Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2298

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology

[Civil and Environmental Engineering]

Online ISSN : 1307-6892

2298 Using Human-Centred Service Design and Partnerships as a Model to Promote Cross-Sector Social Responsibility in Disaster Resilience: An Australian Case Study.

Authors: Keith Diamond, Tracy Collier, Ciara Sterling, Ben Kraal


The increased frequency and intensity of disaster events in the Asia-Pacific region is likely to require organisations to better understand how their initiatives, and the support they provide to their customers, intersect with other organisations aiming to support communities in achieving disaster resilience. While there is a growing awareness that disaster response and recovery rebuild programmes need to adapt to more integrated, community-led approaches, there is often a discrepancy between how programmes intend to work and how they are collectively experienced in the community, creating undesired effects on community resilience. Following Australia’s North Queensland Monsoon Disaster of 2019, this research set out to understand and evaluate how the service and support ecosystem impacted on the local community’s experience and influenced their ability to respond and recover. The purpose of this initiative was to identify actionable, cross-sector, people-centered improvements that support communities to recover and thrive when faced with disaster. The challenge arose as a group of organisations, including utility providers, banks, insurers, and community organisations, acknowledged that improving their own services would have limited impact on community wellbeing unless the other services people need are also improved and aligned. The research applied human-centred service design methods, typically applied to single products or services, to design a new way to understand a whole-of-community journey. Phase 1 of the research conducted deep contextual interviews with residents and small business owners impacted by the North Queensland Monsoon and qualitative data was analysed to produce community journey maps that detailed how individuals navigated essential services, such as accommodation, finance, health, and community. Phase 2 conducted interviews and focus groups with frontline workers who represented industries that provided essential services to assist the community. Data from Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the research was analysed and combined to generate a systems map that visualised the positive and negative impacts that occurred across the disaster response and recovery service ecosystem. Insights gained from the research has catalysed collective action to address future Australian disaster events. The case study outlines a transformative way for sectors and industries to rethink their corporate social responsibility activities towards a cross-sector partnership model that shares responsibility and approaches disaster response and recovery as a single service that can be designed to meet the needs of communities.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, cross sector partnerships, disaster resilience, human-centred design, service design, systems change

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2297 Acoustic Wave Propagation to Locate and Evaluate Obstructions in Dam Seepage Drains

Authors: André Taras, Mathieu Soares, M. Rodriguez, M. Argouges


Concrete dams are subject to cracks at the reservoir face of the dam. Water seeps into the cracks of the concrete can create an uplift pressure. To reduce this pressure, drains are bored vertically in the wall of the dam or at angle in the foundation, to intercept these cracks, it permits water to flow and reduce pressure. However, these drains may, with time, clog up from calcite deposit or accretion. Some big dams can bare several hundreds of drains. Before choosing which drain to clean, camera inspection permits to evaluate the state of obstructions, but it is tedious and time consuming. To improve upon the inspection time, research was undertaken to evaluate the potential of the acoustic wave propagation technic to locate obstructions in air filled seepage drains and to evaluate calcite section reduction. Such acoustic technics have been studied for gas and oil pipes to detect cracks and leaks. Physical models were developed to describe wave attenuation due to leakage through the wall and damping with distance. Also, reflection and transmission behaviour had to be described from the incident wave at an obstruction. The values of reflected and incident waveswere extrapolated to the point of obstruction. Their ratio was correlated to the cross-sectional reduction due to calcite at a given obstruction. Extensive lab tests in PVC and Fibrocement pipes have permitted to establish the performances of these models. Also, ballpark figures were obtained for the attenuation coefficient and the effect of superposition of the measured reflected wave to its rebound at the open extremity of the pipe. The effects of cavities were also identified. The proposed paper will present the results from tests undertaken in actual drains in dams. A first series of testswere undertaken at a dam in drains with no important obstruction. These measurementsserved to determine the actual coefficient of attenuation and correction coefficient for superposition. A second series of tests were undertaken on drains with obstructions at another dam. These measurements served to evaluate the performance of the proposed acoustic wave propagation inspection method in predicting the degree of obstruction in actual drains. The proposed method was found to be around 5 times faster than the camera. Correlation between actual and predicted obstructions were encouraging. However, there was a certain degree of interpretation in the amount of obstruction as evaluated by the camera used as a means of comparison. Future work will focus on developing a user-friendly software interface for the wave signal analysis and obstruction prediction.

