Abstracts | Computer and Systems Engineering
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 411

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Computer and Systems Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

411 Securing Wireless Sensor Network From Rank Attack Using Fast Sensor Data Encryption and Decryption Protocol

Authors: Eden Teshome Hunde

Abstract:

Wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs) are of great significance in the realm of industrial automation systems. However, the aspect of security in WSANs has been somewhat overlooked. One particular security concern is the rank attack, where malicious actors actively manipulate the transmission of messages from neighboring nodes. This undermines the entire network's data collection and routing operations, resulting in a significant degradation of network performance. This attack adversely affects crucial metrics such as packet delivery ratio (PDR), latency, and power consumption, ultimately reducing the network's overall lifespan. In order to foster trust among nodes, ensure accurate delivery of data to end users, safeguard shared data in the cloud from security breaches, and prevent rank attacks within the network, it is crucial to protect the network against such malicious activities. This research paper aims to introduce an enhanced version of the Routing Protocol for Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) protocol, specifically tailored to identify and eliminate rank attacks within existing WSANs. The effectiveness of the new protocol will be assessed through experimentation using Zolertia (Z1) sensors in the Cooja network simulator. To minimize network overhead on the sensors' side, the proposed scheme limits cryptographic operations to symmetric key-based mechanisms such as XORing, hash functions, and encryption. These operations will be implemented using a C-compiler and verified through the ModelSIM Altera SE edition 11.0 simulator.

Keywords: ModelSIM Altera SE, RPL, WSANs, Zolertia

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410 Uncovering Hidden Bugs: An Exploratory Approach

Authors: Sagar Jitendra Mahendrakar

Abstract:

Exploratory testing is a dynamic and adaptable method of software quality assurance that is frequently praised for its ability to find hidden flaws and improve the overall quality of the product. Instead of using preset test cases, exploratory testing allows testers to explore the software application dynamically. This is in contrast to scripted testing methodologies, which primarily rely on tester intuition, creativity, and adaptability. There are several tools and techniques that can aid testers in the exploratory testing process which we will be discussing in this talk.Tests of this kind are able to find bugs of this kind that are harder to find during structured testing or that other testing methods may have overlooked.The purpose of this abstract is to examine the nature and importance of exploratory testing in modern software development methods. It explores the fundamental ideas of exploratory testing, highlighting the value of domain knowledge and tester experience in spotting possible problems that may escape the notice of traditional testing methodologies. Throughout the software development lifecycle, exploratory testing promotes quick feedback loops and continuous improvement by giving testers the ability to make decisions in real time based on their observations. This abstract also clarifies the unique features of exploratory testing, like its non-linearity and capacity to replicate user behavior in real-world settings. Testers can find intricate bugs, usability problems, and edge cases in software through impromptu exploration that might go undetected. Exploratory testing's flexible and iterative structure fits in well with agile and DevOps processes, allowing for a quicker time to market without sacrificing the quality of the final product.

Keywords: exploratory, testing, automation, quality

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409 Threshold (K, P) Quantum Distillation

Authors: Shashank Gupta, Carlos Cid, William John Munro

Abstract:

Quantum distillation is the task of concentrating quantum correlations present in N imperfect copies to M perfect copies (M < N) using free operations by involving all P the parties sharing the quantum correlation. We present a threshold quantum distillation task where the same objective is achieved but using lesser number of parties (K < P). In particular, we give an exact local filtering operations by the participating parties sharing high dimension multipartite entangled state to distill the perfect quantum correlation. Later, we bridge a connection between threshold quantum entanglement distillation and quantum steering distillation and show that threshold distillation might work in the scenario where general distillation protocol like DEJMPS does not work.

Keywords: quantum networks, quantum distillation, quantum key distribution, entanglement distillation

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408 Parallel Computing: Offloading Matrix Multiplication to GPU

Authors: Bharath R., Tharun Sai N., Bhuvan G.

Abstract:

This project focuses on developing a Parallel Computing method aimed at optimizing matrix multiplication through GPU acceleration. Addressing algorithmic challenges, GPU programming intricacies, and integration issues, the project aims to enhance efficiency and scalability. The methodology involves algorithm design, GPU programming, and optimization techniques. Future plans include advanced optimizations, extended functionality, and integration with high-level frameworks. User engagement is emphasized through user-friendly interfaces, open- source collaboration, and continuous refinement based on feedback. The project's impact extends to significantly improving matrix multiplication performance in scientific computing and machine learning applications.

