Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2562

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Civil and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2562 Cat Stool as an Additive Aggregate to Garden Bricks

Authors: Mary Joy B. Amoguis, Alonah Jane D. Labtic, Hyna Wary Namoca, Aira Jane V. Original


Animal waste has been rapidly increasing due to the growing animal population and the lack of innovative waste management practices. In a country like the Philippines, animal waste is rampant. This study aims to minimize animal waste by producing garden bricks using cat stool as an additive. The research study analyzes different levels of concentration to determine the most efficient combination in terms of compressive strength and durability of cat stool as an additive to garden bricks. The researcher's first collects the cat stool and incinerates the different concentrations. The first concentration is 25% cat stool and 75% cement mixture. The second concentration is 50% cat stool and 50% cement mixture. And the third concentration is 75% cat stool and 25% cement mixture. The researchers analyze the statistical data using one-way ANOVA, and the statistical analysis revealed a significant difference compared to the controlled variable. The research findings show an inversely proportional relationship: the higher the concentration of cat stool additive, the lower the compressive strength of the bricks, and the lower the concentration of cat stool additive, the higher the compressive strength of the bricks.

Keywords: cat stool, garden bricks, cement, concentrations, animal wastes, compressive strength, durability, one-way ANOVA, additive, incineration, aggregates, stray cats

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2561 Strength Properties of Cement Mortar with Dark Glass Waste Powder as a Partial Sand Replacement

Authors: Ng Wei Yan, Lim Jee Hock, Lee Foo Wei, Mo Kim Hung, Yip Chun Chieh


The burgeoning accumulation of glass waste in Malaysia, particularly from the food and beverage industry, has become a prominent environmental concern, with disposal sites reaching saturation. This study introduces a distinct approach to addressing the twin challenges of landfill scarcity and natural resource conservation by repurposing discarded glass bottle waste into a viable construction material. The research presents a comprehensive evaluation of the strength characteristics of cement mortar when dark glass waste powder is used as a partial sand replacement. The experimental investigation probes the density, flow spread diameter, and key strength parameters—including compressive, splitting tensile, and flexural strengths—of the modified cement mortar. Remarkably, results indicate that a full replacement of sand with glass waste powder significantly improves the material's strength attributes. A specific mixture with a cement/sand/water ratio of 1:5:1.24 was found to be optimal, yielding an impressive compressive strength of 7 MPa at the 28-day mark, accompanied by a favourable 200 mm spread diameter in flow table tests. The findings of this study underscore the dual benefits of utilizing glass waste powder in cement mortar: mitigating Malaysia's glass waste dilemma and enhancing the performance of construction materials such as bricks and concrete products. Consequently, the research validates the premise that increasing the incorporation of glass waste as a sand substitute promotes not only environmental sustainability but also material innovation in the construction industry.

Keywords: glass waste, strength properties, cement mortar, environmental friendly

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2560 Structural Performances of Rubberized Concrete Wall Panel Utilizing Fiber Cement Board as Skin Layer

Authors: Jason Ting Jing Cheng, Lee Foo Wei, Yew Ming Kun, Mo Kim Hung, Yip Chun Chieh


This research delves into the structural characteristics of distinct construction material, rubberized lightweight foam concrete (RLFC) wall panels, which have been developed as a sustainable alternative for the construction industry. These panels are engineered with a RLFC core, possessing a density of 1150 kg/m3, which is specifically formulated to bear structural loads. The core is enveloped with high-strength fiber cement boards, selected for their superior load-bearing capabilities, and enhanced flexural strength when compared to conventional concrete. A thin bed adhesive, known as TPS, is employed to create a robust bond between the RLFC core and the fiber cement cladding. This study underscores the potential of RLFC wall panels as a viable and eco-friendly option for modern building construction, offering a combination of structural efficiency and environmental benefits.

Keywords: structural performance, rubberized concrete wall panel, fiber cement board, insulation performance

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2559 Particle Size Dependent Enhancement of Compressive Strength and Carbonation Efficiency in Steel Slag Cementitious Composites

Authors: Jason Ting Jing Cheng, Lee Foo Wei, Yew Ming Kun, Chin Ren Jie, Yip Chun Chieh


The utilization of industrial by-products, such as steel slag in cementitious materials, not only mitigates environmental impact but also enhances material properties. This study investigates the dual influence of steel slag particle size on the compressive strength and carbonation efficiency of cementitious composites. Through a systematic experimental approach, steel slag particles were incorporated into cement at varying sizes, and the resulting composites were subjected to mechanical and carbonation tests. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) are conducted in this paper. The findings reveal a positive correlation between increased particle size and compressive strength, attributed to the improved interfacial transition zone and packing density. Conversely, smaller particle sizes exhibited enhanced carbonation efficiency, likely due to the increased surface area facilitating the carbonation reaction. The presence of higher silica and calcium content in finer particles was confirmed by EDX, which contributed to the accelerated carbonation process. This study underscores the importance of particle size optimization in designing sustainable cementitious materials with balanced mechanical performance and carbon sequestration potential. The insights gained from the advanced analytical techniques offer a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms at play, paving the way for the strategic use of steel slag in eco-friendly construction practices.

Keywords: steel slag, carbonation efficiency, particle size enhancement, compressive strength

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2558 Decision-Making Tool for Planning Construction of Infrastructure

Authors: Rolla Monib, Chris Goodier, Alistair Gibbs


The aim of this paper is to investigate the key drivers in planning the construction phase for infrastructure projects to reduce project delays. To achieve this aim, the research conducted three case studies using semi-structured and unstructured interviews (n=36). The results conclude that a lack of modularisation awareness is among the key factors attributed to project delays. The current emotive and ill-informed approach to decision-making, coupled with the lack of knowledge regarding appropriate construction method selection, prevents the potential benefits of modularisation from being fully realized. To assist with decision-making for the best construction method, the research presents project management tools to help decision-makers choose the most appropriate construction approach by optimizing the use of modularisation in EC. A decision-making checklist and diagram are presented in this paper. These checklist tools and diagrams assist the project team in determining the best construction method, taking into consideration the module type.

