Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2448

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Civil and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2448 Study on Efficient Chipping Method of Concrete Surface Using LASER

Authors: Shoki Hamaoka, Isao Ujike, Keiyu Kawaai, Hideki Yamasaki

Abstract:

With the decommissioning of nuclear power plants, one of the problems in dismantling facilities in the area where radioactive materials are handled is to reduce the amount of waste containing radioactive materials. In this study, we investigated the chipping performance of the concrete surface using a LASER, which is a chipping method that does not require abrasives. The chipping depth and chipping efficiency were investigated by changing the LASER irradiation conditions and the water-cement ratio of concrete. As a result, it was found that the chipping method using a LASER can chip to the same depth as the shot blasting method, and the time required to chip the same amount of concrete can be shortened by about half.

Keywords: LASER, chipping, concrete, chipping depth

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2447 Impact of Individual Resilience on Organizational Resilience: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Mitansha, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa

Abstract:

The built environment is designed, maintained, operated and decommissioned by construction organizations, which play a significant role in providing physical resources and rebuilding infrastructures during major crises and disasters. It is evident that enhancing the resilience of construction organizations allows better responding ability and speedy recovery from disasters and acts as a boon for the nation in the face of significant disruptions. As individuals are the integral component of any organization, hence, individual resilience is considered a critical aspect, which may boost organizational resilience of construction sector. It has been observed that individual resilience is indirectly supported by organization’s citizenship behaviour, job performance, and career success. Not only this, it also tends to hold a directly proportional relation with job satisfaction, physical and emotional well-being affected by organization’s work culture, whereas the resilience of organization increases as a result of positive adaption, growth and collective learning of the employees as an entity. Many researches have indicated Situation awareness in staff and crisis related issues, effective vulnerability management, organizational leadership and culture ensured by approachable, encouraging and people-oriented leaders, as the prominent characteristics of organizational resilience. It, thus, becomes perceptible that both, organizational and individual resiliencies have the potential to influence each other. Consequently, it arises a major question that how these characteristics are associated and tend to behave with respect to each other The study, thus, aims to explore the overlapping dimensions of organizational and individual resilience to determine the impact boundaries. The research methodology of the paper would be based on systematic literature review specifically focused on the resilience of construction industry. This would provide a direct comparison of characteristics influencing individual and organizational resilience and will shed light on whether the characteristics exhibit a positive, neutral or adverse relationship with one and all. Thus, the outcome of this paper will present the most leading and dominant indicators of individual resilience, that can eventually help to enhance the resilience of construction organizations amidst any disaster or crisis.

Keywords: construction industry, individual resilience, organizational resilience, overlapping dimension

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2446 GIS Technology for Environmentally Polluted Sites with Innovative Process to Improve the Quality and Assesses the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

Authors: Hamad Almebayedh, Chuxia Lin, Yu wang

Abstract:

The environmental impact assessment (EIA) must be improved, assessed, and quality checked for human and environmental health and safety. Soil contamination is expanding, and sites and soil remediation activities proceeding around the word which simplifies the answer “quality soil characterization” will lead to “quality EIA” to illuminate the contamination level and extent and reveal the unknown for the way forward to remediate, countifying, containing, minimizing and eliminating the environmental damage. Spatial interpolation methods play a significant role in decision making, planning remediation strategies, environmental management, and risk assessment, as it provides essential elements towards site characterization, which need to be informed into the EIA. The Innovative 3D soil mapping and soil characterization technology presented in this research paper reveal the unknown information and the extent of the contaminated soil in specific and enhance soil characterization information in general which will be reflected in improving the information provided in developing the EIA related to specific sites. The foremost aims of this research paper are to present novel 3D mapping technology to quality and cost-effectively characterize and estimate the distribution of key soil characteristics in contaminated sites and develop Innovative process/procedure “assessment measures” for EIA quality and assessment. The contaminated site and field investigation was conducted by innovative 3D mapping technology to characterize the composition of petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soils in a decommissioned oilfield waste pit in Kuwait. The results show the depth and extent of the contamination, which has been interred into a developed assessment process and procedure for the EIA quality review checklist to enhance the EIA and drive remediation and risk assessment strategies. We have concluded that to minimize the possible adverse environmental impacts on the investigated site in Kuwait, the soil-capping approach may be sufficient and may represent a cost-effective management option as the environmental risk from the contaminated soils is considered to be relatively low. This research paper adopts a multi-method approach involving reviewing the existing literature related to the research area, case studies, and computer simulation.

Keywords: quality EIA, spatial interpolation, soil characterization, contaminated site

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2445 Scour Damaged Detection of Bridge Piers Using Vibration Analysis - Numerical Study of a Bridge

Authors: Solaine Hachem, Frédéric Bourquin, Dominique Siegert

Abstract:

The brutal collapse of bridges is mainly due to scour. Indeed, the soil erosion in the riverbed around a pier modifies the embedding conditions of the structure, reduces its overall stiffness and threatens its stability. Hence, finding an efficient technique that allows early scour detection becomes mandatory. Vibration analysis is an indirect method for scour detection that relies on real-time monitoring of the bridge. It tends to indicate the presence of a scour based on its consequences on the stability of the structure and its dynamic response. Most of the research in this field has focused on the dynamic behavior of a single pile and has examined the depth of the scour. In this paper, a bridge is fully modeled with all piles and spans and the scour is represented by a reduction in the foundation's stiffnesses. This work aims to identify the vibration modes sensitive to the rigidity’s loss in the foundations so that their variations can be considered as a scour indicator: the decrease in soil-structure interaction rigidity leads to a decrease in the natural frequencies’ values. By using the first-order perturbation method, the expression of sensitivity, which depends only on the selected vibration modes, is established to determine the deficiency of foundations stiffnesses. The solutions are obtained by using the singular value decomposition method for the regularization of the inverse problem. The propagation of uncertainties is also calculated to verify the efficiency of the inverse problem method. Numerical simulations describing different scenarios of scour are investigated on a simplified model of a real composite steel-concrete bridge located in France. The results of the modal analysis show that the modes corresponding to in-plane and out-of-plane piers vibrations are sensitive to the loss of foundation stiffness. While the deck bending modes are not affected by this damage.

