Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1786

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Energy and Power Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

1786 Monte Carlo Simulation Study on Improving the Flatting Filter-Free Radiotherapy Beam Quality Using Filters from Low- z Material

Authors: H. M. Alfrihidi, H.A. Albarakaty

Abstract:

Flattening filter-free (FFF) photon beam radiotherapy has increased in the last decade, which is enabled by advancements in treatment planning systems and radiation delivery techniques like multi-leave collimators. FFF beams have higher dose rates, which reduces treatment time. On the other hand, FFF beams have a higher surface dose, which is due to the loss of beam hardening effect caused by the presence of the flatting filter (FF). The possibility of improving FFF beam quality using filters from low-z materials such as steel and aluminium (Al) was investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. The attenuation coefficient of low-z materials for low-energy photons is higher than that of high-energy photons, which leads to the hardening of the FFF beam and, consequently, a reduction in the surface dose. BEAMnrc user code, based on Electron Gamma Shower (EGSnrc) MC code, is used to simulate the beam of a 6 MV True-Beam linac. A phase-space (phosphor) file provided by Varian Medical Systems was used as a radiation source in the simulation. This phosphor file was scored just above the jaws at 27.88 cm from the target. The linac from the jaw downward was constructed, and radiation passing was simulated and scored at 100 cm from the target. To study the effect of low-z filters, steel and Al filters with a thickness of 1 cm were added below the jaws, and the phosphor file was scored at 100 cm from the target. For comparison, the FF beam was simulated using a similar setup. (BEAM Data Processor (BEAMdp) is used to analyse the energy spectrum in the phosphorus files. Then, the dose distribution resulting from these beams was simulated in a homogeneous water phantom using DOSXYZnrc. The dose profile was evaluated according to the surface dose, the lateral dose distribution, and the percentage depth dose (PDD). The energy spectra of the beams show that the FFF beam is softer than the FF beam. The energy peaks for the FFF and FF beams are 0.525 MeV and 1.52 MeV, respectively. The FFF beam's energy peak becomes 1.1 MeV using a steel filter, while the Al filter does not affect the peak position. Steel and Al's filters reduced the surface dose by 5% and 1.7%, respectively. The dose at a depth of 10 cm (D10) rises by around 2% and 0.5% due to using a steel and Al filter, respectively. On the other hand, steel and Al filters reduce the dose rate of the FFF beam by 34% and 14%, respectively. However, their effect on the dose rate is less than that of the tungsten FF, which reduces the dose rate by about 60%. In conclusion, filters from low-z material decrease the surface dose and increase the D10 dose, allowing for a high-dose delivery to deep tumors with a low skin dose. Although using these filters affects the dose rate, this effect is much lower than the effect of the FF.

Keywords: flattening filter free, monte carlo, radiotherapy, surface dose

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1785 The Effect of Velocity Increment by Blockage Factor on Savonius Hydrokinetic Turbine Performance

Authors: Thochi Seb Rengma, Mahendra Kumar Gupta, P. M. V. Subbarao

Abstract:

Hydrokinetic turbines can be used to produce power in inaccessible villages located near rivers. The hydrokinetic turbine uses the kinetic energy of the water and maybe put it directly into the natural flow of water without dams. For off-grid power production, the Savonius-type vertical axis turbine is the easiest to design and manufacture. This proposal uses three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to measure the considerable interaction and complexity of turbine blades. Savonius hydrokinetic turbine (SHKT) performance is affected by a blockage in the river, canals, and waterways. Putting a large object in a water channel causes water obstruction and raises local free stream velocity. The blockage correction factor or velocity increment measures the impact of velocity on the performance. SHKT performance is evaluated by comparing power coefficient (Cp) with tip-speed ratio (TSR) at various blockage ratios. The maximum Cp was obtained at a TSR of 1.1 with a blockage ratio of 45%, whereas TSR of 0.8 yielded the highest Cp without blockage. The greatest Cp of 0.29 was obtained with a 45% blockage ratio compared to a Cp max of 0.18 without a blockage.

Keywords: savonius hydrokinetic turbine, blockage ratio, vertical axis turbine, power coefficient

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1784 Copper Coil Heat Exchanger Performance for Greenhouse Heating: An ‎Experimental and Theoretical Study

Authors: Ilham Ihoume, Rachid tadili, Nora Arbaoui

Abstract:

This research presents a study of the performance of a solar copper coil heating system ‎in a greenhouse microclimate with a North-South orientation. This system is based on the ‎circulation of a Heat transfer fluid (water) in a closed loop under the greenhouse's roof to ‎store heat during the day, which is then released back into the greenhouse environment at ‎night. A comparative experimental study was carried out in two identical greenhouses. The ‎first one is equipped with the heating system and the second one without and considered as a ‎control. The heat balance of the greenhouse equipped by a heating system, was used to ‎calculate the mass of the heat transfer fluid, constituting the storage system, needed to heat ‎the greenhouse during the night that we found equal to 689 Kg. The results showed that this ‎solar heating system, the climatic parameters inside the experimental greenhouse were ‎significantly improved compared to a control greenhouse without heating system.‎

Keywords: thermal energy storage., renwable energy, heating, agriculture greenhouse

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1783 Tandem Concentrated Photovoltaic-Thermoelectric Hybrid System: Feasibility Analysis and Performance Enhancement Through Material Assessment Methodology