Keywords: planning construction, infrastructure projects, project management, decision-making

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2557 Evolution of the Skid-Resistance of Road Surfaces Based on Snow Removal Operations

Authors: Garance Liaboeuf, Alain Le Bot, Ali Daouadji, Antoine Martinet, Mohamed Bouteldja, Nicolas Grignard, Damien Pilet


As every French road operator, Autoroutes et Tunnel du Mont Blanc (ATMB) conducts annual inspections of its infrastructures. Significant loss of skid resistance has been observed on some sections of his network, sometimes on recent pavements. In the way of making the mechanisms and factors that can lead to this loss of grip more understandable, ATMB has launched a study aimed at identifying the causes and developing solutions to prevent this phenomenon. To quantify the deterioration of different road surfaces subjected to controlled scraping with steel blades of snow removal machines, a field campaign was conducted. These operations are carried out during the winter period according to a strict protocol. In order to correct the skid-resistance values, a control panel is set up. In this way, only the effect of the scraping is taken into account. It allows us to exclude the influence of the environment (temperature, humidity, etc.) and of the surface state on the skid resistance values measured during the different sessions. Skid measurements after eight years of scraping cycles showed a 7% to 13% decrease in microtexture and a 2% to 12% decrease in macrotexture adhesion. These reductions are attributed to the phenomenon of polishing road surfaces by using steel blades. Also, regeneration phenomena occur after a certain number of blades pass. Differences in steel scraper blade resistance appear related to the intrinsic properties of the aggregate used in the pavement formulation and its type. Finally, the results of this campaign will allow the determination of the resistance characteristics of the pavement damage by the steel blade of snow plows. An evolution law of the surface condition as a function of the scraping operations will also be developed from this study.

Keywords: pavement, skid, surface, snow plow

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2556 Utilizing Fiber-Based Modeling to Explore the Presence of a Soft Storey in Masonry-Infilled Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Akram Khelaifia, Salah Guettala, Nesreddine Djafar Henni, Rachid Chebili


Recent seismic events have underscored the significant influence of masonry infill walls on the resilience of structures. The irregular positioning of these walls exacerbates their adverse effects, resulting in substantial material and human losses. Research and post-earthquake evaluations emphasize the necessity of considering infill walls in both the design and assessment phases. This study delves into the presence of soft stories in reinforced concrete structures with infill walls. Employing an approximate method relying on pushover analysis results, fiber-section-based macro-modeling is utilized to simulate the behavior of infill walls. The findings shed light on the presence of soft first stories, revealing a notable 240% enhancement in resistance for weak column—strong beam-designed frames due to infill walls. Conversely, the effect is more moderate at 38% for strong column—weak beam-designed frames. Interestingly, the uniform distribution of infill walls throughout the structure's height does not influence soft-story emergence in the same seismic zone, irrespective of column-beam strength. In regions with low seismic intensity, infill walls dissipate energy, resulting in consistent seismic behavior regardless of column configuration. Despite column strength, structures with open-ground stories remain vulnerable to soft first-story emergence, underscoring the crucial role of infill walls in reinforced concrete structural design.

Keywords: masonry infill walls, soft Storey, pushover analysis, fiber section, macro-modeling

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2555 Optimum Structural Wall Distribution in Reinforced Concrete Buildings Subjected to Earthquake Excitations

Authors: Nesreddine Djafar Henni, Akram Khelaifia, Salah Guettala, Rachid Chebili


Reinforced concrete shear walls and vertical plate-like elements play a pivotal role in efficiently managing a building's response to seismic forces. This study investigates how the performance of reinforced concrete buildings equipped with shear walls featuring different shear wall-to-frame stiffness ratios aligns with the requirements stipulated in the Algerian seismic code RPA99v2003, particularly in high-seismicity regions. Seven distinct 3D finite element models are developed and evaluated through nonlinear static analysis. Engineering Demand Parameters (EDPs) such as lateral displacement, inter-story drift ratio, shear force, and bending moment along the building height are analyzed. The findings reveal two predominant categories of induced responses: force-based and displacement-based EDPs. Furthermore, as the shear wall-to-frame ratio increases, there is a concurrent increase in force-based EDPs and a decrease in displacement-based ones. Examining the distribution of shear walls from both force and displacement perspectives, model G with the highest stiffness ratio, concentrating stiffness at the building's center, intensifies induced forces. This configuration necessitates additional reinforcements, leading to a conservative design approach. Conversely, model C, with the lowest stiffness ratio, distributes stiffness towards the periphery, resulting in minimized induced shear forces and bending moments, representing an optimal scenario with maximal performance and minimal strength requirements.

Keywords: dual RC buildings, RC shear walls, modeling, static nonlinear pushover analysis, optimization, seismic performance

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2554 Effect of Project Control Practices on the Performance of Building Construction Companies in Uganda: A Case Study of Kampala City

Authors: Tukundane Hillary


This research paper analytically evaluates the project control practice levels used by the building construction companies within Kampala, Uganda. The research also assesses the outcome of project control practices on the productivity of the companies. The research was performed to ascertain the current control practices among 160 respondents from various construction companies registered with the Uganda Registration Services Bureau. This research used amalgamation from multiple literature to obtain the variables. The research adopts 34 standard control practices from four vital project control duties: planning, monitoring, analyzing, and reporting. These project control tasks were organized using mean response ratings grounded on their relevance to the construction companies. Results showed that evaluating performance with the use of curves (4.32), timely access to information and encouragement (4.55), report representation using quantitative tools 4.75, and cost value comparison application during analysis (4.76) were rated least among the control practices. On the other hand, the top project control practices included formulation of the project schedule (8.88), Project feasibility validation (8.86), Budgeting for each activity (8.84), Key project route definition (8.81), Team awareness of the budget (8.77), Setting realistic targets for projects (8.50) and Consultation from subcontractors (8.74). From the results obtained by the sample respondents specified, it can be concluded that planning is the most vital project control task practiced in the building construction industry in Uganda. In addition, this research ascertained a substantial relationship between project control practices and the performance of building construction companies. Accordingly, this research recommends that project control practices be effectively observed by both contracting and consulting companies to enhance their overall performance and governance.