Keywords: matrix multiplication, parallel processing, cuda, performance boost, neural networks

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407 Crow Search Algorithm-Based Task Offloading Strategies for Fog Computing Architectures

Authors: Aniket Ganvir, Ritarani Sahu, Suchismita Chinara

Abstract:

The rapid digitization of various aspects of life is leading to the creation of smart IoT ecosystems, where interconnected devices generate significant amounts of valuable data. However, these IoT devices face constraints such as limited computational resources and bandwidth. Cloud computing emerges as a solution by offering ample resources for offloading tasks efficiently despite introducing latency issues, especially for time-sensitive applications like fog computing. Fog computing (FC) addresses latency concerns by bringing computation and storage closer to the network edge, minimizing data travel distance, and enhancing efficiency. Offloading tasks to fog nodes or the cloud can conserve energy and extend IoT device lifespan. The offloading process is intricate, with tasks categorized as full or partial, and its optimization presents an NP-hard problem. Traditional greedy search methods struggle to address the complexity of task offloading efficiently. To overcome this, the efficient crow search algorithm (ECSA) has been proposed as a meta-heuristic optimization algorithm. ECSA aims to effectively optimize computation offloading, providing solutions to this challenging problem.

Keywords: IoT, fog computing, task offloading, efficient crow search algorithm

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406 Novel Approach to Privacy - Preserving Secure Multiparty Computation of Complex Solid Geometric Shape

Authors: Rizwan Rizwan

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Secure Multiparty Computation is an emerging area of research within the cryptographic community, enabling secure collaboration among multiple parties while safeguarding their sensitive data. Secure Multiparty Computation has been extensively studied in the context of plane geometry, its application to complex solid geometry shapes remains relatively unexplored. This research paper aims to bridge this gap by proposing a solution for the secure multiparty computation of intersecting tetrahedra. We present an approach to calculate the volume of intersecting tetrahedra securely while preserving the privacy of the input data provided by each participating party. The proposed solution leverages accepted simulation paradigms to prove the privacy of the computation. We thoroughly analyze the computational and communication complexities of our approach, demonstrating that they closely align with the minimum theoretical complexity for the problems at hand. This optimal nature of our solution ensures efficient and secure collaborative geometric computations.

Keywords: cryptography, secure multiparty computation, solid geometry, protocol, simulation paradigm

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405 FracXpert: Ensemble Machine Learning Approach for Localization and Classification of Bone Fractures in Cricket Athletes

Authors: Madushani Rodrigo, Banuka Athuraliya

Abstract:

In today's world of medical diagnosis and prediction, machine learning stands out as a strong tool, transforming old ways of caring for health. This study analyzes the use of machine learning in the specialized domain of sports medicine, with a focus on the timely and accurate detection of bone fractures in cricket athletes. Failure to identify bone fractures in real time can result in malunion or non-union conditions. To ensure proper treatment and enhance the bone healing process, accurately identifying fracture locations and types is necessary. When interpreting X-ray images, it relies on the expertise and experience of medical professionals in the identification process. Sometimes, radiographic images are of low quality, leading to potential issues. Therefore, it is necessary to have a proper approach to accurately localize and classify fractures in real time. The research has revealed that the optimal approach needs to address the stated problem and employ appropriate radiographic image processing techniques and object detection algorithms. These algorithms should effectively localize and accurately classify all types of fractures with high precision and in a timely manner. In order to overcome the challenges of misidentifying fractures, a distinct model for fracture localization and classification has been implemented. The research also incorporates radiographic image enhancement and preprocessing techniques to overcome the limitations posed by low-quality images. A classification ensemble model has been implemented using ResNet18 and VGG16. In parallel, a fracture segmentation model has been implemented using the enhanced U-Net architecture. Combining the results of these two implemented models, the FracXpert system can accurately localize exact fracture locations along with fracture types from the available 12 different types of fracture patterns, which include avulsion, comminuted, compressed, dislocation, greenstick, hairline, impacted, intraarticular, longitudinal, oblique, pathological, and spiral. This system will generate a confidence score level indicating the degree of confidence in the predicted result. Using ResNet18 and VGG16 architectures, the implemented fracture segmentation model, based on the U-Net architecture, achieved a high accuracy level of 99.94%, demonstrating its precision in identifying fracture locations. Simultaneously, the classification ensemble model achieved an accuracy of 81.0%, showcasing its ability to categorize various fracture patterns, which is instrumental in the fracture treatment process. In conclusion, FracXpert has become a promising ML application in sports medicine, demonstrating its potential to revolutionize fracture detection processes. By leveraging the power of ML algorithms, this study contributes to the advancement of diagnostic capabilities in cricket athlete healthcare, ensuring timely and accurate identification of bone fractures for the best treatment outcomes.