Keywords: acoustic, wave propagation, drains, calcite, dams

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2296 Slums in Casablanca: A Conceptive Approach for Better Implementation of VSB Program, Case Study: ER-Hamna Slum

Authors: Sakina Boufarsi, Mehmet Emre Aysu, Behiye Isik Aksulu


Morocco appears to be on its way to eradicating all of the country's slums by assuring the resettlement and improvement of all affected households' living circumstances through the VSB “Villes sans Bidonvilles” program established in 2004 to eradicate the slums in Morocco. Although many attempts have been made to curb their growth none have proven to be a permanent accomplishment. In Morocco, resettlement projects through satellite towns are perceived as the answer to the problem of the slums. However, the new satellite towns are the good intention of the program VSB, but they are environmentally unsustainable, socially isolated and culturally inappropriate, such conditions imposed continuous readjustments of the slum upgrading program. Although slum research is ongoing, they primarily concentrated on two constructs: exploring socio-economic and policy problems and analyzing physical characteristics. Considering that the two constructs mentioned are crucial, this study will demonstrate that a more systematic approach is needed to eradicate them efficiently. The slums issues in Casablanca are a solution that the poor devise for themselves due to government bureaucracy and failing housing policies, they reflect governments' incapacity to respond to urban development’s requiring decent housing for the vulnerable population. This issue will be addressed by exploring the previous strategies and analyzing in detail the strengths and shortcomings of the recent VSB Program. In addition to a comprehensive overview of the slums' situations by combining the social and physical characteristics through Erhamna case study in Sidi Moumen district for a deeper understanding, and therefore to direct improved and valuable recommendations to address the slum problem at all levels.

Keywords: Casablanca slums, resettlement projects, eradication of slums, satellite town, VSB program

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2295 Ground-Structure Interaction Analysis of Aged Tunnels

Authors: Behrang Dadfar, Hossein Bidhendi, Jimmy Susetyo, John Paul Abbatangelo


Finding structural demand under various conditions that a structure may experience during its service life is an important step towards structural life-cycle analysis. In this paper, structural demand for the precast concrete tunnel lining (PCTL) segments of Toronto’s 60-year-old subway tunnels is investigated. Numerical modelling was conducted using FLAC3D, a finite difference-based software capable of simulating ground-structure interaction and ground material’s flow in three dimensions. The specific structural details of the segmental tunnel lining, such as the convex shape of the PCTL segments at radial joints and the PCTL segment pockets, were considered in the numerical modelling. Also, the model was developed in a way to accommodate the flexibility required for the simulation of various deterioration scenarios, shapes, and patterns that have been observed over more than 20 years. The soil behavior was simulated by using plastic-hardening constitutive model of FLAC3D. The effect of the depth of the tunnel, the coefficient of lateral earth pressure as well as the patterns of deterioration of the segments were studied. The structural capacity under various deterioration patterns and the existing loading conditions was evaluated using axial-flexural interaction curves that were developed for each deterioration pattern. The results were used to provide recommendations for the next phase of tunnel lining rehabilitation program.

Keywords: precast concrete tunnel lining, ground-structure interaction, numerical modelling, deterioration, tunnels

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2294 Simulation of Wave Propagation in Multiphase Medium

Authors: Edip Kemal, Sheshov Vlatko, Bojadjieva Julijana, Bogdanovic ALeksandra, Gjorgjeska Irena


The wave propagation phenomenon in porous domains is of great importance in the field of geotechnical earthquake engineering. In these kinds of problems, the elastic waves propagate from the interior to the exterior domain and require special treatment at the computational level since apart from displacement in the solid-state there is a p-wave that takes place in the pore water phase. In this paper, a study on the implementation of multiphase finite elements is presented. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the ANSYS finite element software and tested on one-dimensional wave propagation considering both pore pressure wave propagation and displacement fields. In the simulation of porous media such as soils, the behavior is governed largely by the interaction of the solid skeleton with water and/or air in the pores. Therefore, coupled problems of fluid flow and deformation of the solid skeleton are considered in a detailed way.

Keywords: wave propagation, multiphase model, numerical methods, finite element method

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2293 Automating 2D CAD to 3D Model Generation Process: Wall pop-ups

Authors: Mohit Gupta, Chialing Wei, Thomas Czerniawski


In this paper, we have built a neural network that can detect walls on 2D sheets and subsequently create a 3D model in Revit using Dynamo. The training set includes 3500 labeled images, and the detection algorithm used is YOLO. Typically, engineers/designers make concentrated efforts to convert 2D cad drawings to 3D models. This costs a considerable amount of time and human effort. This paper makes a contribution in automating the task of 3D walls modeling. 1. Detecting Walls in 2D cad and generating 3D pop-ups in Revit. 2. Saving designer his/her modeling time in drafting elements like walls from 2D cad to 3D representation. An object detection algorithm YOLO is used for wall detection and localization. The neural network is trained over 3500 labeled images of size 256x256x3. Then, Dynamo is interfaced with the output of the neural network to pop-up 3D walls in Revit. The research uses modern technological tools like deep learning and artificial intelligence to automate the process of generating 3D walls without needing humans to manually model them. Thus, contributes to saving time, human effort, and money.

Keywords: neural networks, Yolo, 2D to 3D transformation, CAD object detection

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2292 Abating the Barriers to the Deployment of RFID for Construction Project Delivery in South Africa

Authors: Matthew O. Ikuabe, Ayodeji E. Oke, Clinton O. Aigbavboa, Douglas O. Aghimien


The use of technological innovations have been touted to be beneficial in the delivery of construction projects. Particularly, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology is widely regarded to be of immense advantage for the management of construction projects. This study focused on evaluating the barriers to the use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for the delivery of construction projects. Using Gauteng Provincein South Africa as the study area, questionnaire was used in eliciting responses from construction professionals, which made up the population of the study. Retrieved data was analysed using Mean Item Score and One-Sample t-test. Findings from the study showed that the most significant barriers to the deployment of RFID for construction project delivery are high cost and lack of awareness. Conclusively, the study made recommendations that would aid in the abatement of the barriers to the use of RFID technology for construction project delivery.