Keywords: bridge’s piers, inverse problems, modal sensitivity, scour detection, vibration analysis

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2444 Integral Design of Building Services

Authors: Mina Mortazavi

Abstract:

The common approach in the construction industry for restraint requirements in existing structures or new constructions is to have Non-Structural Components (NSCs) assembled and installed on-site by different MEP subcontractors. This leads to a lack of coordination and higher costs, construction time and complications due to inaccurate building information modeling (BIM) systems. Introducing NSCs to a consistent BIM system from the beginning of the design process and considering their seismic loads in the analysis and design process can improve coordination and reduce costs and time. One solution is to use prefabricated mounts with attached MEPs delivered as an integral module. This eliminates the majority of coordination complications and reduces design and installation costs and time. An advanced approach is to have as many NSCs as possible installed in the same prefabricated module, which gives the structural engineer the opportunity to consider the involved component weights and locations in the analysis and design of the prefabricated support. This efficient approach eliminates coordination and access issues, leading to enhanced quality control. This research will focus on the existing literature on modular sub-assemblies that are integrated with architectural and structural components. Modular MEP systems take advantage of the precision provided by BIM tools to meet exact requirements and achieve a buildable design every time. Modular installations that include MEP systems provide efficient solutions for the installation of MEP services or components.

Keywords: building services, modularisation, prefabrication, integral building design

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2443 An Ultrasonic Signal Processing System for Tomographic Imaging of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Edwin Forero-Garcia, Jaime Vitola, Brayan Cardenas, Johan Casagua

Abstract:

This research article presents the integration of electronic and computer systems, which developed an ultrasonic signal processing system that performs the capture, adaptation, and analog-digital conversion to later carry out its processing and visualization. The capture and adaptation of the signal were carried out from the design and implementation of an analog electronic system distributed in stages: 1. Coupling of impedances; 2. Analog filter; 3. Signal amplifier. After the signal conditioning was carried out, the ultrasonic information was digitized using a digital microcontroller to carry out its respective processing. The digital processing of the signals was carried out in MATLAB software for the elaboration of A-Scan, B and D-Scan types of ultrasonic images. Then, advanced processing was performed using the SAFT technique to improve the resolution of the Scan-B-type images. Thus, the information from the ultrasonic images was displayed in a user interface developed in .Net with Visual Studio. For the validation of the system, ultrasonic signals were acquired, and in this way, the non-invasive inspection of the structures was carried out and thus able to identify the existing pathologies in them.

Keywords: acquisition, signal processing, ultrasound, SAFT, HMI

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2442 Identifying the Needs for Renewal of Urban Water Infrastructure Systems: Analysis of Material, Age, Types and Areas: Case Study of Linköping in Sweden

Authors: Eman Hegazy, Stefan Anderberg, Joakim Krook

Abstract:

Urban water infrastructure is crucial for efficient and reliable water supply in growing cities. With the growth of cities, the need for maintenance and renewal of these systems increases but often goes unfulfilled due to a variety of reasons, such as limited funding, political priorities, or lack of public awareness. Neglecting the renewal needs of these systems can lead to frequent malfunctions and reduced quality and reliability of water supply, as well as increased costs and health and environmental hazards. It is important for cities to prioritize investment in water infrastructure and develop long-term plans to address renewal needs. Drawing general conclusions about the rate of renewal of urban water infrastructure systems at an international or national level can be challenging due to the influence of local management decisions. In many countries, the responsibility for water infrastructure management lies with the municipal authorities, who are responsible for making decisions about the allocation of resources for repair, maintenance, and renewal. These decisions can vary widely based on factors such as local finances, political priorities, and public perception of the importance of water infrastructure. As a result, it is difficult to make generalizations about the rate of renewal across different countries or regions. In Sweden, the situation is not different, and the information from Svenskt Vatten indicates that the rate of renewal varies across municipalities and can be insufficient, leading to a buildup of maintenance and renewal needs. This study aims to examine the adequacy of the rate of renewal of urban water infrastructure in Linköping case city in Sweden. Using a case study framework, the study will assess the current status of the urban water system and the need for renewal. The study will also consider the role of factors such as proper identification processes, limited funding, competing for political priorities, and local management decisions in contributing to insufficient renewal. The study investigates the following questions: (1) What is the current status of water and sewerage networks in terms of length, age distribution, and material composition, estimated total water leakage in the network per year, damages, leaks, and outages occur per year, both overall and by district? (2) What are the main causes of these damages, leaks, and interruptions, and how are they related to lack of maintenance and renewal? (3) What is the current status of renewal work for the water and sewerage networks, including the renewal rate and changes over time, recent renewal material composition, and the budget allocation for renewal and emergency repairs? (4) What factors influence the need for renewal and what conditions should be considered in the assessment? The findings of the study provide insights into the challenges facing urban water infrastructure and identify strategies for improving the rate of renewal to ensure a reliable and sustainable water supply.

