term future of Russian pipeline gas export perspectives on both western and eastern supply directions, including geopolitical, regulatory, economic, infrastructure and other uncertainties; (ii) according to scenario modelling results, Russian pipeline exports will face many challenges in the future, both on western and eastern directions. A decrease in pipeline gas exports will inevitably affect country’s natural gas production and significantly reduce fossil fuel export revenues, jeopardizing the energy security of the country; (iii) according to proposed strategies, in order to ensure the long-term stable export supplies in the changing environment, Russia may need to adjust its traditional export strategy by performing export flows and product diversification, entering new markets, adapting its contracting mechanism, increasing competitiveness and gaining a reputation of a reliable gas supplier.

Keywords: Russian natural gas, Pipeline natural gas, Uncertainty, Scenario simulation, Export strategy

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1951 A Study on the Etching Characteristics of High aspect ratio Oxide Etching Using C4F6 Plasma in Inductively Coupled Plasma with Low Frequency Bias

Authors: ByungJun Woo

Abstract:

In this study, high-aspect-ratio (HAR) oxide etching characteristics in inductively coupled plasma were investigated using low frequency (2 MHz) bias power with C4F6 gas. An experiment was conducted using CF4/C4F6/He as the mixed gas. A 100 nm (etch area)/500 nm (mask area) line patterns were used, and the etch cross-section and etch selectivity of the amorphous carbon layer thin film were derived using a scanning electron microscope. Ion density was extracted using a double Langmuir probe, and CFx and F neutral species were observed via optical emission spectroscopy. Based on these results, the possibility for HAR oxide etching using C4F6 gas chemistry was suggested in this work. These etching results also indicate that the use of C4F6 gas can significantly contribute to the development of next-generation HAR oxide etching.

Keywords: plasma, etching, C4F6, high aspect ratio, inductively coupled plasma

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
1950 Numerical Analysis of Solar Cooling System

Authors: Nadia Allouache, Mohamed Belmedani

Abstract:

Energy source is a sustainable, totally inexhaustible and environmentally friendly alternative to the fossil fuels available. It is a renewable and economical energy that can be harnessed sustainably over the long term and thus stabilizes energy costs. Solar cooling technologies have been developed to decrease the augmentation electricity consumption for air conditioning and to displace the peak load during hot summer days. A numerical analysis of thermal and solar performances of an annular finned adsorber, which is the most important component of the adsorption solar refrigerating system, is considered in this work. Different adsorbent/adsorbate pairs, such as activated carbon AC35/methanol, activated carbon AC35/ethanol, and activated carbon BPL/Ammoniac, are undertaken in this study. The modeling of the adsorption cooling machine requires the resolution of the equation describing the energy and mass transfer in the tubular finned adsorber. The Wilson and Dubinin- Astakhov models of the solid-adsorbate equilibrium are used to calculate the adsorbed quantity. The porous medium and the fins are contained in the annular space, and the adsorber is heated by solar energy. Effects of key parameters on the adsorbed quantity and on the thermal and solar performances are analysed and discussed. The AC35/methanol pair is the best pair compared to BPL/Ammoniac and AC35/ethanol pairs in terms of system performance. The system performances are sensitive to the fin geometry. For the considered data measured for clear type days of July 2023 in Algeria and Morocco, the performances of the cooling system are very significant in Algeria.

Keywords: activated carbon AC35-methanol pair, activated carbon AC35-ethanol pair, activated carbon BPL-ammoniac pair, annular finned adsorber, performance coefficients, numerical analysis, solar cooling system

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
1949 Modeling and Temperature Control of Water-cooled PEMFC System Using Intelligent Algorithm

Authors: Chen Jun-Hong, He Pu, Tao Wen-Quan

Abstract:

Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is the most promising future energy source owing to its low operating temperature, high energy efficiency, high power density, and environmental friendliness. In this paper, a comprehensive PEMFC system control-oriented model is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, which includes the hydrogen supply subsystem, air supply subsystem, and thermal management subsystem. Besides, Improved Artificial Bee Colony (IABC) is used in the parameter identification of PEMFC semi-empirical equations, making the maximum relative error between simulation data and the experimental data less than 0.4%. Operation temperature is essential for PEMFC, both high and low temperatures are disadvantageous. In the thermal management subsystem, water pump and fan are both controlled with the PID controller to maintain the appreciate operation temperature of PEMFC for the requirements of safe and efficient operation. To improve the control effect further, fuzzy control is introduced to optimize the PID controller of the pump, and the Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network is introduced to optimize the PID controller of the fan. The results demonstrate that Fuzzy-PID and RBF-PID can achieve a better control effect with 22.66% decrease in Integral Absolute Error Criterion (IAE) of T_st (Temperature of PEMFC) and 77.56% decrease in IAE of T_in (Temperature of inlet cooling water) compared with traditional PID. In the end, a novel thermal management structure is proposed, which uses the cooling air passing through the main radiator to continue cooling the secondary radiator. In this thermal management structure, the parasitic power dissipation can be reduced by 69.94%, and the control effect can be improved with a 52.88% decrease in IAE of T_in under the same controller.

Keywords: PEMFC system, parameter identification, temperature control, Fuzzy-PID, RBF-PID, parasitic power

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
1948 A Green Hydrogen Route for Electromobility in Brazil and Its Impact in Climate Change

Authors: Milena França Marques

Abstract:

Due to the climate crisis, several countries such as Brazil began to look for energy alternatives, finding green hydrogen as a possible solution. In addition to not emitting polluting gasses, it also has a large energy capacity, being an excellent alternative for the transport sector, the third sector that emits the most Greenhouse Gases (GHG) in Brazil. Therefore, this work aims to suggest a route for using green hydrogen, through the analysis of plans implemented in other countries, the Brazilian situation, and its difficulties in the development of hydrogen and electromobility, aiming to understand how its value chain works, as well as how to make the Brazilian fleet more efficient and decarbonize. As a result, 68 structuring measures were suggested for the first 5 axes of the National Hydrogen Program (PNH2) using the Three-Year Plan as a basis. Categorizations of measures were also made, definitions of those responsible for their development and implementation, as well as deadlines for them to be met. It is concluded that the study has the potential to promote national energy-environmental mobility transition planning realistically, capable of developing hydrogen and electromobility in Brazil, in addition to contributing to achieving the goals established by its Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).

