Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2086

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Civil and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2086 Structural Performance of a Bridge Pier on Dubious Deep Foundation

Authors: Víctor Cecilio, Roberto Gómez, J. Alberto Escobar, Héctor Guerrero

Abstract:

The study of the structural behavior of a support/pier of an elevated viaduct in Mexico City is presented. Detection of foundation piles with uncertain integrity prompted the review of possible situations that could jeopardy the structural safety of the pier. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the structural conditions of the support, taking into account the type of anomaly reported and the depth at which it is located, the position of the pile with uncertain integrity in the foundation system, the stratigraphy of the surrounding soil and the geometry and structural characteristics of the pier. To carry out the above, dynamic analysis, spectral modal, and step-by-step, with elastic and inelastic material models, were performed. Results were evaluated in accordance with the standards used for the design of the original structural project and with the Construction Regulations for Mexico’s Federal District (RCDF-2017, 2017). Comments on the response of the analyzed models are issued, and the conclusions are presented from a structural point of view.

Keywords: dynamic analysis, inelastic models, dubious foundation, bridge pier

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2085 Developing Improvements to Multi-Hazard Risk Assessments

Authors: A. Fathianpour, M. B. Jelodar, S. Wilkinson

Abstract:

This paper outlines the approaches taken to assess multi-hazard assessments. There is currently confusion in assessing multi-hazard impacts, and so this study aims to determine which of the available options are the most useful. The paper uses an international literature search, and analysis of current multi-hazard assessments and a case study to illustrate the effectiveness of the chosen method. Findings from this study will help those wanting to assess multi-hazards to undertake a straightforward approach. The paper is significant as it helps to interpret the various approaches and concludes with the preferred method. Many people in the world live in hazardous environments and are susceptible to disasters. Unfortunately, when a disaster strikes it is often compounded by additional cascading hazards, thus people would confront more than one hazard simultaneously. Hazards include natural hazards (earthquakes, floods, etc.) or cascading human-made hazards (for example, Natural Hazard Triggering Technological disasters (Natech) such as fire, explosion, toxic release). Multi-hazards have a more destructive impact on urban areas than one hazard alone. In addition, climate change is creating links between different disasters such as causing landslide dams and debris flows leading to more destructive incidents. Much of the prevailing literature deals with only one hazard at a time. However, recently sophisticated multi-hazard assessments have started to appear. Given that multi-hazards occur, it is essential to take multi-hazard risk assessment under consideration. This paper aims to review the multi-hazard assessment methods through articles published to date and categorize the strengths and disadvantages of using these methods in risk assessment. Napier City is selected as a case study to demonstrate the necessity of using multi-hazard risk assessments. In order to assess multi-hazard risk assessments, first, the current multi-hazard risk assessment methods were described. Next, the drawbacks of these multi-hazard risk assessments were outlined. Finally, the improvements to current multi-hazard risk assessments to date were summarised. Generally, the main problem of multi-hazard risk assessment is to make a valid assumption of risk from the interactions of different hazards. Currently, risk assessment studies have started to assess multi-hazard situations, but drawbacks such as uncertainty and lack of data show the necessity for more precise risk assessment. It should be noted that ignoring or partial considering multi-hazards in risk assessment will lead to an overestimate or overlook in resilient and recovery action managements.

Keywords: cascading hazards, disaster assessment, mullti-hazards, risk assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2084 Effects of Using Gusset Plate Stiffeners on the Seismic Performance of Concentrically Braced Frame

Authors: B. Mohebi, N. Asadi, F. Kazemi

Abstract:

Inelastic deformation of the brace in Special Concentrically Braced Frame (SCBF) creates inelastic damages on gusset plate connections such as buckling at edges. In this study, to improve the seismic performance of SCBFs connections, an analytical study was undertaken. To improve the gusset plate connection, this study proposes using ‎edge’s stiffeners in both sides of gusset plate.‎ For this purpose, in order to examine edge’s stiffeners effect on gusset plate connections, two groups of modeling with and without considering edge’s stiffener and different types of braces were modeled using ABAQUS software. The results show that considering the edge’s stiffener reduces the equivalent plastic strain values at a connection region of gusset plate with beam and column, which can improve the seismic performance of gusset plate. Furthermore, considering the edge’s stiffeners significantly decreases the strain concentration at regions where gusset plates have been connected to beam and column. Moreover, considering 2tpl distance causes reduction in the plastic strain.

Keywords: special concentrically braced frame, gusset plate, edge's stiffener, seismic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2083 The Effect of Carbon Nanofibers on the Electrical Resistance of Cementitious Composites

Authors: Reza Pourjafar, Morteza Sohrabi Gilani, Mostafa Jamshidi Avanaki, Malek Mohammad Ranjbar

Abstract:

Cementitious composites like concrete, are the most widely used materials in civil infrastructures. Numerous investigations on fiber’s effect on the properties of cement-based composites have been conducted in the last few decades. The use of fibers such as carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in these materials is an ongoing field and needs further researches and studies. Excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties of carbon nanotubes and nanofibers have motivated the development of advanced nanocomposites with outstanding and multifunctional properties. In this study, the electrical resistance of CNF reinforced cement mortar was examined. Three different dosages of CNF were used, and the resistances were compared to plain cement mortar. One of the biggest challenges in this study is dispersing CNF particles in the mortar mixture. Therefore, polycarboxylate superplasticizer and ultrasonication of the mixture have been selected for the purpose of dispersing CNFs in the cement matrix. The obtained results indicated that the electrical resistance of the CNF reinforced mortar samples decreases with increasing CNF content, which would be the first step towards examining strain and damage monitoring ability of cementitious composites containing CNF for structural health monitoring purposes.