Keywords: case study, infrastructure, management, renewal need, Sweden

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2441 Compressive Strength Of Slag-Based Geopolymer Concrete Incorporated with Rice Husk Ash (RHA) Using 12M Alkaline Activator

Authors: Festus A. Olutoge, Anuoluwapo Kolade, Ahmed A. Akintunde

Abstract:

This paper investigated the compressive strength of geopolymer concrete (GPC) incorporated with granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and rice husk ash (RHA), which may have potential in the construction industry to replace portland limestone cement (PLC) concrete. The sustainable construction binders used were GGBFS and RHA, and a solution of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium silicate gel (Na₂SiO₃) was used as the 12-molar alkaline activator. Five GPC mixes comprising fine aggregates, coarse aggregates, cementitious material, and liquid in the ratio 2: 2.5: 1: 0.5, respectively, were prepared to achieve grade 40 concrete, and PLC was wholly substituted with GGBFS and RHA in the ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0. In addition, a control mix was prepared which comprised of 100% water and 100% PLC as the cementitious material. The GPC mixes were thermally cured at a temperature of 60-80ºC in an oven for approximately 24hrs. After 7 and 28 days of curing, the hardened GPC samples' compressive strength was determined. Results show that GPC-Mix #3, comprising 50% GGBFS and 50% RHA is the most efficient geopolymer mix having compressive strengths of 35.71MPa and 47.26MPa, which is 19.87% and 8.69% higher than that of the PLC concrete samples with 29.79MPa and 43.48MPa after 7 and 28 days, respectively. Therefore, geopolymer concrete containing GGBFS incorporated with RHA is an efficient method of decreasing the use of PLC in PLC concrete production and reducing the high amounts of CO₂ emitted into the atmosphere in the construction industry.

Keywords: compressive strength, rice husk ash, geopolymer concrete, ground granulated blast furnace slag

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2440 Sustainable Design of Coastal Bridge Networks in the Presence of Multiple Flood and Earthquake Risks

Authors: Riyadh Alsultani, Ali Majdi

Abstract:

It is necessary to develop a design methodology that includes the possibility of seismic events occurring in a region, the vulnerability of the civil hydraulic structure, and the effects of the occurrence hazard on society, environment, and economy in order to evaluate the flood and earthquake risks of coastal bridge networks. This paper presents a design approach for the assessment of the risk and sustainability of coastal bridge networks under time-variant flood-earthquake conditions. The social, environmental, and economic indicators of the network are used to measure its sustainability. These consist of anticipated loss, downtime, energy waste, and carbon dioxide emissions. The design process takes into account the possibility of happening in a set of flood and earthquake scenarios that represent the local seismic activity. Based on the performance of each bridge as determined by fragility assessments, network linkages are measured. The network's connections and bridges' damage statuses after an earthquake scenario determine the network's sustainability and danger. The sustainability measures' temporal volatility and the danger of structural degradation are both highlighted. The method is shown using a transportation network in Baghdad, Iraq.

Keywords: sustainability, Coastal bridge networks, flood-earthquake risk, structural design

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2439 Assessment of Physical, Chemical and Radionuclides Concentrations in Pharamasucal Industrial Wastewater Effluents in Amman, Jordan

Authors: Mohammad Salem Abdullah Alhwaiti

Abstract:

This study was conducted to assess the physical, chemical, and radionuclide concentrations of pharmaceutical industrial wastewater effluents. Fourteen wastewater samples were collected from pharmaceutical industries. The results showed a marked reduction in the levels of TH, Mg, and Ca concentration in wastewater limit for properties and criteria for discharge of wastewater to streams or wadies or water bodies in the effluent, whereas TSS and TDS showed higher concentration allowable for discharge of wastewater to streams or wadies or water bodies. The gross α activity in all the wastewater samples ranged between (0.086-0.234 Bq/L) lowered the 0.1 Bq/L limit set by World Health Organization (WHO), whereas gross β activity in few samples ranged between (2.565-4.800 Bq/L), indicating the higher limit set by WHO. Gamma spectroscopy revealed that K-40, Cr-51, Co-60, I-131, Cs-137, and U-238 activity are ≤0.114 Bq/L, ≤0.062 Bq/L, ≤0.00815Bq/L, ≤0.00792Bq/L, ≤0.00956 Bq/L, and ≤0.151 Bq/L, respectively, indicating lowest concentrations of these radionuclides in the pharmaceutical industrial wastewater effluents.

Keywords: pharmaceutical wastewater, gross α/β activity, radionuclides, Jordan

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2438 The Effects of Different Types of Cement on the Permeability of Deep Mixing Columns

Authors: Mojebullah Wahidy, Murat Olgun

Abstract:

In this study, four different types of cement are used to investigate the permeability of DMC (Deep Mixing Column) in the clay. The clay used in this research is in the kaolin group, and the types of cement are; CEM I 42.5.R. normal portland cement, CEM II/A-M (P-L) pozzolan doped cement, CEM III/A 42.5 N blast furnace slag cement and DMFC-800 fine-grained portland cement. Firstly, some rheological tests are done on every cement, and a 0.9 water/cement ratio is selected as the appropriate ratio. This ratio is used to prepare the small-scale DMCs for all types of cement with %6, %9, %12, and %15, which are determined as the dry weight of the clay. For all the types of cement, three samples were prepared in every percentage and were kept on curing for 7, 14, and 28 days for permeability tests. As a result of the small-scale DMCs, permeability tests, a %12 selected for big-scale DMCs. A total of five big scales DMC were prepared by using a %12-cement and were kept for 28 days curing for permeability tests. The results of the permeability tests show that by increasing the cement percentage and curing time of all DMCs, the permeability coefficient (k) is decreased. Despite variable results in different cement ratios and curing time in general, samples treated by DMFC-800 fine-grained cement have the lowest permeability coefficient. Samples treated with CEM II and CEM I cement types were the second and third lowest permeable samples. The highest permeability coefficient belongs to the samples that were treated with CEM III cement type.