Keywords: multiclass classification, object detection, ResNet18, U-Net, VGG16

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404 A Comparative Study of Optimization Techniques and Models to Forecasting Dengue Fever

Authors: Sudha T., Naveen C.

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Dengue is a serious public health issue that causes significant annual economic and welfare burdens on nations. However, enhanced optimization techniques and quantitative modeling approaches can predict the incidence of dengue. By advocating for a data-driven approach, public health officials can make informed decisions, thereby improving the overall effectiveness of sudden disease outbreak control efforts. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are two of the U.S. Federal Government agencies from which this study uses environmental data. Based on environmental data that describe changes in temperature, precipitation, vegetation, and other factors known to affect dengue incidence, many predictive models are constructed that use different machine learning methods to estimate weekly dengue cases. The first step involves preparing the data, which includes handling outliers and missing values to make sure the data is prepared for subsequent processing and the creation of an accurate forecasting model. In the second phase, multiple feature selection procedures are applied using various machine learning models and optimization techniques. During the third phase of the research, machine learning models like the Huber Regressor, Support Vector Machine, Gradient Boosting Regressor (GBR), and Support Vector Regressor (SVR) are compared with several optimization techniques for feature selection, such as Harmony Search and Genetic Algorithm. In the fourth stage, the model's performance is evaluated using Mean Square Error (MSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) as assistance. Selecting an optimization strategy with the least number of errors, lowest price, biggest productivity, or maximum potential results is the goal. In a variety of industries, including engineering, science, management, mathematics, finance, and medicine, optimization is widely employed. An effective optimization method based on harmony search and an integrated genetic algorithm is introduced for input feature selection, and it shows an important improvement in the model's predictive accuracy. The predictive models with Huber Regressor as the foundation perform the best for optimization and also prediction.

Keywords: deep learning model, dengue fever, prediction, optimization

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403 Developed Text-Independent Speaker Verification System

Authors: Mohammed Arif, Abdessalam Kifouche

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Speech is a very convenient way of communication between people and machines. It conveys information about the identity of the talker. Since speaker recognition technology is increasingly securing our everyday lives, the objective of this paper is to develop two automatic text-independent speaker verification systems (TI SV) using low-level spectral features and machine learning methods. (i) The first system is based on a support vector machine (SVM), which was widely used in voice signal processing with the aim of speaker recognition involving verifying the identity of the speaker based on its voice characteristics, and (ii) the second is based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) and Universal Background Model (UBM) to combine different functions from different resources to implement the SVM based.

Keywords: speaker verification, text-independent, support vector machine, Gaussian mixture model, cepstral analysis

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402 Hydrogen: Contention-Aware Hybrid Memory Management for Heterogeneous CPU-GPU Architectures

Authors: Yiwei Li, Mingyu Gao

Abstract:

Integrating hybrid memories with heterogeneous processors could leverage heterogeneity in both compute and memory domains for better system efficiency. To ensure performance isolation, we introduce Hydrogen, a hardware architecture to optimize the allocation of hybrid memory resources to heterogeneous CPU-GPU systems. Hydrogen supports efficient capacity and bandwidth partitioning between CPUs and GPUs in both memory tiers. We propose decoupled memory channel mapping and token-based data migration throttling to enable flexible partitioning. We also support epoch-based online search for optimized configurations and lightweight reconfiguration with reduced data movements. Hydrogen significantly outperforms existing designs by 1.21x on average and up to 1.31x.

Keywords: hybrid memory, heterogeneous systems, dram cache, graphics processing units

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401 Trimma: Trimming Metadata Storage and Latency for Hybrid Memory Systems

Authors: Yiwei Li, Boyu Tian, Mingyu Gao

Abstract:

Hybrid main memory systems combine both performance and capacity advantages from heterogeneous memory technologies. With larger capacities, higher associativities, and finer granularities, hybrid memory systems currently exhibit significant metadata storage and lookup overheads for flexibly remapping data blocks between the two memory tiers. To alleviate the inefficiencies of existing designs, we propose Trimma, the combination of a multi-level metadata structure and an efficient metadata cache design. Trimma uses a multilevel metadata table to only track truly necessary address remap entries. The saved memory space is effectively utilized as extra DRAM cache capacity to improve performance. Trimma also uses separate formats to store the entries with non-identity and identity mappings. This improves the overall remap cache hit rate, further boosting the performance. Trimma is transparent to software and compatible with various types of hybrid memory systems. When evaluated on a representative DDR4 + NVM hybrid memory system, Trimma achieves up to 2.4× and on average 58.1% speedup benefits, compared with a state-of-the-art design that only leverages the unallocated fast memory space for caching. Trimma addresses metadata management overheads and targets future scalable large-scale hybrid memory architectures.