Keywords: cost value, project control, cost control, time control, project performance, control practices

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2553 Assessment of the Potential of Fuel-derived Rice Husk Ash as Pozzolanic Material

Authors: Jesha Faye T. Librea, Leslie Joy L. Diaz


Fuel-derived rice husk ash (fRHA) is a waste material from industries employing rice husk as a biomass fuel which, on the downside, causes disposal and environmental problems. To mitigate this, the fRHA was evaluated for use in other applications such as a pozzolanic material for the construction industry. In this study, the assessment of the potential of fRHA as pozzolanic supplementary cementitious material was conducted by determining the chemical and physical properties of fRHA according to ASTM C618, evaluating the fineness of the material according to ASTM C430, and determining its pozzolanic activity using Luxan Method. The material was found to have a high amorphous silica content of around 95.82 % with traces of alkaline and carbon impurities. The retained carbon residue is 7.18 %, which is within the limit of the specifications for natural pozzolans indicated in ASTM C618. The fineness of the fRHA is at 88.88 % retained at a 45-micron sieve, which, however, exceeded the limit of 34 %. This large particle size distribution was found to affect the pozzolanic activity of the fRHA. This was shown in the Luxan test, where the fRHA was identified as non-pozzolan due to its low pozzolanic activity index of 0.262. Thus, further processing must be done to the fRHA to pass the required ASTM fineness, have a higher pozzolanic activity index, and fully qualify as a pozzolanic material.

Keywords: rice husk ash, pozzolanic, fuel-derived ash, supplementary cementitious material

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2552 Effect of Storey Number on Vierendeel Action in Progressive Collapse of RC Frames

Authors: Qian Huiya, Feng Lin


The progressive collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) structures will cause huge casualties and property losses. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the ability of structures against progressive collapse accurately. This paper numerically investigated the effect of storey number on the mechanism and quantitative contribution of the Vierendeel action (VA) in progressive collapse under corner column removal scenario. First, finite element (FE) models of multi-storey RC frame structures were developed using LS-DYNA. Then, the accuracy of the modeling technique was validated by test results conducted by the authors. Last, the validated FE models were applied to investigated the structural behavior of the RC frames with different storey numbers from one to six storeys. Results found the multi-storey substructure formed additional plastic hinges at the beam ends near the corner column in the second to top storeys, and at the lower end of the corner column in the first storey. The average ultimate resistance of each storey of the multi-storey substructures were increased by 14.0% to 18.5% compared with that of the single-storey substructure experiencing no VA. The contribution of VA to the ultimate resistance was decreased with the increase of the storey number.

Keywords: progressive collapse, reinforced concrete structure, storey number, Vierendeel action

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2551 Developing High-Definition Flood Inundation Maps (HD-Fims) Using Raster Adjustment with Scenario Profiles (RASPTM)

Authors: Robert Jacobsen


Flood inundation maps (FIMs) are an essential tool in communicating flood threat scenarios to the public as well as in floodplain governance. With an increasing demand for online raster FIMs, the FIM State-of-the-Practice (SOP) is rapidly advancing to meet the dual requirements for high-resolution and high-accuracy—or High-Definition. Importantly, today’s technology also enables the resolution of problems of local—neighborhood-scale—bias errors that often occur in FIMs, even with the use of SOP two-dimensional flood modeling. To facilitate the development of HD-FIMs, a new GIS method--Raster Adjustment with Scenario Profiles, RASPTM—is described for adjusting kernel raster FIMs to match refined scenario profiles. With RASPTM, flood professionals can prepare HD-FIMs for a wide range of scenarios with available kernel rasters, including kernel rasters prepared from vector FIMs. The paper provides detailed procedures for RASPTM, along with an example of applying RASPTM to prepare an HD-FIM for the August 2016 Flood in Louisiana using both an SOP kernel raster and a kernel raster derived from an older vector-based flood insurance rate map. The accuracy of the HD-FIMs achieved with the application of RASPTM to the two kernel rasters is evaluated.

Keywords: hydrology, mapping, high-definition, inundation

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2550 Feasibility of Building Structure Due to Decreased Concrete Quality of School Building in Banda Aceh City 19 Years after Tsunami

Authors: Rifqi Irvansyah, Abdullah Abdullah, Yunita Idris, Bunga Raihanda


Banda Aceh is particularly susceptible to heightened vulnerability during natural disasters due to its concentrated exposure to multi-hazard risks. Despite urgent priorities during the aftermath of natural disasters, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, several public facilities, including school buildings, sustained damage yet continued operations without adequate repairs, even though they were submerged by the tsunami. This research aims to evaluate the consequences of column damage induced by tsunami inundation on the structural integrity of buildings. The investigation employs interaction diagrams for columns to assess their capacity, taking into account factors such as rebar deterioration and corrosion. The analysis result shows that one-fourth of the K1 columns on the first floor fall outside of the column interaction diagram, indicating that the column structure cannot handle the load above it, as evidenced by the presence of Pu and Mu, which are greater than the column's design strength. This suggests that the five columns of K1 should be cause for concern, as the column's capacity is decreasing. These results indicate that the structure of the building cannot sustain the applied load because the column cross-section has deteriorated. In contrast, all K2 columns meet the design strength, indicating that the column structure can withstand the structural loads.

Keywords: tsunami inundation, column damage, column interaction diagram, mitigation effort

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2549 Advancing Phenological Understanding of Plants/Trees Through Phenocam Digital Time-lapse Images

Authors: Siddhartha Khare, Suyash Khare


Phenology, a crucial discipline in ecology, offers insights into the seasonal dynamics of organisms within natural ecosystems and the underlying environmental triggers. Leveraging the potent capabilities of digital repeat photography, PhenoCams capture invaluable data on the phenology of crops, plants, and trees. These cameras yield digital imagery in Red Green Blue (RGB) color channels, and some advanced systems even incorporate Near Infrared (NIR) bands. This study presents compelling case studies employing PhenoCam technology to unravel the phenology of black spruce trees. Through the analysis of RGB color channels, a range of essential color metrics including red chromatic coordinate (RCC), green chromatic coordinate (GCC), blue chromatic coordinate (BCC), vegetation contrast index (VCI), and excess green index (ExGI) are derived. These metrics illuminate variations in canopy color across seasons, shedding light on bud and leaf development. This, in turn, facilitates a deeper understanding of phenological events and aids in delineating the growth periods of trees and plants. The initial phase of this study addresses critical questions surrounding the fidelity of continuous canopy greenness records in representing bud developmental phases. Additionally, it discerns which color-based index most accurately tracks the seasonal variations in tree phenology within evergreen forest ecosystems. The subsequent section of this study delves into the transition dates of black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) phenology. This is achieved through a fortnightly comparative analysis of the MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the enhanced vegetation index (EVI). By employing PhenoCam technology and leveraging advanced color metrics, this study significantly advances our comprehension of black spruce tree phenology, offering valuable insights for ecological research and management.