Keywords: deep mixing column, rheological test, DMFC-800, permeability test

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2437 The Effect of Principled Human Resource Management and Training Based on Existing Standards in Order to Improve the Quality of Construction Projects

Authors: Arsalan Salahi

Abstract:

Today, the number of changes in the construction industry and urban mass house building is increasing, which makes you need to pay more attention to targeted planning for human resource management and training. The human resources working in the construction industry have various problems and deficiencies, and in order to solve these problems, there is a need for basic management and training of these people in order to lower the construction costs and increase the quality of the projects, especially in mass house building projects. The success of any project in reaching short and long-term professional goals depends on the efficient combination of work tools, financial resources, raw materials, and most importantly, human resources. Today, due to the complexity and diversity of each project, specialized management fields have emerged to maximize the potential benefits of each component of that project. Human power is known as the most important resource in construction projects for its successful implementation, but unfortunately, due to the low cost of human power compared to other resources, such as materials and machinery, little attention is paid to it. With the correct management and training of human resources, which depends on its correct planning and development, it is possible to improve the performance of construction projects. In this article, the training and motivation of construction industry workers and their effects on the effectiveness of projects in this industry have been researched. In this regard, some barriers to the training and motivation of construction workers and personnel have been identified and solutions have been provided for construction companies. Also, the impact of workers and unskilled people on the efficiency of construction projects is investigated. The results of the above research show that by increasing the use of correct and basic training for human resources, we will see positive results and effects on the performance of construction projects.

Keywords: human resources, construction industry, principled training, skilled and unskilled workers

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2436 Hansen Solubility Parameter from Surface Measurements

Authors: Neveen AlQasas, Daniel Johnson

Abstract:

Membranes for water treatment are an established technology that attracts great attention due to its simplicity and cost effectiveness. However, membranes in operation suffer from the adverse effect of membrane fouling. Bio-fouling is a phenomenon that occurs at the water-membrane interface, and is a dynamic process that is initiated by the adsorption of dissolved organic material, including biomacromolecules, on the membrane surface. After initiation, attachment of microorganisms occurs, followed by biofilm growth. The biofilm blocks the pores of the membrane and consequently results in reducing the water flux. Moreover, the presence of a fouling layer can have a substantial impact on the membrane separation properties. Understanding the mechanism of the initiation phase of biofouling is a key point in eliminating the biofouling on membrane surfaces. The adhesion and attachment of different fouling materials is affected by the surface properties of the membrane materials. Therefore, surface properties of different polymeric materials had been studied in terms of their surface energies and Hansen solubility parameters (HSP). The difference between the combined HSP parameters (HSP distance) allows prediction of the affinity of two materials to each other. The possibilities of measuring the HSP of different polymer films via surface measurements, such as contact angle has been thoroughly investigated. Knowing the HSP of a membrane material and the HSP of a specific foulant, facilitate the estimation of the HSP distance between the two, and therefore the strength of attachment to the surface. Contact angle measurements using fourteen different solvents on five different polymeric films were carried out using the sessile drop method. Solvents were ranked as good or bad solvents using different ranking method and ranking was used to calculate the HSP of each polymeric film. Results clearly indicate the absence of a direct relation between contact angle values of each film and the HSP distance between each polymer film and the solvents used. Therefore, estimating HSP via contact angle alone is not sufficient. However, it was found if the surface tensions and viscosities of the used solvents are taken in to the account in the analysis of the contact angle values, a prediction of the HSP from contact angle measurements is possible. This was carried out via training of a neural network model. The trained neural network model has three inputs, contact angle value, surface tension and viscosity of solvent used. The model is able to predict the HSP distance between the used solvent and the tested polymer (material). The HSP distance prediction is further used to estimate the total and individual HSP parameters of each tested material. The results showed an accuracy of about 90% for all the five studied films

Keywords: surface characterization, hansen solubility parameter estimation, contact angle measurements, artificial neural network model, surface measurements

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2435 Mitigation Strategies in the Urban Context of Sydney, Australia

Authors: Hamed Reza Heshmat Mohajer, Lan Ding, Mattheos Santamouris

Abstract:

One of the worst environmental dangers for people who live in cities is the Urban Heat Island (UHI) impact which is anticipated to become stronger in the coming years as a result of climate change. Accordingly, the key aim of this paper is to study the interaction between the urban configuration and mitigation strategies including increasing albedo of the urban environment (reflective material), implementation of Urban Green Infrastructure (UGI) and/or a combination thereof. To analyse the microclimate models of different urban categories in the metropolis of Sydney, this study will assess meteorological parameters using a 3D model simulation tool of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) named ENVI-met. In this study, four main parameters are taken into consideration while assessing the effectiveness of UHI mitigation strategies: ambient air temperature, wind speed/direction, and outdoor thermal comfort. Layouts with present condition simulation studies from the basic model (scenario one) are taken as the benchmark. A base model is used to calculate the relative percentage variations between each scenario. The findings showed that maximum cooling potential across different urban layouts can be decreased by 2.15 °C degrees by combining high-albedo material with flora; besides layouts with open arrangements(OT1) present a highly remarkable improvement in ambient air temperature and outdoor thermal comfort when mitigation technologies applied compare to compact counterparts. Besides all layouts present a higher intensity on the maximum ambient air temperature reduction rather than the minimum ambient air temperature. On the other hand, Scenarios associated with an increase in greeneries are anticipated to have a slight cooling effect, especially on high-rise layouts.

