Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2186

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Civil and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2186 Meanings and Construction: Evolution of Inheriting the Traditions in Chinese Modern Architecture in the 1980s

Authors: Wei Wang

Abstract:

Queli Hotel, Xixi Scenery Spot Reception and Square Pagoda Garden are three important landmarks of localized Chinese modern architecture (LCMA) in the architectural design context of 'Inheriting the Traditions in Modern Architecture' in the 1980s. As the most representative cases of LCMA in the 1980s, they interpret the traditions of Chinese garden and imperial roof from different perspectives. Based on the research text, conceptual drawings, construction drawings, and site investigation, this paper extracts two groups of prominent contradictions in practice ('Pattern-Material-Structure' and 'Type-Topography-Body') for keyword-based analysis to compare and examine different choices and balances by architects. Based on this, this paper attempts to indicate that the ideographic form derived from macro-narrative and the innovative investigation in construction is a pair of inevitable contradictions that must be handled and coordinated in these practices. The collision of the contradictions under specific conditions results in three cognitive attitudes and practical strategies towards traditions: formal symbolism, spatial abstraction, and construction-based narrative. These differentiated thoughts about localization and Chineseness reflect various professional ideologies and value standpoints in the transition of Chinese Architecture discipline in the 1980s. The great variety in this particular circumstance suggests tremendous potential and possibilities for the future LCMA.

Keywords: Construction, meaning, tradition, Queli Hotel, square pagoda garden, Xixi scenery spot reception

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2185 Moisture Impact on the Utilization of Recycled Concrete Fine Aggregate to Produce Mortar

Authors: Rahimullah Habibzai

Abstract:

To achieve a sustainable concrete industry, reduce exploitation of the natural aggregate resources, and mitigate waste concrete environmental burden, one way is to use recycled concrete aggregate. The utilization of low-quality fine aggregate inclusively recycled concrete sand that is produced from crushing waste concrete recently has become a popular and challenging topic among researchers nowadays. This study provides a scientific base for promoting the application of concrete waste as fine aggregate in producing concrete by conducting a comprehensive laboratory program. The mechanical properties of mortar made from recycled concrete fine aggregate (RCFA), that is produced by pulse power crushing concrete waste are satisfactory and capable of being utilized in the construction industry. A better treatment of RCFA particles and enhancing its quality will make it possible to be utilized in producing structural concrete. Pulse power discharge technology is proposed in this research to produce RCFA, which is a more effective and promising technique compared to other recycling methods to generate medium to high-quality recycled concrete fine aggregate with a reduced amount of powder, mitigate the environmental burden, and save more space.

Keywords: Construction and demolition waste, concrete waste recycle fine aggregate, pulse power discharge

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2184 English Title Adaptive Comparison of Outdoor and Indoor Social Security in Damaged Area and New Residential Complex with Two-Way Anova Case Study: Qasr-Al-Dasht and Moalem District in Shiraz

Authors: Homa Parmoon, Narges Hamzeh

Abstract:

Since today's urban spaces are disposed towards behavioral disorders and lack of security, both qualitative and quantitative aspects of security especially social and physical security are considered as basic necessities in urban planning. This research focused on the variable of place of living, examined social security in the old and new textures, and investigated the amount of residents’ social security in Shiraz including safety, financial, emotional and moral security. To this end, two neighborhoods in region 1 of Shiraz- Qasr-Al-Dasht (old texture) and Moalem (new texture)- were examined through a comparative study of 60 samples lived in two neighborhoods. Data were gathered through two-way ANOVA between the variables of residential context and internal and external security. This analysis represents the significance or insignificance of the model as well as the individual effects of each independent variable on the dependent variable. It was tested by ANCOVA and F-test. Research findings indicated place of living has a significant effect on families’ social security. The safety, financial, emotional, and moral security also represented a great impact on social security. As a result, it can be concluded that social security changes with the changing in place of living.

Keywords: Social Security, Shiraz, two-way ANOVA, damaged area

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2183 BIM Application Research Based on the Main Entrance and Garden Area Project of Shanghai Disneyland

Authors: Ying Yuken, Zhang Qilin, Xiao Ben, Pengfei Wang

Abstract:

Based on the main entrance and garden area (ME&G) project of Shanghai Disneyland, this paper introduces the application of BIM technology in this kind of low-rise comprehensive building with complex facade system, electromechanical system and decoration system. BIM technology is applied to the whole process of design, construction and completion of the whole project. With the construction of BIM application framework of the whole project, the key points of BIM modeling methods of different systems and the integration and coordination of BIM models are elaborated in detail. The specific application methods of BIM technology in similar complex low-rise building projects are sorted out. Finally, the paper summarizes the benefits of BIM technology application, and puts forward some suggestions for BIM management mode and practical application of similar projects in the future.