Keywords: phenology, remote sensing, phenocam, color metrics, NDVI, GCC

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2548 Climate Change Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment in Coastal Areas of Sindh Pakistan and Its Impact on Water Resources

Authors: Falak Nawaz


The Climate Change Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment carried out in the coastal regions of Thatta and Malir districts underscore the potential risks and challenges associated with climate change affecting water resources. This study was conducted by the author using participatory rural appraisal tools, with a greater focus on conducting focus group discussions, direct observations, key informant interviews, and other PRA tools. The assessment delves into the specific impacts of climate change along the coastal belt, concentrating on aspects such as rising sea levels, depletion of freshwater, alterations in precipitation patterns, fluctuations in water table levels, and the intrusion of saltwater into rivers. These factors have significant consequences for the availability and quality of water resources in coastal areas, manifesting in frequent migration and alterations in agriculture-based livelihood practices. Furthermore, the assessment assesses the adaptive capacity of communities and organizations in these coastal regions to effectively confront and alleviate the effects of climate change on water resources. It considers various measures, including infrastructure enhancements, water management practices, adjustments in agricultural approaches, and disaster preparedness, aiming to bolster adaptive capacity. The study's findings emphasize the necessity for prompt actions to address identified vulnerabilities and fortify the adaptive capacities of Sindh's coastal areas. This calls for comprehensive strategies and policies promoting sustainable water resource management, integrating climate change considerations, and providing essential resources and support to vulnerable communities.

Keywords: climate, climate change adaptation, disaster reselience, vulnerability, capacity, assessment

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2547 Monitoring Land Cover/Land Use Change in Rupandehi District by Optimising Remotely Sensed Image

Authors: Hritik Bhattarai


Land use and land cover play a crucial role in preserving and managing Earth's natural resources. Various factors, such as economic, demographic, social, cultural, technological, and environmental processes, contribute to changes in land use and land cover (LULC). Rupandehi District is significantly influenced by a combination of driving forces, including its geographical location, rapid population growth, economic opportunities, globalization, tourism activities, and political events. Urbanization and urban growth in the region have been occurring in an unplanned manner, with internal migration and natural population growth being the primary contributors. Internal migration, particularly from neighboring districts in the higher and lower Himalayan regions, has been high, leading to increased population growth and density. This study utilizes geospatial technology, specifically geographic information system (GIS), to analyze and illustrate the land cover and land use changes in the Rupandehi district for the years 2009 and 2019, using freely available Landsat images. The identified land cover categories include built-up area, cropland, Das-Gaja, forest, grassland, other woodland, riverbed, and water. The statistical analysis of the data over the 10-year period (2009-2019) reveals significant percentage changes in LULC. Notably, Das-Gaja shows a minimal change of 99.9%, while water and forest exhibit increases of 34.5% and 98.6%, respectively. Riverbed and built-up areas experience changes of 95.3% and 39.6%, respectively. Cropland and grassland, however, show concerning decreases of 102.6% and 140.0%, respectively. Other woodland also indicates a change of 50.6%. The most noteworthy trends are the substantial increase in water areas and built-up areas, leading to the degradation of agricultural and open spaces. This emphasizes the urgent need for effective urban planning activities to ensure the development of a sustainable city. While Das-Gaja seems unaffected, the decreasing trends in cropland and grassland, accompanied by the increasing built-up areas, are unsatisfactory. It is imperative for relevant authorities to be aware of these trends and implement proactive measures for sustainable urban development.

Keywords: land use and land cover, geospatial, urbanization, geographic information system, sustainable urban development

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2546 A Knowledge-Based Development of Risk Management Approaches for Construction Projects

Authors: Masoud Ghahvechi Pour


Risk management is a systematic and regular process of identifying, analyzing and responding to risks throughout the project's life cycle in order to achieve the optimal level of elimination, reduction or control of risk. The purpose of project risk management is to increase the probability and effect of positive events and reduce the probability and effect of unpleasant events on the project. Risk management is one of the most fundamental parts of project management, so that unmanaged or untransmitted risks can be one of the primary factors of failure in a project. Effective risk management does not apply to risk regression, which is apparently the cheapest option of the activity. However, the main problem with this option is the economic sensitivity, because what is potentially profitable is by definition risky, and what does not pose a risk is economically interesting and does not bring tangible benefits. Therefore, in relation to the implemented project, effective risk management is finding a "middle ground" in its management, which includes, on the one hand, protection against risk from a negative direction by means of accurate identification and classification of risk, which leads to analysis And it becomes a comprehensive analysis. On the other hand, management using all mathematical and analytical tools should be based on checking the maximum benefits of these decisions. Detailed analysis, taking into account all aspects of the company, including stakeholder analysis, will allow us to add what will become tangible benefits for our project in the future to effective risk management. Identifying the risk of the project is based on the theory that which type of risk may affect the project, and also refers to specific parameters and estimating the probability of their occurrence in the project. These conditions can be divided into three groups: certainty, uncertainty, and risk, which in turn support three types of investment: risk preference, risk neutrality, specific risk deviation, and its measurement. The result of risk identification and project analysis is a list of events that indicate the cause and probability of an event, and a final assessment of its impact on the environment.