Keywords: sustainable urban development, urban green infrastructure, high-albedo materials, heat island effect

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2434 Vibro-Acoustic Modulation for Crack Detection in Windmill Blades

Authors: Abdullah Alnutayfat, Alexander Sutin

Abstract:

One of the most important types of renewable energy resources is wind energy which can be produced by wind turbines. The blades of the wind turbine are exposed to the pressure of the harsh environment, which causes a significant issue for the wind power industry in terms of the maintenance cost and failure of blades. One of the reliable methods to detect crack initiation is the vibroacoustic structural health monitoring (SHM) method that examines information obtained from the structural vibrations of the blade. However, all vibroacoustic SHM techniques are based on comparing the structural vibration of intact and damaged structures, which places a practical limit on their use. Methods for nonlinear vibroacoustic SHM are more sensitive to damage and cracking and do not need to be compared to data from the intact structure. This paper aims to present the vibroacoustic modulation (VAM) method based on the modulation of high-frequency (probe wave) by low-frequency (pump wave) produced by the blade rotation load. The blade rotation alternates bending stress due to gravity, leading to crack size variations and variations in the blade resonance frequency. This method can be used with the classical SHM vibration method. The blade is excited by piezoceramic actuator patches bonded to the blade and receives the vibration response from another piezoceramic. The modification of VAM analyzes the spectra of the detected signal and their sideband components. The suggested VAM model considers the simple mechanical oscillator, where the parameters of the oscillator (resonance frequency and damping) are varied due to low-frequency blade rotation. During the blade's operation, the weight-induced internal stress affects the crack's elasticity and damping. This model uses the blade vibration parameters and crack influence of the blade resonance properties from previous research papers to predict the modulation index (MI).

Keywords: wind turbine blades, damaged detection, vibro-acoustic structural health monitoring, vibro-acoustic modulation

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2433 Design Waste Source Evaluation: A Building Life Cycle Approach

Authors: Mohamed Osmani

Abstract:

The last few years saw the development of several government-driven waste-related regulations, policies, and consultation documents to reduce construction waste production and increase reuse and recycling rates. Equally, global research on construction waste has been conducted over the last decade ranging from ‘soft’ onsite waste management tools to ‘hard’ material and recycling technologies. However, there is insufficient effort and no structured approach to examining the underlying generators of design waste. Hence, this research engaged the top 100 UK contractors and architectural practices through a questionnaire survey and 24 follow-up interviews to investigate the direct and indirect root origins and causes of construction waste across all stages of the building design process that culminated in the development of a set of design waste maps. Respondents reported that designing out waste has never been a priority in the design process. Moreover, results reveal that design waste is affected by a wide practice of not embedding waste reduction in the briefing, no waste reduction target setting, and lack of designers’ understanding of design waste causes, hindered by incoherent coordination and communication between project members; and impeded by time constraints.

Keywords: construction waste, design waste mapping, architects, contractors, UK

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2432 Prediction of Embankment Fires at Railway Infrastructure Using Machine Learning, Geospatial Data and VIIRS Remote Sensing Imagery

Authors: Jan-Peter Mund, Christian Kind

Abstract:

In view of the ongoing climate change and global warming, fires along railways in Germany are occurring more frequently, with sometimes massive consequences for railway operations and affected railroad infrastructure. In the absence of systematic studies within the infrastructure network of German Rail, little is known about the causes of such embankment fires. Since a further increase in these hazards is to be expected in the near future, there is a need for a sound knowledge of triggers and drivers for embankment fires as well as methodical knowledge of prediction tools. Two predictable future trends speak for the increasing relevance of the topic: through the intensification of the use of rail for passenger and freight transport (e.g..: doubling of annual passenger numbers by 2030, compared to 2019), there will be more rail traffic and also more maintenance and construction work on the railways. This research project approach uses satellite data to identify historical embankment fires along rail network infrastructure. The team links data from these fires with infrastructure and weather data and trains a machine-learning model with the aim of predicting fire hazards on sections of the track. Companies reflect on the results and use them on a pilot basis in precautionary measures.

Keywords: embankment fires, railway maintenance, machine learning, remote sensing, VIIRS data

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2431 Performance Evaluation of Moringa Oleifera as Coagulant for Treating Abattoir Wastewater

Authors: Adesiji Adeolu Richard, Hassa Musa, Osita Evaritus Asogwa, Mary Oluwatobi Odekunle, Mangey Jarumi Akila

Abstract:

In this paper, extract from raw Moringa Oleifera seeds for the treatment of 40 liters of abattoir wastewater was studied for a period of ten (10) weeks. A completely randomized design with loading dosages of 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20g of processed Moringa Oleifera seed was used in the treatment. A control sample (with no Moringa Oleifera treatment) was also included. The physical and chemical properties of abattoir wastewater were investigated before and after treatment. The turbidity value was reduced drastically after the treatments from 15.40 to 7.63 mg/l for 16g dosage in week 7. Total alkalinity, Total hardness, Conductivity, Calcium, and Biological Oxygen Demand were all found to be reduced in concentration within the second and fourth weeks of the experiment with 14 to 16g of Moringa Oleifera dosage. The results generally showed that 16g/500ml of Moringa Oleifera was able to treat abattoir wastewater after weeks of the experiment.

Keywords: Moringa Oleifera, abattoir wastewater, turbidity, conductivity, pH

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2430 Environmental Exposure Assessment among Refuellers at Brussels South Charleroi Airport

Authors: Mostosi C., Stéphenne J., Kempeneers E.