Authors: Shuwen Hu, Yuancheng Lou, Dongxu Ji

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) power generation, as one of the most commercialized methods to utilize solar power, can only convert a limited range of solar spectrum into electricity, whereas the majority of the solar energy is dissipated as heat. To address this problem, thermoelectric (TE) module is often integrated with the concentrated PV module for waste heat recovery and regeneration. In this research, a feasibility analysis is conducted for the tandem concentrated photovoltaic-thermoelectric (CPV-TE) hybrid system considering various operational parameters as well as TE material properties. Furthermore, the power output density of the CPV-TE hybrid system is maximized by selecting the optimal TE material with application of a systematic assessment methodology. In the feasibility analysis, CPV-TE is found to be more advantageous than sole CPV system except under high optical concentration ratio with low cold side convective coefficient. It is also shown that the effects of the TE material properties, including Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity, on the feasibility of CPV-TE are interacted with each other and might have opposite effect on the system performance under different operational conditions. In addition, the optimal TE material selected by the proposed assessment methodology can improve the system power output density by 227 W/m2 under highly concentrated solar irradiance hence broaden the feasible range of CPV-TE considering optical concentration ratio.

Keywords: feasibility analysis, material assessment methodology, photovoltaic waste heat recovery, tandem photovoltaic-thermoelectric

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1782 Photo-Enhanced Catalytic DRM on [email protected] with High Resistance to Carbon

Authors: Jinrui Zhang, Tianlong Yang, Ying Pan

Abstract:

Methane and carbon dioxide are major greenhouse gases contributor. CO₂ dry reforming of methane (DRM) for syngas production is a promising approach to reducing global CO₂ emission and extensive utilization of natural gas. However, the reported catalysts endured rapid deactivation due to severe carbon deposition at high temperature. Here, CO₂ reduction by CH4 on hexagonal nano-nickel flakes packed by porous SiO₂ ([email protected]₂) catalysts driven by thermal and solar light are tested. High resistance to carbon deposition and higher reactive activity are demonstrated under focused solar light at moderate temperature (400-500 ℃). Furthermore, the photocatalytic DRM under different wavelength is investigated, and even IR irradiation can enhance the catalytic activity. The mechanism of light-enhanced reaction reactivity and equilibrium is investigated by Infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and the unique reaction pathway with light is depicted. The photo-enhanced DRM provides a promising method of renewable solar energy conversion and CO₂ emission reduction due to the excellent activity and durability.

Keywords: CO₂ emission reduction, methane, photocatalytic DRM, resistance to carbon deposition, syngas

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1781 Suitable Models and Methods for the Steady-State Analysis of Multi-Energy Networks

Authors: Juan José Mesas, Luis Sainz

Abstract:

The motivation for the development of this paper lies in the need for energy networks to reduce losses, improve performance, optimize their operation and try to benefit from the interconnection capacity with other networks enabled for other energy carriers. These interconnections generate interdependencies between some energy networks and others, which requires suitable models and methods for their analysis. Traditionally, the modeling and study of energy networks have been carried out independently for each energy carrier. Thus, there are well-established models and methods for the steady-state analysis of electrical networks, gas networks, and thermal networks separately. What is intended is to extend and combine them adequately to be able to face in an integrated way the steady-state analysis of networks with multiple energy carriers. Firstly, the added value of multi-energy networks, their operation, and the basic principles that characterize them are explained. In addition, two current aspects of great relevance are exposed: the storage technologies and the coupling elements used to interconnect one energy network with another. Secondly, the characteristic equations of the different energy networks necessary to carry out the steady-state analysis are detailed. The electrical network, the natural gas network, and the thermal network of heat and cold are considered in this paper. After the presentation of the equations, a particular case of the steady-state analysis of a specific multi-energy network is studied. This network is represented graphically, the interconnections between the different energy carriers are described, their technical data are exposed and the equations that have previously been presented theoretically are formulated and developed. Finally, the two iterative numerical resolution methods considered in this paper are presented, as well as the resolution procedure and the results obtained. The pros and cons of the application of both methods are explained. It is verified that the results obtained for the electrical network (voltages in modulus and angle), the natural gas network (pressures), and the thermal network (mass flows and temperatures) are correct since they comply with the distribution, operation, consumption and technical characteristics of the multi-energy network under study.

Keywords: coupling elements, energy carriers, multi-energy networks, steady-state analysis

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1780 Mid-Temperature Methane-Based Chemical Looping Reforming for Hydrogen Production via Iron-Based Oxygen Carrier Particles

Authors: Yang Li, Mingkai Liu, Ying Pan, Hongguang Jin

Abstract:

Hydrogen is an ideal and potential energy carrier due to its high energy efficiency and low pollution. An alternative and promising approach to hydrogen generation is the chemical looping steam reforming of methane over iron-based oxygen carriers. However, there are some problems with high reaction temperatures (>850 ℃) and low methane conversion in methane chemical looping reforming via iron-based oxygen carriers. We demonstrated that Ni-doped Fe-based oxygen carrier particles have significantly improved the methane conversion and hydrogen production rate in the range of 450-600 ℃ under atmospheric pressure. The effect on the reaction reactivity of oxygen carrier particles with different characteristics, such as Ni-doped ratio, porosity, crushing strength, and particle size, have been determined in the continuous unit. More than 90% of methane conversion has been achieved at 600 ℃, and hydrogen production can be obtained in two side reactions of both the reduction and oxidation. Moreover, the iron-based oxygen carrier particles were tested for 100 consecutive redox cycles at 600 ℃ and preserved good cyclic performance. The mid-temperature iron-based oxygen carrier particles, integrated with a moving-bed chemical looping system, might provide a powerful approach toward more efficient and scalable hydrogen production.