Keywords: barriers, construction, project delivery, RFID

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2291 High Strength Steel thin-walled cold-Formed Profiles manufactured for Automated Rack Supported Warehouses

Authors: A. Natali, F.V. Lippi, F. Morelli, W. Salvatore, J. H. M. De Paula Filho, P. Pol


Automated Rack Supported Warehouses (ARSWs) are storage buildings whose load-bearing structure is made of the same steel racks where goods are stocked. These racks are made of cold formed elements, and the main supporting structure is repeated several times along the length of the building, resulting in a huge quantity of steel. The possibility of using high strength steel to manufacture the traditional cold-formed profiles used for ARSWs is numerically investigated, with the aim of reducing the necessary steel quantity but guaranteeing optimal structural performance levels.

Keywords: steel racks, automated rack supported warehouse, thin-walled cold-formed elements, high strength steel, structural optimization

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2290 Current Design Approach for Seismic Resistant Automated Rack Supported Warehouses: Strong Points and Critical Aspects

Authors: Agnese Natali, Francesco Morelli, Walter Salvatore


Automated Rack Supported Warehouses (ARSWs) are structures currently designed as steel racks. Even if there are common characteristics, there are differences that don’t allow to adopt the same design approach. Aiming to highlight the factors influencing the design and the behavior of ARSWs, a set of 5 structures designed by 5 European companies specialized in this field is used to perform both a critical analysis of the design approaches and the assessment of the seismic performance, which is used to point out the criticalities and the necessity of new design philosophy.

Keywords: steel racks, automated rack supported warehouse, thin walled cold-formed elements, seismic assessment

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2289 Tuning of the Thermal Capacity of an Envelope for Peak Demand Reduction

Authors: Isha Rathore, Peeyush Jain, Elangovan Rajasekar


The thermal capacity of the envelope impacts the cooling and heating demand of a building and modulates the peak electricity demand. This paper presents the thermal capacity tuning of a building envelope to minimize peak electricity demand for space cooling. We consider a 40 m² residential testbed located in Hyderabad, India (Composite Climate). An EnergyPlus model is validated using real-time data. A Parametric simulation framework for thermal capacity tuning is created using the Honeybee plugin. Diffusivity, Thickness, layer position, orientation and fenestration size of the exterior envelope are parametrized considering a five-layered wall system. A total of 1824 parametric runs are performed and the optimum wall configuration leading to minimum peak cooling demand is presented.

Keywords: thermal capacity, tuning, peak demand reduction, parametric analysis

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2288 Termite Mound Floors: Ready-to-Use Ecological Materials

Authors: Yanné Etienne


The current climatic conditions necessarily impose the development and use of construction materials with low or no carbon footprint. The Far North Region of Cameroon has huge deposits of termite mounds. Various tests in this work have been carried out on these soils with the aim of using them as construction materials. They are mainly geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests. The different tests gave the following values: uniformity coefficient (4.95), curvature coefficient (1.80), plasticity index (12.85%), optimum moisture content (6.70%), maximum dry density (2.05³), friction angles (14.07°), and cohesion of 100.29 kN.m2. The results obtained show that termite mound soils, which are ecological materials, are plastic and water-stable can be used for the production of load-bearing elements in construction.

Keywords: termite mound soil, ecological materials, building materials, geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests

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2287 Data and Model-based Metamodels for Prediction of Performance of Extended Hollo-Bolt Connections

Authors: M. Cabrera, W. Tizani, J. Ninic, F. Wang


Open section beam to concrete-filled tubular column structures has been increasingly utilized in construction over the past few decades due to their enhanced structural performance, as well as economic and architectural advantages. However, the use of this configuration in construction is limited due to the difficulties in connecting the structural members as there is no access to the inner part of the tube to install standard bolts. Blind-bolted systems are a relatively new approach to overcome this limitation as they only require access to one side of the tubular section to tighten the bolt. The performance of these connections in concrete-filled steel tubular sections remains uncharacterized due to the complex interactions between concrete, bolt, and steel section. Over the last years, research in structural performance has moved to a more sophisticated and efficient approach consisting of machine learning algorithms to generate metamodels. This method reduces the need for developing complex, and computationally expensive finite element models, optimizing the search for desirable design variables. Metamodels generated by a data fusion approach use numerical and experimental results by combining multiple models to capture the dependency between the simulation design variables and connection performance, learning the relations between different design parameters and predicting a given output. Fully characterizing this connection will transform high-rise and multistorey construction by means of the introduction of design guidance for moment-resisting blind-bolted connections, which is currently unavailable. This paper presents a review of the steps taken to develop metamodels generated by means of artificial neural network algorithms which predict the connection stress and stiffness based on the design parameters when using Extended Hollo-Bolt blind bolts. It also provides consideration of the failure modes and mechanisms that contribute to the deformability as well as the feasibility of achieving blind-bolted rigid connections when using the blind fastener.