Keywords: bim, complex low-rise building, BIM modeling, model integration and coordination

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2182 The Utilization of Recycled Construction and Demolition Waste Aggregate in Asphaltic Concrete

Authors: Inas Kamel, Noor Z. Habib

Abstract:

Utilizing construction and demolition wastes in hotmix asphalt (HMA) pavement construction can reduce the adverse environmental effect of its inadequate disposal and reduce the pressure of extracting and processing mineral aggregates (MA). This study aims to examine the viability of replacing MA by recycled construction and demolition waste aggregates (RCDWA) in the wearing course of asphaltic concrete (AC) pavements without compromising its loadbearing capacity. The Marshall Method was used to evaluate the performance of AC wearing course specimens by replacing MA by 10%, 20% and 30% RCDWA. Grade 60/70 bitumen was used in the range 3.0-5.5%, with 05% increments, to generate the optimum bitumen content (OBC). From the volumetric analysis and test property curves, the mixture containing 20% RCDWA was chosen as the preferred mix at 5.1% OBC. It possessed a 10% increase in Marshall Stability compared to the reference specimen, containing 100% MA, and a 6% increase in Marshall flow.

Keywords: aggregate, Marshall Method, asphaltic concrete, optimum bitumen content, recycled construction and demolition waste

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2181 Seismic Fragility Assessment of Strongback Steel Braced Frames Subjected to Near-Field Earthquakes

Authors: Mohammadreza Salek Faramarzi, Touraj Taghikhany

Abstract:

In this paper, seismic fragility assessment of a recently developed hybrid structural system, known as the strongback system (SBS) is investigated. In this system, to mitigate the occurrence of the soft-story mechanism and improve the distribution of story drifts over the height of the structure, an elastic vertical truss is formed. The strengthened members of the braced span are designed to remain substantially elastic during levels of excitation where soft-story mechanisms are likely to occur and impose a nearly uniform story drift distribution. Due to the distinctive characteristics of near-field ground motions, it seems to be necessary to study the effect of these records on seismic performance of the SBS. To this end, a set of 56 near-field ground motion records suggested by FEMA P695 methodology is used. For fragility assessment, nonlinear dynamic analyses are carried out in OpenSEES based on the recommended procedure in HAZUS technical manual. Four damage states including slight, moderate, extensive, and complete damage (collapse) are considered. To evaluate each damage state, inter-story drift ratio and floor acceleration are implemented as engineering demand parameters. Further, to extend the evaluation of the collapse state of the system, a different collapse criterion suggested in FEMA P695 is applied. It is concluded that SBS can significantly increase the collapse capacity and consequently decrease the collapse risk of the structure during its life time. Comparing the observing mean annual frequency (MAF) of exceedance of each damage state against the allowable values presented in performance-based design methods, it is found that using the elastic vertical truss, improves the structural response effectively.

Keywords: Uncertainty, IDA, near-fault, probabilistic performance assessment, seismic fragility, strongback system

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2180 A Practical Construction Technique to Enhance the Performance of Rock Bolts in Tunnels

Authors: Ojas Chaudhari, Ali Nejad Ghafar, Giedrius Zirgulis, Marjan Mousavi, Tommy Ellison, Sandra Pousette, Patrick Fontana

Abstract:

In Swedish tunnel construction, a critical issue that has been repeatedly acknowledged is corrosion and, consequently, failure of the rock bolts in rock support systems. The defective installation of rock bolts results in the formation of cavities in the cement mortar that is regularly used to fill the area under the dome plates. These voids allow for water-ingress to the rock bolt assembly, which results in corrosion of rock bolt components and eventually failure. In addition, the current installation technique consists of several manual steps with intense labor works that are usually done in uncomfortable and exhausting conditions, e.g., under the roof of the tunnels. Such intense tasks also lead to a considerable waste of materials and execution errors. Moreover, adequate quality control of the execution is hardly possible with the current technique. To overcome these issues, a non-shrinking/expansive cement-based mortar filled in the paper packaging has been developed in this study, which properly fills the area under the dome plates without or with the least remaining cavities, ultimately that diminishes the potential of corrosion. This article summarizes the development process and the experimental evaluation of this innovative technique for the installation of rock bolts. In the development process, the cementitious mortar was first developed using specific cement and shrinkage reducing/expansive additives. The mechanical and flow properties of the mortar were then evaluated using compressive strength, density, and slump flow measurement methods. In addition, isothermal calorimetry and shrinkage/expansion measurements were used to elucidate the hydration and durability attributes of the mortar. After obtaining the desired properties in both fresh and hardened conditions, the developed dry mortar was filled in specific permeable paper packaging and then submerged in a water bath for specific intervals before the installation. The tests were enhanced progressively by optimizing different parameters such as shape and size of the packaging, characteristics of the paper used, immersion time in the water, and even some minor characteristics of the mortar. Finally, the developed prototype was tested in a lab-scale rock bolt assembly with various angles to analyze the efficiency of the method in real life scenario. The results showed that the technique used improves the performance of the rock bolts by reducing the material wastage, improving environmental performance, facilitating and accelerating the labor works, and finally enhancing the durability of the whole system. Accordingly, this approach provides an efficient alternative for the traditional way of tunnel bolt installation with considerable advantages for the Swedish tunneling industry.