Keywords: climate change, electromobility, hydrogen, roadmap

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
1947 Strategies to Achieve Deep Decarbonisation in Power Generation: A Review

Authors: Abdullah Alotaiq

Abstract:

The transition to low-carbon power generation is essential for mitigating climate change and achieving sustainability. This process, however, entails considerable costs, and understanding the factors influencing these costs is critical. This is necessary to cater to the increasing demand for low-carbon electricity across the heating, industry, and transportation sectors. A crucial aspect of this transition is identifying cost-effective and feasible paths for decarbonization, which is integral to global climate mitigation efforts. It is concluded that hybrid solutions, combining different low-carbon technologies, are optimal for minimizing costs and enhancing flexibility. These solutions also address the challenges associated with phasing out existing fossil fuel-based power plants and broadening the spectrum of low-carbon power generation options.

Keywords: review, power generation, energy transition, decarbonisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 4
1946 Adjusting Electricity Demand Data to Account for the Impact of Loadshedding in Forecasting Models

Authors: Migael van Zyl, Stefanie Visser, Awelani Phaswana

Abstract:

The electricity landscape in South Africa is characterized by frequent occurrences of loadshedding, a measure implemented by Eskom to manage electricity generation shortages by curtailing demand. Loadshedding, classified into stages ranging from 1 to 8 based on severity, involves the systematic rotation of power cuts across municipalities according to predefined schedules. However, this practice introduces distortions in recorded electricity demand, posing challenges to accurate forecasting essential for budgeting, network planning, and generation scheduling. Addressing this challenge requires the development of a methodology to quantify the impact of loadshedding and integrate it back into metered electricity demand data. Fortunately, comprehensive records of loadshedding impacts are maintained in a database, enabling the alignment of Loadshedding effects with hourly demand data. This adjustment ensures that forecasts accurately reflect true demand patterns, independent of loadshedding's influence, thereby enhancing the reliability of electricity supply management in South Africa. This paper presents a methodology for determining the hourly impact of load scheduling and subsequently adjusting historical demand data to account for it. Furthermore, two forecasting models are developed: one utilizing the original dataset and the other using the adjusted data. A comparative analysis is conducted to evaluate forecast accuracy improvements resulting from the adjustment process. By implementing this methodology, stakeholders can make more informed decisions regarding electricity infrastructure investments, resource allocation, and operational planning, contributing to the overall stability and efficiency of South Africa's electricity supply system.

Keywords: electricity demand forecasting, load shedding, demand side management, data science

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
1945 Increasing System Adequacy Using Integration of Pumped Storage: Renewable Energy to Reduce Thermal Power Generations Towards RE100 Target, Thailand

Authors: Mathuravech Thanaphon, Thephasit Nat

Abstract:

The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) is focusing on expanding its pumped storage hydropower (PSH) capacity to increase the reliability of the system during peak demand and allow for greater integration of renewables. To achieve this requirement, Thailand will have to double its current renewable electricity production. To address the challenges of balancing supply and demand in the grid with increasing levels of RE penetration, as well as rising peak demand, EGAT has already been studying the potential for additional PSH capacity for several years to enable an increased share of RE and replace existing fossil fuel-fired generation. In addition, the role that pumped-storage hydropower would play in fulfilling multiple grid functions and renewable integration. The proposed sites for new PSH would help increase the reliability of power generation in Thailand. However, most of the electricity generation will come from RE, chiefly wind and photovoltaic, and significant additional Energy Storage capacity will be needed. In this paper, the impact of integrating the PSH system on the adequacy of renewable rich power generating systems to reduce the thermal power generating units is investigated. The variations of system adequacy indices are analyzed for different PSH-renewables capacities and storage levels. Power Development Plan 2018 rev.1 (PDP2018 rev.1), which is modified by integrating a six-new PSH system and RE planning and development aftermath in 2030, is the very challenge. The system adequacy indices through power generation are obtained using Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) Optimization. MOGA is a probabilistic heuristic and stochastic algorithm that is able to find the global minima, which have the advantage that the fitness function does not necessarily require the gradient. In this sense, the method is more flexible in solving reliability optimization problems for a composite power system. The optimization with hourly time step takes years of planning horizon much larger than the weekly horizon that usually sets the scheduling studies. The objective function is to be optimized to maximize RE energy generation, minimize energy imbalances, and minimize thermal power generation using MATLAB. The PDP2018 rev.1 was set to be simulated based on its planned capacity stepping into 2030 and 2050. Therefore, the four main scenario analyses are conducted as the target of renewables share: 1) Business-As-Usual (BAU), 2) National Targets (30% RE in 2030), 3) Carbon Neutrality Targets (50% RE in 2050), and 5) 100% RE or full-decarbonization. According to the results, the generating system adequacy is significantly affected by both PSH-RE and Thermal units. When a PSH is integrated, it can provide hourly capacity to the power system as well as better allocate renewable energy generation to reduce thermal generations and improve system reliability. These results show that a significant level of reliability improvement can be obtained by PSH, especially in renewable-rich power systems.

Keywords: pumped storage hydropower, renewable energy integration, system adequacy, power development planning, RE100, multi-objective genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
1944 Nanofluid based on Zinc Oxide/Ferric Oxide Nanocomposite as Additive for Geothermal Drilling Fluids

Authors: Anwaar O. Ali, Mahmoud Fathy Mubarak, Mahmoud Ibrahim Abdou, Hector Cano Esteban, Amany A. Aboulrous

Abstract:

Corrosion resistance and lubrication are crucial characteristics required for geothermal drilling fluids. In this study, a ZnO/Fe₂O₃ nanocomposite was fabricated and incorporated into the structure of Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Several physicochemical techniques were utilized to analyze and describe the synthesized nanomaterials. The surface morphology of the composite was assessed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX). The corrosion inhibition capabilities of these materials were explored across various corrosive environments. The weight loss and electrochemical methods were utilized to determine the corrosion inhibition activity of the prepared nanomaterials. The results demonstrate a high level of protection achieved by the composite. Additionally, the lubricant coefficient and extreme pressure properties were evaluated.