Keywords: carbon nanofiber, cement and concrete, CNF reinforced mortar, smart mater, strain monitoring, structural health monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2082 Design and Assessment of Traffic Management Strategies for Improved Mobility on Major Arterial Roads in Lahore City

Authors: N. Ali, S. Nakayama, H. Yamaguchi, M. Nadeem

Abstract:

Traffic congestion is a matter of prime concern in developing countries. This can be primarily attributed due to poor design practices and biased allocation of resources based on political will neglecting the technical feasibilities in infrastructure design. During the last decade, Lahore has expanded at an unprecedented rate as compared to surrounding cities due to more funding and resource allocation by the previous governments. As a result of this, people from surrounding cities and areas moved to the Lahore city for better opportunities and quality of life. This migration inflow inherited the city with an increased population yielding the inefficiency of the existing infrastructure to accommodate enhanced traffic demand. This leads to traffic congestion on major arterial roads of the city. In this simulation study, a major arterial road was selected to evaluate the performance of the five intersections by changing the geometry of the intersections or signal control type. Simulations were done in two software; Highway Capacity Software (HCS) and Synchro Studio and Sim Traffic Software. Some of the traffic management strategies that were employed include actuated-signal control, semi-actuated signal control, fixed-time signal control, and roundabout. The most feasible solution for each intersection in the above-mentioned traffic management techniques was selected with the least delay time (seconds) and improved Level of Service (LOS). The results showed that Jinnah Hospital Intersection and Akbar Chowk Intersection improved 92.97% and 92.67% in delay time reduction, respectively. These results can be used by traffic planners and policy makers for decision making for the expansion of these intersections keeping in mind the traffic demand in future years.

Keywords: traffic congestion, traffic simulation, traffic management, congestion problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2081 Structural Strength Potentials of Nigerian Groundnut Husk Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Mortar

Authors: F. A. Olutoge, O.R. Olulope, M. O. Odelola

Abstract:

This study investigates the strength potentials of groundnut husk ash as partial cement replacement in mortar and also develops a predictive model using Artificial Neural Network. Groundnut husks sourced from Ogbomoso, Nigeria, was sun dried, calcined to ash in a furnace at a controlled temperature of 600⁰ C for a period of 6 hours, and sieved through the 75 microns. The ash was subjected to chemical analysis and setting time test. Fine aggregate (sand) for the mortar was sourced from Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. The cement: GHA constituents were blended in ratios 100:0, 95:5, 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 %. The sum of SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and Fe₂O₃ content in GHA is 26.98%. The compressive strength for mortars PC, GHA5, GHA10, GHA15, and GHA20 ranged from 6.3-10.2 N/mm² at 7days, 7.5-12.3 N/mm² at 14 days, 9.31-13.7 N/mm² at 28 days, 10.4-16.7 N/mm² at 56days and 13.35- 22.3 N/mm² at 90 days respectively, PC, GHA5 and GHA10 had competitive values up to 28 days, but GHA10 gave the highest values at 56 and 90 days while GHA20 had the lowest values at all ages due to dilution effect. Flexural strengths values at 28 days ranged from 1.08 to 1.87 N/mm² and increased to a range of 1.53-4.10 N/mm² at 90 days. The ANN model gave good prediction for compressive strength of the mortars. This study has shown that groundnut husk ash as partial cement replacement improves the strength properties of mortar.

Keywords: compressive strength, groundnut husk ash, mortar, pozzolanic index

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2080 Seismic Retrofit of Reinforced Concrete Structures by Highly Dissipative Technologies

Authors: Stefano Sorace, Gloria Terenzi, Giulia Mazzieri, Iacopo Costoli

Abstract:

The prolonged earthquake sequence that struck several urban agglomerations and villages in Central Italy, starting from 24 August 2016 through January 2017, highlighted once again the seismic vulnerability of pre-normative reinforced concrete (R/C) structures. At the same time, considerable damages were surveyed in recently retrofitted R/C buildings too, one of which also by means of a dissipative bracing system. The solution adopted for the latter did not expressly take into account the performance of non-structural elements, and namely of infills and partitions, confirming the importance of their dynamic interaction with the structural skeleton. Based on this consideration, an alternative supplemental damping-based retrofit solution for this representative building, i.e., a school with an R/C structure situated in the municipality of Norcia, is examined in this paper. It consists of the incorporation of dissipative braces equipped with pressurized silicone fluid viscous (FV) dampers, instead of the BRAD system installed in the building, the delayed activation of which -caused by the high stiffness of the constituting metallic dampers- determined the observed non-structural damages. Indeed, the alternative solution proposed herein, characterized by dissipaters with mainly damping mechanical properties, guarantees an earlier activation of the protective system. A careful assessment analysis, preliminarily carried out to simulate and check the case study building performance in originally BRAD-retrofitted conditions, confirms that the interstorey drift demand related to the Norcia earthquake's mainshock and aftershocks is beyond the response capacity of infills. The verification analyses developed on the R/C structure, including the FV-damped braces, highlight their higher performance, giving rise to a completely undamaged response both of structural and non-structural elements up to the basic design earthquake normative level of seismic action.