Keywords: Product Development, Tunnel, mortar, rock bolt, innovative technique

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2179 A Study on Golden Ratio (ф) and Its Implications on Seismic Design Using ETABS

Authors: Vishal A. S. Salelkar, Sumitra S. Kandolkar

Abstract:

Golden ratio (ф) or Golden mean or Golden section, as it is often referred to, is a proportion or a mean, which is often used by architects while conceiving the aesthetics of a structure. Golden Ratio (ф) is an irrational number that can be roughly rounded to 1.618 and is derived out of quadratic equation x2-x-1=0. The use of Golden Ratio (ф) can be observed throughout history, as far as ancient Egyptians, which later peaked during the Greek golden age. The use of this design technique is very much prevalent. At present, architects around the world prefer this as one of the primary techniques to decide aesthetics. In this study, an analysis has been performed to investigate whether the use of the golden ratio while planning a structure has any effects on the seismic behavior of the structure. The structure is modeled and analyzed on ETABS (by Computers and Structures, Inc.) for Seismic requirements equivalent to Zone III (Region: Goa-India) as per Indian Standard Code IS-1893. The results were compared to that of an identical structure modeled along the lines of normal design philosophy, not using the Golden Ratio tools. The results were then compared for Story Shear, Story Drift, and Story Displacement Readings. Improvement in performance, although slight, but was observed. Similar improvements were also observed in subsequent iterations, performed using time-acceleration data of previous major earthquakes matched to Zone III as per IS-1893.

Keywords: Seismic Design, Structural Behavior, golden ratio, ETABS

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2178 Determinants of Infrastructure Provision in Ghana

Authors: Clifford Kwakwa Amoah, De-Graft Owusu-Manu, Prince Antwi-Afari

Abstract:

Infrastructure is the lifeline for economic development of any country. Hence, obtaining infrastructure quality cannot be overemphasized. Nevertheless, challenges of infrastructure quality persist, and it is worse in developing countries despite the diverse study on the subject matter. Therefore, this study was formulated to identify the prevalent determinants of infrastructure quality using synthesis of extant literature (to identify key variables), and analysis of survey questionnaire of data collected by means of the inductive methodology approach, mean score ranking and descriptive statistics. The variables “partner with the private sector, growth stimulation and poverty reduction, and adherence to procurement core principles” were the most significant challenges that the government faces. Moreover, it would be of utmost concern to adopt some stringent measures to help improve and accelerate on the growth and development of the nation, thereby achieving the best quality required. This study is novel conducted to provide insight into some of the punitive measures, considered in ensuring that quality infrastructure is obtained in both developing (specifically) and developed economies. The research findings therefore provide some guidance for overcoming the accumulative challenges. Application of the stated findings will help bridge the gap of infrastructure challenges; this is because the study found strong empirical evidence that infrastructure plays a pivotal role in the productivity enhancement.

Keywords: Development, Challenges, Government, Economic growth, infrastructure quality

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2177 Methodology for Various Sand Cone Testing

Authors: Abel S. Huaynacho, Yoni D. Huaynacho

Abstract:

The improvement of procedure test ASTM D1556, plays an important role in the developing of testing in field to obtain a higher quality of data QA/QC. The traditional process takes a considerable amount of time for only one test. Even making various testing are tasks repeating and it takes a long time to obtain better results. Moreover, if the adequate tools the help these testing are not properly managed, the improvement in the development for various testing could be stooped. This paper presents an optimized process for various testing ASTM D1556 which uses an initial standard process to another one the uses a simpler and improved management tools.

Keywords: cone sand test, density bulk, ASTM D1556, QA/QC

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2176 Effect of Incineration Temperatures to Time on the Rice Husk Ash Silica Structure: A Comparative Study to the Literature with Experimental Work

Authors: Binyamien Rasoul, Friederike Gunzel, Imran Rafiq

Abstract:

Controlled burning of rice husk can produce amorphous rice husk ash (RHA) with high silica content which can significantly enhance the properties of concrete. This study has been undertaken to investigate the relationship between the incineration temperatures and time to produce RHA with ultimate reactivity. The rice husk samples were incinerated in an electrical muffle furnace at 350°C, 400°C, 425°C 450°C, 475°C, and 500°C for 60 and 90 minutes, respectively. The silica structure in the Rice Husk Ash (RHA) was determined using X-Ray diffraction analysis, while chemical properties obtained using X-Ray Fluorescence. The results show that RHA appeared to be totally amorphous when the husk incineration goes up to 425°C for 60 and even 90 minutes. However, with increased temperature to 450°C, 475°C and 500°C, traces of crystalline silica (quartz) were detected. However, cannot be taken into account as it does not effect on the ash structure. In conclusion, the result gives an idea of the temperature and the time required to produce ash from rice husk with totally amorphous form.