Keywords: nanofluid, corrosion, geothermal drilling fluids, ZnO/Fe2O3

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
1943 A Reinforcement Learning Based Method for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Demand Response Optimization Considering Few-Shot Personalized Thermal Comfort

Authors: Xiaohua Zou, Yongxin Su

Abstract:

The reasonable operation of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) is of great significance in improving the security, stability, and economy of power system operation. However, the uncertainty of the operating environment, thermal comfort varies by users and rapid decision-making pose challenges for HVAC demand response optimization. In this regard, this paper proposes a reinforcement learning-based method for HVAC demand response optimization considering few-shot personalized thermal comfort (PTC). First, an HVAC DR optimization framework based on few-shot PTC model and DRL is designed, in which the output of few-shot PTC model is regarded as the input of DRL. Then, a few-shot PTC model that distinguishes between awake and asleep states is established, which has excellent engineering usability. Next, based on soft actor criticism, an HVAC DR optimization algorithm considering the user’s PTC is designed to deal with uncertainty and make decisions rapidly. Experiment results show that the proposed method can efficiently obtain use’s PTC temperature, reduce energy cost while ensuring user’s PTC, and achieve rapid decision-making under uncertainty.

Keywords: HVAC, few-shot personalized thermal comfort, deep reinforcement learning, demand response

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
1942 Collaborative Energy Optimization for Multi-Microgrid Distribution System Based on Two-Stage Game Approach

Authors: Hanmei Peng, Yiqun Wang, Mao Tan, Zhuocen Dai, Yongxin Su

Abstract:

Efficient energy management in multi-microgrid distribution systems holds significant importance for enhancing the economic benefits of regional power grids. To better balance conflicts among various stakeholders, a two-stage game-based collaborative optimization approach is proposed in this paper, effectively addressing the realistic scenario involving both competition and collaboration among stakeholders. The first stage, aimed at maximizing individual benefits, involves constructing a non-cooperative tariff game model for the distribution network and surplus microgrid. In the second stage, considering power flow and physical line capacity constraints we establish a cooperative P2P game model for the multi-microgrid distribution system, and the optimization involves employing the Lagrange method of multipliers to handle complex constraints. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can effectively improve the system economics while harmonizing individual and collective rationality.

Keywords: cooperative game, collaborative optimization, multi-microgrid distribution system, non-cooperative game

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
1941 Using Artificial Vision Techniques for Dust Detection on Photovoltaic Panels

Authors: Gustavo Funes, Eduardo Peters, Jose Delpiano

Abstract:

It is widely known that photovoltaic technology has been massively distributed over the last decade despite its low-efficiency ratio. Dust deposition reduces this efficiency even more, lowering the energy production and module lifespan. In this work, we developed an artificial vision algorithm based on CIELAB color space to identify dust over panels in an autonomous way. We performed several experiments photographing three different types of panels, 30W, 340W and 410W. Those panels were soiled artificially with uniform and non-uniform distributed dust. The algorithm proposed uses statistical tools to provide a simulation with a 100% soiled panel and then performs a comparison to get the percentage of dirt in the experimental data set. The simulation uses a seed that is obtained by taking a dust sample from the maximum amount of dust from the dataset. The final result is the dirt percentage and the possible distribution of dust over the panel. Dust deposition is a key factor for plant owners to determine cleaning cycles or identify nonuniform depositions that could lead to module failure and hot spots.

Keywords: dust detection, photovoltaic, artificial vision, soiling

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
1940 Hot Carrier Photocurrent as a Candidate for an Intrinsic Loss in a Single Junction Solar Cell

Authors: Jonas Gradauskas, Oleksandr Masalskyi, Ihor Zharchenko

Abstract:

The advancement in improving the efficiency of conventional solar cells toward the Shockley-Queisser limit seems to be slowing down or reaching a point of saturation. The challenges hindering the reduction of this efficiency gap can be categorized into extrinsic and intrinsic losses, with the former being theoretically avoidable. Among the five intrinsic losses, two — the below-Eg loss (resulting from non-absorption of photons with energy below the semiconductor bandgap) and thermalization loss —contribute to approximately 55% of the overall lost fraction of solar radiation at energy bandgap values corresponding to silicon and gallium arsenide. Efforts to minimize the disparity between theoretically predicted and experimentally achieved efficiencies in solar cells necessitate the integration of innovative physical concepts. Hot carriers (HC) present a contemporary approach to addressing this challenge. The significance of hot carriers in photovoltaics is not fully understood. Although their excessive energy is thought to indirectly impact a cell's performance through thermalization loss — where the excess energy heats the lattice, leading to efficiency loss — evidence suggests the presence of hot carriers in solar cells. Despite their exceptionally brief lifespan, tangible benefits arise from their existence. The study highlights direct experimental evidence of hot carrier effect induced by both below- and above-bandgap radiation in a singlejunction solar cell. Photocurrent flowing across silicon and GaAs p-n junctions is analyzed. The photoresponse consists, on the whole, of three components caused by electron-hole pair generation, hot carriers, and lattice heating. The last two components counteract the conventional electron-hole generation-caused current required for successful solar cell operation. Also, a model of the temperature coefficient of the voltage change of the current–voltage characteristic is used to obtain the hot carrier temperature. The distribution of cold and hot carriers is analyzed with regard to the potential barrier height of the p-n junction. These discoveries contribute to a better understanding of hot carrier phenomena in photovoltaic devices and are likely to prompt a reevaluation of intrinsic losses in solar cells.