Keywords: memory system, data cache, hybrid memory, non-volatile memory

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400 Tag Impersonation Attack on Ultra-lightweight Radio Frequency Identification Authentication Scheme (ESRAS)

Authors: Reham Al-Zahrani, Noura Aleisa

Abstract:

The proliferation of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology has raised concerns about system security, particularly regarding tag impersonation attacks. Regarding RFID systems, an appropriate authentication protocol must resist active and passive attacks. A tag impersonation occurs when an adversary's tag is used to fool an authenticating reader into believing it is a legitimate tag. This paper analyzed the security of the efficient, secure, and practical ultra-lightweight RFID Authentication Scheme (ESRAS). Then, the paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the Efficient, Secure, and Practical Ultra-Lightweight RFID Authentication Scheme (ESRAS) in the context of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems that employed the Scyther tool to examine the protocol's security against a tag impersonation attack.

Keywords: RFID, impersonation attack, authentication, ultra-lightweight protocols

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399 The Outcome of Using Machine Learning in Medical Imaging

Authors: Adel Edwar Waheeb Louka

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Purpose AI-driven solutions are at the forefront of many pathology and medical imaging methods. Using algorithms designed to better the experience of medical professionals within their respective fields, the efficiency and accuracy of diagnosis can improve. In particular, X-rays are a fast and relatively inexpensive test that can diagnose diseases. In recent years, X-rays have not been widely used to detect and diagnose COVID-19. The under use of Xrays is mainly due to the low diagnostic accuracy and confounding with pneumonia, another respiratory disease. However, research in this field has expressed a possibility that artificial neural networks can successfully diagnose COVID-19 with high accuracy. Models and Data The dataset used is the COVID-19 Radiography Database. This dataset includes images and masks of chest X-rays under the labels of COVID-19, normal, and pneumonia. The classification model developed uses an autoencoder and a pre-trained convolutional neural network (DenseNet201) to provide transfer learning to the model. The model then uses a deep neural network to finalize the feature extraction and predict the diagnosis for the input image. This model was trained on 4035 images and validated on 807 separate images from the ones used for training. The images used to train the classification model include an important feature: the pictures are cropped beforehand to eliminate distractions when training the model. The image segmentation model uses an improved U-Net architecture. This model is used to extract the lung mask from the chest X-ray image. The model is trained on 8577 images and validated on a validation split of 20%. These models are calculated using the external dataset for validation. The models’ accuracy, precision, recall, f1-score, IOU, and loss are calculated. Results The classification model achieved an accuracy of 97.65% and a loss of 0.1234 when differentiating COVID19-infected, pneumonia-infected, and normal lung X-rays. The segmentation model achieved an accuracy of 97.31% and an IOU of 0.928. Conclusion The models proposed can detect COVID-19, pneumonia, and normal lungs with high accuracy and derive the lung mask from a chest X-ray with similarly high accuracy. The hope is for these models to elevate the experience of medical professionals and provide insight into the future of the methods used.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, convolutional neural networks, deeplearning, image processing, machine learningSarapin, intraarticular, chronic knee pain, osteoarthritisFNS, trauma, hip, neck femur fracture, minimally invasive surgery

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398 Real-Time Fitness Monitoring with MediaPipe

Authors: Chandra Prayaga, Lakshmi Prayaga, Aaron Wade, Kyle Rank, Gopi Shankar Mallu, Sri Satya, Harsha Pola

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In today's tech-driven world, where connectivity shapes our daily lives, maintaining physical and emotional health is crucial. Athletic trainers play a vital role in optimizing athletes' performance and preventing injuries. However, a shortage of trainers impacts the quality of care. This study introduces a vision-based exercise monitoring system leveraging Google's MediaPipe library for precise tracking of bicep curl exercises and simultaneous posture monitoring. We propose a three-stage methodology: landmark detection, side detection, and angle computation. Our system calculates angles at the elbow, wrist, neck, and torso to assess exercise form. Experimental results demonstrate the system's effectiveness in distinguishing between good and partial repetitions and evaluating body posture during exercises, providing real-time feedback for precise fitness monitoring.