Keywords: blind-bolted connections, concrete-filled tubular structures, finite element analysis, metamodeling

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2286 Pull-Out Analysis of Composite Loops Embedded in Steel Reinforced Concrete Retaining Wall Panels

Authors: Pierre van Tonder, Christoff Kruger


Modular concrete elements are used for retaining walls to provide lateral support. Depending on the retaining wall layout, these precast panels may be interlocking and may be tied into the soil backfill via geosynthetic strips. This study investigates the ultimate pull-out load increase, which is possible by adding varied diameter supplementary reinforcement through embedded anchor loops within concrete retaining wall panels. Full-scale panels used in practice have four embedded anchor points. However, only one anchor loop was embedded in the center of the experimental panels. The experimental panels had the same thickness but a smaller footprint (600mm x 600mm x 140mm) area than the full-sized panels to accommodate the space limitations of the laboratory and experimental setup. The experimental panels were also cast without any bending reinforcement as would typically be obtained in the full-scale panels. The exclusion of these reinforcements was purposefully neglected to evaluate the impact of a single bar reinforcement through the center of the anchor loops. The reinforcement bars had of 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 12 mm. 30 samples of concrete panels with embedded anchor loops were tested. The panels were supported on the edges and the anchor loops were subjected to an increasing tensile force using an Instron piston. Failures that occurred were loop failures and panel failures and a mixture thereof. There was an increase in ultimate load vs. increasing diameter as expected, but this relationship persisted until the reinforcement diameter exceeded 10 mm. For diameters larger than 10 mm, the ultimate failure load starts to decrease due to the dependency of the reinforcement bond strength to the concrete matrix. Overall, the reinforced panels showed a 14 to 23% increase in the factor of safety. Using anchor loops of 66kN ultimate load together with Y10 steel reinforcement with bent ends had shown the most promising results in reducing concrete panel pull-out failure. The Y10 reinforcement had shown, on average, a 24% increase in ultimate load achieved. Previous research has investigated supplementary reinforcement around the anchor loops. This paper extends this investigation by evaluating supplementary reinforcement placed through the panel anchor loops.

Keywords: supplementary reinforcement, anchor loops, retaining panels, reinforced concrete, pull-out failure

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2285 The Analysis of Priority Flood Control Management Using Analysis Hierarchy Process

Authors: Pravira Rizki Suwarno, Fanny Aliza Savitri, Priseyola Ayunda Prima, Pipin Surahman, Mahelga Levina Amran, Khoirunisa Ulya Nur Utari, Nora Permatasari


The Bogowonto River or commonly called the Bhagawanta River, is one of the rivers on Java Island. It is located in Central Java, Indonesia. Its watershed area is 35 km² with 57 km long. This river covers three regencies, namely Wonosobo Regency and Magelang Regency in the upstream and Purworejo Regency in the south and downstream. The Bogowonto River experiences channel narrowing and silting. It is caused by garbage along the river that comes from livestock and household waste. The narrowing channel and siltation cause a capacity reduction of the river to drain flood discharge. Comprehensive and sustainable actions are needed in dealing with current and future floods. Based on these current conditions, a priority scale is required. Therefore, this study aims to determine the priority scale of flood management in Purworejo Regency using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. This method will determine the appropriate actions based on the rating. In addition, there will be field observations through distributing questionnaires to several parties, including the stakeholders and the community. The results of this study will be in 2 (two) forms of actions, both structurally covering water structures and non-structural, including social, environmental, and law enforcement.

Keywords: analytical hierarchy process, bogowonto, flood control, management

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2284 Using Infrared Thermography, Photogrammetry and a Remotely Piloted Aircraft System to Create 3D Thermal Models

Authors: C.C. Kruger, P. Van Tonder


Concrete deteriorates over time and the deterioration can be escalated due to multiple factors. When deteriorations are beneath the concrete’s surface, they could be unknown, even more so when they are located at high elevations. Establishing the severity of such defects could prove difficult and therefore the need to find efficient, safe and economical methods to find these defects becomes ever more important. Current methods using thermography to find defects require equipment such as scaffolding to reach these higher elevations. This could become time- consuming and costly. The risks involved with personnel scaffold or abseil to such heights are high. Accordingly, by combining the technologies of a thermal camera and a Remotely Piloted Aerial System it could be used to find better diagnostic methods. The data could then be constructed into a 3D thermal model to easy representation of the results

Keywords: concrete, infrared thermography, 3D thermal models, diagnostic

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2283 Corrosion of Concrete Reinforcing Steel Bars Tested and Compared Between Various Protection Methods