Keywords: risk, management, knowledge, risk management

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2545 Familiarity with Flood and Engineering Solutions to Control It

Authors: Hamid Fallah


Undoubtedly, flood is known as a natural disaster, and in practice, flood is considered the most terrible natural disaster in the world both in terms of loss of life and financial losses. From 1988 to 1997, about 390,000 people were killed by natural disasters in the world, 58% of which were related to floods, 26% due to earthquakes, and 16% due to storms and other disasters. The total damages in these 10 years were about 700 billion dollars, which were 33, 29, 28% related to floods, storms and earthquakes, respectively. In this regard, the worrisome point has been the increasing trend of flood deaths and damages in the world in recent decades. The increase in population and assets in flood plains, changes in hydro systems and the destructive effects of human activities have been the main reasons for this increase. During rain and snow, some of the water is absorbed by the soil and plants. A percentage evaporates and the rest flows and is called runoff. Floods occur when the soil and plants cannot absorb the rainfall, and as a result, the natural river channel does not have the capacity to pass the generated runoff. On average, almost 30% of precipitation is converted into runoff, which increases with snow melting. Floods that occur differently create an area called flood plain around the river. River floods are often caused by heavy rains, which in some cases are accompanied by snow melt. A flood that flows in a river without warning or with little warning is called a flash flood. The casualties of these rapid floods that occur in small watersheds are generally more than the casualties of large river floods. Coastal areas are also subject to flooding caused by waves caused by strong storms on the surface of the oceans or waves caused by underground earthquakes. Floods not only cause damage to property and endanger the lives of humans and animals, but also leave other effects. Runoff caused by heavy rains causes soil erosion in the upstream and sedimentation problems in the downstream. The habitats of fish and other animals are often destroyed by floods. The high speed of the current increases the damage. Long-term floods stop traffic and prevent drainage and economic use of land. The supports of bridges, river banks, sewage outlets and other structures are damaged, and there is a disruption in shipping and hydropower generation. The economic losses of floods in the world are estimated at tens of billions of dollars annually.

Keywords: flood, hydrological engineering, gis, dam, small hydropower, suitablity

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2544 Nickel Oxide-Nitrogen-Doped Carbon (Ni/NiOx/NC) Derived from Pyrolysis of 2-Aminoterephthalic Acid for Electrocatalytic Oxidation of Ammonia

Authors: Yu-Jen Shih, Juan-Zhang Lou


Nitrogenous compounds, such as NH4+/NH3 and NO3-, have become important contaminants in water resources. Excessive concentration of NH3 leads to eutrophication, which poses a threat to aquatic organisms in the environment. Electrochemical oxidation emerged as a promising water treatment technology, offering advantages such as simplicity, small-scale operation, and minimal reliance on additional chemicals. In this study, a nickel-based metal-organic framework (Ni-MOF) was synthesized using 2-amino terephthalic acid (BDC-NH2) and nickel nitrate. The Ni-MOF was further carbonized as derived nickel oxide and nitrogen-carbon composite, Ni/NiOx/NC. The nickel oxide within the 2D porous carbon texture served as active sites for ammonia oxidation. Results of characterization showed that the Ni-MOF was a hexagonal and flaky nanoparticle. With increasing carbonization temperature, the nickel ions in the organic framework re-crystallized as NiO clusters on the surfaces of the 2D carbon. The electrochemical surface area of Ni/NiOx/NC significantly increased as to improve the efficiency of ammonia oxidation. The phase transition of Ni(OH)2⇌NiOOH at around +0.8 V was the primary mediator of electron transfer. Batch electrolysis was conducted under constant current and constant potential modes. The electrolysis parameters included pyrolysis temperatures, pH, current density, initial feed concentration, and electrode potential. The constant current batch experiments indicated that via carbonization at 800 °C, Ni/NiOx/NC(800) was able to decrease the ammonium nitrogen of 50 mg-N/L to below 1 ppm within 4 hours at a current density of 3 mA/cm2 and pH 11 with negligible oxygenated nitrogen formation. The constant potential experiments confirmed that N2 nitrogen selectivity was enhanced up to 90% at +0.8 V.

Keywords: electrochemical oxidation, nickel oxyhydroxide, metal-organic framework, ammonium, nitrate

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2543 Sustainable Upgrade of Existing Heritage Infrastructure - Strengthening and Rehabilitation of The LH Ford Bridge

Authors: Vince Scolaro, Lakshman Prasad, Ted Polley, Sanjivan Deshpande


The LH Ford Bridge, built in the 1960s, comprises 28 spans, is 800m long and crosses the Macquarie River at Dubbo, NSW. The main bridge spans comprise three spans with a 63m center span (25m drop-in section) supported by halving joints from the main cantilevers and back spans of 28m. The main bridge spans were built using complex construction staging (the first of this type in NSW). They comprise twin precast boxes, in-situ reinforced concrete infills, and cantilevered outriggers stressed both longitudinally and transversely. Since construction, this bridge has undergone significantly increased design vehicle loads and showed signs of excessive shrinkage and creep leading to significant sagging of the centre span with evidence of previous failure and remediation of the halving joints. A comprehensive load rating assessment was undertaken taking account of the original complex construction staging. Deficiencies identified included inadequate capacity of the halving joints, failure of the bearings at the halving joints, inadequate shear capacity of the girder webs and inadequate girder flexural capacity to carry B-Double design vehicles. A unique strengthening system comprising two new piers (under each of the halving joints), new bearings and installation of external prestressing to the soffit of both drop-in-span and back spans was adopted. A portion of the dead load had to be transferred from the superstructure to the new piers via innovative soft/stiff bearing combinations to reduce new locked-in stresses resulting from the new pier supports. Significant temporary works comprised a precast concrete shell beam forming the pile cap/pier structure, addition of a temporary suspended scaffold (without overstressing the existing superstructure) and the installation of jacking stays for new bearing top and bottom plates. This paper presents how this existing historic and socially important bridge was strengthened and updated to increase its design life without the need for replacement.