Keywords: physical health, athletic trainers, fitness monitoring, technology driven solutions, Google’s MediaPipe, landmark detection, angle computation, real-time feedback

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397 Agile Software Effort Estimation Using Regression Techniques

Authors: Mikiyas Adugna

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Effort estimation is among the activities carried out in software development processes. An accurate model of estimation leads to project success. The method of agile effort estimation is a complex task because of the dynamic nature of software development. Researchers are still conducting studies on agile effort estimation to enhance prediction accuracy. Due to these reasons, we investigated and proposed a model on LASSO and Elastic Net regression to enhance estimation accuracy. The proposed model has major components: preprocessing, train-test split, training with default parameters, and cross-validation. During the preprocessing phase, the entire dataset is normalized. After normalization, a train-test split is performed on the dataset, setting training at 80% and testing set to 20%. We chose two different phases for training the two algorithms (Elastic Net and LASSO) regression following the train-test-split. In the first phase, the two algorithms are trained using their default parameters and evaluated on the testing data. In the second phase, the grid search technique (the grid is used to search for tuning and select optimum parameters) and 5-fold cross-validation to get the final trained model. Finally, the final trained model is evaluated using the testing set. The experimental work is applied to the agile story point dataset of 21 software projects collected from six firms. The results show that both Elastic Net and LASSO regression outperformed the compared ones. Compared to the proposed algorithms, LASSO regression achieved better predictive performance and has acquired PRED (8%) and PRED (25%) results of 100.0, MMRE of 0.0491, MMER of 0.0551, MdMRE of 0.0593, MdMER of 0.063, and MSE of 0.0007. The result implies LASSO regression algorithm trained model is the most acceptable, and higher estimation performance exists in the literature.

Keywords: agile software development, effort estimation, elastic net regression, LASSO

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396 Investigation of Different Conditions to Detect Cycles in Linearly Implicit Quantized State Systems

Authors: Elmongi Elbellili, Ben Lauwens, Daan Huybrechs

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The increasing complexity of modern engineering systems presents a challenge to the digital simulation of these systems which usually can be represented by differential equations. The Linearly Implicit Quantized State System (LIQSS) offers an alternative approach to traditional numerical integration techniques for solving Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). This method proved effective for handling discontinuous and large stiff systems. However, the inherent discrete nature of LIQSS may introduce oscillations that result in unnecessary computational steps. The current oscillation detection mechanism relies on a condition that checks the significance of the derivatives, but it could be further improved. This paper describes a different cycle detection mechanism and presents the outcomes using LIQSS order one in simulating the Advection Diffusion problem. The efficiency of this new cycle detection mechanism is verified by comparing the performance of the current solver against the new version as well as a reference solution using a Runge-Kutta method of order14.

Keywords: numerical integration, quantized state systems, ordinary differential equations, stiffness, cycle detection, simulation

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395 A Multi-Agent Urban Traffic Simulator for Generating Autonomous Driving Training Data

Authors: Florin Leon

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This paper describes a simulator of traffic scenarios tailored to facilitate autonomous driving model training for urban environments. With the rising prominence of self-driving vehicles, the need for diverse datasets is very important. The proposed simulator provides a flexible framework that allows the generation of custom scenarios needed for the validation and enhancement of trajectory prediction algorithms. Its controlled yet dynamic environment addresses the challenges associated with real-world data acquisition and ensures adaptability to diverse driving scenarios. By providing an adaptable solution for scenario creation and algorithm testing, this tool proves to be a valuable resource for advancing autonomous driving technology that aims to ensure safe and efficient self-driving vehicles.

Keywords: autonomous driving, car simulator, machine learning, model training, urban simulation environment

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394 Advancing Epilepsy Diagnosis through EEG Analysis and Independent Component Analysis Algorithms

Authors: Eyad Talal Attar

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Epilepsy is a prevalent neurological condition that impacts a considerable population of around 50 million individuals globally, rendering it one of the most widespread neurological disorders. The condition is distinguished by recurring seizures, which are abrupt and transient disruptions in a cerebral activity that can induce alterations in perception, conduct, and awareness. Seizures can be classified as focal or generalized, based on the specific site and scope of the atypical brain activity. Focal seizures are identified by confinement to a particular brain area and can elicit localized manifestations. Generalized seizures are identified by extensive electrical activity throughout the brain, and they can appear in various symptoms such as convulsions, muscle rigidity, and loss of consciousness. This study represents seven individuals chosen according to the number of seizures in the range of three to five seizure and investigates the ability to detect brain seizure activity. The EEG recording Siena Scalp Database was used from PhysioNet databases. EEGLAB is a robust tool utilized for processing and analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG) data and is used to analyze the raw data. The efficacy of Independent Component Analysis ICA algorithms has been demonstrated in the separation of arterial EEG sources and neuronal-generated EEG sources.