Keywords: solar cell, hot carriers, intrinsic losses, efficiency, photocurrent

Procedia PDF Downloads 12
1939 Long-term Care Facility for the Elderly and Its Relationship with Energy Efficiency

Authors: Gabriela Sardinha Pacheco

Abstract:

In a context of elderly population growth, the need to provide high quality infrastructure and services to these people becomes even more evident. The act of designing a space dedicated to elderly people goes beyond the concept of well-being and reaches to a point of evaluating and changing the way which society sees this part of the population as well as how it can build a relationship with energy efficiency. In this context, the care facilities for elderly have an extremely important role to provide this infrastructure to the population. A common issue is that, for many times, these facilities face financial issues, and the full operation of the establishment can be impacted. The intention of this work is to develop a project in which the energy efficiency measures can be lived daily and that the residents of the institution can participate actively, directly, or indirectly in the construction of this relationship. The use of energy efficiency strategies should become a natural process when thinking about buildings as it is an essential step to provide increased well-being, climate change mitigation, and cost reduction.

Keywords: energy efficiency, environmental comfort, long-term care facility, well-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
1938 Vegetables and Fruits Solar Tunnel Dryer for Small-Scale Farmers in Kassala

Authors: Sami Mohamed Sharif

Abstract:

The current study focuses on the design and construction of a solar tunnel dryer intended for small-scale farmers in Kassala, Sudan. To determine the appropriate dimensions of the dryer, the heat and mass balance equations are used, taking into account factors such as the target agricultural product, climate conditions, solar irradiance, and desired drying time. In Kassala, a dryer with a width of 88 cm, length of 600 cm, and height of 25 cm has been built, capable of drying up to 40 kg of vegetables or fruits. The dryer is divided into two chambers of different lengths. The air passing through is heated to the desired drying temperature in a separate heating chamber that is 200 cm long. From there, the heated air enters the drying chamber, which is 400 cm long. In this section, the agricultural product is placed on a slightly elevated net. The tunnel dryer was constructed using materials from the local market. The paper also examines the solar irradiance in Kassala, finding an average of 23.6 MJ/m2/day, with a maximum of 26.6 MJ/m2/day in April and a minimum of 20.2 MJ/m2/day in December. A DC fan powered by a 160Wp solar panel is utilized to circulate air within the tunnel. By connecting the fan and three 12V, 60W bulbs in series, four different speeds can be achieved using a speed controller. Temperature and relative humidity measurements were taken hourly over three days, from 10:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. The results demonstrate the promising technology and sizing techniques of solar tunnel dryers, which can significantly increase the temperature within the tunnel by more than 90%.

Keywords: tunnel dryer, solar drying, moisture content, fruits drying modeling, open sun drying

Procedia PDF Downloads 10
1937 Fault Ride Through Management in Renewable Power Park

Authors: Mohd Zamri Che Wanik

Abstract:

This paper presents the management of the Fault Ride Through event within a Solar Farm during a grid fault. The modeling and simulation of a photovoltaic (PV) with battery energy storage connected to the power network will be described. The modeling approach and the study analysis performed are described. The model and operation scenarios are simulated using a digital simulator for different scenarios. The dynamic response of the system when subjected to sudden self-clearance temporary fault is presented. The capability of the PV system and battery storage riding through the power system fault and, at the same time, supporting the local grid by injecting fault current is demonstrated. For each case, the different control methods to achieve the objective of supporting the grid according to grid code requirements are presented and explained. The inverter modeling approach is presented and described.

Keywords: faut ride through, solar farm, grid code, power network

Procedia PDF Downloads 7
1936 Synthetic Optimizing Control of Wind-Wave Hybrid Energy Conversion System

Authors: Lei Xue, Liye Zhao, Jundong Wang, Yu Xue

Abstract:

A hybrid energy conversion system composed of a floating offshore wind turbine (FOWT) and wave energy converters (WECs) may possibly reduce the levelized cost of energy, improving the platform dynamics and increasing the capacity to harvest energy. This paper investigates the aerodynamic performance and dynamic responses of the combined semi-submersible FOWT and point-absorber WECs in frequency and time domains using synthetic optimizing control under turbulent wind and irregular wave conditions. Individual pitch control is applied to the FOWT part, while spring–damping control is used on the WECs part, as well as the synergistic control effect of both are studied. The effect of the above control optimization is analyzed under several typical working conditions, such as below-rated wind speed, rated wind speed, and above-rated wind speed by OpenFAST and WEC-Sim software. Particularly, the wind-wave misalignment is also comparatively investigated, which has demonstrated the importance of applying proper integrated optimal control in this hybrid energy system. More specifically, the combination of individual pitch control and spring–damping control is able to mitigate the platform pitch motion and improve output power. However, the increase in blade root load needs to be considered which needs further investigations in the future.

Keywords: floating offshore wind turbine, wave energy converters, control optimization, individual pitch control, dynamic response

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
1935 Necessary Steps for Optimizing Electricity Generation Programs from Ahvaz Electricity Plants, Iran

Authors: Sara Zadehomidi

Abstract:

Iran, a geographically arid and semi-arid country, experiences varying levels of rainfall across its territory. Five major and important rivers, namely Karun, Dez, Karkheh, Jarrahi, and Hendijan, are valuable assets of the Khuzestan province. To address various needs, including those of farmers (especially during hot seasons with no rainfall), drinking water requirements, industrial and environmental, and most importantly, electricity production, dams have been constructed on several of these rivers, with some dams still under construction. The outflow of water from dam reservoirs must be managed in a way that not only preserves the reservoir's potential effectively but also ensures the maximum revenue from electricity generation. Furthermore, it should meet the other mentioned requirements. In this study, scientific methods such as optimization using Lingo software were employed to achieve these objectives. The results, when executed and adhering to the proposed electricity production program with Lingo software, indicate a 35.7% increase in electricity sales revenue over a one-year examination period. Considering that several electricity plants are currently under construction, the importance and necessity of utilizing computer systems for expediting and optimizing the electricity generation program planning from electricity plants will become evident in the future.