Keywords: strengthening, creep, construction, box girder

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2542 The New Waterfront: Examining the Impact of Planning on Waterfront Regeneration in Da Nang

Authors: Ngoc Thao Linh Dang


Urban waterfront redevelopment is a global phenomenon, and thousands of schemes are being carried out in large metropoles, medium-sized cities, and even small towns all over the world. This opportunity brings the city back to the river and rediscovers waterfront revitalization as a unique opportunity for cities to reconnect with their unique historical and cultural image. The redevelopment can encourage economic investments, serve as a social platform for public interactions, and allow dwellers to express their rights to the city. Many coastal cities have effectively transformed the perception of their waterfront area through years of redevelopment initiatives, having been neglected for over a century. However, this process has never been easy due to the particular complexity of the space: local culture, history, and market-led development. Moreover, municipal governments work out the balance of diverse stakeholder interests, especially when repurposing high-profile and redundant spaces that form the core of urban economic investment while also accommodating the present and future generations in sustainable environments. Urban critics consistently grapple with the effectiveness of the planning process on the new waterfront, where public spaces are criticized for presenting a lack of opportunities for actual public participation due to privatization and authoritarian governance while no longer doing what they are ‘meant to’: all arise in reaction to the perceived failure of these places to meet expectations. The planning culture and the decision-making context determine the level of public involvement in the planning process; however, in the context of competing market forces and commercial interests dominating cities’ planning agendas, planning for public space in urban waterfronts tends to be for economic gain rather than supporting residents' social needs. These newly pleasing settings satisfied the cluster of middle-class individuals, new communities living along the waterfront, and tourists. A trend of public participatory exclusion is primarily determined by the nature of the planning being undertaken and the decision-making context in which it is embedded. Starting from this context, the research investigates the influence of planning on waterfront regeneration and the role of participation in this process. The research aims to look specifically at the characteristics of the planning process of the waterfront in Da Nang and its impact on the regeneration of the place to regain the city’s historical value and enhance local cultural identity and images. Vietnam runs a top-down planning system where municipal governments have control or power over what happens in their city following the approved planning from the national government. The community has never been excluded from development; however, their participation is still marginalized. In order to ensure social equality, a proposed approach called "bottom-up" should be considered and implemented alongside the traditional "top-down" process and provide a balance of perspectives, as it allows for the voices of the most underprivileged social group involved in a planning project to be heard, rather than ignored. The research provides new insights into the influence of the planning process on the waterfront regeneration in the context of Da Nang.

Keywords: planning process, public participation, top-down planning, waterfront regeneration

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2541 Bayesian Probabilistic Variable Elimination Approach for Schedule Risk Inference: Taking Building Projects as Example

Authors: Gebrehanana Tadesse Derbe


Construction project schedule (CPS) risks have remained a key concern in building projects. In this regard, a probabilistic graphical model based on a code of variable elimination inference algorithm was proposed to infer the effects of critical CPS risks over the Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) model. First, 73 CPS risks were identified through a literature review and expert interview. Second, data were collected from 64 respondents through a questionnaire survey and analyzed using a relative importance index to determine important CPS risks. Third, case studies were conducted to further verify the most significant CPS risks in real-life projects. Results of both survey and case studies indicated that CPS risks are recurring problems in construction projects. Fourth, based on the qualitative structure of BBN causal relationship of CPS risks and corresponding cumulative probability distributions, a code of VE inference algorithm was developed. By using it, dependencies between CPS risks were easily traced, and probabilities for states of schedule risks were inferred. Results show that it could be dynamically updated and utilized in practice through simple instructions.

Keywords: construction project schedule (CPS), CPS risks and uncertainties, probabilistic inference, variable elimination inference algorithm, bayesian belief network

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2540 Analyzing Tensile Strength in Different Composites at High Temperatures: Insights from 761 Tests

Authors: Milad Abolfazli, Milad Bazli


In this critical review, the topic of how composites maintain their tensile strength when exposed to elevated temperatures will be studied. A comprehensive database of 761 tests have been analyzed and closely examined to study the various factors that affect the strength retention. Conclusions are drawn from the collective research efforts of numerous scholars who have investigated this subject. Through the analysis of these tests, the relationships between the tensile strength retention and various effective factors are investigated. This review is meant to be a practical resource for researchers and engineers. It provides valuable information that can guide the development of composites tailored for high-temperature applications. By offering a deeper understanding of how composites behave in extreme heat, the paper contributes to the advancement of materials science and engineering.

Keywords: tesnile tests, high temperatures, FRP composites, mechanical perfomance

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2539 Evaluating Structural Crack Propagation Induced by Soundless Chemical Demolition Agent Using an Energy Release Rate Approach

Authors: Shyaka Eugene


The efficient and safe demolition of structures is a critical challenge in civil engineering and construction. This study focuses on the development of optimal demolition strategies by investigating the crack propagation behavior in beams induced by soundless cracking agents. It is commonly used in controlled demolition and has gained prominence due to its non-explosive and environmentally friendly nature. This research employs a comprehensive experimental and computational approach to analyze the crack initiation, propagation, and eventual failure in beams subjected to soundless cracking agents. Experimental testing involves the application of various cracking agents under controlled conditions to understand their effects on the structural integrity of beams. High-resolution imaging and strain measurements are used to capture the crack propagation process. In parallel, numerical simulations are conducted using advanced finite element analysis (FEA) techniques to model crack propagation in beams, considering various parameters such as cracking agent composition, loading conditions, and beam properties. The FEA models are validated against experimental results, ensuring their accuracy in predicting crack propagation patterns. The findings of this study provide valuable insights into optimizing demolition strategies, allowing engineers and demolition experts to make informed decisions regarding the selection of cracking agents, their application techniques, and structural reinforcement methods. Ultimately, this research contributes to enhancing the safety, efficiency, and sustainability of demolition practices in the construction industry, reducing environmental impact and ensuring the protection of adjacent structures and the surrounding environment.

Keywords: expansion pressure, energy release rate, soundless chemical demolition agent, crack propagation

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2538 Crack Propagation in Concrete Gravity Dam

Authors: Faramarz Khoshnoudian


A seismic stability assessment of the concrete gravity dam was performed. Initially (Phase 1), a linear response spectrum analysis was performed to verify the potential for crack formation. The result shows the possibility of developing cracks in the upstream face of the dam close to the lowest gallery, which were sufficiently long that the dam would not be stable following the earthquake. The results show the dam has potentially inadequate seismic and post-earthquake resistance and recommended an update of the stability analysis.