Keywords: dissipative technologies, performance assessment analysis, concrete structures, seismic retrofit

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2079 Structural Performance of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Steel Plates: Experimental Study

Authors: Mazin Mohammed S. Sarhan

Abstract:

This study presents the performance of concrete beams reinforced with steel plates as a technique of reinforcement. Three reinforced concrete beams with the dimensions of 200 mm x 300 mm x 4000 mm (width x height x length, respectively) were experimentally investigated under flexural loading. The deformed steel bars were used as the main reinforcement for the first beam. A steel plate placed horizontally was used as the main reinforcement for the second beam. The bond between the steel plate and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using steel bolts (with a diameter of 20 mm and length of 100 mm) welded to the steel plate at a regular distance of 200 mm. A pair of steel plates placed vertically was used as the main reinforcement for the third beam. The bond between the pair steel plates and the surrounding concrete was enhanced by using 4 equal steel angles (with the dimensions of 75 mm x 75 mm and the thickness of 8 mm) for each vertical steel plate. Two steel angles were welded at each end of the steel plate. The outcomes revealed that the bending stiffness of the beams reinforced with steel plates was higher than that reinforced with deformed steel bars. Also, the flexural ductile behavior of the second beam was much higher than the rest beams.

Keywords: concrete beam, deflection, ductility, plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2078 The Attitude Towards Sustainable Development Issues among Malaysian Engineering Undergraduates

Authors: Balamuralithara Balakrishnan

Abstract:

This paper reports the findings of the perception and attitude towards Sustainable Development among Malaysian undergraduates. The study was carried out involving 86 engineering undergraduates from three universities in Malaysia. This research was conducted based on a survey whereby the respondents were given a questionnaire to gauge their attitude towards sustainable development. The output of the analyses showed that the respondents have an appropriate attitude towards the sustainability issues expect for social sustainability aspect. These findings suggest that the engineering educators who involved in sustainable development education need to educate the undergraduates on this important issue. This investigation serves as a cornerstone to which the current paradigm of sustainable development education can be examined for further improvement by related stakeholders.

Keywords: sustainable development, engineering education, Malaysia, attitude

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2077 Using Dynamic Glazing to Eliminate Mechanical Cooling in Multifamily Highrise Buildings

Authors: Ranojoy Dutta, Adam Barker

Abstract:

Residential buildings are increasingly being built with higher glazed areas to provide tenants with greater daylight and outdoor views. However, glass windows can increase solar gain in summer, leading to discomfort from both direct radiation and indoor temperature increase. Due to relatively mild summers in cities like Vancouver, Seattle, and Toronto, often occupants can be comfortable without mechanical cooling if there are operable windows and fans. However, there can be still some summer days when the combination of direct solar gain and relatively high temperatures cause discomfort without AC, and as a result, builders and tenants are often forced to install cooling equipment even if it’s used for only very few days in the whole year. This study will use simulations to verify if dynamic glazing can keep the indoor operative temperature within the ASHRAE 55 adaptive comfort range and eliminate the need for mechanical cooling. A comparison will be made with a standard dual-pane LowE glazing. The study will look at the effect of operable dynamic windows to allow ventilation under different configurations such as all windows closed during the day, some open during the day, all open in the evening, etc. Since opening windows is not always possible due to humidity, dust, sound, etc., reducing solar gain is also critical so that space can be kept comfortable even with the windows closed. Dynamic glazing can reduce both the mean radiant temperature near the windows as well as they keep the indoor air temperature cooler by blocking solar radiation, without compromising the visual connection to outdoors.

Keywords: electrochromic glazing, multi-family housing, passive cooling, thermal comfort, natural ventilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2076 Multi-Stakeholder Involvement in Construction and Challenges of Building Information Modeling Implementation

Authors: Zeynep Yazicioglu

Abstract:

Project development is a complex process where many stakeholders work together. Employers and main contractors are the base stakeholders, whereas designers, engineers, sub-contractors, suppliers, supervisors, and consultants are other stakeholders. A combination of the complexity of the building process with a large number of stakeholders often leads to time and cost overruns and irregular resource utilization. Failure to comply with the work schedule and inefficient use of resources in the construction processes indicate that it is necessary to accelerate production and increase productivity. The development of computer software called Building Information Modeling, abbreviated as BIM, is a major technological breakthrough in this area. The use of BIM enables architectural, structural, mechanical, and electrical projects to be drawn in coordination. BIM is a tool that should be considered by every stakeholder with the opportunities it offers, such as minimizing construction errors, reducing construction time, forecasting, and determination of the final construction cost. It is a process spreading over the years, enabling all stakeholders associated with the project and construction to use it. The main goal of this paper is to explore the problems associated with the adoption of BIM in multi-stakeholder projects. The paper is a conceptual study, summarizing the author’s practical experience with design offices and construction firms working with BIM. In the transition period to BIM, three of the challenges will be examined in this paper: 1. The compatibility of supplier companies with BIM, 2. The need for two-dimensional drawings, 3. Contractual issues related to BIM. The paper reviews the literature on BIM usage and reviews the challenges in the transition stage to BIM. Even on an international scale, the supplier that can work in harmony with BIM is not very common, which means that BIM's transition is continuing. In parallel, employers, local approval authorities, and material suppliers still need a 2-D drawing. In the BIM environment, different stakeholders can work on the same project simultaneously, giving rise to design ownership issues. Practical applications and problems encountered are also discussed, providing a number of suggestions for the future.

Keywords: BIM opportunities, collaboration, contract issues about BIM, stakeholders of project

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2075 Development of Expanded Perlite-Caprylicacid Composite for Temperature Maintainance in Buildings

Authors: Akhila Konala, Jagadeeswara Reddy Vennapusa, Sujay Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

The energy consumption of humankind is growing day by day due to an increase in the population, industrialization and their needs for living. Fossil fuels are the major source of energy to satisfy energy needs, which are non-renewable energy resources. So, there is a need to develop green resources for energy production and storage. Phase change materials (PCMs) derived from plants (green resources) are well known for their capacity to store the thermal energy as latent heat during their phase change from solid to liquid. This property of PCM could be used for storage of thermal energy. In this study, a composite with fatty acid (caprylic acid; M.P 15°C, Enthalpy 179kJ/kg) as a phase change material and expanded perlite as support porous matrix was prepared through direct impregnation method for thermal energy storage applications. The prepared composite was characterized using Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. The melting point of the prepared composite was 15.65°C, and the melting enthalpy was 82kJ/kg. The surface nature of the perlite was observed through FESEM. It was observed that there are micro size pores in the perlite surface, which were responsible for the absorption of PCM into perlite. In TGA thermogram, the PCM loss from composite was started at ~90°C. FTIR curves proved there was no chemical interaction between the perlite and caprylic acid. So, the PCM composite prepared in this work could be effective to use in temperature maintenance of buildings.