Keywords: Ahvaz, electricity generation programs, Iran, optimizing

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
1934 Zeolite 4A-confined Ni-Co Nanocluster: An Efficient and Durable Electrocatalyst for Alkaline Methanol Oxidation Reaction

Authors: Sarmistha Baruah, Akshai Kumar, Nageswara Rao Peela

Abstract:

The global energy crisis due to the dependence on fossil fuels and its limited reserves as well as environmental pollution are key concerns to the research communities. However, the implementation of alcohol-based fuel cells such as methanol is anticipated as a reliable source of future energy technology due to their high energy density, environment friendliness, ease of storage, transportation, etc. To drive the anodic methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs), an active and long-lasting catalyst is necessary for efficient energy conversion from methanol. Recently, transition metal-zeolite-based materials have been considered versatile catalysts for a variety of industrial and lab-scale processes. Large specific surface area, well-organized micropores, and adjustable acidity/basicity are characteristics of zeolites that make them excellent supports for immobilizing small-sized and highly dispersed metal species. Significant advancement in the production and characterization of well-defined metal clusters encapsulated within zeolite matrix has substantially expanded the library of materials available, and consequently, their catalytic efficacy. In this context, we developed bimetallic Ni-Co catalysts encapsulated within LTA (also known as 4A) zeolite via a method combined with the in-situ encapsulation of metal species using hydrothermal treatment followed by a chemical reduction process. The prepared catalyst was characterized using advanced characterization techniques, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission transmission electron microscope (FETEM), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The electrocatalytic activity of the catalyst for MOR was carried out in an alkaline medium at room temperature using techniques such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), and chronoamperometry (CA). The resulting catalyst exhibited better catalytic activity of 12.1 mA cm-2 at 1.12 V vs Ag/AgCl and retained remarkable stability (~77%) even after 1000 cycles CV test for the electro-oxidation of methanol in alkaline media without any significant microstructural changes. The high surface area, better Ni-Co species integration in the zeolite, and the ample amount of surface hydroxyl groups contribute to highly dispersed active sites and quick analyte diffusion, which provide notable MOR kinetics. Thus, this study will open up new possibilities to develop a noble metal-free zeolite-based electrocatalyst due to its simple synthesis steps, large-scale fabrication, improved stability, and efficient activity for DMFC application.

Keywords: alkaline media, bimetallic, encapsulation, methanol oxidation reaction, LTA zeolite.

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
1933 Integration of Hydropower and Solar Photovoltaic Generation into Distribution System: Case of South Sudan

Authors: Ater Amogpai

Abstract:

Hydropower and solar photovoltaic (PV) generation are crucial in sustainability and transitioning from fossil fuel to clean energy. Integrating renewable energy sources such as hydropower and solar photovoltaic (PV) into the distributed networks contributes to achieving energy balance, pollution mitigation, and cost reduction. Frequent power outages and a lack of load reliability characterize the current South Sudan electricity distribution system. The country’s electricity demand is 300MW; however, the installed capacity is around 212.4M. Insufficient funds to build new electricity facilities and expand generation are the reasons for the gap in installed capacity. The South Sudan Ministry of Energy and Dams gave a contract to an Egyptian Elsewedy Electric Company that completed the construction of a solar PV plant in 2023. The plant has a 35 MWh battery storage and 20 MW solar PV system capacity. The construction of Juba Solar PV Park started in 2022 to increase the current installed capacity in Juba City to 53 MW. The plant will begin serving 59000 residents in Juba and save 10,886.2t of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually.

Keywords: renewable energy, hydropower, solar energy, photovoltaic, South Sudan

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
1932 Numerical Model for Investigation of Recombination Mechanisms in Graphene-Bonded Perovskite Solar Cells

Authors: Amir Sharifi Miavaghi

Abstract:

It is believed recombination mechnisms in graphene-bonded perovskite solar cells based on numerical model in which doped-graphene structures are employed as anode/cathode bonding semiconductor. Moreover, th‌‌‌‌e da‌‌‌‌‌rk-li‌‌‌‌‌ght c‌‌‌‌urrent d‌‌‌‌ens‌‌‌‌ity-vo‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ltage density-voltage cu‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌‌rves are investigated by regression analysis. L‌‌‌oss m‌‌‌‌echa‌‌‌‌nisms suc‌‌‌h a‌‌‌‌‌‌s ba‌‌‌‌ck c‌‌‌ontact b‌‌‌‌‌arrier, d‌‌‌‌eep surface defect i‌‌‌‌n t‌‌‌‌‌‌‌he adsorbent la‌‌‌yer is det‌‌‌‌‌ermined b‌‌‌y adapting th‌‌‌e sim‌‌‌‌‌ulated ce‌‌‌‌‌ll perfor‌‌‌‌‌mance to t‌‌‌‌he measure‌‌‌‌ments us‌‌‌‌ing the diffe‌‌‌‌‌‌rential evolu‌‌‌‌‌tion of th‌‌‌‌e global optimization algorithm. T‌‌‌‌he performance of t‌‌‌he c‌‌‌‌ell i‌‌‌‌n the connection proc‌‌‌‌‌ess incl‌‌‌‌‌‌udes J-V cur‌‌‌‌‌‌ves that are examined at di‌‌‌‌‌fferent tempe‌‌‌‌‌‌‌ratures an‌‌‌d op‌‌‌‌en cir‌‌‌‌cuit vol‌‌‌‌tage (V) und‌‌‌‌er differ‌‌‌‌‌ent light intensities as a function of temperature. Ba‌‌‌‌sed o‌‌‌n t‌‌‌he prop‌‌‌‌osed nu‌‌‌‌‌merical mod‌‌‌‌el a‌‌‌‌nd the acquired lo‌‌‌‌ss mecha‌‌‌‌‌‌nisms, our approach can be used to improve the efficiency of the solar cell further. Due to the high demand for alternative energy sources, solar cells are good alternatives for energy storage using the photovoltaic phenomenon.