Keywords: chemical looping, hydrogen production, mid-temperature, oxygen carrier particles

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1779 A High Selectivity and Moderate Temperature Oxygen Carrier for Syngas Production by Chemical Looping Dry Reforming of Methane

Authors: Qiong Rao, Jinrui Zhang, Tianlong Yang, Ying Pan

Abstract:

The chemical looping dry reforming (CLDR) process, which converts methane and carbon dioxide into syngas, is an environmentally friendly methane utilization strategy. A major challenge is the development of oxygen carriers that have high reactivity and recyclability. In this work, we report on the development of an iron-based oxygen carrier doped with nickel that can dramatically enhance the reactivity in the CLDR process at moderate temperatures while maintaining high CO selectivity and recyclability. With the addition of nickel, the methane conversion rate at 770 ℃ and 800 ℃ is 30% and 52% higher than that of oxygen carriers without nickel. And the CO selectivity is up to 90~99% when the reaction temperature ranges from 770 to 860 ℃. In addition, the Ni-doped iron-based oxygen carrier is tested for 25 consecutive redox cycles at 800 ℃ and preserves good cyclic performance. The results provide a pathway to reduce the methane reaction temperature while maintaining excellent reaction performance in iron-based chemical looping systems, which is promising for large-scale applications.

Keywords: chemical looping, high selectivity, methane dry reforming, moderate temperature, Ni-Fe oxygen carrier, syngas

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1778 Investigation of Polymer Solar Cells Degradation Behavior Using High Defect States Influence Over Various Polymer Absorber Layers

Authors: Azzeddine Abdelalim, Fatiha Rogti

Abstract:

The degradation phenomenon in polymer solar cells (PCSs) has not been clearly explained yet. In fact, there are many causes that show up and influence these cells in a variety of ways. Also, there has been a growing concern over this degradation in the photovoltaic community. One of the main variables deciding PSCs photovoltaic output is defect states. In this research, device modeling is carried out to analyze the multiple effects of degradation by applying high defect states (HDS) on ideal PSCs, mainly poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) absorber layer. Besides, a comparative study is conducted between P3HT and other PSCs by a simulation program called Solar Cell Capacitance Simulator (SCAPS). The adjustments to the defect parameters in several absorber layers explain the effect of HDS on the total output properties of PSCs. The performance parameters for HDS, quantum efficiency, and energy band were therefore examined. This research attempts to explain the degradation process of PSCs and the causes of their low efficiency. It was found that the defects often affect PSCs performance, but defect states have little effect on output when the defect level is less than 10¹⁴cm⁻³, which gives similar performance values with P3HT cells when these defects are about 10¹⁹cm⁻³. The high defect states can cause up to 11% relative reduction in conversion efficiency of ideal P3HT. In the center of the band gap, defect states become more noxious. This approach is for one of the degradation processes potentials of PSCs, especially those that use fullerene derivative acceptors.

Keywords: degradation, high defect states, polymer solar cells, SCAPS-1D

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1777 The Analysis of the Challenge China’s Energy Transition Faces and Proposed Solutions

Authors: Yuhang Wang

Abstract:

As energy is vital to industrial productivity and human existence, ensuring energy security becomes a critical government responsibility. The Chinese government has implemented the energy transition to safeguard China’s energy security. Throughout this progression, the Chinese government has faced numerous obstacles. This article seeks to describe the causes of China’s energy transition barriers and the steps taken by the Chinese government to overcome them.

Keywords: energy transition, energy market, fragmentation, path dependency

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1776 Harvesting Value-added Products Through Anodic Electrocatalytic Upgrading Intermediate Compounds Utilizing Biomass to Accelerating Hydrogen Evolution

Authors: Mehran Nozari-Asbemarz, Italo Pisano, Simin Arshi, Edmond Magner, James J. Leahy

Abstract:

Integrating electrolytic synthesis with renewable energy makes it feasible to address urgent environmental and energy challenges. Conventional water electrolyzers concurrently produce H₂ and O₂, demanding additional procedures in gas separation to prevent contamination of H₂ with O₂. Moreover, the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), which is sluggish and has a low overall energy conversion efficiency, does not deliver a significant value product on the electrode surface. Compared to conventional water electrolysis, integrating electrolytic hydrogen generation from water with thermodynamically more advantageous aqueous organic oxidation processes can increase energy conversion efficiency and create value-added compounds instead of oxygen at the anode. One strategy is to use renewable and sustainable carbon sources from biomass, which has a large annual production capacity and presents a significant opportunity to supplement carbon sourced from fossil fuels. Numerous catalytic techniques have been researched in order to utilize biomass economically. Because of its safe operating conditions, excellent energy efficiency, and reasonable control over production rate and selectivity using electrochemical parameters, electrocatalytic upgrading stands out as an appealing choice among the numerous biomass refinery technologies. Therefore, we propose a broad framework for coupling H2 generation from water splitting with oxidative biomass upgrading processes. Four representative biomass targets were considered for oxidative upgrading that used a hierarchically porous CoFe-MOF/LDH @ Graphite Paper bifunctional electrocatalyst, including glucose, ethanol, benzyl, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). The potential required to support 50 mA cm-2 is considerably lower than (~ 380 mV) the potential for OER. All four compounds can be oxidized to yield liquid byproducts with economic benefit. The electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose to the value-added products, gluconic acid, glucuronic acid, and glucaric acid, was examined in detail. The cell potential for combined H₂ production and glucose oxidation was substantially lower than for water splitting (1.44 V(RHE) vs. 1.82 V(RHE) for 50 mA cm-2). In contrast, the oxidation byproduct at the anode was significantly more valuable than O₂, taking advantage of the more favorable glucose oxidation in comparison to the OER. Overall, such a combination of HER and oxidative biomass valorization using electrocatalysts prevents the production of potentially explosive H₂/O₂mixtures and produces high-value products at both electrodes with lower voltage input, thereby increasing the efficiency and activity of electrocatalytic conversion.

Keywords: biomass, electrocatalytic, glucose oxidation, hydrogen evolution

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1775 Supercritical Methanol for Biodiesel Production from Jatropha Oil in the Presence of Heterogeneous Catalysts

Authors: Velid Demir, Mesut Akgün

Abstract:

The lanthanum and zinc oxide were synthesized and then loaded with 6 wt% over γ-Al₂O₃ using the wet impregnation method. The samples were calcined at 900 °C to ensure a coherent structure with high catalytic performance. Characterization of the catalysts was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The effect of catalysts on biodiesel content from jatropha oil was studied under supercritical conditions. The results showed that ZnO/γ-Al₂O₃ was the superior catalyst for jatropha oil with 98.05% biodiesel under reaction conditions of 7 min reaction time, 1:40 oil to methanol molar ratio, 6 wt% of catalyst loading, 90 bar of reaction pressure, and 300 °C of reaction temperature, compared to 95.50% with La₂O₃/γ-Al₂O₃ at the same parameters. For this study, ZnO/γ-Al₂O₃ was the most suitable catalyst due to performance and cost considerations.

Keywords: biodiesel, heterogeneous catalyst, jatropha oil, supercritical methanol, transesterification

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1774 Learning about the Strengths and Weaknesses of Urban Climate Action Plans

Authors: Prince Dacosta Aboagye, Ayyoob Sharifi

Abstract:

Cities respond to climate concerns mainly through their climate action plans (CAPs). A comprehensive content analysis of the dynamics in existing urban CAPs is not well represented in the literature. This literature void presents a difficulty in appreciating the strengths and weaknesses of urban CAPs. Here, we perform a qualitative content analysis (QCA) on CAPs from 278 cities worldwide and use text-mining tools to map and visualize the relevant data. Our analysis showed a decline in the number of CAPs developed and published following the global COVID-19 lockdown period. Evidently, megacities are leading the deep decarbonisation agenda. We also observed a transition from developing mainly mitigation-focused CAPs pre-COP21 to both mitigation and adaptation CAPs. A lack of inclusiveness in local climate planning was common among European and North American cities. The evidence is a catalyst for understanding the trends in existing urban CAPs to shape future urban climate planning.

Keywords: urban, climate action plans, strengths, weaknesses

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1773 Role of Energy Storage in Renewable Electricity Systems in The Gird of Ethiopia

Authors: Dawit Abay Tesfamariam

Abstract:

Ethiopia’s Climate- Resilient Green Economy (ECRGE) strategy focuses mainly on generating and proper utilization of renewable energy (RE). Nonetheless, the current electricity generation of the country is dominated by hydropower. The data collected in 2016 by Ethiopian Electric Power (EEP) indicates that the intermittent RE sources from solar and wind energy were only 8 %. On the other hand, the EEP electricity generation plan in 2030 indicates that 36.1 % of the energy generation share will be covered by solar and wind sources. Thus, a case study was initiated to model and compute the balance and consumption of electricity in three different scenarios: 2016, 2025, and 2030 using the EnergyPLAN Model (EPM). Initially, the model was validated using the 2016 annual power-generated data to conduct the EnergyPLAN (EP) analysis for two predictive scenarios. The EP simulation analysis using EPM for 2016 showed that there was no significant excess power generated. Thus, the EPM was applied to analyze the role of energy storage in RE in Ethiopian grid systems. The results of the EP simulation analysis showed there will be excess production of 402 /7963 MW average and maximum, respectively, in 2025. The excess power was in the three rainy months of the year (June, July, and August). The outcome of the model also showed that in the dry seasons of the year, there would be excess power production in the country. Consequently, based on the validated outcomes of EP indicates, there is a good reason to think about other alternatives for the utilization of excess energy and storage of RE. Thus, from the scenarios and model results obtained, it is realistic to infer that if the excess power is utilized with a storage system, it can stabilize the grid system and be exported to support the economy. Therefore, researchers must continue to upgrade the current and upcoming storage system to synchronize with potentials that can be generated from renewable energy.