Keywords: EEG, MATLAB software, power spectral density, PSD, signal analysis, attention, alpha, beta, gamma

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393 Bridging Urban Planning and Environmental Conservation: A Regional Analysis of Northern and Central Kolkata

Authors: Tanmay Bisen, Aastha Shayla

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This study introduces an advanced approach to tree canopy detection in urban environments and a regional analysis of Northern and Central Kolkata that delves into the intricate relationship between urban development and environmental conservation. Leveraging high-resolution drone imagery from diverse urban green spaces in Kolkata, we fine-tuned the deep forest model to enhance its precision and accuracy. Our results, characterized by an impressive Intersection over Union (IoU) score of 0.90 and a mean average precision (mAP) of 0.87, underscore the model's robustness in detecting and classifying tree crowns amidst the complexities of aerial imagery. This research not only emphasizes the importance of model customization for specific datasets but also highlights the potential of drone-based remote sensing in urban forestry studies. The study investigates the spatial distribution, density, and environmental impact of trees in Northern and Central Kolkata. The findings underscore the significance of urban green spaces in met-ropolitan cities, emphasizing the need for sustainable urban planning that integrates green infrastructure for ecological balance and human well-being.

Keywords: urban greenery, advanced spatial distribution analysis, drone imagery, deep learning, tree detection

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392 Cloud Monitoring and Performance Optimization Ensuring High Availability and Security

Authors: Inayat Ur Rehman, Georgia Sakellari

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Cloud computing has evolved into a vital technology for businesses, offering scalability, flexibility, and cost-effectiveness. However, maintaining high availability and optimal performance in the cloud is crucial for reliable services. This paper explores the significance of cloud monitoring and performance optimization in sustaining the high availability of cloud-based systems. It discusses diverse monitoring tools, techniques, and best practices for continually assessing the health and performance of cloud resources. The paper also delves into performance optimization strategies, including resource allocation, load balancing, and auto-scaling, to ensure efficient resource utilization and responsiveness. Addressing potential challenges in cloud monitoring and optimization, the paper offers insights into data security and privacy considerations. Through this thorough analysis, the paper aims to underscore the importance of cloud monitoring and performance optimization for ensuring a seamless and highly available cloud computing environment.

Keywords: cloud computing, cloud monitoring, performance optimization, high availability

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391 Precoding-Assisted Frequency Division Multiple Access Transmission Scheme: A Cyclic Prefixes- Available Modulation-Based Filter Bank Multi-Carrier Technique

Authors: Ying Wang, Jianhong Xiang, Yu Zhong

Abstract:

The offset Quadrature Amplitude Modulation-based Filter Bank Multi-Carrier (FBMC) system provides superior spectral properties over Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing. However, seriously affected by imaginary interference, its performances are hampered in many areas. In this paper, we propose a Precoding-Assisted Frequency Division Multiple Access (PA-FDMA) modulation scheme. By spreading FBMC symbols into the frequency domain and transmitting them with a precoding matrix, the impact of imaginary interference can be eliminated. Specifically, we first generate the coding pre-solution matrix with a nonuniform Fast Fourier Transform and pick the best columns by introducing auxiliary factors. Secondly, according to the column indexes, we obtain the precoding matrix for one symbol and impose scaling factors to ensure that the power is approximately constant throughout the transmission time. Finally, we map the precoding matrix of one symbol to multiple symbols and transmit multiple data frames, thus achieving frequency-division multiple access. Additionally, observing the interference between adjacent frames, we mitigate them by adding frequency Cyclic Prefixes (CP) and evaluating them with a signal-to-interference ratio. Note that PA-FDMA can be considered a CP-available FBMC technique because the underlying strategy is FBMC. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme has better performance compared to Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access (SC-FDMA), etc.

Keywords: PA-FDMA, SC-FDMA, FBMC, non-uniform fast fourier transform

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390 Addressing the Oracle Problem: Decentralized Authentication in Blockchain-Based Green Hydrogen Certification

Authors: Volker Wannack

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The aim of this paper is to present a concept for addressing the Oracle Problem in the context of hydrogen production using renewable energy sources. The proposed approach relies on the authentication of the electricity used for hydrogen production by multiple surrounding actors with similar electricity generation facilities, which attest to the authenticity of the electricity production. The concept introduces an Authenticity Score assigned to each certificate, as well as a Trust Score assigned to each witness. Each certificate must be attested by different actors with a sufficient Trust Score to achieve an Authenticity Score above a predefined threshold, thereby demonstrating that the produced hydrogen is indeed "green."