Keywords: caprylic acid, composite, phase change materials, PCM, perlite, thermal energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2074 The Effect of Honeycomb Core Thickness on the Repeated Low-Velocity Impact Behavior of Sandwich Beams

Authors: S. H. Abo Sabah, A. B. H. Kueh, M. A. Megat Johari, T. A. Majid

Abstract:

In a recent study, a new bio-inspired honeycomb sandwich beam (BHSB) mimicking the head configuration of the woodpecker was developed. The beam consists of two carbon/epoxy composite face sheets, aluminum honeycomb core, and rubber core to enhance the repeated low-velocity impact resistance of sandwich structures. This paper aims to numerically enhance the repeated low-velocity impact resistance of the BHSB via optimizing the aluminum honeycomb core thickness. The beam was investigated employing three core thicknesses: 20 mm, 25 mm, and 30 mm at three impact energy levels (13.5 J, 15.55 J, 21.43 J). The results revealed that increasing the thickness of the aluminum honeycomb core to a certain level enhances the sandwich beam stiffness. The beam with the 25 mm honeycomb core thickness was the only beam that can sustain five repeated impacts achieving the highest impact resistance efficiency index, especially at high energy levels. Furthermore, the bottom face sheet of this beam developed the lowest stresses indicating that this thickness has a relatively better performance during impact events since it allowed minimal stress to reach the bottom face sheet. Overall, increasing the aluminum core thickness will increase the height of its cells subjecting it to buckling phenomenon. Therefore, this study suggests that the optimal thickness of the aluminum honeycomb core should be 65 % of the overall thickness of the sandwich beam to have the best impact resistance.

Keywords: sandwich beams, core thickness, impact behavior, finite element analysis, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2073 Partial Replacement of Lateritic Soil with Crushed Rock Sand (Stone Dust) in Compressed Earth Brick Production

Authors: A. M. Jungudo, M. A. Lasan

Abstract:

Meeting the housing needs in developing countries is a long-standing task yet to be realized. The economy of these countries is ailing with limited resources. Earth construction is a sustainable option in meeting the housing needs of most developing economies, and its material is freely available universally. However, people are skeptical of taking the low-cost option due to its less modern outlook and uncertain durability. This research aims at enhancing the durability of compressed earth bricks (CEB) using stone dust as a stabilizer. The result indicates that partial replacement of lateritic soil with stone dust at 30% improves its compressive strength along with abrasive resistance.

Keywords: earth construction, durability, stone dust, sustainable

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2072 The Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Compressed Composite Plate in Asymmetrical Arrangement of Layers

Authors: Katarzyna Falkowicz

Abstract:

The work focused on the original concept of a thin-walled plate element with a cut-out, for use as a spring or load-bearing element. The subject of the study were rectangular plates with a cut-out with variable geometrical parameters and with a variable angle of fiber arrangement, made of a carbon-epoxy composite with high strength properties in an asymmetrical arrangement, subjected to uniform compression. The influence of geometrical parameters of the cut-out and the angle of fiber arrangement on the value of critical load of the structure and buckling form was investigated. Uniform thin plates are relatively cheap to manufacture, however due to their low bending stiffness; they can carry relatively small loads. The lowest form of loss of plate stability, which is the bending form, leads to its rapid destruction due to high deflection increases, with a slight increase in compressive load - low rigidity of the structure. However, the stiffness characteristics of the structure change significantly when the work of plate is forcing according to the higher flexural-torsional form of buckling. The plate is able to carry a much higher compressive load while maintaining much stiffer work characteristics in the post-critical range. The calculations carried out earlier show that plates with forced higher form of buckling are characterized by stable, progressive paths of post-critical equilibrium, enabling their use as elastic elements. The characteristics of such elements can be designed in a wide range by changing the geometrical parameters of the cut-out, i.e. height and width as well as by changing the angle of fiber arrangement The commercial ABAQUS program using the finite element method was used to develop the discrete model and perform numerical calculations. The obtained results are of significant practical importance in the design of structures with elastic elements, allowing to achieve the required maintenance characteristics of the device.

Keywords: buckling mode, numerical method, unsymmetrical laminates, thin-walled elastic elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2071 Explore and Reduce the Performance Gap between Building Modelling Simulations and the Real World: Case Study

Authors: B. Salehi, D. Andrews, I. Chaer, A. Gillich, A. Chalk, D. Bush

Abstract:

With the rapid increase of energy consumption in buildings in recent years, especially with the rise in population and growing economies, the importance of energy savings in buildings becomes more critical. One of the key factors in ensuring energy consumption is controlled and kept at a minimum is to utilise building energy modelling at the very early stages of the design. So, building modelling and simulation is a growing discipline. During the design phase of construction, modelling software can be used to estimate a building’s projected energy consumption, as well as building performance. The growth in the use of building modelling software packages opens the door for improvements in the design and also in the modelling itself by introducing novel methods such as building information modelling-based software packages which promote conventional building energy modelling into the digital building design process. To understand the most effective implementation tools, research projects undertaken should include elements of real-world experiments and not just rely on theoretical and simulated approaches. Upon review of the related studies undertaken, it’s evident that they are mostly based on modelling and simulation, which can be due to various reasons such as the more expensive and time-consuming nature of real-time data-based studies. Taking in to account the recent rise of building energy software modelling packages and the increasing number of studies utilising these methods in their projects and research, the accuracy and reliability of these modelling software packages has become even more crucial and critical. This Energy Performance Gap refers to the discrepancy between the predicted energy savings and the realised actual savings, especially after buildings implement energy-efficient technologies. There are many different software packages available which are either free or have commercial versions. In this study, IES VE (Integrated Environmental Solutions Virtual Environment) is used as it is a common Building Energy Modeling and Simulation software in the UK. This paper describes a study that compares real time results with those in a virtual model to illustrate this gap. The subject of the study is a north west facing north-west (345°) facing, naturally ventilated, conservatory within a domestic building in London is monitored during summer to capture real-time data. Then these results are compared to the virtual results of IES VE, which is a commonly used building energy modelling and simulation software in the UK. In this project, the effect of the wrong position of blinds on overheating is studied as well as providing new evidence of Performance Gap. Furthermore, the challenges of drawing the input of solar shading products in IES VE will be considered.

Keywords: building energy modelling and simulation, integrated environmental solutions virtual environment, IES VE, performance gap, real time data, solar shading products

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2070 Investigation and Analysis of Residential Building Energy End-Use Profile in Hot and Humid Area with Reference to Zhuhai City in China

Authors: Qingqing Feng, S. Thomas Ng, Frank Xu

Abstract:

Energy consumption in domestic sector has been increasing rapidly in China all along these years. Confronted with environmental challenges, the international society has made a concerted effort by setting the Paris Agreement, the Sustainable Development Goals, and the New Urban Agenda. Thus it’s very important for China to put forward reasonable countermeasures to boost building energy conservation which necessitates looking into the actuality of residential energy end-use profile and its influence factors. In this study, questionnaire surveys have been conducted in Zhuhai city in China, a typical city in hot summer warm winter climate zone. The data solicited mainly include the occupancy schedule, building’s information, residents’ information, household energy uses, the type, quantity and use patterns of appliances and occupants’ satisfaction. Over 200 valid samples have been collected through face-to-face interviews. Descriptive analysis, clustering analysis, correlation analysis and sensitivity analysis were then conducted on the dataset to understand the energy end-use profile. The findings identify: 1) several typical clusters of occupancy patterns and appliances utilization patterns; 2) the top three sensitive factors influencing energy consumption; 3) the correlations between satisfaction and energy consumption. For China with many different climates zones, it’s difficult to find a silver bullet on energy conservation. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical basis for multi-stakeholders including policy makers, residents, and academic communities to formulate reasonable energy saving blueprints for hot and humid urban residential buildings in China.

Keywords: residential building, energy end-use profile, questionnaire survey, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2069 Parameters Affecting Load Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Ring Deep Beams

Authors: Atef Ahmad Bleibel

Abstract:

Most codes of practice, like ACI 318-14, require the use of strut-and-tie modeling to analyze and design reinforced concrete deep beams. Though, investigations that conducted on deep beams do not include ring deep beams of influential parameters. This work presents an analytical parametric study using strut-and-tie modeling stated by ACI 318-14 to predict load capacity of 20 reinforced concrete ring deep beam specimens with different parameters. The parameters that were under consideration in the current work are ring diameter (Dc), number of supports (NS), width of ring beam (bw), concrete compressive strength (f'c) and width of bearing plate (Bp). It is found that the load capacity decreases by about 14-36% when ring diameter increases by about 25-75%. It is also found that load capacity increases by about 62-189% when number of supports increases by about 33-100%, while the load capacity increases by about 25-75% when the beam ring width increases by about 25-75%. Finally, it is found that load capacity increases by about 24-76% when compressive strength increases by about 24-76%, while the load capacity increases by about 5-16% when Bp increases by about 25-75%.

Keywords: load parameters, reinforced concrete, ring deep beam, strut and tie

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2068 Investigation of Bending Behavior of Ultra High Performance Concrete with Steel and Glass Fiber Polymer Reinforcement

Authors: Can Otuzbir

Abstract:

It is one of the most difficult areas of civil engineering to provide long-lasting structures with the rapid development of concrete and reinforced concrete structures. Concrete is a living material, and the structure where the concrete is located is constantly exposed to external influences. One of these effects is reinforcement corrosion. Reinforcement corrosion of reinforced concrete structures leads to a significant decrease in the carrying capacity of the structural elements, as well as reduced service life. It is undesirable that the service life should be completed sooner than expected. In recent years, advances in glass fiber technology and its use with concrete have developed rapidly. As a result of inability to protect steel reinforcements against corrosion, fiberglass reinforcements have started to be investigated as an alternative material to steel reinforcements, and researches and experimental studies are still continuing. Glass fiber reinforcements have become an alternative material to steel reinforcement because they are resistant to corrosion, lightweight and simple to install compared to steel reinforcement. Glass fiber reinforcements are not corroded and have higher tensile strength, longer life, lighter and insulating properties compared to steel reinforcement. In experimental studies, glass fiber reinforcements have been shown to show superior mechanical properties similar to beams produced with steel reinforcement. The performance of long-term use of glass fiber fibers continues with accelerated experimental studies.