Keywords: renewable energy, power, storage, wind, energy plan

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1772 The Impact of a Sustainable Solar Heating System on the Growth of ‎Strawberry Plants in an Agricultural Greenhouse

Authors: Ilham Ihoume, Rachid Tadili, Nora Arbaoui

Abstract:

The use of solar energy is a crucial tactic in the agricultural industry's plan ‎‎to decrease greenhouse gas emissions. This clean source of energy can ‎greatly lower the sector's carbon footprint and make a significant impact in ‎the ‎fight against climate change. In this regard, this study examines the ‎effects ‎of a solar-based heating system, in a north-south oriented agricultural ‎green‎house on the development of strawberry plants during winter. This ‎system ‎relies on the circulation of water as a heat transfer fluid in a closed ‎circuit ‎installed on the greenhouse roof to store heat during the day and ‎release it ‎inside at night. A comparative experimental study was conducted ‎in two ‎greenhouses, one experimental with the solar heating system and the ‎other ‎for control without any heating system. Both greenhouses are located ‎on the ‎terrace of the Solar Energy and Environment Laboratory of the ‎Mohammed ‎V University in Rabat, Morocco. The developed heating system ‎consists of a ‎copper coil inserted in double glazing and placed on the roof of ‎the greenhouse, a water pump circulator, a battery, and a photovoltaic solar ‎panel to ‎power the electrical components. This inexpensive and ‎environmentally ‎friendly system allows the greenhouse to be heated during ‎the winter and ‎improves its microclimate system. This improvement resulted ‎in an increase ‎in the air temperature inside the experimental greenhouse by 6 ‎‎°C and 8 °C, ‎and a reduction in its relative humidity by 23% and 35% ‎compared to the ‎control greenhouse and the ambient air, respectively, ‎throughout the winter. ‎For the agronomic performance, it was observed that ‎the production was 17 ‎days earlier than in the control greenhouse‎.‎

Keywords: sustainability, thermal energy storage, solar energy, agriculture greenhouse

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1771 Rice Husk Silica as an Alternative Material for Renewable Energy

Authors: Benedict O. Ayomanor, Cookey Iyen, Ifeoma S. Iyen

Abstract:

Rice hull (RH) biomass product gives feasible silica for exact temperature and period. The minimal fabrication price turns its best feasible produce to metallurgical grade silicon (MG-Si). In this work, to avoid ecological worries extending from CO₂ release to oil leakage on water and land, or nuclear left-over pollution, all finally add to the immense topics of ecological squalor; high purity silicon > 98.5% emerge set from rice hull ash (RHA) by solid-liquid removal. The RHA derived was purified by nitric and hydrochloric acid solutions. Leached RHA sieved, washed in distilled water, and desiccated at 1010ºC for 4h. Extra cleansing was achieved by carefully mixing the SiO₂ ash through Mg dust at a proportion of 0.9g SiO₂ to 0.9g Mg, galvanised at 1010ºC to formula magnesium silicide. The solid produced was categorised by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Elemental analysis using XRF found the percentage of silicon in the material is approximately 98.6%, main impurities are Mg (0.95%), Ca (0.09%), Fe (0.3%), K (0.25%), and Al (0.40%).

Keywords: siliceous, leached, biomass, solid-liquid extraction

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1770 Smart Grids in Morocco: An Outline of the Recent Developments, Key Drivers, and Recommendations for Better Implementation

Authors: Mohamed Laamim, Abdelilah Rochd, Aboubakr Benazzouz, Abderrahim El Fadili

Abstract:

Smart grids have recently sparked a lot of interest in the energy sector as they allow for the modernization and digitization of the existing power infrastructure. Smart grids have several advantages in terms of reducing the environmental impact of generating power from fossil fuels due to their capacity to integrate large amounts of distributed energy resources. On the other hand, smart grid technologies necessitate many field investigations and requirements. This paper focuses on the major difficulties that governments face around the world and compares them to the situation in Morocco. Also presented in this study are the current works and projects being developed to improve the penetration of smart grid technologies into the electrical system. Furthermore, the findings of this study will be useful to promote the smart grid revolution in Morocco, as well as to construct a strong foundation and develop future needs for better penetration of technologies that aid in the integration of smart grid features.

Keywords: smart grids, microgrids, virtual power plants, digital twin, distributed energy resources, vehicle-to-grid, advanced metering infrastructure.

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1769 Performance of a Solar Heating System on the Microclimate of an Agricultural Greenhouse

Authors: Nora Arbaoui, Rachid Tadili, Ilham Ihoume

Abstract:

Climate change and its effects on low external temperatures in winter require great consumption of energy to improve the greenhouse microclimate and increase agricultural production. To reduce the amount of energy consumed, a solar system has been developed to heat an agricultural greenhouse. This system is based on a transfer fluid that will circulate inside the greenhouse through a solar copper coil positioned on the roof of the greenhouse. This thermal energy accumulated during the day will be stored to be released during the night to improve the greenhouse’s microclimate. The use of this solar heating system has resulted in an average increase in the greenhouse’s indoor temperature of 8.3°C compared to the outdoor environment. This improved temperature has created a more favorable climate for crops and has subsequently had a positive effect on their development, quality, and production.