Keywords: crack propgation, concrete gravity dam, seismic, assesment

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2537 Microplastics Accumulation and Abundance Standardization for Fluvial Sediments: Case Study for the Tena River

Authors: Mishell E. Cabrera, Bryan G. Valencia, Anderson I. Guamán


Human dependence on plastic products has led to global pollution, with plastic particles ranging in size from 0.001 to 5 millimeters, which are called microplastics (hereafter, MPs). The abundance of microplastics is used as an indicator of pollution. However, reports of pollution (abundance of MPs) in river sediments do not consider that the accumulation of sediments and MPs depends on the energy of the river. That is, the abundance of microplastics will be underestimated if the sediments analyzed come from places where the river flows with a lot of energy, and the abundance will be overestimated if the sediment analyzed comes from places where the river flows with less energy. This bias can generate an error greater than 300% of the MPs value reported for the same river and should increase when comparisons are made between 2 rivers with different characteristics. Sections where the river flows with higher energy allow sands to be deposited and limit the accumulation of MPs, while sections, where the same river has lower energy, allow fine sediments such as clays and silts to be deposited and should facilitate the accumulation of MPs particles. That is, the abundance of MPs in the same river is underrepresented when the sediment analyzed is sand, and the abundance of MPs is overrepresented if the sediment analyzed is silt or clay. The present investigation establishes a protocol aimed at incorporating sample granulometry to calibrate MPs quantification and eliminate over- or under-representation bias (hereafter granulometric bias). A total of 30 samples were collected by taking five samples within six work zones. The slope of the sampling points was less than 8 degrees, referred to as low slope areas, according to the Van Zuidam slope classification. During sampling, blanks were used to estimate possible contamination by MPs during sampling. Samples were dried at 60 degrees Celsius for three days. A flotation technique was employed to isolate the MPs using sodium metatungstate with a density of 2 gm/l. For organic matter digestion, 30% hydrogen peroxide and Fenton were used at a ratio of 6:1 for 24 hours. The samples were stained with rose bengal at a concentration of 200 mg/L and were subsequently dried in an oven at 60 degrees Celsius for 1 hour to be identified and photographed in a stereomicroscope with the following conditions: Eyepiece magnification: 10x, Zoom magnification (zoom knob): 4x, Objective lens magnification: 0.35x for analysis in ImageJ. A total of 630 fibers of MPs were identified, mainly red, black, blue, and transparent colors, with an overall average length of 474,310 µm and an overall median length of 368,474 µm. The particle size of the 30 samples was calculated using 100 g per sample using sieves with the following apertures: 2 mm, 1 mm, 500 µm, 250 µm, 125 µm and 0.63 µm. This sieving allowed a visual evaluation and a more precise quantification of the microplastics present. At the same time, the weight of sediment in each fraction was calculated, revealing an evident magnitude: as the presence of sediment in the < 63 µm fraction increases, a significant increase in the number of MPs particles is observed.

Keywords: microplastics, pollution, sediments, Tena River

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2536 Eco-City Planning and Urban Design in Lagos, Nigeria: Recent Innovations, Trends, Concerns, Challenges, and Solutions

Authors: Dahunsi Michael Oluseyi


This paper aims to extensively examine eco-city planning and urban design in Lagos, Nigeria. It will delve into the city's developments, challenges, and potential solutions to offer insights for sustainable urban growth within the rapidly expanding urban landscape. The research will scrutinize recent innovations, emerging trends, and practical remedies to promote ecological sustainability within an urban framework. It will encompass a more in-depth review of current literature, case studies, and qualitative analyses, thereby augmenting the depth and breadth of the research. The objectives are to assess the current eco-city planning initiatives and urban design trends in Lagos, Nigeria, considering the city's unique characteristics and challenges. To identify and analyze the challenges encountered during the implementation of eco-friendly urban developments in Lagos, to explore and evaluate the innovative and practical solutions that are implemented to promote sustainability within the city, to provide comprehensive insights and actionable recommendations for policymakers, urban planners, and other stakeholders involved in sustainable urban development in Lagos, the rapid urbanization of Lagos has brought forth a myriad of challenges, including a burgeoning population, inadequate infrastructure, waste management issues, and environmental pollution. Eco-city planning has emerged as a promising approach to addressing these obstacles, striving to create urban spaces that are more habitable, resource-efficient, and environmentally friendly. This research holds substantial importance in exploring the application of eco-city planning principles within a megacity like Lagos. Analyzing recent innovations, trends, concerns, challenges, and solutions provides invaluable insights for policymakers, urban planners, and stakeholders dedicated to fostering sustainable urban development. The methodologies employed in this research are structured to embrace a multifaceted and intricate approach, aiming to facilitate a comprehensive understanding of the complexities inherent in eco-city planning and urban design in Lagos, Nigeria. This methodological framework is designed to encompass various diverse strategies and analytical tools to effectively capture the multidimensional aspects of sustainable urban development. It involves an in-depth analysis of academic publications, governmental reports, and urban planning documents to highlight global eco-city planning trends and gather Lagos-specific insights through a detailed exploration of eco-friendly initiatives and projects in Lagos to evaluate successes, challenges, and strategies for addressing environmental concerns by engaging key stakeholders, including urban planners, policymakers, environmental experts, and residents, to collect firsthand perspectives, concerns, and insights. Also, a thorough analysis will be carried out on data collected from literature reviews, case studies, interviews, and surveys used to extract prevalent patterns, challenges, and innovative solutions from diverse sources. This study aims to contribute to the discourse on sustainable urban development by offering a comprehensive analysis of eco-city planning in Lagos and providing practical recommendations for a more sustainable urban future.