Keywords: numerical model, recombination mechanism, graphen, perovskite solarcell

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
1931 A Comprehensive Overview of Solar and Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Integration Micro-Grid

Authors: Adnan Kedir Jarso, Mesfin Megra Rorisa, Haftom Gebreslassie Gebregwergis, Frie Ayalew Yimam, Seada Hussen Adem

Abstract:

A microgrid is a small-scale power grid that can operate independently or in conjunction with the main power grid. It is a promising solution for providing reliable and sustainable energy to remote areas. The integration of solar and vertical axis wind turbines (VAWTs) in a microgrid can provide a stable and efficient source of renewable energy. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the integration of solar and VAWTs in a microgrid. The paper discusses the design, operation, and control of a microgrid that integrates solar and VAWTs. The paper also examines the performance of the microgrid in terms of efficiency, reliability, and cost-effectiveness. The paper highlights the advantages and disadvantages of using solar and VAWTs in a microgrid. The paper concludes that the integration of solar and VAWTs in a microgrid is a promising solution for providing reliable and sustainable energy to remote areas. The paper recommends further research to optimize the design and operation of a microgrid that integrates solar and VAWTs. The paper also recommends the development of policies and regulations that promote the use of microgrids that integrate solar and VAWTs. In conclusion, the integration of solar and VAWTs in a microgrid is a promising solution for providing reliable and sustainable energy to remote areas. The paper provides a comprehensive overview of the integration of solar and VAWTs in a microgrid and highlights the advantages and disadvantages of using solar and VAWTs in a microgrid. The paper recommends further research and the development of policies and regulations that promote the use of microgrids that integrate solar and VAWTs.

Keywords: hybrid generation, intermittent power, optimization, photovoltaic, vertical axis wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
1930 Investigation of Nucleation and Thermal Conductivity of Waxy Crude Oil on Pipe Wall via Particle Dynamics

Authors: Jinchen Cao, Tiantian Du

Abstract:

As waxy crude oil is easy to crystallization and deposition in the pipeline wall, it causes pipeline clogging and leads to the reduction of oil and gas gathering and transmission efficiency. In this paper, a mesoscopic scale dissipative particle dynamics method is employed, and constructed four pipe wall models, including smooth wall (SW), hydroxylated wall (HW), rough wall (RW), and single-layer graphene wall (GW). Snapshots of the simulation output trajectories show that paraffin molecules interact with each other to form a network structure that constrains water molecules as their nucleation sites. Meanwhile, it is observed that the paraffin molecules on the near-wall side are adsorbed horizontally between inter-lattice gaps of the solid wall. In the pressure range of 0 - 50 MPa, the pressure change has less effect on the affinity properties of SS, HS, and GS walls, but for RS walls, the contact angle between paraffin wax and water molecules was found to decrease with the increase in pressure, while the water molecules showed the opposite trend, the phenomenon is due to the change in pressure, leading to the transition of paraffin wax molecules from amorphous to crystalline state. Meanwhile, the minimum crystalline phase pressure (MCPP) was proposed to describe the lowest pressure at which crystallization of paraffin molecules occurs. The maximum number of crystalline clusters formed by paraffin molecules at MCPP in the system showed NSS (0.52 MPa) > NHS (0.55 MPa) > NRS (0.62 MPa) > NGS (0.75 MPa). The MCPP on the graphene surface, with the least number of clusters formed, indicates that the addition of graphene inhibited the crystallization process of paraffin deposition on the wall surface. Finally, the thermal conductivity was calculated, and the results show that on the near-wall side, the thermal conductivity changes drastically due to the occurrence of adsorption crystallization of paraffin waxes; on the fluid side the thermal conductivity gradually tends to stabilize, and the average thermal conductivity shows: ĸRS(0.254W/(m·K)) > ĸRS(0.249W/(m·K)) > ĸRS(0.218W/(m·K)) > ĸRS(0.188W/(m·K)).This study provides a theoretical basis for improving the transport efficiency and heat transfer characteristics of waxy crude oil in terms of wall type, wall roughness, and MCPP.

Keywords: waxy crude oil, thermal conductivity, crystallization, dissipative particle dynamics, MCPP

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
1929 Increasing Efficiency of Own Used Fuel Gas by “LOTION” Method in Generating Systems PT. Pertamina EP Cepu Donggi Matindok Field in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

Authors: Ridwan Kiay Demak, Firmansyahrullah, Muchammad Sibro Mulis, Eko Tri Wasisto, Nixon Poltak Frederic, Agung Putu Andika, Lapo Ajis Kamamu, Muhammad Sobirin, Kornelius Eppang

Abstract:

PC Prove LSM successfully improved the efficiency of Own Used Fuel Gas with the "Lotion" method in the PT Pertamina EP Cepu Donggi Matindok Generating System. The innovation of using the "LOTION" (LOAD PRIORITY SELECTION) method in the generating system is modeling that can provide a priority qualification of main and non-main equipment to keep gas processing running even though it leaves 1 GTG operating. GTG operating system has been integrated, controlled, and monitored properly through PC programs and web-based access to answer Industry 4.0 problems. The results of these improvements have succeeded in making Donggi Matindok Field Production reach 98.77 MMSCFD and become a proper EMAS candidate in 2022-2023. Additional revenue from increasing the efficiency of the use of own used gas amounting to USD USD 5.06 Million per year and reducing operational costs from maintenance efficiency (ABO) due to saving running hours GTG amounted to USD 3.26 Million per year. Continuity of fuel gas availability for the GTG generation system can maintain the operational reliability of the plant, which is 3.833333 MMSCFD. And reduced gas emissions wasted to the environment by 33,810 tons of C02 eq per year.