Keywords: X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray fluorescence, rice husk, rice husk ash, pozzolanic reactivity, burning temperature, electric muffle furnace, crystalline silica

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2175 Spatially Referenced Checklist Model Dedicated to Professional Actors for a Good Evaluation and Management of Networks

Authors: Abdessalam Hijab, Hafida Boulekbache, Eric Henry

Abstract:

The objective of this article is to explain the use of geographic information system (GIS) and information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the real-time processing and analysis of data on the status of an urban sanitation network by integrating professional actors in sanitation for sustainable management in urban areas. Indeed, it is a smart geo-collaboration based on the complementarity of ICTs and GIS. This multi-actor reflection was built with the objective of contributing to the development of complementary solutions to the existing technologies to better protect the urban environment, with the help of a checklist with the spatial reference "E-Géo-LD" dedicated to the "professional/professional" actors in sanitation, for intelligent monitoring of liquid sanitation networks in urban areas. In addition, this research provides a good understanding and assimilation of liquid sanitation schemes in the "Lamkansa" sampling area of the city of Casablanca, and spatially evaluates these schemes. Downstream, it represents a guide to assess the environmental impacts of the liquid sanitation scheme.

Keywords: Environment, ICT, GIS, spatial checklist, liquid sanitation

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2174 A Systematic Review on Development of a Cost Estimation Framework: A Case Study of Nigeria

Authors: Akilu Yunusa-Kaltungo, Babatunde Dosumu, Obuks Ejohwomu

Abstract:

Cost estimation in construction is often difficult, particularly when dealing with risks and uncertainties, which are inevitable and peculiar to developing countries like Nigeria. Direct consequences of these are major deviations in cost, duration, and quality. The fundamental aim of this study is to develop a framework for assessing the impacts of risk on cost estimation, which in turn causes variabilities between contract sum and final account. This is very important, as initial estimates given to clients should reflect the certain magnitude of consistency and accuracy, which the client builds other planning-related activities upon, and also enhance the capabilities of construction industry professionals by enabling better prediction of the final account from the contract sum. In achieving this, a systematic literature review was conducted with cost variability and construction projects as search string within three databases: Scopus, Web of science, and Ebsco (Business source premium), which are further analyzed and gap(s) in knowledge or research discovered. From the extensive review, it was found that factors causing deviation between final accounts and contract sum ranged between 1 and 45. Besides, it was discovered that a cost estimation framework similar to Building Cost Information Services (BCIS) is unavailable in Nigeria, which is a major reason why initial estimates are very often inconsistent, leading to project delay, abandonment, or determination at the expense of the huge sum of money invested. It was concluded that the development of a cost estimation framework that is adjudged an important tool in risk shedding rather than risk-sharing in project risk management would be a panacea to cost estimation problems, leading to cost variability in the Nigerian construction industry by the time this ongoing Ph.D. research is completed. It was recommended that practitioners in the construction industry should always take into account risk in order to facilitate the rapid development of the construction industry in Nigeria, which should give stakeholders a more in-depth understanding of the estimation effectiveness and efficiency to be adopted by stakeholders in both the private and public sectors.

Keywords: future studies, Construction Projects, Nigeria, cost variability

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2173 Assessing the Impact of Underground Cavities on Buildings with Stepped Foundations on Sloping Lands

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi

Abstract:

The use of sloping lands is increasing due to the reduction of suitable lands for the construction of buildings. In the design and construction of buildings on sloping lands, the foundation has special loading conditions that require the designer and executor to use the slopped foundation. The creation of underground cavities, including urban and subway tunnels, sewers, urban facilities, etc., inside the ground, causes the behavior of the foundation to be unknown. In the present study, using Abacus software, a 45-degree stepped foundation on the ground is designed. The foundations are placed on the ground in a cohesive (no-hole) manner with circular cavities that show the effect of increasing the cross-sectional area of ​​the underground cavities on the foundation's performance. The Kobe earthquake struck the foundation and ground for two seconds. The underground cavities have a circular cross-sectional area with a radius of 5 m, which is located at a depth of 22.54 m above the ground. The results showed that as the number of underground cavities increased, von Mises stress (in the vertical direction) increased. With the increase in the number of underground cavities, the plastic strain on the ground has increased. Also, with the increase in the number of underground cavities, the change in location and speed in the foundation has increased.

Keywords: Underground Excavations, Abaqus software, stepped foundation, sloping ground, Kobe earthquake

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2172 Assessing the Effect of Underground Tunnel Diameter on Structure-Foundation-Soil Performance under the Kobe Earthquake

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi

Abstract:

Today, developed and industrial cities have all kinds of sewage and water transfer canals, subway tunnels, infrastructure facilities, etc., which have caused underground cavities to be created under the buildings. The presence of these cavities causes behavioral changes in the structural behavior that must be fully evaluated. In the present study, using Abaqus finite element software, the effect of cavities with 0.5 and 1.5 meters in diameter at a depth of 2.5 meters from the earth's surface (with a circular cross-section) on the performance of the foundation and the ground (soil) has been evaluated. For this purpose, the Kobe earthquake was applied to the models for 10 seconds. Also, pore water pressure and weight were considered on the models to get complete results. The results showed that by creating and increasing the diameter of circular cavities in the soil, three indicators; 1) von Mises stress, 2) displacement and 3) plastic strain have had oscillating, ascending and ascending processes, respectively, which shows the relationship between increasing the diameter index of underground cavities and structural indicators of structure-foundation-soil.