Authors: P van Tonder, U Bagdadi, BMD Lario, Z Masina, TR Motshwari


This paper analyses how concrete reinforcing steel bars corrode and how it can be minimised through the use of various protection methods against corrosion, such as metal-based paint, alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating. Samples of carbon steel bars were protected, using these four methods. Tests performed on the samples included durability, electrical resistivity and bond strength. Durability results indicated relatively low corrosion rates for alloying, cathodic protection, electroplating and metal-based paint. The resistivity results indicate all samples experienced a downward trend, despite erratic fluctuations in the data, indicating an inverse relationship between electrical resistivity and corrosion rate. The results indicated lowered bond strengths when the reinforced concrete was cured in seawater compared to being cured in normal water. It also showed that higher design compressive strengths lead to higher bond strengths which can be used to compensate for the loss of bond strength due to corrosion in a real-world application. In terms of implications, all protection methods have the potential to be effective at resisting corrosion in real-world applications, especially the alloying, cathodic protection and electroplating methods. The metal-based paint underperformed by comparison, most likely due to the nature of paint in general which can fade and chip away, revealing the steel samples and exposing them to corrosion. For alloying, stainless steel is the suggested material of choice, where Y-bars are highly recommended as smooth bars have a much-lowered bond strength. Cathodic protection performed the best of all in protecting the sample from corrosion, however, its real-world application would require significant evaluation into the feasibility of such a method.

Keywords: protection methods, corrosion, concrete, reinforcing steel bars

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2282 The Damage and Durability of a Sport Synthetic Resin Floor: A Case Study

Authors: C. Paglia, C. Mosca


Synthetic resin floorsare often used in sport infrastructure. These organic materials are often in contact with a bituminous substrate, which in turn is placed on the ground. In this work, the damage of a basket resin field surface was characterized by means of visual inspection, optical microscopy, resin thickness measurements, adhesion strength, water vapor transmission capacity, capillary water adsorption, granulometry of the bituminous conglomerate, the surface properties, and the water ground infiltration speed. The infiltration speed indicates water pemeability. This was due to its composition: clean sand mixed with gravel. Relatively good adhesion was present between the synthetic resin and the bituminous layer. The adhesion resistance of the bituminous layer was relatively low. According to the required bitumoniousasphalt-concrete mixes AC 11 S, the placed material was more porous. Insufficient constipation was present. The spaces values were above the standard limits, while the apparent densities were lower compared to the conventional AC 11 mixtures. The microstructure outlines the high permeability and porosity of the bituminous layer. The synthetic resin wasvapourproof and did not exhibit capillary adsorption. It exhibited a lower thickness as required, and no multiple placing steps were observed. Multiple cavities were detected along with the interface between the bituminous layer and the resin coating with no intermediate layers. The layer for the pore filling in the bituminous surface was not properly applied. The swelling bubbles on the synthetic pavement were caused by the humidity in the bituminous layer. Water or humidity were present prior to the application of the resin, and the effect was worsened by the upward movement of the water from the ground.

Keywords: resin, floor, damage, durability

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2281 In-situ Performance of Pre-applied Bonded Waterproofing Membranes at Contaminated Test Slabs

Authors: Ulli Heinlein, Thomas Freimann


Pre-applied bonded membranes are used as positive-side waterproofing on concrete basements, are installed before the concrete work, and achieve a tear-resistant and waterproof bond with the subsequently placed fresh concrete. This bond increases redundancy compared to lose waterproofing membranes by preventing lateral water migrations in the event of damage. So far, the membranes have been tested in the laboratory, but it is not yet known how they behave on construction sites in the presence of dirt, soil, cement paste or moisture. This article, therefore, conducts investigations on six construction sites using 18 test slabs where the pre-applied bonded membranes are selectively contaminated or wetted. Subsequently, cores are taken, and the influence of the contaminations on the adhesive tensile strength and waterproof bond is tested. Pre-applied bonded membranes with smooth or granular but closed surfaces show no sensitivity to wetness, whereas open-pored membranes with nonwovens do not tolerate standing water. Contaminations decline the performance of all pre-applied bonded membranes since a separating layer is formed between the bonding layer and the concrete. The influence depends on the thickness of the contamination and its mechanical properties.

Keywords: waterproofing, positive-side waterproofing, basement, pre-applied bonded waterproofing membrane, In-situ testing, lateral water migrations

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2280 Influence of the Location of Flood Embankments on the Condition of Oxbow Lakes and Riparian Forests: A Case Study of the Middle Odra River Beds on the Example of Dragonflies (Odonata), Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and Plant Communities

Authors: Magda Gorczyca, Zofia Nocoń


Past and current studies from different countries showed that river engineering leads to environmental degradation and extinction of many species - often those protected by local and international wildlife conservation laws. Through the years, the main focus of rivers utilization has shifted from industrial applications to recreation and wildlife preservation with a focus on keeping the biodiversity which plays a significant role in preventing climate changes. Thus an opportunity appeared to recreate flooding areas and natural habitats, which are very rare in the scale of Europe. Additionally, river restoration helps to avoid floodings and periodic droughts, which are usually very damaging to the economy. In this research, the biodiversity of dragonflies and ground beetles was analyzed in the context of plant communities and forest stands structure. Results were enriched with data from past and current literature. A comparison was made between two parts of the Odra river. A part where oxbow lake and riparian forest were separated from the river bed by embankment and a part of the river with floodplains left intact. Validity assessment of embankments relocation was made based on the research results. In the period between May and September, insects were collected, phytosociological analysis were taken, and forest stand structure properties were specified. In the part of the river not separated by the embankments, rare and protected species of plants were spotted (e.g., Trapanatans, Salvinianatans) as well as greater species and quantitive diversity of dragonfly. Ground beetles fauna, though, was richer in the area separated by the embankment. Even though the research was done during only one season and in a limited area, the results can be a starting point for further extended research and may contribute to acquiring legal wildlife protection and restoration of the researched area. During the research, the presence of invasive species Impatiens parviflora, Echinocystislobata, and Procyonlotor were observed, which may lead to loss of the natural values of the researched areas.