Keywords: glass fiber polymer reinforcement, steel fiber concrete, ultra high performance concrete, bending, GFRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2067 Heat Transfer Enhancement of Structural Concretes Made of Macro-Encapsulated Phase Change Materials

Authors: Ehsan Mohseni, Waiching Tang, Shanyong Wang

Abstract:

Low thermal conductivity of phase change materials (PCMs) affects the thermal performance and energy storage efficiency of latent heat thermal energy storage systems. In the current research, a structural lightweight concrete with function of indoor temperature control was developed using thermal energy storage aggregates (TESA) and nano-titanium (NT). The macro-encapsulated technique was served to incorporate the PCM into the lightweight aggregate through vacuum impregnation. The compressive strength was measured, and the thermal performance of concrete panel was evaluated by using a self-designed environmental chamber. The impact of NT on microstructure was also assessed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) tests. The test results indicated that NT was able to increase the compressive strength by filling the micro pores and making the microstructure denser and more homogeneous. In addition, the environmental chamber experiment showed that introduction of NT into TESA improved the heat transfer of composites noticeably. The changes were illustrated by the reduction in peak temperatures in the centre, outside and inside surfaces of concrete panels by the inclusion of NT. It can be concluded that NT particles had the capability to decrease the energy consumption and obtain higher energy storage efficiency by the reduction of indoor temperature.

Keywords: heat transfer, macro-encapsulation, microstructure properties, nanoparticles, phase change material

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2066 An As-Is Analysis and Approach for Updating Building Information Models and Laser Scans

Authors: Rene Hellmuth

Abstract:

Factory planning has the task of designing products, plants, processes, organization, areas, and the construction of a factory. The requirements for factory planning and the building of a factory have changed in recent years. Regular restructuring of the factory building is becoming more important in order to maintain the competitiveness of a factory. Restrictions in new areas, shorter life cycles of product and production technology as well as a VUCA world (Volatility, Uncertainty, Complexity & Ambiguity) lead to more frequent restructuring measures within a factory. A building information model (BIM) is the planning basis for rebuilding measures and becomes an indispensable data repository to be able to react quickly to changes. Use as a planning basis for restructuring measures in factories only succeeds if the BIM model has adequate data quality. Under this aspect and the industrial requirement, three data quality factors are particularly important for this paper regarding the BIM model: up-to-dateness, completeness, and correctness. The research question is: how can a BIM model be kept up to date with required data quality and which visualization techniques can be applied in a short period of time on the construction site during conversion measures? An as-is analysis is made of how BIM models and digital factory models (including laser scans) are currently being kept up to date. Industrial companies are interviewed, and expert interviews are conducted. Subsequently, the results are evaluated, and a procedure conceived how cost-effective and timesaving updating processes can be carried out. The availability of low-cost hardware and the simplicity of the process are of importance to enable service personnel from facility mnagement to keep digital factory models (BIM models and laser scans) up to date. The approach includes the detection of changes to the building, the recording of the changing area, and the insertion into the overall digital twin. Finally, an overview of the possibilities for visualizations suitable for construction sites is compiled. An augmented reality application is created based on an updated BIM model of a factory and installed on a tablet. Conversion scenarios with costs and time expenditure are displayed. A user interface is designed in such a way that all relevant conversion information is available at a glance for the respective conversion scenario. A total of three essential research results are achieved: As-is analysis of current update processes for BIM models and laser scans, development of a time-saving and cost-effective update process and the conception and implementation of an augmented reality solution for BIM models suitable for construction sites.

Keywords: building information modeling, digital factory model, factory planning, restructuring

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2065 Possibilities of Usage Fine Admixtures to Concrete Regarding Elimination Shrinkage

Authors: L. Osuska, R. Hela

Abstract:

Concrete’s volumetric changes are natural process caused by silicate minerals’ hydration. These changes can lead to cracking and subsequent destruction of cementitious material’s matrix. In most cases, cracks can be assessed as a negative effect of hydration, and in all cases, they lead to an acceleration of degradation processes. Preventing the formation of these cracks is, therefore, the main effort. Once of the possibility how to eliminate this natural concrete shrinkage process is by using different types of dispersed reinforcement. For this application of concrete shrinking, steel and polymer reinforcement are preferably used. Despite ordinarily used reinforcement in concrete to eliminate shrinkage it is possible to look at this specific problematic from the beginning by itself concrete mix composition. There are many secondary raw materials, which are helpful in reduction of hydration heat and also with shrinkage of concrete during curing. The new science shows the possibilities of shrinkage reduction also by the controlled formation of hydration products, which could act by itself morphology as a traditionally used dispersed reinforcement. This contribution deals with the possibility of controlled formation of mono- and tri-sulfate which are considered like degradation minerals. Mono- and tri- sulfate's controlled formation in a cementitious composite can be classified as a self-healing ability. Its crystal's growth acts directly against the shrinking tension – this reduces the risk of cracks development. Controlled formation means that these crystals start to grow in the fresh state of the material (e.g., concrete) but stop right before it could cause any damage to the hardened material. Waste materials with suitable chemical composition are very attractive precursors because of their added value in the form of landscape pollution’s reduction and, of course, low cost. In this experiment, the possibilities of using the fly ash from fluidized bed combustion as a mono- and tri-sulphate formation additive were investigated. The experiment itself was conducted on cement paste and concrete and specimens were subjected to a thorough analysis of physicomechanical properties as well as microstructure from the moment of mixing up to 180 days. In cement composites, were monitored the process of hydration and shrinkage. In a mixture with the used admixture of fluidized bed combustion fly ash, possible failures were specified by electronic microscopy and dynamic modulus of elasticity. The results of experiments show the possibility of shrinkage concrete reduction without using traditionally dispersed reinforcement.