Keywords: Underground Excavations, Abaqus software, foundation, time history analysis, Kobe earthquake, structural substrates

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2171 Evaluation and Comparison of Seismic Performance of Structural Trusses under Cyclic Loading with Finite Element Method

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi

Abstract:

The structure is made using different members and combining them with each other. These members are basically based on technical and engineering principles and are combined in different ways and have their own unique effects on the building. Trusses are one of the most common and important members of the structure, accounting for a large percentage of the power transmission structure in the building. Different types of trusses are based on structural needs and evaluating and making complete comparisons between them is one of the most important engineering analyses. In the present study, four types of trusses have been studied; 1) Hawe truss, 2) Pratt truss, 3) k truss, and 4) warren truss, under cyclic loading for 80 seconds. The trusses are modeled in 3d using st37 steel. The results showed that Hawe trusses had higher values ​​than all other trusses (k, Pratt and Warren) in all the studied indicators. Indicators examined in the study include; 1) von Mises stresses, 2) displacement, 3) support force, 4) velocity, 5) acceleration, 6) capacity (hysteresis curve) and 7) energy diagram. Pratt truss in indicators; Mises stress, displacement, energy have the least amount compared to other trusses. K truss in indicators; support force, speed and acceleration are the lowest compared to other trusses.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, cyclic loading, pratt truss, hawe truss, K truss, warren truss

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2170 Hip and Valley Support Location in Wood Framing

Authors: M. Ward, B. Hudson, P. Hajyalikhani, D. Boll, L. Boren, Z. Sparks

Abstract:

Wood Light frame construction is one of the most common types of construction methods for residential and light commercial building in North America and parts of Europe. The typical roof framing for wood framed building is sloped and consists of several structural members such as rafters, hips, and valleys which are connected to the ridge and ceiling joists. The common slopes for roofs are 3/12, 8/12, and 12/12. Wood framed residential roof failure is most commonly caused by wind damage in such buildings. In the recent study, one of the weaknesses of wood framed roofs is long unsupported structural member lengths, such as hips and valleys. The purpose of this research is to find the critical support location for long hips and valleys with different slopes. ForteWeb software is used to find the critical location. The analysis results demonstrating the maximum unbraced hip and valley length are from 8.5 to 10.25 ft. dependent on the slope and roof type.

Keywords: hip, wood frame, valley, stick framing

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2169 Comprehensive Evaluation of Thermal Environment and Its Countermeasures: A Case Study of Beijing

Authors: Yike Lamu, Jieyu Tang, Jialin Wu, Jianyun Huang

Abstract:

With the development of economy and science and technology, the urban heat island effect becomes more and more serious. Taking Beijing city as an example, this paper divides the value of each influence index of heat island intensity and establishes a mathematical model – neural network system based on the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation index of heat island effect. After data preprocessing, the algorithm of weight of each factor affecting heat island effect is generated, and the data of sex indexes affecting heat island intensity of Shenyang City and Shanghai City, Beijing, and Hangzhou City are input, and the result is automatically output by the neural network system. It is of practical significance to show the intensity of heat island effect by visual method, which is simple, intuitive and can be dynamically monitored.

Keywords: Neural Network, Visualization, comprehensive evaluation, heat island effect

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2168 Evaluation of Seismic Behavior of Steel Shear Wall with Opening with Hardener and Beam with Reduced Cross Section under Cycle Loading with Finite Element Analysis Method

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi

Abstract:

During an earthquake, the structure is subjected to seismic loads that cause tension in the members of the building. The use of energy dissipation elements in the structure reduces the percentage of seismic forces on the main members of the building (especially the columns). Steel plate shear wall, as one of the most widely used types of energy dissipation element, has evolved today, and regular drilling of its inner plate is one of the common cases. In the present study, using a finite element method, the shear wall of the steel plate is designed as a floor (with dimensions of 447 × 6/246 cm) with Abacus software and in three different modes on which a cyclic load has been applied. The steel shear wall has a horizontal element (beam) with a reduced beam section (RBS). The hole in the interior plate of the models is created in such a way that it has the process of increasing the area, which makes the effect of increasing the surface area of the hole on the seismic performance of the steel shear wall completely clear. In the end, it was found that with increasing the opening level in the steel shear wall (with reduced cross-section beam), total displacement and plastic strain indicators increased, structural capacity and total energy indicators decreased and the Mises Monson stress index did not change much.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Abaqus software, cyclic loading, steel plate shear wall with opening, reduced cross-section beam

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2167 Turbulent Flow Characteristics and Bed Morphology around Circular Bridge Pier

Authors: Pratik Acharya

Abstract:

Scour is the natural phenomenon brought about by erosive action of the flowing stream in alluvial channels. Frequent scouring around bridge piers may cause damage to the structures. In alluvial channels, a complex interaction between the streamflow and the bed particles results in scouring around piers. Thus, the study of characteristics of flow around piers can give sound knowledge about the scouring process. The present research has been done to investigate the turbulent flow characteristics around bridge piers and corresponding changes in bed morphology. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a tilting flume with a sand bed. The velocities around the pier are measured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Measurements show that at upstream of the pier velocity and Reynolds stresses are negative near the bed and near the free surface at downstream of the pier. At the downstream of the pier, Reynolds stresses changes rapidly due to the formation of wake vortices. Experimental results show that secondary currents are more predominant at the downstream of the pier. As the flowing stream hits the pier, the flow gets separated in the form of downflow along the face of the pier due to a strong pressure gradient and along the sides of the piers. Separation of flow around the pier leads to scour the bed material and develop the vortex. The downflow hits the bed and removes the bed material, which can be carried forward by the flow circulations along sides of the piers. Eroded bed material is deposited along the centerline at the rear side of the pier and produces hump in the downstream region. Initially, the rate of scouring is high and reduces gradually with increasing time. After a certain limit, equilibrium sets between the erosive capacity of the flowing stream and resistance to the motion by bed particles.

Keywords: velocity, pier, scour depth, acoustic doppler velocimeter, Reynolds stress

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2166 Assessing the Effect of the Position of the Cavities on the Inner Plate of the Steel Shear Wall under Time History Dynamic Analysis

Authors: Masoud Mahdavi, Mojtaba Farzaneh Moghadam

Abstract:

The seismic forces caused by the waves created in the depths of the earth during the earthquake hit the structure and cause the building to vibrate. Creating large seismic forces will cause low-strength sections in the structure to suffer extensive surface damage. The use of new steel shear walls in steel structures has caused the strength of the building and its main members (columns) to increase due to the reduction and depreciation of seismic forces during earthquakes. In the present study, an attempt was made to evaluate a type of steel shear wall that has regular holes in the inner sheet by modeling the finite element model with Abacus software. The shear wall of the steel plate, measuring 6000 × 3000 mm (one floor) and 3 mm thickness, was modeled with four different pores with a cross-sectional area. The shear wall was dynamically subjected to a time history of 5 seconds by three accelerators, El Centro, Imperial Valley and Kobe. The results showed that increasing the distance between the geometric center of the hole and the geometric center of the inner plate in the steel shear wall (increasing the RCS index) caused the total maximum acceleration to be transferred from the perimeter of the hole to horizontal and vertical beams. The results also show that there is no direct relationship between RCS index and total acceleration in steel shear wall and RCS index is separate from the peak ground acceleration value of earthquake.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Abaqus software, time history analysis, hollow steel plate shear wall

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2165 Tide Contribution in the Flood Event of Jeddah City: Mathematical Modelling and Different Field Measurements of the Groundwater Rise

Authors: Aïssa Rezzoug

Abstract:

This paper is aimed to bring new elements that demonstrate the tide caused the groundwater to rise in the shoreline band, on which the urban areas occurs, especially in the western coastal cities of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia like Jeddah. The reason for the last events of Jeddah inundation was the groundwater rise in the city coupled at the same time to a strong precipitation event. This paper will illustrate the tide participation in increasing the groundwater level significantly. It shows that the reason for internal groundwater recharge within the urban area is not only the excess of the water supply coming from surrounding areas, due to the human activity, with lack of sufficient and efficient sewage system, but also due to tide effect. The research study follows a quantitative method to assess groundwater level rise risks through many in-situ measurements and mathematical modelling. The proposed approach highlights groundwater level, in the urban areas of the city on the shoreline band, reaching the high tide level without considering any input from precipitation. Despite the small tide in the Red Sea compared to other oceanic coasts, the groundwater level is considerably enhanced by the tide from the seaside and by the freshwater table from the landside of the city. In these conditions, the groundwater level becomes high in the city and prevents the soil to evacuate quickly enough the surface flow caused by the storm event, as it was observed in the last historical flood catastrophe of Jeddah in 2009.

Keywords: Flood, Jeddah, tide, groundwater rise

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2164 The Nonlinear Research on Rotational Stiffness of Cuplock Joint

Authors: Min Liu, Liuyu Zhang, Di Mo, Qiang Yan

Abstract:

As the important equipment in the construction field, cuplock scaffold plays an important role in the construction process. As a scaffold connecting member, cuplock joint is of great importance. In order to explore the rotational stiffness nonlinear characteristics changing features of different structural forms of cuplock joint in different tightening torque condition under different conditions of load, ANSYS is used to establish four kinds of cuplock joint models with different forces to simulate the real force situation. By setting the different load conditions which means the cuplock is loaded at a certain distance from the cuplock joint in a certain direction until the cuplock is damaged and considering the gap between the cross bar joint and the vertical bar, the differences in the influence of the structural form and tightening torque on the rotation stiffness of the cuplock under different load conditions are compared. It is significantly important to improve the accuracy of calculating bearing capacity and stability of the cuplock steel pipe scaffold.