Keywords: carabidae, floodplains, middle Odra river, Odonata, oxbow lakes, riparian forests

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2279 Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Flood Risk: A Case Study

Authors: Talha Ahmed, Ishtiaq Hassan


Urban areas or metropolitan is portrayed by the very high density of population due to the result of these economic activities. Some critical elements, such as urban expansion and climate change, are driving changes in cities with exposure to the incidence and impacts of pluvial floods. Urban communities are recurrently developed by huge spaces by which water cannot enter impermeable surfaces, such as man-made permanent surfaces and structures, which do not cause the phenomena of infiltration and percolation. Urban sprawl can result in increased run-off volumes, flood stage and flood extents during heavy rainy seasons. The flood risks require a thorough examination of all aspects affecting to severe an event in order to accurately estimate their impacts and other risk factors associated with them. For risk evaluation and its impact due to urbanization, an integrated hydrological modeling approach is used on the study area in Islamabad (Pakistan), focusing on a natural water body that has been adopted in this research. The vulnerability of the physical elements at risk in the research region is analyzed using GIS and SOBEK. The supervised classification of land use containing the images from 1980 to 2020 is used. The modeling of DEM with selected return period is used for modeling a hydrodynamic model for flood event inundation. The selected return periods are 50,75 and 100 years which are used in flood modeling. The findings of this study provided useful information on high-risk places and at-risk properties.

Keywords: urbanization, flood, flood risk, GIS

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2278 Conceptual Design of Gravity Anchor Focusing on Anchor Towing and Lowering

Authors: Vinay Kumar Vanjakula, Frank Adam, Nils Goseberg


Wind power is one of the leading renewable energy generation methods. Due to abundant higher wind speeds far away from shore, the construction of offshore wind turbines began in the last decades. However, installation of offshore foundation-based (monopiles) wind turbines in deep waters are often associated with technical and financial challenges. To overcome such challenges, the concept of floating wind turbines is expanded as the basis from the oil and gas industry. The unfolding of Universal heavyweight gravity anchor (UGA) for floating based foundation for floating Tension Leg Platform (TLP) sub-structures is developed in this research work. It is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research) for a three-year (2019-2022) research program called “Offshore Wind Solutions Plus (OWSplus) - Floating Offshore Wind Solutions Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.” It’s a group consists of German institutions (Universities, laboratories, and consulting companies). The part of the project is focused on the numerical modeling of gravity anchor that involves to analyze and solve fluid flow problems. Compared to gravity-based torpedo anchors, these UGA will be towed and lowered via controlled machines (tug boats) at lower speeds. This kind of installation of UGA are new to the offshore wind industry, particularly for TLP, and very few research works have been carried out in recent years. Conventional methods for transporting the anchor requires a large transportation crane vessel which involves a greater cost. This conceptual UGA anchors consists of ballasting chambers which utilizes the concept of buoyancy forces; the inside chambers are filled with the required amount of water in a way that they can float on the water for towing. After reaching the installation site, those chambers are ballasted with water for lowering. After it’s lifetime, these UGA can be unballasted (for erection or replacement) results in self-rising to the sea surface; buoyancy chambers give an advantage for using an UGA without the need of heavy machinery. However, while lowering/rising the UGA towards/away from the seabed, it experiences difficult, harsh marine environments due to the interaction of waves and currents. This leads to drifting of the anchor from the desired installation position and damage to the lowering machines. To overcome such harsh environments problems, a numerical model is built to investigate the influences of different outer contours and other fluid governing shapes that can be installed on the UGA to overcome the turbulence and drifting. The presentation will highlight the importance of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) numerical model in OpenFOAM, which is open-source programming software.

Keywords: anchor lowering, towing, waves, currrents, computational fluid dynamics

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2277 Utilization of Treated Spend Pot Lining by Product from the Primary Aluminum Production in Cement and Concrete

Authors: Hang Tran, Victor Brial, Luca Sorelli, Claudiane Ouellet-Plamondon, David Conciatori, Laurent Birry


Spend pot lining (SPL) is a by-product generated from primary aluminum production. SPL consists of two parts, the first cut is rich in carbonaceous materials, and the second cut is rich in aluminum and silicon oxides. After treating by the hydrometallurgical Low Caustic Leaching and Liming process, the refractory part of SPL becomes an inert material, called LCLL ash in this project. LCLL ash was calcined at different temperatures (800 and 1000°C) and Calcined LCLL ash ground as fines of cement and replacement a part of cement in concrete production. The effect of LCLL ash on the chemical properties, mechanical properties and fresh behavior of concrete was evaluated by isothermal calorimetry, compressive test, and slump test. These results were compared to the reference mixture.