Keywords: shrinkage, hydration heat, optimized combinations of fine admixtures, active admixtures

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2064 A Framework for Improving Trade Contractors' Productivity Tracking Methods

Authors: Sophia Hayes, Kenny L. Liang, Sahil Sharma, Austin Shema, Mahmoud Bader, Mohamed Elbarkouky

Abstract:

Despite being one of the country’s most significant economic contributors, Canada’s construction industry is lagging behind other sectors when it comes to labor productivity improvements. The construction industry is very collaborative as a general contractor will hire trade contractors to perform most of a project’s work; meaning low productivity from one contractor can have a domino effect on the shared success of a project. To address this issue and encourage trade contractors to improve their productivity tracking methods, an investigative study was done on the productivity views and tracking methods of various trade contractors. Additionally, an in-depth review was done on four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry: cost codes, benchmarking, the job productivity measurement standard (JPM), and WorkFace Planning (WFP). The four tracking methods were used as a baseline in comparing the trade contractors’ responses, determining gaps within their current tracking methods, and for making improvement recommendations. Fifteen interviews were conducted with different trades to analyze how contractors value productivity. The results of these analyses indicated that there seem to be gaps within the construction industry when it comes to an understanding of the purpose and value in productivity tracking. The trade contractors also shared their current productivity tracking systems; which were then compared to the four standard tracking methods used in the construction industry. Gaps were identified in their various tracking methods and using a framework; recommendations were made based on the type of trade on how to improve how they track productivity.

Keywords: labor productivity, productivity tracking methods, trade contractors, construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2063 Sustainable Sewer Urban Systems Analysis as Management Mechanisms and Rain Water Control

Authors: Ezequiel Garcia-Rodriguez, Lenin Hernandez-Ferreyra, Luis Ochoa-Franco

Abstract:

The sustainable sewer urban systems (SSUS) are mechanisms integrated into the cities for manage rainwater, reducing its runoff volume and velocity, enhancing the rainwater quality and preventing flooding and other catastrophes associated to the rain, as well as improving the energy efficiency. The objective of SSUS is to mimic or to equal the runoff and infiltration natural conditions of the land before its urbanization, reducing runoff that may cause troubles within the houses, as well as flooding. At the same time, energy for warming homes and for pumping and treating water is reduced, contributing to the reduction of CO₂ emissions and therefore contributing to reduce climate change. This paper contains an evaluation of the advantages that SSUS may offer within a zone of Morelia City, Mexico, applying support tools for decision making. Different types of SSUS were used in this case study, assessing their effect on the rainwater flow behavior within the study area. SSUS usage, in this case, resulted in an important reduction of the magnitude and velocity of runoff, reducing, therefore, the risk of flooding. So that, it is recommended the implementation of SSUS in this case.

Keywords: energy efficiency, Morelia, sustainable sewer, urban systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
2062 Educating on Historic Preservation in the Alabama Gulf Coast: The Case of the Peninsula of Mobile

Authors: Asmaa Benbaba

Abstract:

A series of action plans motivated this work within the city of mobile as the big category and the Peninsula more particularly. Most of the projects sought to educate about the historical and environmental assets of the place, to improve aesthetics, to preserve the natural resources on the Bayou, spread awareness, and reach out to the community. This study was conducted to preserve significant heritage landscapes, and significant historic buildings in the neighborhood of the Peninsula of Mobile at the state of Alabama, while simultaneously strengthen the cultural and historical resources. The purpose of this planning action was to provide planning regulations for the suburban areas of Mobile in Alabama. The plan attempted to overlap three main layers: community, environment, and history. The method that was used to collect data and conduct research was mainly qualitative. The Geographic Information System (GIS) was the tool used to represent this complexity. Results from this study revealed several interventions made to 'neighborhood marina.' The interventions were strategic scenarios to preserve the water landscape, create affordable leisure, connect the Dauphin Island Parkway to the water, preserve all the environmental layers, and add value to the neighborhoods of the Peninsula.

Keywords: community outreach, education, historic preservation, peninsula

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2061 Investigation of the Usability of Biochars Obtained from Olive Pomace and Smashed Olive Seeds as Additives for Bituminous Binders

Authors: Muhammed Ertugrul Celoglu, Beyza Furtana, Mehmet Yilmaz, Baha Vural Kok

Abstract:

Biomass, which is considered to be one of the largest renewable energy sources in the world, has a potential to be utilized as a bitumen additive after it is processed by a wide variety of thermochemical methods. Furthermore, biomasses are renewable in short amounts of time, and they possess a hydrocarbon structure. These characteristics of biomass promote their usability as additives. One of the most common ways to create materials with significant economic values from biomasses is the processes of pyrolysis. Pyrolysis is defined as the process of an organic matter’s thermochemical degradation (carbonization) at a high temperature and in an anaerobic environment. The resultant liquid substance at the end of the pyrolysis is defined as bio-oil, whereas the resultant solid substance is defined as biochar. Olive pomace is the resultant mildly oily pulp with seeds after olive is pressed and its oil is extracted. It is a significant source of biomass as the waste of olive oil factories. Because olive pomace is waste material, it could create problems just as other waste unless there are appropriate and acceptable areas of utilization. The waste material, which is generated in large amounts, is generally used as fuel and fertilizer. Generally, additive materials are used in order to improve the properties of bituminous binders, and these are usually expensive materials, which are produced chemically. The aim of this study is to investigate the usability of biochars obtained after subjecting olive pomace and smashed olive seeds, which are considered as waste materials, to pyrolysis as additives in bitumen modification. In this way, various ways of use will be provided for waste material, providing both economic and environmental benefits. In this study, olive pomace and smashed olive seeds were used as sources of biomass. Initially, both materials were ground and processed through a No.50 sieve. Both of the sieved materials were subjected to pyrolysis (carbonization) at 400 ℃. Following the process of pyrolysis, bio-oil and biochar were obtained. The obtained biochars were added to B160/220 grade pure bitumen at 10% and 15% rates and modified bitumens were obtained by mixing them in high shear mixtures at 180 ℃ for 1 hour at 2000 rpm. Pure bitumen and four different types of bitumen obtained as a result of the modifications were tested with penetration, softening point, rotational viscometer, and dynamic shear rheometer, evaluating the effects of additives and the ratios of additives. According to the test results obtained, both biochar modifications at both ratios provided improvements in the performance of pure bitumen. In the comparison of the test results of the binders modified with the biochars of olive pomace and smashed olive seed, it was revealed that there was no notable difference in their performances.