Keywords: theoretical analysis, cuplock joint, highway tunnel, non-linear characteristics, rotational stiffness, scaffold stability

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2163 Identifying Barriers of Implementing Building Information Modelling in Construction

Authors: Kasra HosseinMostofi, Mohamadamin Oyar Hossein, Reza Mehdizadeh Anvigh

Abstract:

BIM is an innovative concept for the majority of firms operating in industry. BIM offers a new paradigm to design, construct, operate, and maintain a facility. However, even with the most conscientious use, stakeholders can run into trouble during its implementation on a project or within an organization. At times, project stakeholders are unaware of the challenges that they can face with the implementation at the project level or an organizational level. Therefore, the study aimed to identify and compile barriers associated with the BIM implementation at the project and organizational level, as per the literature. Despite the fact that innumerable advantageous involved in exploiting BIM, there are some barriers to implement it properly. These barriers have been proved as impediments for academicians and members of construction team project to take the maximum advantage of its utilization. Although some research has been conducted to identify these barriers regarding BIM implementation in construction industry, more research is needed to be carried out among academicians to identify these barriers in institutions, and most importantly, to make suggestions for eliminating these obstacles.

Keywords: Construction, Design and Construction, Building Information Modelling, designers

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2162 A Review of the Future of Sustainable Urban Water Supply in South Africa

Authors: Jeremiah Mutamba

Abstract:

Water is a critical resource for sustainable economic growth and social development. It enables societies to thrive and influences every urban center’s future. Thus, water must always be available in the right quantity and quality. However, in South Africa - a known physically water scarce nation – the future of sustainable urban supply of water may be in jeopardy. The country facing a water crisis influenced by insufficient infrastructure investment and maintenance, recurrent droughts and climate variation, human induced water quality deterioration, as well as growing lack of technical capacity in water institutions, particularly local municipalities. Aside of the eight metropolitan municipalities for the country, most municipalities struggle with provision of reliable water to their citizens. These municipalities contend with having now capable engineers, aging infrastructure with concomitant high system water losses (of 30% and upwards), coupled with growing water demand from expanding industries and population growth. Also, a significant portion (44%) of national water treatment plants are in critically poor condition, requiring urgent rehabilitation. Municipalities also struggle to raise funding to instate projects. All these factors militate against sustainable urban water supply in the country. Urgent mitigation measures are required. This paper seeks to review the extent of the current water supply challenges in South Africa’s urban centers, including searching for practical and cost-effective measures. The study followed a qualitative approach, combining desktop literature research, interviews with key sector stakeholders, and a workshop. Phenomenological data analysis technique was used to study and examine interview data and secondary desktop data. Preliminary findings established the building of technical or engineering capacity, reversal of the high physical water losses, rehabilitation of poor condition and dysfunctional water treatment works, diversification of water resource mix, and water scarcity awareness programs as possible practical solutions. Other proposed solutions include the use of performance-based or value-based contracting to fund initiatives to reduce high system water losses. Out-come based arrangements for revenue increasing water loss reduction projects were considered more practical in funding-stressed local municipalities. If proactively implemented in an integrated manner, these proposed solutions are likely to ensure sustainable urban water supply in South African urban centers in the future.

Keywords: Water supply, Sustainable, Water scarcity, South Africa

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2161 Evaluation of High Damping Rubber Considering Initial History through Dynamic Loading Test and Program Analysis

Authors: Kyeong Hoon PARK, Taiji MAZUDA

Abstract:

High damping rubber (HDR) bearings are dissipating devices mainly used in seismic isolation systems and have a great damping performance. Although many studies have been conducted on the dynamic model of HDR bearings, few models can reflect phenomena such as dependency of experienced shear strain on initial history. In order to develop a model that can represent the dependency of experienced shear strain of HDR by Mullins effect, dynamic loading test was conducted using HDR specimen. The reaction of HDR was measured by applying a horizontal vibration using a hybrid actuator under a constant vertical load. Dynamic program analysis was also performed after dynamic loading test. The dynamic model applied in program analysis is a bilinear type double-target model. This model is modified from typical bilinear model. This model can express the nonlinear characteristics related to the initial history of HDR bearings. Based on the dynamic loading test and program analysis results, equivalent stiffness and equivalent damping ratio were calculated to evaluate the mechanical properties of HDR and the feasibility of the bilinear type double-target model was examined.

Keywords: bilinear model, Base-isolation, loading test, high damping rubber

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2160 Study on Flexible Diaphragm In-Plane Model of Irregular Multi-Storey Industrial Plant

Authors: Mu-Xuan Tao, Cheng-Hao Jiang

Abstract:

The rigid diaphragm model may cause errors in the calculation of internal forces due to neglecting the in-plane deformation of the diaphragm. This paper thus studies the effects of different diaphragm in-plane models (including in-plane rigid model and in-plane flexible model) on the seismic performance of structures. Taking an actual industrial plant as an example, the seismic performance of the structure is predicted using different floor diaphragm models, and the analysis errors caused by different diaphragm in-plane models including deformation error and internal force error are calculated. Furthermore, the influence of the aspect ratio on the analysis errors is investigated. Finally, the code rationality is evaluated by assessing the analysis errors of the structure models whose floors were determined as rigid according to the code’s criterion. It is found that different floor models may cause great differences in the distribution of structural internal forces, and the current code may underestimate the influence of the floor in-plane effect.