Abstract:

Introduction: Refuellers from Brussels South Charleroi Airport (BSCA) expressed concerns about the risks involved in handling JET-A1 fuel. The HSE Manager of BSCA, in collaboration with the occupational physician and the industrial hygiene unit of the External Service of Occupational Medicine, decided to assess the toxicological exposure of these workers. Materials and methods: Two measurement methods were used. The first was to assay three types of metabolites in urine to highlight the exposure to xylenes, toluene, and benzene in aircraft fuels. Out of 32 refuellers in the department, 26 participated in the sampling, and 23 samples were exploited. The second method targeted the assessment of environmental exposure to certain potentially hazardous substances that refuellers are likely to breathe in work areas at the airport. It was decided to carry out two ambient air measurement campaigns, using static systems on the one hand and, on the other hand, using individual sensors worn by the refuellers at the level of the respiratory tract. Volatile organic compounds and diesel particles were analyzed. Results: Despite the fears that motivated these analyzes, the overall results showed low levels of exposure, far below the existing limit values, both in air quality and in urinary measurements. Conclusion: These results are comparable to a study carried out in several French airports. The staff could be reassured, and then the medical surveillance was modified by the occupational physician. With the aviation development at BSCA, equipment and methods are evolving. Their exposure will have to be reassessed.

Keywords: refuelling, airport, exposure, fuel, occupational health, air quality

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2429 Impact of Modifying the Surface Materials on the Radiative Heat Transfer Phenomenon

Authors: Arkadiusz Urzędowski, Dorota Wójcicka-Migasiuk, Andrzej Sachajdak, Magdalena Paśnikowska-Łukaszuk

Abstract:

Due to the impact of climate changes and inevitability to reduce greenhouse gases, the need to use low-carbon and sustainable construction has increased. In this work, it is investigated how texture of the surface building materials and radiative heat transfer phenomenon in flat multilayer can be correlated. Attempts to test the surface emissivity are taken however, the trustworthiness of measurement results remains a concern since sensor size and thickness are common problems. This paper presents an experimental method to studies surface emissivity with use self constructed thermal sensors and thermal imaging technique. The surface of building materials was modified by mechanical and chemical treatment affecting the reduction of the emissivity. For testing the shaping surface of materials and mapping its three-dimensional structure, scanning profilometry were used in a laboratory. By comparing the results of laboratory tests and performed analysis of 3D computer fluid dynamics software, it can be shown that a change in the surface coverage of materials affects the heat transport by radiation between layers. Motivated by recent advancements in variational inference, this publication evaluates the potential use a dedicated data processing approach, and properly constructed temperature sensors, the influence of the surface emissivity on the phenomenon of radiation and heat transport in the entire partition can be determined.

Keywords: heat transfer, surface roughness, surface emissivity, radiation

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2428 Seismic Performance of Steel Shear Wall Using Experimental and Numerical Analysis

Authors: Wahab Abdul Ghafar, Tao Zhong, Baba Kalan Enamullah

Abstract:

Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) are a robust lateral load resistance structure because of their high flexibility and efficient energy dissipation when subjected to seismic loads. This research investigates the seismic Performance of an innovative infill web strip (IWS-SPSW) and a typical unstiffened steel plate shear wall (USPSW). As a result, two 1:3 scale specimens of an IWS-SPSW and USPSW with a single story and a single bay were built and subjected to a cyclic lateral loading methodology. In the prototype, the beam-to-column connections were accomplished with the assistance of semi-rigid end-plate connectors. IWS-SPSW demonstrated exceptional ductility and shear load-bearing capacity during the testing process, with no cracks or other damage occurring. In addition, the IWS-SPSW could effectively dissipate energy without causing a significant amount of beam-column connection distortion. The shear load-bearing capacity of the USPSW was exceptional. However, it exhibited low ductility, severe infill plate corner ripping, and huge infill web plate cracks. The FE models were created and then confirmed using the experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the infill web strips of an SPSW system can affect the system's high Performance and total energy dissipation. In addition, a parametric analysis was carried out to evaluate the material qualities of the IWS, which can considerably improve the system's seismic performances. These properties include the steel's strength as well as its thickness.

Keywords: steel shear walls, seismic performance, failure mode, hysteresis response, nonlinear finite element analysis, parametric study.

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2427 Pozzolanic Properties of Synthetic Zeolites as Materials Used for the Production of Building Materials

Authors: Joanna Styczen, Wojciech Franus

Abstract:

Currently, cement production reaches 3-6 Gt per year. The production of one ton of cement is associated with the emission of 0.5 to 1 ton of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which means that this process is responsible for 5% of global CO2 emissions. Simply improving the cement manufacturing process is not enough. An effective solution is the use of pozzolanic materials, which can partly replace clinker and thus reduce energy consumption, and emission of pollutants and give mortars the desired characteristics, shaping their microstructure. Pozzolanic additives modify the phase composition of cement, reducing the amount of portlandite and changing the CaO/SiO2 ratio in the C-S-H phase. Zeolites are a pozzolanic additive that is not commonly used. Three types of zeolites were synthesized in work: Na-A, sodalite and ZSM-5 (these zeolites come from three different structural groups). Zeolites were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis of fly ash in an aqueous NaOH solution. Then, the pozzolanicity of the obtained materials was assessed. The pozzolanic activity of the zeolites synthesized for testing was tested by chemical methods in accordance with the ASTM C 379-65 standard. The method consisted in determining the percentage content of active ingredients (soluble silicon oxide and aluminum).in alkaline solutions, i.e. those that are potentially reactive towards calcium hydroxide. The highest amount of active silica was found in zeolite ZSM-5 - 88.15%. The amount of active Al2O3 was small - 1%. The smallest pozzolanic activity was found in the Na-A zeolite (active SiO2 - 4.4%, and active Al2O3 - 2.52). The tests carried out using the XRD, SEM, XRF and textural tests showed that the obtained zeolites are characterized by high porosity, which makes them a valuable addition to mortars.