Keywords: LOTION method, load priority selection, fuel gas efficiency, gas turbine generator, reduce emissions

Procedia PDF Downloads 5
1928 Nighttime Power Generation Using Thermoelectric Devices

Authors: Abdulrahman Alajlan

Abstract:

While the sun serves as a robust energy source, the frigid conditions of outer space present promising prospects for nocturnal power generation due to its continuous accessibility during nighttime hours. This investigation illustrates a proficient methodology facilitating uninterrupted energy capture throughout the day. This method involves the utilization of water-based heat storage systems and radiative thermal emitters implemented across thermometric devices. Remarkably, this approach permits an enhancement of nighttime power generation that exceeds the level of 1 Wm-2, which is unattainable by alternative methodologies. Outdoor experiments conducted at the King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) have demonstrated unparalleled performance, surpassing prior experimental benchmarks by nearly an order of magnitude. Furthermore, the developed device exhibits the capacity to concurrently supply power to multiple light-emitting diodes, thereby showcasing practical applications for nighttime power generation. This research unveils opportunities for the creation of scalable and efficient 24-hour power generation systems based on thermoelectric devices. Central findings from this study encompass the realization of continuous 24-hour power generation from clean and sustainable energy sources. Theoretical analyses indicate the potential for nighttime power generation reaching up to 1 Wm-2, while experimental results have reached nighttime power generation at a density of 0.5 Wm-2. Additionally, the efficiency of multiple light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has been evaluated when powered by the nighttime output of the integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG). Therefore, this methodology exhibits promise for practical applications, particularly in lighting, marking a pivotal advancement in the utilization of renewable energy for both on-grid and off-grid scenarios.

Keywords: nighttime power generation, thermoelectric devices, radiative cooling, thermal management

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
1927 Application of Homer Optimization to Investigate the Prospects of Hybrid Renewable Energy System in Rural Area: Case of Rwanda

Authors: Emile Niringiyimana, LI Ji Qing, Giovanni Dushimimana, Virginie Umwere

Abstract:

The development and utilization of renewable energy (RE) can not only effectively reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, but also became a solution to electricity shortage mitigation in rural areas. Hybrid RE systems are promising ways to provide consistent and continuous power for isolated areas. This work investigated the prospect and cost effectiveness of hybrid system complementarity between a 100kW solar PV system and a small-scale 200kW hydropower station in the South of Rwanda. In order to establish the optimal size of a RE system with adequate sizing of system components, electricity demand, solar radiation, hydrology, climate data are utilized as system input. The average daily solar radiation in Rukarara is 5.6 kWh/m2 and average wind speed is 3.5 m/s. The ideal integrated RE system, according to Homer optimization, consists of 91.21kW PV, 146kW hydropower, 12 x 24V li-ion batteries with a 20kW converter. The method of enhancing such hybrid systems control, sizing and choice of components is to reduce the Net present cost (NPC) of the system, unmet load, the cost of energy and reduction of CO2. The power consumption varies according to dominant source of energy in the system by controlling the energy compensation depending on the generation capacity of each power source. The initial investment of the RE system is $977,689.25, and its operation and maintenance expenses is $142,769.39 over a 25-year period. Although the investment is very high, the targeted profits in future are huge, taking into consideration of high investment in rural electrification structure implementations, tied with an increase of electricity cost and the 5 years payback period. The study outcomes suggest that the standalone hybrid PV-Hydropower system is feasible with zero pollution in Rukara community.

Keywords: HOMER optimization, hybrid power system, renewable energy, NPC and solar pv systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
1926 Optimal Energy Management and Environmental Index Optimization of a Microgrid Operating by Renewable and Sustainable Generation Systems

Authors: Nabil Mezhoud

Abstract:

The economic operation of electric energy generating systems is one of the predominant problems in energy systems. Due to the need for better reliability, high energy quality, lower losses, lower cost and a clean environment, the application of renewable and sustainable energy sources, such as wind energy, solar energy, etc., in recent years has become more widespread. In this work, one of a bio-inspired meta-heuristic algorithm inspired by the flashing behavior of fireflies at night called the Firefly Algorithm (FFA) is applied to solve the Optimal Energy Management (OEM) and the environmental index (EI) problems of a micro-grid (MG) operating by Renewable and Sustainable Generation Systems (RSGS). Our main goal is to minimize the nonlinear objective function of an electrical microgrid, taking into account equality and inequality constraints. The FFA approach was examined and tested on a standard MG system composed of different types of RSGS, such as wind turbines (WT), photovoltaic systems (PV), and non-renewable energy, such as fuel cells (FC), micro turbine (MT), diesel generator (DEG) and loads with energy storage systems (ESS). The results are promising and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach to solve the OEM and the EI problems. The results of the proposed method have been compared and validated with those known references published recently.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, energy management, distributed generator, micro-grids, firefly algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
1925 Synthesis and Performance Adsorbent from Coconut Shells Polyetheretherketone for Natural Gas Storage

Authors: Umar Hayatu Sidik

Abstract:

The natural gas vehicle represents a cost-competitive, lower-emission alternative to the gasoline-fuelled vehicle. The immediate challenge that confronts natural gas is increasing its energy density. This paper addresses the question of energy density by reviewing the storage technologies for natural gas with improved adsorbent. Technical comparisons are made between storage systems containing adsorbent and conventional compressed natural gas based on the associated amount of moles contained with Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG). We also compare gas storage in different cylinder types (1, 2, 3 and 4) based on weight factor and storage capacity. For the storage tank system, we discussed the concept of carbon adsorbents, when used in CNG tanks, offer a means of increasing onboard fuel storage and, thereby, increase the driving range of the vehicle. It confirms that the density of the stored gas in ANG is higher than that of compressed natural gas (CNG) operated at the same pressure. The obtained experimental data were correlated using linear regression analysis with common adsorption kinetic (Pseudo-first order and Pseudo-second order) and isotherm models (Sip and Toth). The pseudo-second-order kinetics describe the best fitness with a correlation coefficient of 9945 at 35 bar. For adsorption isotherms, the Sip model shows better fitness with the regression coefficient (R2) of 0.9982 and with the lowest RSMD value of 0.0148. The findings revealed the potential of adsorbent in natural gas storage applications.