Keywords: solar system, agricultural greenhouse, heating, cooling, storage, drying

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1768 Exploring Probabilistic Models for Transient Stability Analysis of Renewable-Dominant Power Grid

Authors: Phuong Nguyen

Abstract:

Along with the ongoing energy transition, the electrical power system is getting more vulnerable with the increasing penetration of renewable energy sources (RES). By replacing a large amount of fossil fuel-based power plants with RES, the rotating mass of the power grid is decreasing drastically, which has been reported by a number of system operators. This leads to a huge challenge for operators to secure the operation of their grids in all-time horizon ranges, from sub-seconds to minutes and even hours. There is a need to revise the grid capabilities in dealing with transient (angle) stability and voltage dynamics. While the traditional approaches relied on deterministic scenarios (worst-case scenarios), there is also a need to cover a whole range of probabilities regarding a wide range of uncertainties coming from massive RES units. To contribute to handle these issues, this paper aims to focus on developing a new analytical approach for transient stability.

Keywords: transient stability, uncertainties, renewable energy sources, analytical approach

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1767 Impact of the Energy Transition on Security of Supply - A Case Study of Vietnam Power System in 2030

Authors: Phuong Nguyen, Trung Tran

Abstract:

Along with the global ongoing energy transition, Vietnam has indicated a strong commitment in the last COP events on the zero-carbon emission target. However, it is a real challenge for the nation to replace fossil-fired power plants by a significant amount of renewable energy sources (RES) while maintaining security of supply. The unpredictability and variability of RES would cause technical issues for supply-demand balancing, network congestions, system balancing, among others. It is crucial to take these into account while planning the future grid infrastructure. This study will address both generation and transmission adequacy and reveal a comprehensive analysis about the impact of ongoing energy transition on the development of Vietnam power system in 2030. This will provide insight for creating an secure, stable, and affordable pathway for the country in upcoming years.

Keywords: generation adequacy, transmission adequacy, security of supply, energy transition

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1766 Fracture Pressure Predict Based on Well Logs of Depleted Reservoir in Southern Iraqi Oilfield

Authors: Raed H. Allawi

Abstract:

Formation pressure is the most critical parameter in hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. Specifically, predicting abnormal pressures (high formation pressures) and subnormal pressure zones can provide valuable information to minimize uncertainty for anticipated drilling challenges and risks. This study aims to interpret and delineate the pore and fracture pressure of the Mishrif reservoir in the southern Iraq Oilfield. The data required to implement this study included acoustic compression wave, gamma-ray, bulk density, and drilling events. Furthermore, supporting these models needs the pore pressure measurement from the Modular Formation Dynamics Tester (MDT). Many measured values of pore pressure were used to validate the accurate model. Using sonic velocity approaches, the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) was about 4%. The fracture pressure results were consistent with the measurement data, actual drilling report, and events. The model's results will be a guide for successful drilling in future wells in the same oilfield.

Keywords: pore pressure, fracture pressure, overburden pressure, effective stress, drilling events

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1765 Critical Review of Oceanic and Geological Storage of Carbon Sequestration

Authors: Milad Nooshadi, Alessandro Manzardo

Abstract:

CO₂ emissions in the atmosphere continue to rise, mostly as a result of the combustion of fossil fuels. CO₂ injection into the oceans and geological formation as a process of physical carbon capture are two of the most promising emerging strategies for mitigating climate change and global warming. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the two mentioned methods of CO₂ sequestration and to assess information on previous and current advancements, limitations, and uncertainties associated with carbon sequestration in order to identify possible prospects for ensuring the timely implementation of the technology, such as determining how governments and companies can gain a better understanding of CO₂ storage in terms of which media have the most applicable capacity, which type of injection has the fewer environmental impact, and how much carbon sequestration and storage will cost. The behavior of several forms is characterized as a near field, a far field, and a see-floor in ocean storage, and three media in geological formations as an oil and gas reservoir, a saline aquifer, and a coal bed. To determine the capacity of various forms of media, an analysis of some models and practical experiments are necessary. Additionally, as a major component of sequestration, the various injection methods into diverse media and their monitoring are associated with a variety of environmental impacts and financial consequences.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, ocean storage, geologic storage, carbon transportation

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1764 Power System Cyber Security Risk in the Era of Digital Transformation

Authors: Rafat Rob, Khaled Alotaibi, Dana Nour, Abdullah Albadrani, Abdulmohsen Mulhim

Abstract:

Power systems digitization solutions provides a comprehensive smart, cohesive, interconnected network, extensive connectivity between digital assets, physical power plants, and resources to form digital economies. However, digitization has exposed the classical air gapped power plants to the rapid spread of cyber threats and attacks in the process delaying and forcing many organizations to rethink their cyber security policies and standards before they can augment their operation the new advanced digital devices. Cyber Security requirements for power systems (and industry control systems therein) demand a new approach, unique methodology, and design process that is completely different to Cyber Security measures designed for the IT systems. In practice, Cyber Security strategy, as applied to power systems, tends to be closely aligned to those measures applied for IT system purposes. The differentiator for Cyber Security in terms of power systems are the physical assets and applications used, alongside the ever-growing rate of expansion within the industry controls sector (in comparison to the relatively saturated growth observed for corporate IT systems). These factors increase the magnitude of the cyber security risk within such systems. The introduction of smart devices and sensors along the grid initiate vulnerable entry points to the systems. Every installed Smart Meter is a target; the way these devices communicate with each other may instigate a Denial of Service (DoS) and Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attack. Attacking one sensor or meter has the potential to propagate itself throughout the power grid reaching the IT network, where it may manifest itself as a malware infiltration.