Keywords: pozzolanic properties, hydration, zeolite, alite

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2426 Influence of AAR-Induced Expansion Level on Confinement Efficiency of CFRP Wrapping Applied to Damaged Circular Concrete Columns

Authors: Thamer Kubat, Riadh Al Mahiadi, Ahmad Shayan

Abstract:

The alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in concrete has a negative influence on the mechanical properties and durability of concrete. Confinement by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) is an effective method of treatment for some AAR-affected elements. Eighteen reinforced columns affected by different levels of expansion due to AAR were confined using CFRP to evaluate the effect of expansion level on confinement efficiency. Strength and strain capacities (axial and circumferential) were measured using photogrammetry under uniaxial compressive loading to evaluate the efficiency of CFRP wrapping for the rehabilitation of affected columns. In relation to uniaxial compression capacity, the results indicated that the confinement of AAR-affected columns by one layer of CFRP is sufficient to reach and exceed the load capacity of unaffected sound columns. Parallel to the experimental study, finite element (FE) modeling using ATENA software was employed to predict the behavior of CFRP-confined damaged concrete and determine the possibility of using the model in a parametric study by simulating the number of CFRP layers. A comparison of the experimental results with the results of the theoretical models showed that FE modeling could be used for the prediction of the behavior of confined AAR-damaged concrete.

Keywords: ATENA, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), confinement efficiency, finite element (FE)

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2425 Initial Experiences of the First Version of Slovene Sustainable Building Indicators That are Based on Level(s)

Authors: Sabina Jordan, Marjana Šijanec Zavrl, Miha Tomšič, Friderik Knez

Abstract:

In order to determine the possibilities for the implementation of sustainable building indicators in Slovenia, testing of the first version of the indicators, developed in the CARE4CLIMATE project and based on the EU Level(s) framework, was carried out in 2022. Invited and interested stakeholders of the construction process were provided with video content and instructions on the Slovenian e-platform of sustainable building indicators. In addition, workshops and lectures with individual subjects were also performed. The final phase of the training and testing procedure included a questionnaire, which was used to obtain information about the participants' opinions regarding the indicators. The analysis of the results of the testing, which was focused on level 2, confirmed the key preliminary finding of the development group, namely that currently, due to the lack of certain knowledge, data, and tools, all indicators for this level are not yet feasible in practice. The research also highlighted the greater need for training and specialization of experts in this field. At the same time, it showed that the testing of the first version itself was a big challenge: only 30 experts fully participated and filled out the online questionnaire. This number seems alarmingly low at first glance, but compared to Level(s) testing in the EU member states, it is more than 50 times higher. However, for the further execution of the indicators in Slovenia, it will therefore be necessary to invest a lot of effort and engagement. It is likely that state support will also be needed, for example, in the form of financial mechanisms or incentives and/or legislative background.

Keywords: sustainability, building, indicator, implementation, testing, questionnaire

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2424 Aspects of Environmental Sustainability in the Operation of Onshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines

Authors: Emil Aliyev

Abstract:

The main focus of this conference paper is on the aspects of the environmental sustainability of onshore hydrocarbon pipelines. The latter is notorious for being a source of major environmental contamination and a consumer of vast amounts of natural resources such as water, land, steel, etc. Therefore, the environmentally sustainable operation of pipelines is a concern that requires attention and research. The geographical scope of the paper is confined to onshore hydrocarbon pipelines operated in the Middle East region. The research contains elements of originality as it draws on the author’s field experience and practical implementation of environmental and sustainability solutions in a major Middle East-based pipeline organization. The authors describe some of the most common significant environmental aspects of pipeline operations and provide examples of various approaches and technologies that can be successfully utilized to make pipelines more environmentally sustainable. The author concludes that the operation of onshore hydrocarbon pipelines can be made environmentally sustainable. This can be achieved by adopting a systematic framework, focusing limited resources on significant aspects, integrating a circular economy into day-to-day activities, and having strong management support.

Keywords: pipelines, onshore hydrocarbon pipelines, environmental sustainability, significant environmental aspects

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2423 Experimental Evaluation of Workability and Compressive Strength of Concrete With Sediments From Dam

Authors: Khouadjia Mohamed Lyes Kamel, Bensalem Sara, Abdou Kamel, Belkadi Ahmed Abderraouf, Kessal Oussama

Abstract:

The experimental study was conducted on sediments dredging from the dam of Bni Haroun, the most important and the largest dam in Algeria. The first phase of the work was to substitution of crushed sand with sediments to study the workability and compressive strength of ordinary concretes. The second phase of the work is to study the behavior of concrete with sediment under the effect of the freeze-thaw cycles. The results showed that the mechanical performance of concretes with sediments is better with a substitution rate of 10%.

Keywords: sediments, concrete, dam, workability, compressive strength, freeze-thaw cycles

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2422 An Investigation into the Development of Transport Solutions in New South Wales

Authors: Gavin A. Cavanagh

Abstract:

In recent years, considerable effort has been directed towards the development and delivery of new transport capabilities within the State of New South Wales, Australia. These capital projects have, in many instances, been large scale, novel, heavily integrated with other transport systems, and technically complex, whilst others are not as complex and are more straightforward. Either way, it has been imperative that these activities are managed and delivered properly to obtain the benefits and improvements that they are intended to provide. In many instances, the development of these transport projects has been done satisfactorily. However, there are also indications that some transport assets have not provided what they were expected to deliver and that they are likely to continue to present problems throughout their serviceable lives. The implications of not undertaking projects properly or effectively are significant in terms of the provision of service, along with asset performance, safety, reliability, integration into existing transport networks, ongoing asset support, future proofing, and other issues resulting from the introduction of underperforming transport assets. As such, how well the delivery of public transport assets and infrastructure is being managed and what taxpayers are getting for their contributions are issues requiring attention. Consequently, the approaches used to generate certain transport solutions should then be called into question, and an assessment conducted on whether a more effective and efficient approach could have been applied during the design and development of these projects to obtain a better result. As such, an analysis of why these existing project delivery efforts and approaches have not produced results as required is warranted. This paper aims to outline the approach taken, examine the project delivery methods used and ensure that better approaches to the way project delivery takes place in this sector are identified and adopted into practice. This will occur by examining a representative group of transport projects within the period 2004 to 2019, where significant investment and project activity occurred in New South Wales, it will then identify the most effective project delivery approach used and/or available to ensure that the issues creating project shortfalls are addressed, before developing an implementable framework to embed the identified a best practice approach/approaches into relevant New South Wales Government Agencies. A review of current trends and developments in existing literature related to this topic will also be discussed. For the benefit of the New South Wales community and all stakeholders concerned, another way of generating the required transport capabilities and ensuring they continue to perform, are safe, reliable, integrated, supported, and futureproofed, has to be found in order to prevent similar issues when transport assets and infrastructure projects are introduced onto the New South Wales transport network in the future. This research is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship.

Keywords: transport projects, assets & infrastructure, benefits realisation, life cycle management

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2421 Sensitivity Analysis of the Thermal Properties in Early Age Modeling of Mass Concrete

Authors: Farzad Danaei, Yilmaz Akkaya

Abstract:

In many civil engineering applications, especially in the construction of large concrete structures, the early age behavior of concrete has shown to be a crucial problem. The uneven rise in temperature within the concrete in these constructions is the fundamental issue for quality control. Therefore, developing accurate and fast temperature prediction models is essential. The thermal properties of concrete fluctuate over time as it hardens, but taking into account all of these fluctuations makes numerical models more complex. Experimental measurement of the thermal properties at the laboratory conditions also can not accurately predict the variance of these properties at site conditions. Therefore, specific heat capacity and the heat conductivity coefficient are two variables that are considered constant values in many of the models previously recommended. The proposed equations demonstrate that these two quantities are linearly decreasing as cement hydrates, and their value are related to the degree of hydration. The effects of changing the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity values on the maximum temperature and the time it takes for concrete to reach that temperature are examined in this study using numerical sensibility analysis, and the results are compared to models that take a fixed value for these two thermal properties. The current study is conducted in 7 different mix designs of concrete with varying amounts of supplementary cementitious materials (fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag). It is concluded that the maximum temperature will not change as a result of the constant conductivity coefficient, but variable specific heat capacity must be taken into account, also about duration when a concrete's central node reaches its max value again variable specific heat capacity can have a considerable effect on the final result. Also, the usage of GGBFS has more influence compared to fly ash.

Keywords: early-age concrete, mass concrete, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity coefficient

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2420 Development of Deep Neural Network-Based Strain Values Prediction Models for Full-Scale Reinforced Concrete Frames Using Highly Flexible Sensing Sheets

Authors: Hui Zhang, Sherif Beskhyroun

Abstract:

Structural Health monitoring systems (SHM) are commonly used to identify and assess structural damage. In terms of damage detection, SHM needs to periodically collect data from sensors placed in the structure as damage-sensitive features. This includes abnormal changes caused by the strain field and abnormal symptoms of the structure, such as damage and deterioration. Currently, deploying sensors on a large scale in a building structure is a challenge. In this study, a highly stretchable strain sensors are used in this study to collect data sets of strain generated on the surface of full-size reinforced concrete (RC) frames under extreme cyclic load application. This sensing sheet can be switched freely between the test bending strain and the axial strain to achieve two different configurations. On this basis, the deep neural network prediction model of the frame beam and frame column is established. The training results show that the method can accurately predict the strain value and has good generalization ability. The two deep neural network prediction models will also be deployed in the SHM system in the future as part of the intelligent strain sensor system.

Keywords: strain sensing sheets, deep neural networks, strain measurement, SHM system, RC frames

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2419 Experimental and Simulation Analysis of an Innovative Steel Shear Wall with Semi-Rigid Beam-to-Column Connections

Authors: E. Faizan, Wahab Abdul Ghafar, Tao Zhong

Abstract:

Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) are a robust lateral load resistance structure because of their high flexibility and efficient energy dissipation when subjected to seismic loads. This research investigates the seismic performance of an innovative infill web strip (IWS-SPSW) and a typical unstiffened steel plate shear wall (USPSW). As a result, two 1:3 scale specimens of an IWS-SPSW and USPSW with a single story and a single bay were built and subjected to a cyclic lateral loading methodology. In the prototype, the beam-to-column connections were accomplished with the assistance of semi-rigid end-plate connectors. IWS-SPSW demonstrated exceptional ductility and shear load-bearing capacity during the testing process, with no cracks or other damage occurring. In addition, the IWS-SPSW could effectively dissipate energy without causing a significant amount of beam-column connection distortion. The shear load-bearing capacity of the USPSW was exceptional. However, it exhibited low ductility, severe infill plate corner ripping, and huge infill web plate cracks. The FE models were created and then confirmed using the experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the infill web strips of an SPSW system can affect the system's high performance and total energy dissipation. In addition, a parametric analysis was carried out to evaluate the material qualities of the IWS, which can considerably improve the system's seismic performances. These properties include the steel's strength as well as its thickness.

Keywords: steel shear walls, seismic performance, failure mode, hysteresis response, nonlinear finite element analysis, parametric study

Procedia PDF Downloads 11