Keywords: bituminous binders, biochar, biomass, olive pomace, pomace, pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2060 The Influence of Basalt and Steel Fibers on the Flexural Behavior of RC Beams

Authors: Yasmin Z. Murad, Haneen M. Abdl-Jabbar

Abstract:

An experimental program is conducted in this research to investigate the influence of basalt fibers and steel fibers on the flexural behavior of RC beams. Reinforced concrete beams are constructed using steel fiber concrete and basalt fiber concrete. Steel and basalt fibers are included in a percentage of 15% and 2.5% of the total cement weight, respectively. Test results have shown that basalt fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 30% and the maximum deflection to almost 2.4 times that measured in the control specimen. It has also shown that steel fibers have increased the load carrying capacity of the beams up to 47% and the ultimate deflection is almost duplicated compared to the control beam. Steel and basalt fibers have increased the ductility of the reinforced concrete beams.

Keywords: basalt fiber, steel fiber, reinforced concrete beams, flexural behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2059 Evaluations of 3D Concrete Printing Produced in the Environment of United Arab Emirates

Authors: Adil K. Tamimi, Tarig Ali, Rawan Anoohi, Ahmed Rajput, Kaltham Alkamali

Abstract:

3D concrete printing is one of the most innovative and modern techniques in the field of construction that achieved several milestones in that field for the following advantages: saving project’s time, ability to execute complicated shapes, reduce waste and low cost. However, the concept of 3D printing in UAE is relatively new where construction teams, including clients, consultants, and contractors, do not have the required knowledge and experience in the field. This is the most significant obstacle for the construction parties, which make them refrained from using 3D concrete printing compared to conventional concreting methods. This study shows the historical development of the 3D concrete printing, its advantages, and the challenges facing this innovation. Concrete mixes and materials have been proposed and evaluated to select the best combination for successful 3D concrete printing. The main characteristics of the 3D concrete printing in the fresh and hardened states are considered, such as slump test, flow table, compressive strength, tensile, and flexural strengths. There is need to assess the structural stability of the 3D concrete by testing the bond between interlayers of the concrete.  

Keywords: 3D printing, workability, compressive strength, robots, dimensions

Procedia PDF Downloads 3
2058 Studying the Effect of Hydrocarbon Solutions on the Properties of Epoxy Polymer Concrete

Authors: Mustafa Hasan Omar

Abstract:

The destruction effect of hydrocarbon solutions on concrete besides its high permeability have led researchers to try to improve the performance of concrete exposed to these solutions, hence improving the durability and usability of oil concrete structures. Recently, polymer concrete is considered one of the most important types of concrete, and its behavior after exposure to oil products is still unknown. In the present work, an experimental study has been carried out, in which the prepared epoxy polymer concrete immersed in different types of hydrocarbon exposure solutions (gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil) for 120 days and compared with the reference concrete left in the air. The results for outdoor specimens indicate that the mechanical properties are increased after 120 days, but the specimens that were immersed in gasoline, kerosene, and gas oil for the same period show a reduction in compressive strength by (-21%, -27% and -23%), whereas in splitting tensile strength by (-19%, -24% and -20%) respectively. The reductions in ultrasonic pulse velocity for cubic specimens are (-17%, -22% and -19%) and in cylindrical specimens are (-20%, -25% and -22%) respectively.

Keywords: epoxy resin, hydrocarbon solutions, mechanical properties, polymer concrete, ultrasonic pulse velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
2057 Total Life Cycle Cost and Life Cycle Assessment of Mass Timber Buildings in the US

Authors: Hongmei Gu, Shaobo Liang, Richard Bergman

Abstract:

With current worldwide trend in designs to have net-zero emission buildings to mitigate climate change, widespread use of mass timber products, such as Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), or Nail Laminated Timber (NLT) or Dowel Laminated Timber (DLT) in buildings have been proposed as one approach in reducing Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. Consequentially, mass timber building designs are being adopted more and more by architectures in North America, especially for mid- to high-rise buildings where concrete and steel buildings are currently prevalent, but traditional light-frame wood buildings are not. Wood buildings and their associated wood products have tended to have lower environmental impacts than competing energy-intensive materials. It is common practice to conduct life cycle assessments (LCAs) and life cycle cost analyses on buildings with traditional structural materials like concrete and steel in the building design process. Mass timber buildings with lower environmental impacts, especially GHG emissions, can contribute to the Net Zero-emission goal for the world-building sector. However, the economic impacts from CLT mass timber buildings still vary from the life-cycle cost perspective and environmental trade-offs associated with GHG emissions. This paper quantified the Total Life Cycle Cost and cradle-to-grave GHG emissions of a pre-designed CLT mass timber building and compared it to a functionally-equivalent concrete building. The Total life cycle Eco-cost-efficiency is defined in this study and calculated to discuss the trade-offs for the net-zero emission buildings in a holistic view for both environmental and economic impacts. Mass timber used in buildings for the United States is targeted to the materials from the nation’s sustainable managed forest in order to benefit both national and global environments and economies.

Keywords: GHG, economic impact, eco-cost-efficiency, total life-cycle costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 1