Keywords: supply chain, cybersecurity, maturity model, risk, smart grid

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1763 Ammonia Adsorption Properties of Composite Ammonia Carriers Obtained by Supporting Metal Chloride on Porous Materials

Authors: Cheng Shen, LaiHong Shen

Abstract:

Ammonia is an important carrier of hydrogen energy, with the characteristics of high hydrogen content density and no carbon dioxide emission. Ammonia synthesis by the Haber process is the main method for industrial ammonia synthesis, but the conversion rate of ammonia per pass is only about 12%, while the conversion rate of biomass synthesis ammonia is as high as 56%. Therefore, safe and efficient ammonia capture for ammonia synthesis from biomass is an important way to alleviate the energy crisis and solve the energy problem. Metal chloride has a chemical adsorption effect on ammonia, and can be desorbed at high temperature to obtain high-concentration ammonia after combining with ammonia, which has a good development prospect in ammonia capture and separation technology. In this paper, the ammonia adsorption properties of CuCl₂ were measured, and the composite adsorbents were prepared by using silicon and multi-walled carbon nanotubes respectively to support CuCl₂, and the ammonia adsorption properties of the composite adsorbents were studied. The study found that the ammonia adsorption capacity of the three adsorbents decreased with the increase in temperature, so metal chlorides were more suitable for the low-temperature adsorption of ammonia. Silicon and multi-walled carbon nanotubes have an enhanced effect on the ammonia adsorption of CuCl₂. The reason is that the porous material itself has a physical adsorption effect on ammonia, and silicon can play the role of skeleton support in cupric chloride particles, which enhances the pore structure of the adsorbent, thereby alleviating sintering.

Keywords: ammonia, adsorption properties, metal chloride, silicon, MWCNTs

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1762 Optimization of Syngas Quality for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

Authors: Ali Rabah

Abstract:

This research received no grant or financial support from any public, commercial, or none governmental agency. The author conducted this work as part of his normal research activities as a professor of Chemical Engineering at the University of Khartoum, Sudan. Abstract While fossil oil reserves have been receding, the demand for diesel and gasoline has been growing. In recent years, syngas of biomass origin has been emerging as a viable feedstock for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, a process for manufacturing synthetic gasoline and diesel. This paper reports the optimization of syngas quality to match FT synthesis requirements. The optimization model maximizes the thermal efficiency under the constraint of H2/CO≥2.0 and operating conditions of equivalent ratio (0 ≤ ER ≤ 1.0), steam to biomass ratio (0 ≤ SB ≤ 5), and gasification temperature (500 °C ≤ Tg ≤ 1300 °C). The optimization model is executed using the optimization section of the Model Analysis Tools of the Aspen Plus simulator. The model is tested using eleven (11) types of MSW. The optimum operating conditions under which the objective function and the constraint are satisfied are ER=0, SB=0.66-1.22, and Tg=679 - 763°C. Under the optimum operating conditions, the syngas quality is H2=52.38 - 58.67-mole percent, LHV=12.55 - 17.15 MJ/kg, N2=0.38 - 2.33-mole percent, and H2/CO≥2.15. The generalized optimization model reported could be extended to any other type of biomass and coal. Keywords: MSW, Syngas, Optimization, Fischer-Tropsch.

Keywords: syngas, MSW, optimization, Fisher-Tropsh

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1761 Evaluating the Performance of Passive Direct Methanol Fuel Cell under Varying Operating and Structural Conditions

Authors: Rahul Saraswat

Abstract:

More recently, a focus has been given to replacing machined stainless steel metal flow fields with inexpensive wire mesh current collectors. The flow fields are based on simple woven wire mesh screens of various stainless steels, which are sandwiched between a thin metal plate of the same material to create a bipolar plate/flow field configuration for use in a stack. Major advantages of using stainless steel wire screens include the elimination of expensive raw materials as well as machining and/or other special fabrication costs. The objective of the project is to improve the performance of the passive direct methanol fuel cell without increasing the cost of the cell and to make it as compact and light as possible. From the literature survey, it was found that very little is done in this direction, and the following methodology was used. 1. The passive direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) can be made more compact, lighter, and less costly by changing the material used in its construction. 2. Controlling the fuel diffusion rate through the cell improves the performance of the cell. A passive liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) was fabricated using a given MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly) and tested for different current collector structures. Mesh current collectors of different mesh densities along with different support structures, were used, and the performance was found to be better. Methanol concentration was also varied. Optimisation of mesh size, support structure, and fuel concentration was achieved. Cost analysis was also performed hereby. From the performance analysis study of DMFC, we can conclude with the following points: Area specific resistance (ASR) of wire mesh current collectors is lower than the ASR of stainless steel current collectors. Also, the power produced by wire mesh current collectors is always more than that produced by stainless steel current collectors. 1. Low or moderate methanol concentrations should be used for better and stable DMFC performance. 2. Wiremesh is a good substitute for stainless steel for current collector plates of passive DMFC because of its lower cost (by about 27 %), flexibility, and light in weight characteristics of wire mesh.