Keywords: natural gas, adsorbent, compressed natural gas, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
1924 Properties of the CsPbBr₃ Quantum Dots Treated by O₃ Plasma for Integration in the Perovskite Solar Cell

Authors: Sh. Sousani, Z. Shadrokh, M. Hofbauerová, J. Kollár, M. Jergel, P. Nádaždy, M. Omastová, E. Majková

Abstract:

Perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) have the potential to increase the performance of the perovskite solar cells (PSCs). The integration of PQDs into PSCs can extend the absorption range and enhance photon harvesting and device efficiency. In addition, PQDs can stabilize the device structure by passivating surface defects and traps in the perovskite layer and enhance its stability. The integration of PQDs into PSCs is strongly affected by the type of ligands on the surface of PQDs. The ligands affect the charge transport properties of PQDs, as well as the formation of well-defined interfaces and stability of PSCs. In this work, the CsPbBr₃ QDs were synthesized by the conventional hot-injection method using cesium oleate, PbBr₂, and two different ligands, namely oleic acid (OA)@oleylamine (OAm) and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). The STEM confirmed regular shape and relatively monodisperse cubic structure with an average size of about 10-14 nm of the prepared CsPbBr₃ QDs. Further, the photoluminescent (PL) properties of the PQDs/perovskite bilayer with the ligand OA@OAm and DDAB were studied. For this purpose, ITO/PQDs, as well as ITO/PQDs/MAPI perovskite structures, were prepared by spin coating, and the effect of the ligand and oxygen plasma treatment was analysed. The plasma treatment of the PQDs layer could be beneficial for the deposition of the MAPI perovskite layer and the formation of a well-defined PQDs/MAPI interface. The absorption edge in UV-Vis absorption spectra for OA@OAm CsPbBr₃ QDs is placed around 513 nm (the band gap 2.38 eV); for DDAB CsPbBr₃ QDs, it is located at 490 nm (the band gap 2.33 eV). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of CsPbBr₃ QDs show two peaks located around 514 nm (503 nm) and 718 nm (708 nm) for OA@OAm (DDAB). The peak around 500 nm corresponds to the PL of PQDs, and the peak close to 710 nm belongs to the surface states of PQDs for both types of ligands. These surface states are strongly affected by the O₃ plasma treatment. For PQDs with DDAB ligand, the O₃ exposure (5, 10, 15 s) results in the blue shift of the PQDs peak and a non-monotonous change of the amplitude of the surface states' peak. For OA@OAm ligand, the O₃ exposition did not cause any shift of the PQDs peak, and the intensity of the PL peak related to the surface states is lower by one order of magnitude in comparison with DDAB, being affected by O₃ plasma treatment. The PL results indicate the possibility of tuning the position of the PL maximum by the ligand of the PQDs. Similar behaviour of the PQDs layer was observed for the ITO/QDs/MAPI samples, where an additional strong PL peak at 770 nm coming from the perovskite layer was observed; for the sample with PQDs with DDAB ligands, a small blue shift of the perovskite PL maximum was observed independently of the plasma treatment. These results suggest the possibility of affecting the PL maximum position and the surface states of the PQDs by the combination of a suitable ligand and the O₃ plasma treatment.

Keywords: perovskite quantum dots, photoluminescence, O₃ plasma., perovskite solar cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
1923 Properties of the CsPbBr₃ Quantum Dots Treated by O₃ Plasma for Integration in the Perovskite Solar Cell

Authors: Sh. Sousani, Z. Shadrokh, M. Hofbauerová, J. Kollár, M. Jergel, P. Nádaždy, M. Omastová, E. Majková

Abstract:

Perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) have the potential to increase the performance of the perovskite solar cell (PSCs). The integration of PQDs into PSCs can extend the absorption range and enhance photon harvesting and device efficiency. In addition, PQDs can stabilize the device structure by passivating surface defects and traps in the perovskite layer and enhance its stability. The integration of PQDs into PSCs is strongly affected by the type of ligands on the surface of PQDs. The ligands affect the charge transport properties of PQDs, as well as the formation of well-defined interfaces and stability of PSCs. In this work, the CsPbBr₃ QDs were synthesized by the conventional hot-injection method using cesium oleate, PbBr₂ and two different ligands, namely oleic acid (OA) oleylamine (OAm) and didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB). The STEM confirmed regular shape and relatively monodisperse cubic structure with an average size of about 10-14 nm of the prepared CsPbBr₃ QDs. Further, the photoluminescent (PL) properties of the PQDs/perovskite bilayer with the ligand OA, OAm and DDAB were studied. For this purpose, ITO/PQDs as well as ITO/PQDs/MAPI perovskite structures were prepared by spin coating and the effect of the ligand and oxygen plasma treatment was analyzed. The plasma treatment of the PQDs layer could be beneficial for the deposition of the MAPI perovskite layer and the formation of a well-defined PQDs/MAPI interface. The absorption edge in UV-Vis absorption spectra for OA, OAm CsPbBr₃ QDs is placed around 513 nm (the band gap 2.38 eV); for DDAB CsPbBr₃ QDs, it is located at 490 nm (the band gap 2.33 eV). The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of CsPbBr₃ QDs show two peaks located around 514 nm (503 nm) and 718 nm (708 nm) for OA, OAm (DDAB). The peak around 500 nm corresponds to the PL of PQDs, and the peak close to 710 nm belongs to the surface states of PQDs for both types of ligands. These surface states are strongly affected by the O₃ plasma treatment. For PQDs with DDAB ligand, the O₃ exposure (5, 10, 15 s) results in the blue shift of the PQDs peak and a non-monotonous change of the amplitude of the surface states' peak. For OA, OAm ligand, the O₃ exposition did not cause any shift of the PQDs peak, and the intensity of the PL peak related to the surface states is lower by one order of magnitude in comparison with DDAB, being affected by O₃ plasma treatment. The PL results indicate the possibility of tuning the position of the PL maximum by the ligand of the PQDs. Similar behavior of the PQDs layer was observed for the ITO/QDs/MAPI samples, where an additional strong PL peak at 770 nm coming from the perovskite layer was observed; for the sample with PQDs with DDAB ligands, a small blue shift of the perovskite PL maximum was observed independently of the plasma treatment. These results suggest the possibility of affecting the PL maximum position and the surface states of the PQDs by the combination of a suitable ligand and the O₃ plasma treatment.

Keywords: perovskite quantum dots, photoluminescence, O₃ plasma., Perovskite Solar Cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 22