Keywords: diaphragm, industrial plant, calculating error, code rationality

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2159 Sustainable Maintenance Model for Infrastructure in Egypt

Authors: I. Beshara, S. Hasan

Abstract:

Infrastructure maintenance is a great challenge facing sustainable development of infrastructure assets due to the high cost of passive implementation of a sustainable maintenance plan. An assessment model of sustainable maintenance for highway infrastructure projects in Egypt is developed in this paper. It helps in improving the implementation of sustainable maintenance criteria. Thus, this paper has applied the analytical hierarchy processes (AHP) to rank and explore the weight of 26 assessment indicators using three hierarchy levels containing the main sustainable categories and subcategories with related indicators. Overall combined weight of each indicator for sustainable maintenance evaluation has been calculated to sum up to a sustainable maintenance performance index (SMI). The results show that the factor "Preventive maintenance cost" has the highest relative contribution factor among others (13.5%), while two factors of environmental performance have the least weights (0.7%). The developed model aims to provide decision makers with information about current maintenance performance and support them in the decision-making process regarding future directions of maintenance activities. It can be used as an assessment performance tool during the operation and maintenance stage. The developed indicators can be considered during designing the maintenance plan. Practices for successful implementation of the model are also presented.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, assessment performance Model, KPIs for sustainable maintenance, sustainable maintenance index

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2158 Analysis of Elastic-Plastic Deformation of Reinforced Concrete Shear-Wall Structures under Earthquake Excitations

Authors: Karomatullo Umarov, Oleg Kabantsev

Abstract:

The engineering analysis of earthquake consequences demonstrates a significantly different level of damage to load-bearing systems of different types. Buildings with reinforced concrete columns and separate shear-walls receive the highest level of damage. Traditional methods for predicting damage under earthquake excitations do not provide an answer to the question about the reasons for the increased vulnerability of reinforced concrete frames with shear-walls bearing systems. Thus, the study of the problem of formation and accumulation of damages in the structures reinforced concrete frame with shear-walls requires the use of new methods of assessment of the stress-strain state, as well as new approaches to the calculation of the distribution of forces and stresses in the load-bearing system based on account of various mechanisms of elastic-plastic deformation of reinforced concrete columns and walls. The results of research into the processes of non-linear deformation of structures with a transition to destruction (collapse) will allow to substantiate the characteristics of limit states of various structures forming an earthquake-resistant load-bearing system. The research of elastic-plastic deformation processes of reinforced concrete structures of frames with shear-walls is carried out on the basis of experimentally established parameters of limit deformations of concrete and reinforcement under dynamic excitations. Limit values of deformations are defined for conditions under which local damages of the maximum permissible level are formed in constructions. The research is performed by numerical methods using ETABS software. The research results indicate that under earthquake excitations, plastic deformations of various levels are formed in various groups of elements of the frame with the shear-wall load-bearing system. During the main period of seismic effects in the shear-wall elements of the load-bearing system, there are insignificant volumes of plastic deformations, which are significantly lower than the permissible level. At the same time, plastic deformations are formed in the columns and do not exceed the permissible value. At the final stage of seismic excitations in shear-walls, the level of plastic deformations reaches values corresponding to the plasticity coefficient of concrete , which is less than the maximum permissible value. Such volume of plastic deformations leads to an increase in general deformations of the bearing system. With the specified parameters of the deformation of the shear-walls in concrete columns, plastic deformations exceeding the limiting values develop, which leads to the collapse of such columns. Based on the results presented in this study, it can be concluded that the application seismic-force-reduction factor, common for the all load-bearing system, does not correspond to the real conditions of formation and accumulation of damages in elements of the load-bearing system. Using a single coefficient of seismic-force-reduction factor leads to errors in predicting the seismic resistance of reinforced concrete load-bearing systems. In order to provide the required level of seismic resistance buildings with reinforced concrete columns and separate shear-walls, it is necessary to use values of the coefficient of seismic-force-reduction factor differentiated by types of structural groups.1

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Structures, nonlinear dynamic analysis, Earthquake excitation, plasticity coefficients, seismic-force-reduction factor

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2157 Seismic Reliability of Two-DegreE-of-Freedom Systems with Supplemental Damping

Authors: A.D. García-Soto, Miguel Jaimes, J.G. Valdés-Vázquez, A. Hernández-Martínez

Abstract:

The seismic reliability of two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) systems with and without supplemental damping are computed. The used records are scaled from realistic records using standard incremental dynamic Analysis (IDA). The total normalized shear base is computed for both cases using different scaling factors, and it is considered as the demand. The seismic reliability is computed using codified design to stipulate the capacity and, after some assumptions, applying the first-order reliability method (FORM). The 2DOF considered can be thought as structures with non-linear behavior, with and without seismic protection, subjected to earthquake activity in Mexico City. It is found that the reliability of 2DOF structures retrofitted with supplemental damper at its first story is generally higher than the reliability of 2DOF structures without supplemental damping.

Keywords: Form, Seismic Reliability, IDA

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