Keywords: spend pot lining, concrete, cement, compressive strength, calorimetry

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2276 FE Modelling of Structural Effects of Alkali-Silica Reaction in Reinforced Concrete Beams

Authors: Mehdi Habibagahi, Shami Nejadi, Ata Aminfar


A significant degradation factor that impacts the durability of concrete structures is the alkali-silica reaction. Engineers are frequently charged with the challenges of conducting a thorough safety assessment of concrete structures that have been impacted by ASR. The alkali-silica reaction has a major influence on the structural capacities of structures. In most cases, the reduction in compressive strength, tensile strength, and modulus of elasticity is expressed as a function of free expansion and crack widths. Predicting the effect of ASR on flexural strength is also relevant. In this paper, a nonlinear three-dimensional (3D) finite-element model was proposed to describe the flexural strength degradation induced byASR.Initial strains, initial stresses, initial cracks, and deterioration of material characteristics were all considered ASR factors in this model. The effects of ASR on structural performance were evaluated by focusing on initial flexural stiffness, force–deformation curve, and load-carrying capacity. Degradation of concrete mechanical properties was correlated with ASR growth using material test data conducted at Tech Lab, UTS, and implemented into the FEM for various expansions. The finite element study revealed a better understanding of the ASR-affected RC beam's failure mechanism and capacity reduction as a function of ASR expansion. Furthermore, in this study, decreasing of the residual mechanical properties due to ASRisreviewed, using as input data for the FEM model. Finally, analysis techniques and a comparison of the analysis and the experiment results are discussed. Verification is also provided through analyses of reinforced concrete beams with behavior governed by either flexural or shear mechanisms.

Keywords: alkali-silica reaction, analysis, assessment, finite element, nonlinear analysis, reinforced concrete

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2275 Prediction of Structural Response of Reinforced Concrete Buildings Using Artificial Intelligence

Authors: Juan Bojórquez, Henry E. Reyes, Edén Bojórquez, Alfredo Reyes-Salazar


This paper addressed the use of Artificial Intelligence to obtain the structural reliability of reinforced concrete buildings. For this purpose, artificial neuronal networks (ANN) are developed to predict seismic demand hazard curves. In order to have enough input-output data to train the ANN, a set of reinforced concrete buildings (low, mid, and high rise) are designed, then a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis is made to obtain the seismic demand hazard curves. The results are then used as input-output data to train the ANN in a feedforward backpropagation model. The predicted values of the seismic demand hazard curves found by the ANN are then compared. Finally, it is concluded that the computer time analysis is significantly lower and the predictions obtained from the ANN were accurate in comparison to the values obtained from the conventional methods.

Keywords: structural reliability, seismic design, machine learning, artificial neural network, probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, seismic demand hazard curves

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2274 A Post-Occupancy Evaluation of LEED-Certified Residential Communities Using Structural Equation Modeling

Authors: Mohsen Goodarzi, George Berghorn


Despite the rapid growth in the number of green building and community development projects, the long-term performance of these projects has not yet been sufficiently evaluated from the users’ points of view. This is partially due to the lack of post-occupancy evaluation tools available for this type of project. In this study, a post-construction evaluation model is developed to evaluate the relationship between the perceived performance and satisfaction of residents in LEED-certified residential buildings and communities. To develop this evaluation model, a primary five-factor model was developed based on the existing models and residential satisfaction theories. Each factor of the model included several measures that were adopted from LEED certification systems such as LEED-BD+C New Construction, LEED-BD+C Multifamily Midrise, LEED-ND, as well as the UC Berkeley’s Center for the Built Environment survey tool. The model included four predictor variables (factors), including perceived building performance (8 measures), perceived infrastructure performance (9 measures), perceived neighborhood design (6 measures), and perceived economic performance (4 measures), and one dependent variable (factor), which was residential satisfaction (6 measures). An online survey was then conducted to collect the data from the residents of LEED-certified residential communities (n=192) and the validity of the model was tested through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). After modifying the CFA model, 26 measures, out of the initial 33 measures, were retained to enter into a Structural Equation Model (SEM) and to find the relationships between the perceived buildings performance, infrastructure performance, neighborhood design, economic performance and residential Satisfaction. The results of the SEM showed that the perceived building performance was the most influential factor in determining residential satisfaction in LEED-certified communities, followed by the perceived neighborhood design. On the other hand, perceived infrastructure performance and perceived economic performance did not show any significant relationship with residential satisfaction in these communities. This study can benefit green building researchers by providing a model for the evaluation of the long-term performance of these projects. It can also provide opportunities for green building practitioners to determine priorities for future residential development projects.