Keywords: direct methanol fuel cell, membrane electrode assembly, mesh, mesh size, methanol concentration, support structure

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1760 Modeling of a Pilot Installation for the Recovery of Residual Sludge from Olive Oil Extraction

Authors: Riad Benelmir, Muhammad Shoaib Ahmed Khan

Abstract:

The socio-economic importance of the olive oil production is significant in the Mediterranean region, both in terms of wealth and tradition. However, the extraction of olive oil generates huge quantities of wastes that may have a great impact on land and water environment because of their high phytotoxicity. Especially olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is one of the major environmental pollutants in olive oil industry. This work projects to design a smart and sustainable integrated thermochemical catalytic processes of residues from olive mills by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of olive mill wastewater (OMWW) and fast pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge (OMWS). The byproducts resulting from OMWW-HTC treatment are a solid phase enriched in carbon, called biochar and a liquid phase (residual water with less dissolved organic and phenolic compounds). HTC biochar can be tested as a fuel in combustion systems and will also be utilized in high-value applications, such as soil bio-fertilizer and as catalyst or/and catalyst support. The HTC residual water is characterized, treated and used in soil irrigation since the organic and the toxic compounds will be reduced under the permitted limits. This project’s concept includes also the conversion of OMWS to a green diesel through a catalytic pyrolysis process. The green diesel is then used as biofuel in an internal combustion engine (IC-Engine) for automotive application to be used for clean transportation. In this work, a theoretical study is considered for the use of heat from the pyrolysis non-condensable gases in a sorption-refrigeration machine for pyrolysis gases cooling and condensation of bio-oil vapors.

Keywords: biomass, olive oil extraction, adsorption cooling, pyrolisis

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1759 Hydrogen Gas Powered Combined Heat and Power with Fully Integrated PV and Controlled Energy Storage CH2PV

Authors: John M. Counsell, Cameron P. D. Downing

Abstract:

This paper describes a scheme for the net zero energy supply for a Kawasaki City public building using a hydrogen fired combined heat and power engine, a centralised cooling refrigerant plant, and a regional electricity virtual private wire network to supply PV-generated power. A combination of solar heat and electricity storage in thermal and electric batteries, respectively, are intelligently controlled and optimised to deliver a zero-carbon solution for Kawasaki City’s Headquarter’s building. The paper describes the dynamic system modelling, and the controller design methodology for the energy storage and presents the simulation results for a validated with real building performance data.

Keywords: controller design, energy storage, hydrogen CHP, modelling, optimisation, PV

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1758 A Dynamic Simulation Analysis of Demand Side Response Controlled Domestic Electric Heating Systems

Authors: Cameron P. D. Downing, John. M. Counsell

Abstract:

In the UK, the gas supply energy crisis of 2022 has increased the opportunity for demand side response (DSR) electric heating in UK homes. These heating systems make use of dynamic off-peak electricity prices and take advantage of renewable and zero carbon intensity electricity supplies which are intermittent in nature. UK homes mainly use three types of electric heating: Direct acting panel/convector heaters, high heat retention storage heaters, and Air Source Heat Pump (ASHP) central heating systems. In this paper, a methodology for the calibration of a dynamic model for home heating systems is presented. This calibration uses the UK’s Standard Assessment Procedure 10.2 (SAP) to provide real building space heating data for the dynamic model calibration. The calibration method uses optimization to determine the best parameter values for the more subjective model parameters, such as the ratio of air temperature to mean radiant temperature in determining the thermal comfort experience of occupants. This calibrated model is used in simulation studies for space heating of UK homes to assess the impact of DSR-type controls for heating systems in terms of the thermal comfort of occupants, system running/operating costs, and carbon emissions for each of the three main heating system types. The results help decision-makers such as local authorities, housing associations, and housing developers to decide the best return on investment for specific homes.

Keywords: control, demand side response, electric heating, heat pumps, optimization

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1757 Molecular Dynamics Studies of Main Factors Affecting Mass Transport Phenomena on Cathode of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Jingjing Huang, Nengwei Li, Guanghua Wei, Jiabin You, Chao Wang, Junliang Zhang

Abstract:

In this work, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is applied to analyze the mass transport process in the cathode of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), of which all types of molecules situated in the cathode is considered. a reasonable and effective MD simulation process is provided, and models were built and compared using both Materials Studio and LAMMPS. The mass transport is one of the key issues in the study of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). In this report, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation is applied to analyze the influence of Nafion ionomer distribution and Pt nano-particle size on mass transport process in the cathode. It is indicated by the diffusion coefficients calculation that a larger quantity of Nafion, as well as a higher equivalent weight (EW) value, will hinder the transport of oxygen. In addition, medium-sized Pt nano-particles (1.5~2nm) are more advantageous in terms of proton transport compared with other particle sizes (0.94~2.55nm) when the center-to-center distance between two Pt nano-particles is around 5 nm. Then mass transport channels are found to be formed between the hydrophobic backbone and the hydrophilic side chains of Nafion ionomer according to the radial distribution function (RDF) curves. And the morphology of these channels affected by the Pt size is believed to influence the transport of hydronium ions and, consequently the performance of PEMFC.

Keywords: cathode catalytic layer, mass transport, molecular dynamics, proton exchange membrane fuel cell

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