Keywords: hydrogen, blockchain, sustainability, structural change

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389 Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Landing Based on Ultra-Wideband Localization System and Optimal Strategy for Searching Optimal Landing Point

Authors: Meng Wu

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Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) landing technology is a common task that is required to be fulfilled by fly robots. In this paper, the crazyflie2.0 is located by ultra-wideband (UWB) localization system that contains 4 UWB anchors. Another UWB anchor is introduced and installed on a stationary platform. One cost function is designed to find the minimum distance between crazyflie2.0 and the anchor installed on the stationary platform. The coordinates of the anchor are unknown in advance, and the goal of the cost function is to define the location of the anchor, which can be considered as an optimal landing point. When the cost function reaches the minimum value, the corresponding coordinates of the UWB anchor fixed on the stationary platform can be calculated and defined as the landing point. The simulation shows the effectiveness of the method in this paper.

Keywords: UAV landing, UWB localization system, UWB anchor, cost function, stationary platform

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388 Four-Way Coupled CFD-Dem Simulation of Concrete Pipe Flow Using a Non-Newtonian Rheological Model: Investigating the Simulation of Lubrication Layer Formation and Plug Flow Zones

Authors: Tooran Tavangar, Masoud Hosseinpoor, Jeffrey S. Marshall, Ammar Yahia, Kamal Henri Khayat

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In this study, a four-way coupled CFD-DEM methodology was used to simulate the behavior of concrete pipe flow. Fresh concrete, characterized as a biphasic suspension, features aggregates comprising the solid-suspended phase with diverse particle-size distributions (PSD) within a non-Newtonian cement paste/mortar matrix forming the liquid phase. The fluid phase was simulated using CFD, while the aggregates were modeled using DEM. Interaction forces between the fluid and solid particles were considered through CFD-DEM computations. To capture the viscoelastic characteristics of the suspending fluid, a bi-viscous approach was adopted, incorporating a critical shear rate proportional to the yield stress of the mortar. In total, three diphasic suspensions were simulated, each featuring distinct particle size distributions and a concentration of 10% for five subclasses of spherical particles ranging from 1 to 17 mm in a suspending fluid. The adopted bi-viscous approach successfully simulated both un-sheared (plug flow) and sheared zones. Furthermore, shear-induced particle migration (SIPM) was assessed by examining coefficients of variation in particle concentration across the pipe. These SIPM values were then compared with results obtained using CFD-DEM under the Newtonian assumption. The study highlighted the crucial role of yield stress in the mortar phase, revealing that lower yield stress values can lead to increased flow rates and higher SIPM across the pipe.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, concrete pumping, coupled CFD-DEM, discrete element method, plug flow, shear-induced particle migration.

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387 Investigating the Potential of VR in Language Education: A Study of Cybersickness and Presence Metrics

Authors: Sakib Hasn, Shahid Anwar

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This study highlights the vital importance of assessing the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire and presence measures as virtual reality (VR) incorporation into language teaching gains popularity. To address user discomfort, which prevents efficient learning in VR environments, the measurement of SSQ becomes crucial. Additionally, evaluating presence metrics is essential to determine the level of engagement and immersion, both crucial for rich language learning experiences. This paper designs a VR-based Chinese language application and proposes a thorough test technique aimed at systematically analyzing SSQ and presence measures. Subjective tests and data analysis were carried out to highlight the significance of addressing user discomfort in VR language education. The results of this study shed light on the difficulties posed by user discomfort in VR language learning and offer insightful advice on how to improve VR language learning applications. Furthermore, the outcome of the research explores ‘VR-based language education,’ ‘inclusive language learning platforms," and "cross-cultural communication,’ highlighting the potential for VR to facilitate language learning across diverse cultural backgrounds. Overall, the analysis results contribute to the enrichment of language learning experiences in the virtual realm and underscore the need for continued exploration and improvement in this field.

Keywords: virtual reality (VR), language education, simulator sickness questionnaire, presence metrics, VR-based Chinese language education

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386 The Reflection Framework to Enhance the User Experience for Cultural Heritage Spaces’ Websites in Post-Pandemic Times

Authors: Duyen Lam, Thuong Hoang, Atul Sajjanhar, Feifei Chen

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With the emerging interactive technology applications helping users connect progressively with cultural artefacts in new approaches, the cultural heritage sector gains significantly. The interactive apps’ issues can be tested via several techniques, including usability surveys and usability evaluations. The severe usability problems for museums’ interactive technologies commonly involve interactions, control, and navigation processes. This study confirms the low quality of being immersive for audio guides in navigating the exhibition and involving experience in the virtual environment, which are the most vital features of new interactive technologies such as AR and VR. In addition, our usability surveys and heuristic evaluations disclosed many usability issues of these interactive technologies relating to interaction functions. Additionally, we use the Wayback Machine to examine what interactive apps/technologies were deployed on these websites during the physical visits limited due to the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. Based on those inputs, we propose the reflection framework to enhance the UX in the cultural heritage domain with detailed guidelines.