Keywords: green building, residential satisfaction, perceived performance, confirmatory factor analysis, structural equation modeling

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2273 Numerical Investigation of Beam-Columns Subjected to Non-Proportional Loadings under Ambient Temperature Conditions

Authors: George Adomako Kumi


The response of structural members, when subjected to various forms of non-proportional loading, plays a major role in the overall stability and integrity of a structure. This research seeks to present the outcome of a finite element investigation conducted by the use of finite element programming software ABAQUS to validate the experimental results of elastic and inelastic behavior and strength of beam-columns subjected to axial loading, biaxial bending, and torsion under ambient temperature conditions. The application of the rigorous and highly complicated ABAQUS finite element software will seek to account for material, non-linear geometry, deformations, and, more specifically, the contact behavior between the beam-columns and support surfaces. Comparisons of the three-dimensional model with the results of actual tests conducted and results from a solution algorithm developed through the use of the finite difference method will be established in order to authenticate the veracity of the developed model. The results of this research will seek to provide structural engineers with much-needed knowledge about the behavior of steel beam columns and their response to various non-proportional loading conditions under ambient temperature conditions.

Keywords: beam-columns, axial loading, biaxial bending, torsion, ABAQUS, finite difference method

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2272 A Predictive MOC Solver for Water Hammer Waves Distribution in Network

Authors: A. Bayle, F. Plouraboué


Water Distribution Network (WDN) still suffers from a lack of knowledge about fast pressure transient events prediction, although the latter may considerably impact their durability. Accidental or planned operating activities indeed give rise to complex pressure interactions and may drastically modified the local pressure value generating leaks and, in rare cases, pipe’s break. In this context, a numerical predictive analysis is conducted to prevent such event and optimize network management. A couple of Python/FORTRAN 90, home-made software, has been developed using Method Of Characteristic (MOC) solving for water-hammer equations. The solver is validated by direct comparison with theoretical and experimental measurement in simple configurations whilst afterward extended to network analysis. The algorithm's most costly steps are designed for parallel computation. A various set of boundary conditions and energetic losses models are considered for the network simulations. The results are analyzed in both real and frequencies domain and provide crucial information on the pressure distribution behavior within the network.

Keywords: energetic losses models, method of characteristic, numerical predictive analysis, water distribution network, water hammer

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2271 Reliability Assessment Using Full Probabilistic Modelling for Carbonation and Chloride Exposures, Including Initiation and Propagation Periods.

Authors: Frank Papworth, Inam Khan


Fib’s model code 2020 has four approaches for design life verification. Historically ‘deemed to satisfy provisions have been the principal approach, but this has limited options for materials and covers. The use of an equation in fib’s model code for service life design to predict time to corrosion initiation has become increasingly popular to justify further options, but in some cases, the analysis approaches are incorrect. Even when the equations are computed using full probabilistic analysis, there are common mistakes. This paper reviews the work of recent fib commissions on implementing the service life model to assess the reliability of durability designs, including initiation and propagation periods. The paper goes on to consider the assessment of deemed to satisfy requirements in national codes and considers the influence of various options, including different steel types, various cement systems, quality of concrete and cover, on reliability achieved. As modelling is based on achieving agreed target reliability, consideration is given to how a project might determine appropriate target reliability.

Keywords: chlorides, marine, exposure, design life, reliability, modelling

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2270 Effects of Peakedness of Bimodal Waves on Overtopping of Sloping Seawalls

Authors: Stephen Orimoloye, Jose Horrillo-Caraballo, Harshinie Karunarathna, Dominic E. Reeve


Prediction of wave overtopping is an essential component of coastal seawall designing and management. Not only that excessive overtopping is reported for impermeable seawalls under bimodal waves, but overtopping is also showing a high sensitivity to the peakedness of the random wave propagation patterns. In the present study, we present a comprehensive analysis of the effects of peakedness of bimodal wave patterns of the overtopping of sloping seawalls. An energy-conserved bimodal spectrum with four different spectra peak periods and swell percentages was applied to estimate wave overtopping in both numerical and experimental flumes. Results of incident surface elevations and bimodal spectra were accurately captured across the flume domain using sets of well-positioned resistant-type wave gauges. Peakedness characteristics of the wave patterns were extracted to derive a relationship between the non-dimensional overtopping and the peakedness across the wave groups in the wave series. The full paper will briefly describe the development of the spectrum and present a comprehensive results analysis leading to the derivation of the relationship between dimensionless overtopping and peakedness of bimodal waves.

Keywords: wave overtopping, peakedness, bimodal waves, swell percentages

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2269 Transformable Lightweight Structures for Short-term Stay

Authors: Anna Daskalaki, Andreas Ashikalis


This is a conceptual project that suggests an alternative type of summer camp in the forest of Rouvas in the island of Crete. Taking into account some feasts that are organised by the locals or mountaineering clubs near the church of St. John, we created a network of lightweight timber structures that serve the needs of the visitor. These structures are transformable and satisfy the need for rest, food, and sleep – this means a seat, a table and a tent are embodied in each structure. These structures blend in with the environment as they are being installed according to the following parameters: (a) the local relief, (b) the clusters of trees, and (c) the existing paths. Each timber structure could be considered as a module that could be totally independent or part of a bigger construction. The design showcases the advantages of a timber structure as it can be quite adaptive to the needs of the project, but also it is a sustainable and environmentally friendly material that can be recycled. Finally, it is important to note that the basic goal of this project is the minimum alteration of the natural environment.

Keywords: lightweight structures, timber, transformable, tent

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