Keywords: eco-friendly, innovation, sustainability, stakeholders

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2535 Equity And Inclusivity In Sustainable Urban Planning: Addressing Social Disparities In Eco-City Development

Authors: Olayeye Olubunmi Shola


Amidst increasing global environmental concerns, sustainable urban planning has emerged as a vital strategy in counteracting the negative impacts of urbanization on the environment. However, the emphasis on sustainability often disregards crucial elements of fairness and equal participation within urban settings. This abstract presents a comprehensive overview of the challenges, objectives, significance, and methodologies for addressing social inequalities in the development of eco-cities, with a specific focus on Abuja, Nigeria. Sustainable urban planning, particularly in the context of developing eco-cities, aims to construct cities prioritizing environmental sustainability and resilience. Nonetheless, a significant gap exists in addressing the enduring social disparities within these initiatives. Equitable distribution of resources, access to services, and social inclusivity are essential components that must be integrated into urban planning frameworks for cities that are genuinely sustainable and habitable. Abuja, the capital city of Nigeria, provides a distinctive case for examining the intersection of sustainability and social justice in urban planning. Despite the urban development, Abuja grapples with challenges such as socio-economic disparities, unequal access to essential services, and inadequate housing among its residents. Recognizing and redressing these disparities within the framework of eco-city development is critical for nurturing an inclusive and sustainable urban environment. The primary aim of this study is to scrutinize and pinpoint the social discrepancies within Abuja's initiatives for eco-city development. Specific objectives include: Evaluating the current socio-economic landscape of Abuja to identify disparities in resource, service, and infrastructure access. Comprehending the existing sustainable urban planning initiatives and their influence on social fairness. Suggesting strategies and recommendations to improve fairness and inclusivity within Abuja's plans for eco-city development. This research holds substantial importance for urban planning practices and policy formulation, not only in Abuja but also on a global scale. By highlighting the crucial role of social equity and inclusivity in the development of eco-cities, this study aims to provide insights that can steer more comprehensive, people-centered urban planning practices. Addressing social disparities within sustainability initiatives is crucial for achieving genuinely sustainable and fair urban spaces. The study will employ qualitative and quantitative methodologies. Data collection will involve surveys, interviews, and observations to capture the diverse experiences and perspectives of various social groups within Abuja. Furthermore, quantitative data on infrastructure, service access, and socio-economic indicators will be collated from government reports, academic sources, and non-governmental organizations. Analytical tools such as Geographic Information Systems (GIS) will be utilized to map and visualize spatial disparities in resource allocation and service access. Comparative analyses and case studies of successful interventions in other cities will be conducted to derive applicable strategies for Abuja's context. In conclusion, this study aims to contribute to the discourse on sustainable urban planning by advocating for equity and inclusivity in the development of eco-cities. By centering on Abuja as a case study, it aims to provide practical insights and solutions for the creation of more fair and sustainable urban environments.

Keywords: fairness, sustainability, geographical information system, equity

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2534 Investigating the Effect of the Shape of the Side Supports of the Gates of the Gotvand Reservoir Dam (from the Peak Overflows) on the Narrowing Coefficients

Authors: M. Abbasi


A spillway structure is used to pass excess water and floods from upstream or upstream to downstream or tributary. The spillway is considered one of the most key members of the dam, and the failure of many dams is attributed to the inefficiency of their spillway. Weirs should be selected as strong, reliable and high-performance structures, and weirs should be ready for use in all conditions and able to drain the flood so that we do not witness many casualties and financial losses when a flood occurs. The purpose of this study is to simulate the flow pattern passing over the peak spillway in order to optimize and adjust the height of the spillway walls. In this research, the effect of the shape of the side wings on the flow pattern over the peak spillways of the Gotvand reservoir dam was simulated and modelled using Flow3D software. In this research, side wings with rounded walls with six different approach angles were used. In addition, the different value of H/Hd was used to check the effect of the tank head. The results showed that with the constant H/Hd ratio and the increase of the approach angle of the side wing, the flow depth first decreases and then increases. These changes were the opposite regarding the depth average speed of the flow and the depth average concentration of the air entering the flow. At the same time, with the constant angle of approach of the side wing and with the increase of H/Hd ratio, the flow depth increases. In general, a correct understanding of the operation of overflows and a correct design can significantly reduce construction costs and solve flooding problems.

Keywords: effect of the shape, gotvand reservoir dam, narrowing coefficients, supports of the gates

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2533 Modeling and Analysis Of Occupant Behavior On Heating And Air Conditioning Systems In A Higher Education And Vocational Training Building In A Mediterranean Climate

Authors: Abderrahmane Soufi


The building sector is the largest consumer of energy in France, accounting for 44% of French consumption. To reduce energy consumption and improve energy efficiency, France implemented an energy transition law targeting 40% energy savings by 2030 in the tertiary building sector. Building simulation tools are used to predict the energy performance of buildings but the reliability of these tools is hampered by discrepancies between the real and simulated energy performance of a building. This performance gap lies in the simplified assumptions of certain factors, such as the behavior of occupants on air conditioning and heating, which is considered deterministic when setting a fixed operating schedule and a fixed interior comfort temperature. However, the behavior of occupants on air conditioning and heating is stochastic, diverse, and complex because it can be affected by many factors. Probabilistic models are an alternative to deterministic models. These models are usually derived from statistical data and express occupant behavior by assuming a probabilistic relationship to one or more variables. In the literature, logistic regression has been used to model the behavior of occupants with regard to heating and air conditioning systems by considering univariate logistic models in residential buildings; however, few studies have developed multivariate models for higher education and vocational training buildings in a Mediterranean climate. Therefore, in this study, occupant behavior on heating and air conditioning systems was modeled using logistic regression. Occupant behavior related to the turn-on heating and air conditioning systems was studied through experimental measurements collected over a period of one year (June 2023–June 2024) in three classrooms occupied by several groups of students in engineering schools and professional training. Instrumentation was provided to collect indoor temperature and indoor relative humidity in 10-min intervals. Furthermore, the state of the heating/air conditioning system (off or on) and the set point were determined. The outdoor air temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed were collected as weather data. The number of occupants, age, and sex were also considered. Logistic regression was used for modeling an occupant turning on the heating and air conditioning systems. The results yielded a proposed model that can be used in building simulation tools to predict the energy performance of teaching buildings. Based on the first months (summer and early autumn) of the investigations, the results illustrate that the occupant behavior of the air conditioning systems is affected by the indoor relative humidity and temperature in June, July, and August and by the indoor relative humidity, temperature, and number of occupants in September and October. Occupant behavior was analyzed monthly, and univariate and multivariate models were developed.

Keywords: occupant behavior, logistic regression, behavior model, mediterranean climate, air conditioning, heating

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