Keywords: framework, user experience, cultural heritage, interactive technology, museum, COVID-19 pandemic, usability survey, heuristic evaluation, guidelines

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385 Active Features Determination: A Unified Framework

Authors: Meenal Badki

Abstract:

We address the issue of active feature determination, where the objective is to determine the set of examples on which additional data (such as lab tests) needs to be gathered, given a large number of examples with some features (such as demographics) and some examples with all the features (such as the complete Electronic Health Record). We note that certain features may be more costly, unique, or laborious to gather. Our proposal is a general active learning approach that is independent of classifiers and similarity metrics. It allows us to identify examples that differ from the full data set and obtain all the features for the examples that match. Our comprehensive evaluation shows the efficacy of this approach, which is driven by four authentic clinical tasks.

Keywords: feature determination, classification, active learning, sample-efficiency

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384 Validating the Contract between Microservices

Authors: Parveen Banu Ansari, Venkatraman Chinnappan, Paramasivam Shankar

Abstract:

Contract testing plays a pivotal role in the current landscape of microservices architecture. Testing microservices at the initial stages of development helps to identify and rectify issues before they escalate to higher levels, such as UI testing. By validating microservices through contract testing, you ensure the integration quality of APIs, enhancing the overall reliability and performance of the application. Contract testing, being a collaborative effort between testers and developers, ensures that the microservices adhere to the specified contracts or agreements. This proactive approach significantly reduces defects, streamlines the development process, and contributes to the overall efficiency and robustness of the application. In the dynamic and fast-paced world of digital applications, where microservices are the building blocks, embracing contract testing is indeed a strategic move for ensuring the quality and reliability of the entire system.

Keywords: validation, testing, contract, agreement, microservices

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383 Exploring the Role of Data Mining in Crime Classification: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Faisal Muhibuddin, Ani Dijah Rahajoe

Abstract:

This in-depth exploration, through a systematic literature review, scrutinizes the nuanced role of data mining in the classification of criminal activities. The research focuses on investigating various methodological aspects and recent developments in leveraging data mining techniques to enhance the effectiveness and precision of crime categorization. Commencing with an exposition of the foundational concepts of crime classification and its evolutionary dynamics, this study details the paradigm shift from conventional methods towards approaches supported by data mining, addressing the challenges and complexities inherent in the modern crime landscape. Specifically, the research delves into various data mining techniques, including K-means clustering, Naïve Bayes, K-nearest neighbour, and clustering methods. A comprehensive review of the strengths and limitations of each technique provides insights into their respective contributions to improving crime classification models. The integration of diverse data sources takes centre stage in this research. A detailed analysis explores how the amalgamation of structured data (such as criminal records) and unstructured data (such as social media) can offer a holistic understanding of crime, enriching classification models with more profound insights. Furthermore, the study explores the temporal implications in crime classification, emphasizing the significance of considering temporal factors to comprehend long-term trends and seasonality. The availability of real-time data is also elucidated as a crucial element in enhancing responsiveness and accuracy in crime classification.

Keywords: data mining, classification algorithm, naïve bayes, k-means clustering, k-nearest neigbhor, crime, data analysis, sistematic literature review

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382 Next-Gen Solutions: How Generative AI Will Reshape Businesses

Authors: Aishwarya Rai

Abstract:

This study explores the transformative influence of generative AI on startups, businesses, and industries. We will explore how large businesses can benefit in the area of customer operations, where AI-powered chatbots can improve self-service and agent effectiveness, greatly increasing efficiency. In marketing and sales, generative AI could transform businesses by automating content development, data utilization, and personalization, resulting in a substantial increase in marketing and sales productivity. In software engineering-focused startups, generative AI can streamline activities, significantly impacting coding processes and work experiences. It can be extremely useful in product R&D for market analysis, virtual design, simulations, and test preparation, altering old workflows and increasing efficiency. Zooming into the retail and CPG industry, industry findings suggest a 1-2% increase in annual revenues, equating to $400 billion to $660 billion. By automating customer service, marketing, sales, and supply chain management, generative AI can streamline operations, optimizing personalized offerings and presenting itself as a disruptive force. While celebrating economic potential, we acknowledge challenges like external inference and adversarial attacks. Human involvement remains crucial for quality control and security in the era of generative AI-driven transformative innovation. This talk provides a comprehensive exploration of generative AI's pivotal role in reshaping businesses, recognizing its strategic impact on customer interactions, productivity, and operational efficiency.

Keywords: generative AI, digital transformation, LLM, artificial intelligence, startups, businesses

Procedia PDF Downloads 51